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Population

The Demographic Situation of Europe and the Developed


Countries Overseas: An Annual Report (Population, 4-5, 1999)
Alain Monnier

Abstract
The significant slowdown in the rate of HIV/AIDS spread in developed countries is not mirrored in other regions of the
world, especially Asia and Africa. In neither region are the dominant modes of transmission related, as in developed
countries, to MSM (Men having Sex with Men), injecting drug use or blood transfusions; transmission is mainly through
heterosexual intercourse - at higher risk where there is an existing sexually transmitted disease -, and mother-to-child
transmission during pregnancy or breastfeeding. The essentials for proper prevention, therefore, are not just information
about marital sexual behaviour inside and outside marriage, but also the prevalence of STDs, people's own serostatus
awareness, breastfeeding practices, couples' fertility goals, and possible contraceptive practices. Annabel Desgres du
Lo reviews the available literature on these issues in the African setting.

Citer ce document / Cite this document :


Monnier Alain. The Demographic Situation of Europe and the Developed Countries Overseas: An Annual Report
(Population, 4-5, 1999). In: Population, an English selection, 11 anne, n1, 1999. pp. 221-247.
http://www.persee.fr/doc/pop_0032-4663_1999_hos_11_1_6987
Document gnr le 17/10/2015

The Demographic Situation of Europe


and the Developed Countries Overseas:
An Annual Report
by Alain MONNIER

Population: An English Selection, 11, 1999, 221-248

I. - Population change
The population of Europe, including Russia, amounted to 726.2
million on 1 January 1999, one million less than a year earlier (Table A).
This reduction was much more substantial than during 1997 (300,000), but
it reflects the same trends:
population growth in western Europe (essentially the European
Union) has continued at the same pace as in 1997 (+800,000);
the negative growth in central and eastern Europe has accelerated,
totalling a loss of 1.8 million in 1998 (1.2 million in 1997).
Table A. - Population of the broad regions of Europe
Population size
at end of year
(in millions)

Western
Europe
Central
Europe
Eastern
Europe
Russia
Total

Annual growth in 1998


(in millions)

Growth rate in 1998


(per 1,000)

1998

1999

Total

Natural
increase

Total

Natural
increase

386.4

387.2

0.8

0.3

2.1

0.8

121.4

121.1

-0.2

0.04

- 1.9

-0.3

72.4
147.1

71.9
146.0

-0.5
-1.1

-0.4
-0.7

-6.4
-7.8

-5.2
-4.9

727.2

726.2

- 1.0

-0.8

- 1.4

- 1.0

Western Europe: the 15 member states of the European Union plus Iceland, Norway and
Switzerland.
Central Europe: Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic,
Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Yugoslavia.
Eastern Europe: Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Ukraine.
The data are provisional.
Source: Eurostat and national statistics.
The overall growth rate of -1.4 per 1,000 masks the divergence between
western Europe: +2.1 and the rest of the continent: -5.6. Given that this
divergence has persisted since the early 1990s, the relative weight of western
Europe has now risen from 52% at the end of the last decade to 53%.
The two components of population change, natural increase and
migration, cannot be measured with the same accuracy. Whereas birth and
death registration is complete throughout Europe (only a few countries,
principally from the former Yugoslavia, required estimation), migration is
another matter. There was apparently net emigration of 200,000 from
central Europe and 90,000 from eastern Europe in 1998, and net immigration

224

A. MONNIER

of 420,000 in Russia and 500,000 in western Europe. But emigration from


central and eastern Europe may well be underestimated, thus understating
the actual decline of these regions.
Concerning natural increase, deaths have exceeded births mostly in
eastern Europe and Russia, where the excess since 1992 now totals 2 and
5 million respectively; it has been more recent (since 1997) and much more
limited (fewer than 60,000 in two years) in central Europe. Finally, in
western Europe, births have continued to exceed deaths, but the gap between
the two is shrinking: one million 25 years ago, 600,000 ten years ago,
just over 300,000 in 1998.
The European Union now has a total population in excess of 375
million, having grown by 750,000 in 1998, the slightest annual gain since
1985 (Table B). The growth rate has fallen from 2.3 per 1,000 in 1997 to
2.0 in 1998, the result of a similar reduction of natural increase and of
net migration (-15% each). The rate of natural increase was lower than 1
per 1,000 (the EU's all-time low) for the third year running. Although it
has slowed down considerably since the early 1990s, immigration continues
to be the driving force behind population growth in the European Union.
Table .- The factors of population growth in the European Union
1985-1989*

1990-1994*

1997p

1998p

Absolute numbers (in thousands)


Population at end of
period
Births
Deaths
Natural increase
Net migration
Total growth

363 759.8
4 304.5
3 704.6
599.9
456.6
1 056.5

371 586.6
4 221.6
3 712.6
509.0
1 056.4
1 565.4

374 582.8
4 033.9
3 699.9
334.0
535.4
869.4

375 329.4
3 999.5
3 714.1
285.4
461.2
746.6

Rates (per 1,000)


11.9
Birth rate
Death rate
10.3
1.7
Natural increase
Net migration
1.3
Growth rate
2.9
* Average of the annual values,
p: provisional.
Source: Eurostat.

11.5
10.1
1.4
2.9
4.3

10.8
9.8
0.9
1.4
2.3

10.7
9.9
0.8
1.2
2.0

Are these features - slow growth, low but positive natural increase,
importance of the albeit modest level of net migration - to be found in
all 15 EU member states? Table C, in which the countries are classed by
order of growth rate, shows that:

THE DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION

225

Table - Breakdown of population growth in 1998 in the European Union


Growth (numbers)
Total
Natural
Migration
Germany
Sweden
Italy
Austria
Spain
European
Union
Greece
Belgium
Portugal
Finland
United
Kingdom
Denmark
France
Netherlands
Luxembourg
Ireland

Growth rates (per 1,000 population)


Total
Natural
Migration

- 20
6
49
7
47

400
700
200
400
000

-67
-4
-54
2
4

353
300
000
831
000

46
11
103
4
43

953
000
200
569
000

-0.25
0.76
0.85
0.92
1.19

-0.82
-0.49
-0.94
0.35
0.10

0.57
1.24
1.79
0.57
1.09

746
22
21
22
12

140
000
500
200
300

286
-2
10
6
7

739
000
000
900
761

459
24
11
15
4

401
000
500
300
539

1.99
2.09
2.11
2.23
2.39

0.76
-0.19
0.98
0.69
1.51

1.23
2.28
1.13
1.53
-0.88

157
18
239
106
5
50

400
740
900
000
500
700

89
7
200
61
1
22

500
700
100
900
500
200

67
11
39
44
4
28

900
040
800
100
000
500

2.66
3.53
4.08
6.75
12.90
13.63

1.51
1.45
3.40
3.94
3.52
5.97

1.15
2.08
0.68
2.81
9.38
7.66

only one country has had negative growth, but it is the largest in
terms of population size: Germany. This negative growth is due to a
shortfall of births (natural increase is -0.82 per 1,000 population) that is not
offset by the slight net immigration. We note that deaths have exceeded
births since 1972 in western Germany (the former FRG) - apart from five
years, 1990-3 and 1997- and also in eastern Germany, particularly since
1989;
in Sweden, Italy and Greece natural increase has also been
negative, but the growth rates remain positive thanks to immigration;
at the other end of the table, four countries - France, the
Netherlands, Luxembourg and Ireland - show much healthier growth, notably
owing to a steady rise in natural increase and, in the case of the latter
two countries, to substantial net immigration;
migration has played a more important role than natural increase
in most countries, but there are four exceptions: Finland, the United
Kingdom, France and the Netherlands.
Finally, looking at the absolute values, we note that France has
contributed most to growth in the EU: of the sum of positive increases, it
accounts for one-third of total growth and almost one-half of natural
increase.
Comparing the European Union to the United States and Japan (Table D),
it is clear that although population growth in the USA is at one of its
lowest levels since the Second World War, it remains way ahead of the
EU and Japan, in large part due to a high rate of natural increase. Japan

226

A. MONNIER
Table D. - The factors of population growth in the European Union,
the United States and Japan (1997), rates per 1,000 population

Total growth
Natural increase
Net migration

European Union

United States

Japan

2.3
0.9
1.4

9.1
5.9
3.2

2.8
2.3
0.5

has the edge on the EU, but the main difference between the two is that
growth is driven by natural increase in Japan and by migration in the EU.
II. - Natality and fertility
Birth rates have continued to fall in the European Union. In 1998,
for the first time, there were fewer than 4 million births overall, and the
crude birth rate (CBR) was down to 10.7. Most of the member states
recorded their lowest birth rates ever, or practically ever. Italy is the first
one to have a CBR below 9. France, Ireland and the Netherlands are three
exceptions: they each marked a slight gain.
The TFR trends confirm this trend. Although the overall TFR estimate
for 1998 is the same as for 1997, fertility has fallen in nine countries and
risen in only three (France, Ireland and the Netherlands). The individual
increases and decreases are no more than a few hundredths of a point each.
Table E. - Birth and fertility rates in the European Union
European Union
Crude birth rate (per 1,000)
Total fertility rate (mean number
of children per woman)

1995

1996

10.7

10.9

1.43e

1.44e

1997p
10.8
1.45e

1998p
10.7
1.45e

e: estimate,
p: provisional.
Source: Eurostat.
In central and eastern Europe, where CBR is below 10 in most
countries, the decline, or at most stability, has continued in 1998, with only a
few exceptions, of which Russia (up from 8.6 to 8.8). Bulgaria has also
gained a little, but remains Europe's (and the world's) low-fertility
champion (with 1.11 children per woman); it is followed closely by Spain and
the Czech Republic. We note the case of Poland, which was the last large
European country to have a TFR exceeding 2 (until 1991), and which in

THE DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION

227

1998 is down to a level of 1.44; paradoxically, this rapid decline has


occurred during a period when abortion was virtually banned.
Finally, it is noteworthy that the relatively high fertility observed in
the United States - TFR higher than 2 since 1989- has continued. The
ethnic differentials recorded are rather slight: TFR was 2.02 for whites
and 2.15 for non-whites in 1996.
III. - Nuptiality and divorce
In this report, we present three indicators that illustrate the trends
relative to couple formation. The period first marriage rates (Table 4) and
divorce rates (Table 5) provide information on current trends in de jure
marriages, that is, on the formation and break-up of married couples, while
the proportions of births outside marriage (Table 4a) reflect the loosening
of the tie between marriage and childbearing. This indicator must be
interpreted with caution, since having a child outside marriage does not have
the same meaning in all countries, or at all times. Today, it may often
express a modern outlook on family life, but it may also reflect precariousness of social and family relations.
First marriage rates (TFMR) have fallen, but only slightly, in most
of the countries for which the period index could be calculated for 1997.
In the EU, nuptiality can be said to be stagnating at a level of around 500
per 1,000 (apart from a few exceptions: Denmark, Portugal, Greece). In
central and eastern Europe, the decline observed in previous years has
continued and the levels differ vastly (the female TFMR ranges from 360 in
Estonia to 690 in Romania). The numbers of marriages contracted in 1998
confirm these remarks. Two countries stand out in this monolithic
landscape:
France, where TFMR which had fallen below 500 in 1995 has
been in the region of 550 for women since 1996 (including in 1998: 556).
This is the result of an income tax reform which, by withdrawing an
advantage unmarried parents previously held over married parents,
encouraged some couples to marry;
Greece, where TFMR rose in 1997 (by 35% for women) as a result
of marriage postponement in 1996, a leap year. The belief that marriages
contracted in a leap year will be unhappy ones persists, so that marriages
are either advanced or postponed, thus inflating the numbers in the
surrounding years. In fact, only one year out of four is 'normal' in Greece
in terms of marriages.
The period divorce rate has continued to rise almost everywhere
(Sweden and Norway being notable exceptions), but the divide remains between
southern Europe, where divorce is relatively rare (the period index ranges
from 10% in Italy to 18% in Portugal), and central and eastern Europe

228

A. MONNIER

where there is a greater variety of situations (divorce is very frequent in


Russia and the Czech Republic, less so in Bulgaria and Poland).
The proportions of extra-marital births have continued to rise in all
countries for which data were available, but the rates of increase differ
markedly, and there is no apparent link between the level reached and the
pace of change. The progression has been very slow in countries where
the level was already high (Sweden and Norway), which might suggest a
ceiling, but it has also been very slow in Croatia, where the proportion is
a mere 7%, yet rapid in other high-level countries such as Estonia.
IV. - Abortions
We must bear in mind that the abortion statistics communicated in
Table 6 vary widely as regards their accuracy. In several countries Luxembourg, Portugal, Greece, Austria, Belgium - there is no systematic abortion
registration, and the best we can provide is partial statistics or estimates.
In others, an official system of abortion registration exists, but the coverage
is not necessarily complete: this is the case in Italy, Spain and France. In
France, for instance, the estimated actual number of abortions has been in
the region of 220,000 in recent years, compared to 160,000 in the official
statistics.
Several western European countries recorded an increase in 1996 in
the number and proportion of abortions, whereas they had tended to decline
or be stable. The clearest example is Germany, with a 33% rise in the
number of abortions compared to 1995. This is apparently the unexpected
consequence of a decision taken by the Federal Institute of Medicines to
refuse the prescription of 'third-generation' pills for women aged under
30, on grounds of increased risks of venous thrombosis. Having abandoned
the pill, many women then found they needed to have an abortion. The
United Kingdom experienced a similar, albeit more moderate, upturn in
1996 for the same reason: in October 1995, the British Committee on Safety
of Medicines issued a warning against the risks of venous thrombosis
related to the third-generation pill'".
In central Europe, the Baltic states and Moldova, abortion has
continued to regress, suggesting that modern contraceptive methods are gaining
ground rapidly. The proportions of abortions per 100 live births remain
far higher, however, than in western Europe. In Poland, the statistics for
recent years reflect the apparent impact of its very restrictive abortion law.
In reality, abortion probably remains frequent, but is now practised either
illegally in Poland or legally in one of the neighbouring countries where
abortion is authorized.
(1) Osterkon D., Schramm W., 1998, "Increase in abortions following the political
'pill scare': reactions in Germany", European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive
Health, 3(1), 51-2.

THE DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION

229

V. - Mortality
In most EU countries, mortality fell in 1998 by one or two tenths
of a point (Table 2). But an increase of same size in five countries (France,
the Netherlands, Spain, Italy, Portugal) was enough to bring the crude death
rate (CDR) overall to its level in 1997 (Table F). However, as we have
said earlier, when populations are ageing, a rise in CDR does not
necessarily mean a deterioration in terms of mortality.
Table F. - Mortality in the European Union
European Union
Crude death rate
(per 1,000 population)
Infant mortality rate
(per 1,000 live births)
Life expectancy at birth,
in years (males)
Life expectancy at birth,
in years (females)

1995

1996

1997

1998p

10.0

10.0

9.9

9.9

5.6

5.5

5.3

5.2

73.9

74.1

74.5

80.4

80.5

80.8

p : provisional.
Source: Eurostat.
The CDR for the European Union as a whole amounts to 9.9 per
1,000 population in 1997 and 1998, which is the EU's lowest level (already
achieved in 1994). Several of the countries in this region have also recorded
their all-time lows -France in 1997 (9.0), Ireland and Switzerland in 1998
(8.4 and 8.7) - but CDRs below 9 remain the exception.
In central Europe, the death rate has lost four tenths of a point in
Bulgaria, but this region continues to have the worst score of all Europe,
after Ukraine. Mortality has also fallen in Romania, by as much, and in
the Czech Republic. In Russia, the decline was only one tenth of a point
in 1998, which is rather a stagnation.
Although the infant mortality rate (IMR) is a good indicator of annual
variations in deaths during the first year of life, when very low levels are
reached it is subject to random fluctuations. In Iceland, for instance, it
takes only a few infant deaths more or less to cause IMR to gain or lose
2 or 3 points. The pattern that emerges from Table 2 is nonetheless one
of continuing progress. The few countries of western Europe where IMR
is still above 5 deaths per 1,000 live births seem poised to go below this
threshold. In central and eastern Europe, improvements have also
continued, but in most countries the IMR level remains higher than in the west.

230

A. MONNIER

When the European Union is considered globally (Table F), both male
and female life expectancies at birth have risen significantly in 1997.
Women can now expect to live almost 81 years in the EU, and even 82.3
years in France and Sweden, which puts these two countries second only
to Japan. Men are approaching a life span of 75 years, but only Sweden
(76.2), Greece and no doubt Italy have pushed beyond this level. The nonEU countries of western Europe, Switzerland and Norway, rank among the
leaders.

THE DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION

THE STATISTICAL DATA

23 1

A. MONNIER

232
Table 1. - Population, births and deaths
Population
at last census
(thousands)
Austria
Belgium
Denmark
Finland (1)
France
Germany
Germany (western)
Germany (eastern)
Iceland(l)
Ireland
Luxembourg
Netherlands(l)
Norway(l)
Sweden(l)
Switzerland
United Kingdom(2)
Albania
Greece
Italy
Portugal
Spain
Bosnia and Hercegovina
Croatia
Macedonia
Slovenia
Yugoslavia
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Slovakia
Hungary
Poland
Romania

15/05/91
01/03/91
01/01/98
31/12/90
05/03/90
01/04/91
01/04/91
01/04/91
31/12/90
28/04/96
01/03/91
01/01/91
01/01/91
01/11/90
04/12/90
21/04/91
12/04/89
17/03/91
20/10/91
15/04/91
01/03/91
31/03/91
31/03/91
20/06/94
31/03/91
31/03/91
04/12/92
03/03/91
03/03/91
01/01/90
06/12/88
07/01/92

7795.8
9978.7
5294.9
4998.5
56556.0
79829.0
63889.0
15941.0
255.9
3626.1
389.1
15010.4
4249.8
8587.4
6873.7
56467.0
3182.4
10264.2
59103.8
9853.9
39433.9
4369.6
4763.9
1949.6
1966.0
10337.5
8472.7
10302.2
5274.3
10374.8
37878.6
22810.0

Population
on 1 January
(thousands)
1998
1999
8075.4
8082.8
10192.3
10213.8
5294.9
5313.6
5147.3
5159.6
58726.9
58966.8
82057.0
82037.0
66688.0
66747.0
15369.0
15290.0
272.4
275.7
3694.0
3744.7
423.7
429.2
15654.2
15760.2
4417.6
4445.3
8847.6
8854.3
7096.5
7114.6
59089.6
59247.0
3354.3
10511.0
10533.0
57563.4
57612.6
9957.3
9979.5
39347.9
39394.3
3549.7
4582.0
2002.3
1984.9
1978.3
10614.7
8283.2
8230.4
10299.1
10289.6
5387.7
5393.4
10135.4
10092.0
38660.0
38667.0
22526.1
22488.6

Births
(thousands)
1997
84.0
116.2
67.6
59.3
726.8
812.2
711.9
100.3
4.2
52.3
5.5
190.7
59.8
90.5
80.6
725.8
61.7
102.0
528.9
112.9
361.8
62.9 g
55.5
29.5
18.2
131.8
64.1
90.7
59.1
100.4
412.6
236.9

1998
81.2
114.5
66.2
57.1
740.5
785.0
102.9
4.2
53.6
5.4
199.4
58.3
89.0
77.5
717.1
60.1
100.6
515.4
113.5
361.9

17.9
119.9
65.4
90.5
57.6
97.3
395.6
237.3

Deaths
(thousands)
1997
79.4
104.2
59.9
49.1
530.3
860.4
692.8
167.5
1.8
31.6
3.9
135.8
44.6
93.3
62.9
632.5
18.2
101.0
553.1
104.8
348.1
31.4g
52.0
16.6
18.9
111.3
121.9
112.7
52.1
139.4
380.2
279.3

1998
78.3
104.5
58.5
49.3
540.4
852.4
688.1
164.3
1.8
31.4
3.9
137.5
44.4
93.3
62.0
627.6
18.3
101.0
569.4
106.6
357.9

19.0
111.8
118.2
109.5
53.2
141.0
375.4
269.2

THE DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION

233
Table 1 (cont.)

Population
at last census
(thousands)

Population
Births
Deaths
on 1 January
(thousands)
(thousands)
(thousands)
1998
1999
1997
1998
1997
1998
147104.6
146166.0 1259.9
1285.5 2015.8
1990.6
10203.8
10179.1
92.6 136.9
89.5
137.3
1453.8
1445.6
12.6
12.3
18.6
19.4
2458.4
18.4
2439.4
18.8
33.5
34.2
3704.0
3700.8
37.8
37.0
41.1
40.8
4312.7
45.6
41.3
43.0
40.0
50245.2
49850.9 442.6
419.2 754.1
720.0
3791.2
3798.2
43.9
39.4
24.0
23.2
7876.7
7949.3 132.1
124.0 47.0
46.3
5396.0
37.7
52.0
16544.0 b
232.4
160.1
4545.0 b
102.1
34.5
5884.0 b
162.2d
39.3d
4567.0 b
98.5
29.6
23007.0 b
609.6
137.6
29615.3 b
361.8
217.0
269067.0
271626.0 3882.0
3946.0 2294.0
2331.0
18631.1
253.7
128.9
128.0
3781.3
57.6
57.8
27.5
26.2
126109.7
126451.1 1203.6
1215.5 918.8
941.9
5900.0
6014.4 124.5
36.1
130.1
36.9

Russia
12/01/89 147400.5
Belarus
12/01/89 10199.7
Estonia
12/01/89
1565.7
Latvia
12/01/89
2666.6
Lithuania
12/01/89
3689.8
Moldova
12/01/89
4337.6
Ukraine
12/01/89 51706.7
Armenia
12/01/89
3287.7
Azerbaijan
12/01/89
7037.9
5443.4
Georgia
12/01/89
Kazakhstan
12/01/89 16536.5
Kirghizstan
12/01/89
4290.4
Tajikistan
12/01/89
5108.6
Turkmenistan
12/01/89
3533.9
Uzbekistan
12/01/89 19905.2
Canada
14/05/96 28846.8
United States
01/04/90 248709.9
Australia
06/08/91 16849.5
New Zealand
05/03/96
3618.3
Japan
01/10/95 125570.2
Israel
04/06/83
4037.6
Notes:
a) 1997,b) 1996, c) 1995, d) 1994, e) 1993,f) 1992, g) 1991.
(1) Some countries no longer take general population censuses. The data are collected instead through population
registers, surveys or micro-censuses. For these countries, we give the dates and results corresponding to the European
Census Programme of 1 990-9 1 .
(2) Estimate as of 1 Jan.

234

A. MONNIER
Table 2. - Birth, death and infant mortality rates (per 1 ,000)

1995
Austria
11.0
Belgium
11.4
Denmark
13.3
Finland
12.3
France
12.5
9.4
Germany
10.3
Germany (western)
5.4
Germany (eastern)
Iceland
16.0
Ireland
13.5
13.2
Luxembourg
Netherlands
12.3
13.8
Norway
Sweden
11.7
Switzerland
11.7
United Kingdom
12.5
Albania
22.4
Greece
9.7
9.2
Italy
Portugal
10.8
Spain
9.3
Bosnia and Hercegovina 13.8 f
Croatia
10.8
Macedonia
16.4
Slovenia
9.5
Yugoslavia
13.3
Bulgaria
8.6
Czech Republic
9.3
Slovakia
11.5
11.0
Hungary
Poland
11.2
Romania
10.4

Birth rates
1996
1997
11.0
10.4
11.4
11.4
12.9
12.8
11.8
11.5
12.6
12.4
9.7
9.9
10.6
10.7
6.0
6.5
16.1
15.3
13.9
14.2
13.7
13.1
12.2
12.2
13.9
13.6
10.8
10.2
11.7
11.4
12.5
12.3

1998
10.1
11.2
12.5
11.1
12.6
9.6
10.2
6.7
15.2
14.4
12.7
12.7
13.1
10.1
10.9
12.1

9.6
9.2
11.1
9.1

9.7
9.2
11.4
9.2

9.6
8.9
11.4
9.2

11.7
15.8
9.4
13.0
8.6
8.8
11.2
10.3
11.1
10.2

12.3
14.8
9.1
12.4
7.7
8.8
11.0
9.9
10.7
10.5

9.0
11.3
7.9
8.8
10.7
9.6
10.2
10.5

Death rates
1997
1998
9.8
9.7
10.2
10.2
11.3
11.0
9.6
9.6
9.0
9.2
10.5
10.4
10.4
10.3
10.9
10.7
6.8
6.6
8.6
8.4
9.4
9.1
8.7
8.8
10.1
10.0
10.6
10.5
8.9
8.7
10.7
10.6
5.7b
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.9
10.5
10.7
8.9
9.1
6.5 f
11.6
8.3
9.5
9.6
10.5
10.5
14.7
14.3
10.9
10.6
9.7
9.9
13.7
13.9
9.8
9.7
12.4
12.0

Infant mortality
1997
1998
4.7
4.8
6.1
5.6
5.3
4.7
3.9
4.2
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.7
4.9
4.7
4.8
4.9
5.5
2.6
6.2
4.2
5.0
5.1
5.2
4.1
4.0
3.6
3.5
4.8
4.4
5.9
5.6
22.2
15.0
6.3
6.8
5.5
5.3
6.4
6.0
5.5
5.7
14.7 f
8.1
15.7
5.2
12.7
12.6
14.4
17.5
5.9
5.2
8.7
8.8
9.9
9.8
10.2
9.5
22.0
20.5

THE DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION

235
Table 2 (cont.)
Birth rates
1996
1997
8.8
8.6
9.3
8.8
9.0
8.7
7.9
7.6
10.2
10.5
12.0
10.6
9.1
12.8
11.6
17.3
10.0
9.6
14.8
22.0

1995
1998
Russia
9.2
8.8
Belarus
9.8
9.1
Estonia
9.1
8.5
Latvia
8.6
7.5
11.1
10.0
Lithuania
Moldova
13.0
Ukraine
9.6
Armenia
13.0
10.4
Azerbaijan
19.1
15.7
Georgia
9.6
Kazakhstan
16.7
Kirghizstan
26.0
28.4
Tajikistan
Turkmenistan
28.1
20.3
Uzbekistan
29.8
25.8
Canada
12.9
12.3
12.1
United States
14.8
14.8
14.5
14.6
14.2
13.7
13.7
13.3
Australia
New Zealand
16.0
15.4
15.3
15.3
9.6
9.7
Japan
9.6
9.6
21.1
21.4
Israel
21.3
21.8
Notes: a) 1996, b) 1995, c) 1994, d) 1993, e) 1992, f) 1991.
(1) Deaths under one year per 1,000 live births.

Death rates
1997
1998
13.7
13.6
13.4
13.5
12.7
13.4
13.6
14.0
11.1
11.0
10.0
15.0
6.3
6.1
6.2
5.9
7.0
10.2
7.5
6.0b
6.1
5.8
7.2
8.6
8.6
7.0
6.8
7.3
6.9
7.3
7.5
6.2
6.2

Infant mortality
1997
1998
17.3
16.4
12.6
11.2
10.1
9.3
15.0
15.3
10.3
9.3
19.8
17.9
14.2
12.9
15.4
14.7
19.7
16.3
25.3
28.6
42.4 c
33.2
23.1
5.5
7.0
7.0
5.0
5.3
6.5
5.3
3.7
6.4
5.8

236

A. MONNIER
Table 3. - Total fertility (mean number of live births per woman)

Austria
Belgium
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Germany (western)
Germany (eastern)
Iceland
Ireland
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Norway
Sweden
Switzerland
United Kingdom
England and Wales
Scotland
Northern Ireland
Albania
Greece
Italy
Portugal
Spain
Bosnia and Hercegovina
Croatia
Macedonia
Slovenia
Yugoslavia

1970
2.29
2.25
1.95
1.83
2.47
2.03
1.99
2.19
2.79
3.96
1.97
2.57
2.50
1.92
2.10
2.43
2.40
2.57
3.25
5.16
2.38
2.38
2.71
2.85
2.67
1.94
2.95
2.10
2.27

1975
1.83
1.74
1.92
1.68
1.93
1.48
1.45
1.54
2.65
3.43
1.65
1.66
1.98
1.77
1.61
1.81
1.77
1.90
2.67
2.32
2.17
2.63
2.79
2.35
1.92
2.70
2.17
2.32

1980
1.65
1.68
1.55
1.63
1.94
1.56
1.44
1.94
2.48
3.24
1.49
1.60
1.72
1.68
1.55
1.90
1.88
1.84
2.78
3.62
2.22
1.64
2.20
2.20
1.88
1.92
2.45
2.11
2.27

1985
1.47
1.51
1.45
1.64
1.81
1.37
1.28
1.73
1.93
2.48
1.38
1.51
1.68
1.74
1.52
1.79
1.78
1.70
2.44
3.26
1.67
1.42
1.72
1.64
1.89
1.82
2.31
1.77
2.21

1990
1.45
1.62
1.67
1.78
1.78
1.45
1.45
1.52
2.31
2.15
1.60
1.62
1.93
2.13
1.58
1.83
1.84
1.66
2.26
3.03
1.39
1.33
1.51
1.36
1.70
1.68
2.06
1.58
2.08

1995
1.40
1.57
1.80
1.81
1.70
1.25
1.34
0.84
2.08
1.87
1.68
1.53
1.87
1.73
1.48
1.71
1.71
1.55
1.92
1.32
1.17
1.38
1.18
1.47
1.58
1.97
1.29
1.88

1996
1.42
1.55
1.75
1.76
1.72
1.29
1.39
0.93
2.12
1.91
1.76
1.53
1.89
1.60
1.50
1.72
1.74
1.55
1.96
2.70
1.30
1.21
1.43
1.15

1997
1.36
1.55
1.75
1.75
1.71
1.37

1998
1.32
1.53
1.72
1.70
1.75
1.34

2.04
1.92
1.71
1.56
1.86
1.52
1.51
1.72

2.05
1.94
1.68
1.62
1.81
1.51
1.44
1.72

1.67
1.90
1.28
1.83

1.69

1.58
2.60
1.31
1.22
1.46
1.15

1.25

2.60
1.30
1.19
1.46
1.15

1.23

THE DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION

237
Table 3 (cont.)

1970
2.17
1.90
2.40
1.97
2.20
2.90
2.00
2.33
2.16
2.01
2.40

1975
2.23
2.40
2.55
2.35
2.23
2.60
1.97
2.20
2.04
1.96
2.20

1980 1985 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998


Bulgaria
2.05
1.95
1.81
1.23
1.24
1.09
1.11
Czech Republic
2.10
1.96
1.89
1.28
1.18
1.17
1.16
Slovakia
2.32
2.25
2.09
1.52
1.47
1.43
1.38
1.91
1.85
1.87
1.57
1.46
1.38
1.33
Hungary
Poland
2.25
2.33
2.04
1.61
1.58
1.51
1.44
Romania
2.43
2.31
1.83
1.34
1.30
1.32
1.30
Russia
1.87
2.05
1.90
1.34
1.28
1.23
1.24
Belarus
2.00
2.07
1.91
1.39
1.31
1.23
1.27
Estonia
2.02
2.12
2.05
1.32
1.30
1.24
1.21
Latvia
1.90
2.09
2.02
1.25
1.16
1.11
1.09
2.00
2.10
2.00
1.42
Lithuania
1.49
1.39
1.60
Moldova
2.39
2.75
2.39
1.76
Ukraine
2.09
2.02
1.95
2.02
1.89
1.40
1.38
1.36
Armenia
3.17
2.79
2.34
2.55
2.63
1.63
1.60
1.45
1.45
Azerbaijan
4.66
3.96
3.32
2.90
2.74
2.06
2.07
2.00
Georgia
2.68
2.52
2.21
2.26
2.20
Kazakhstan
3.35
3.32
3.03
2.72
2.93
4.89
4.14
Kirghizstan
4.80
4.13
3.69
Tajikistan
5.93
6.28
5.77
5.50
5.05
Turkmenistan
5.97
5.80
5.15
4.66
4.17
Uzbekistan
5.67
5.70
4.90
4.64
4.07
Canada
2.34
1.87
1.67
1.61
1.71
1.64
United States
2.48
1.77
1.84
1.84
2.08
2.01
2.04
2.03
Australia
2.85
2.14
1.89
1.89
1.91
1.82
1.80
1.77
New Zealand
3.17
2.37
1.93
2.18
2.04
2.03
Japan
2.13
1.91
1.76
1.54
1.42
1.41
1.44
1.75
Israel
3.97 3.67
3.14
3.12
3.02
2.88
Note: This index is calculated by summing the age-specific fertility rates for each of the years
considered. If these rates were to hold in a cohort, their sum would represent the completed fertility of
this cohort. When calculated for a given year, the index is a summary of reproductive behaviour in the
35 or so cohorts of women of reproductive age, and should be interpreted with caution: rises and falls
in the index may be merely transitional and have little impact on the completed fertility of the cohorts
concerned; however, when such movements persist, it is likely that they will affect completed fertility.
It is always difficult to discern whether the value of this index at a given time is the result of temporary
factors or an indication of more permanent changes that affect the cohorts.
For the republics of ex-USSR, until 1987, the annual rates are the average of years t and t + 1, except
for 1970 (average of the years 1969 and 1970).

238

A. MONNIER

Table 4. - Total first marriage rate (mean number of hrst marriages


per 1 ,000 persons of each sex)
1996
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
498
Austria
M
853
732
690
592
540
751
674
578
554
560
F
913
598
671
522
Belgium
M
966
854
746
620
F
982
888
771
651
721
570
560
Denmark
M
752
621
491
538
562
621
647
F
815
667
533
572
596
658
707
Finland
M
896
638
608
552
531
523
F
938
702
671
584
581
568
580
822
531
550
480
520
France
M
915
689
541
F
919
858
706
540
563
493
M
919
771
675
608
593
497
500
Germany
F
976
803
691
625
640
568
575
M
895
734
645
585
601
533
537
Germany (western)
F
972
767
658
598
643
603
610
M
1010
787
701
598
330
330
883
Germany (eastern)
814
637
403
409
F
983
922
738
M
870
852
653
545
595
500
Luxembourg
F
870
799
661
566
653
560
580
Netherlands
M
1015
770
648
554
620
505
F
1065
830
677
573
658
547
550
M
922
755
615
532
521
500
Norway
794
651
568
551
540
550
F
955
585
567
487
493
522
418
Sweden
M
442
440
F
626
630
525
529
553
Switzerland
M
833
630
646
645
699
581
585
F
872
654
662
668
744
636
640
England and Wales
M
1007
840
755
649
594
494
F
1037
873
759
655
619
536
Albania
M
832
940
850
844
F
746
772
787
823
848
889
724
730
Greece
M
1080 1 180
874
724
758
550
F
1056 1 158
875
M
1 017
911
787
693
680
Italy
F
1009
945
779
673
691
620
Portugal
M
1350 1485
910
787
872
752
716
F
1 147 1342
874
794
876
761
731
Spain
M
1029 1065
788
644
673
570
F
764
643
687
589
993 1047
Croatia
M
F
866
821
793
771
700
628
710
Slovenia
M
F
958
990
791
647
510
510
465
Yugoslavia
M
F
916
806
821
800
777
680
630

1997
550

560
530
553

530
550

560
620

740
770
690
460

THE DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION

239
Table 4 (cont.)

1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
1996
1997
M
963
959
924
851
849
545
F
977 1001
978
906
866
556
540
520
924
Czech Republic
M
898
795
881
1004
521
F
920 1000
906
920 1029
516
490
530
Slovakia
M
952
938
806
839
928
F
868
937
875
540
909
969
M
988
943
767
798
770
572
514
Hungary
F
966
999
986
858
771
555
512
480
Poland
M
1002
915
838
790
858
666
F
923
936
903
878
904
676
640
610
Romania
M
892
991
908
864
730
F
841
998 1030
846
914
728
710
690
Russia
M
1 138 1036
916
883
953
729
581
F
1061
1032
959
967 1 003
750
598
Estonia
M
1042
944
F
939
883
788
453
351
360
Latvia
M
F
1 031
965
931
935
467
407
400
Lithuania
M
F
1 138 1011
940
977 1061
674
622
580
Moldova
M
F
1 108 1061
1 193
885
620
Note: The index is obtained by summing the age-specific first marriage rates (ratio of first marriages
for a given sex and age to the total number of persons of that sex and age), below the age of 50, for
each of the years considered. If these rates were observed in a cohort, the sum would represent the
frequency of first marriages in this cohort. When calculated for a given year, the index is a summary
of nuptiality behaviour of members of different cohorts who contract a first marriage before the age of
50, and should be interpreted with caution, because of the difficulty of determining what is due to
temporary conditions and what reflects underlying deeper changes in nuptiality. Because of the method
of calculation, the index may exceed unity ( 1 ,000 per 1 ,000), which would be absurd for a cohort (there
cannot be more than one first marriage per person). An index which exceeds unity indicates that people
had married at younger ages during the year considered.
Bulgaria

A. MONNIER

240
Table 4a. - Extra-marital births (per 100 live births)
Austria
Belgium
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Germany (western)
Germany (eastern)
Iceland
Ireland
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Norway
Sweden
Switzerland
United Kingdom
England and Wales
Scotland
Northern Ireland
Greece
Italy
Portugal
Spain
Bosnia and Hercegovina
Croatia
Macedonia
Slovenia
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Slovakia
Hungary
Poland
Romania

1970
12.8
2.8
11.0
5.8
6.8
7.2
5.5
13.3
29.9
2.7
4.0
2.1
6.9
18.4
3.8
8.0
8.3
7.7
3.8
1.1
2.2
7.2
1.3
5.3
5.4
6.2
8.5
9.3
5.4
6.2
5.4
5.0
3.5

1975
13.5
3.1
21.7
10.1
8.5
8.5
6.1
16.1
33.0
3.7
4.2
2.2
10.3
32.4
3.7
9.0
9.1
9.3
5.1
1.3
2.9
7.2
2.0
5.6
4.9
6.6
9.8
9.3
4.5
5.3
5.6
4.7
3.5

1980
17.8
4.1
33.2
13.1
11.4
11.9
7.6
22.8
39.7
5.0
6.0
4.1
14.5
39.7
4.7
11.5
11.8
11.1
6.1
1.5
4.3
9.2
3.9
5.4
5.1
6.1
13.1
10.9
5.6
5.7
7.1
4.7
2.8

1985
22.4
7.1
43.0
16.4
19.6
16.2
9.4
33.8
48.0
8.5
8.7
8.3
25.8
46.4
5.6
18.9
19.2
18.5
11.6
1.8
5.4
12.3
8.0
6.0
5.9
6.6
19.1
11.7
7.3
5.7
9.2
5.0
3.7

1990
23.6
11.6
46.4
25.2
30.1
15.3
10.5
35.0
55.2
14.6
12.9
11.4
38.6
47.0
6.1
27.9
28.3
27.1
18.8
2.2
6.5
14.7
9.6
7.4
7.0
7.1
24.5
12.4
8.6
7.6
13.1
6.2
4.0

1995
27.4
13.1
46.5
33.1
37.6
16.1
12.9
41.8
61.2
22.2
13.1
15.5
47.6
53.0
6.8
33.6
33.9
33.7
23.1
3.0
8.1
18.7
10.8

1996
28.0
15.0
46.3
35.3
38.9

1997
28.8
16.8

60.7
24.8

65.2
26.6
16.8
19.2
48.7
54.1
8.1
36.7

3.3
8.3
18.7
11.7

3.5
8.9
19.6

7.6
8.2
29.8
25.7
15.6
12.6
20.7
9.5
19.7

7.1
8.3
31.8
28.2
16.9
14.1
22.6
10.2
20.7

7.3
8.9
32.7
30.1
17.8
15.1
25.0
11.0
22.2

48.3
53.9
7.3
35.5

36.5

THE DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION

241
Table 4a (cont.)

1970
10.6
7.3
14.1
11.4
3.7

1975
10.7
7.4
15.6

1980
1985
1990
1995
1997
1996
Russia
10.8
12.0
14.6
21.1
23.0
25.3
Belarus
6.4
7.1
8.5
13.5
14.9
16.2
Estonia
18.3
20.7
27.1
44.1
48.1
51.6
Latvia
12.5
14.4
16.9
29.9
33.1
34.8
Lithuania
6.2
4.6
7.0
7.0
12.6
14.3
16.6
8.1
7.4
14.6
Moldova
8.8
11.0
13.3
17.3
Ukraine
9.2
8.8
8.8
8.3
11.2
Armenia
1.8
2.8
4.3
6.5
5.2
9.3
10.7
Azerbaijan
3.4
5.2
3.0
2.6
2.6
7.3
Georgia
0.2
4.7
10.5
18.2
33.4
Kazakhstan
10.3
10.1
13.2
7.3
Kirghizstan
9.1
11.0
9.9
12.0
Tajikistan
4.8
7.3
4.8
6.9
Turkmenistan
3.8
2.9
3.8
4.4
Uzbekistan
4.0
3.3
4.4
Canada
9.6
10.0
13.0
17.9
25.5
32.2
32.3
32.4
United States
10.7
14.2
18.4
22.0
28.0
32.2
Australia
8.3
10.2
12.4
15.8
21.9
23.0
New Zealand
21.5
24.9
34.0
40.7
13.9(1) 16.6
Japan
0.9
0.8
0.8
1.0
1.1
Israel
0.7
0.8
1.0
1.1
1.6
Note: The proportion of extra-marital births is the proportion of births to unmarried mothers among all
births.
(1) New Zealand: 1971.

A. MONNIER

242
Table 5. - Total divorce rate (per 100 marriages)
1970
18.2
9.6
25.1
17.1
12.0

1975
19.7
16.1
36.7
25.8
15.6

1980
26.2
20.8
39.3
27.3
22.3

1985
30.8
27.8
45.2
28.0
30.4

1990
32.8
31.9
42.8
42.7
32.1
27.4
29.2
22.9
36.0
29.1
42.9
44.1
33.0
42.5

1995
38.3
58.1
40.9
49.0
39.0
30.9
34.1
19.3
33.0
32.0
46.0
53.9
38.0
46.0

1996
38.0

1997
39.0

Austria
Belgium
Denmark
41.0
Finland
48.0
48.0
France
38.6
Germany
30.2
15.9
22.4
21.5
Germany (western)
20.7
30.3
32.0
38.3
Germany (eastern)
9.7
10.5
27.0
29.0
37.0
Luxembourg
Netherlands
11.0
20.0
25.7
34.4
33.0
13.4
20.7
25.1
32.6
44.0
Norway
Sweden
23.4
49.9
42.2
45.5
48.0
Switzerland
15.5
27.3
28.7
41.0
20.9
England and Wales
16.2
43.8
32.2
39.3
Albania
11.1
10.9
12.0
11.8
Greece
5.0
5.0
10.8
11.5
12.0
15.0
14.0
15.0
4.1
5.0
3.1
3.2
8.0
8.0
10.0
Italy
Portugal
1.0
8.0
11.0
11.0
11.9
16.3
Spain
6.0
8.0
12.0
Bulgaria
14.3
15.5
18.3
20.7
17.0
18.3
Czech Republic
26.2
30.0
30.8
35.9
37.9
38.9
42.0
41.0
Slovakia
10.7
17.9
17.6
20.2
22.9
25.2
29.2
33.0
30.9
34.6
27.8
32.0
Hungary
14.2
Poland
15.1
13.9
16.7
15.0
14.5
15.0
16.0
Romania
4.6
21.1
19.6
19.0
19.0
20.0
20.0
21.0
Russia
33.7
37.9
42.4
40.7
40.0
50.3
United States
42.3
54.8
58.9
54.8
Note: The index is obtained by summing duration-specific divorce rates (ratio of divorces at different
marriage durations to the initial size of the marriage cohorts which have reached these durations), for
each of the years considered. If the rates were those observed in a marriage cohort, their sum would
represent the frequency of divorces in this cohort. When calculated for a given year, this sum is. like
the corresponding nuptiality measure, and for the same reasons, difficult to interpret.

THE DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION

243

Table 6. - Legal abortions (numbers)


1970
15613
9375
14757

1975
26433
27884
21547
33454

1980
23394
23334
15037
171218
179805
87702
92103
523
19700
13531
34887
168808
128927
15912
117
207644

1985
17907
19919
13833
173335
173782
83538
90254
705
17300
14599
30838
181062
141101
20489
180
210192

1990

1995

1996

Austria
Denmark
20589
17720
9884
Finland
12232
10437
170428 156181
162792
France(l)
145257
97937 130899
Germany
78808
73798
101383
Germany (western)
88756
66459
24139
29516
Germany (eastern)
Iceland
99
274
714
807
22441
Netherlands
15500
18384
20932
7941
15132
15551
13762
14311
Norway
Sweden
16100
32526
37489
31441
32117
91819 147029
197131
174781
189468
United Kingdom(2)
75962 106224
173900 154315 167916
England and Wales(2)
Albania
11422
26112
32588
Greece
61
10145
161386 136817 138925
Italy
Spain
37231
49367
51002
Bosnia and Hercegovina
58973
36975
47827
51549
14282
Croatia
39895
38646
12339
Macedonia
15074
17645
26726
29865
21994
15805
14164
Slovenia
17960
14731
10791
10218
Yugoslavia
222573 195694
Bulgaria
142511
143450 156056 132269 144644
97092
98566
Czech Republic
71893
55511
68930
83042 107130
46506
48286
Slovakia
27873
26160
31240
36283
48437
29409
25173
192283
96212
80882
81970
90394
76957
76600
Hungary
Poland
148219 138634 137950 135564
59417
559
491
Romania
292410 359417 413093 302838 992265 502840 456221
Russia
4086700 4046040 3960049 3740096 3593291 2442074
Belarus
187935
194710 201832 200888 114292
81405
35652
Estonia
40663
38927
35497
29410
20518
19464
Latvia
48995
25933
24227
Lithuania
45300
45600
45200
41968
27504
31278
27832
Moldova
86093
93394
96283 102661
81931
57181
46010
Ukraine
1130115 1110223 1137391 1135475 1019038 740000
Armenia
45480
32604
33896
25282
30726
31323
Azerbaijan
58574
54581
58012
53197
24611
Georgia
46348
81785
85285
66607
56862
Canada
11152
53705
72099
69216
92901
United States
399000 1034000 1554000 1589000 1609000 1363700 1365700
New Zealand
7130
11173
13652
5945
Japan
732000 672000 598100 550127 456797
Israel
14708
18406
16446
16244
(1) The figure for 1975 concerns only the last five months.
(2) Residents.

1997

31300

128537

9709
43261
22318
74564
3171
347126
19157
21768
22680
37137

244

A. MONNIER
Table 6a. - Legal abortions (per 100 live births)

Austria
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Germany (western)
Germany (eastern)
Iceland
Netherlands
Norway
Sweden
United Kingdom
England and Wales
Albania
Greece
Italy
Spain
Bosnia and Hercegovina
Croatia
Macedonia
Slovenia
Yugoslavia
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Slovakia
Hungary
Poland
Romania
Russia
Belarus
Estonia
Latvia
Lithuania
Moldova
Ukraine
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Georgia
Canada
United States
New Zealand
Japan
Israel

1970
13.9
13.2
22.9

2.5
6.9
12.3
14.6
10.2
9.7

1975
28.2
38.7
32.8
4.5
48.8
6.3
8.7
26.9
31.4
21.1
17.6
16.2

1980
25.7
40.7
23.8
21.4
20.8
14.1
37.6
11.6
10.9
26.5
35.9
22.4
19.6
22.5
0.1
32.4

1985
20.5
37.1
22.0
22.6
21.4
14.3
39.6
18.3
9.7
28.6
31.3
24.1
21.5
26.4
0.2
36.4

60.5
39.8

59.5
44.6

70.1
67.2

102.7
48.6
34.6
126.7
27.1
68.5
214.7
128.1
188.7

99.2
28.9
26.8
49.5
21.4
85.9
192.1
132.9
182.2

121.7
44.8
32.8
54.4
19.8
103.6
179.8
130.7
159.9

81.1
82.3
77.1
69.3
133.6
111.2
61.1
40.2
63.0
19.9
84.4
157.5
121.7
150.9

81.6
123.4
157.1
38.8
51.4
3.0
10.7

88.1
118.0
150.3
72.3
38.5
91.2
14.9
32.9

37.8

35.3

87.3
121.0
153.2
46.4
37.4
95.3
19.4
43.0
11.8
37.9
15.6

71.8
113.5
148.9
42.2
29.9
68.1
18.4
42.3
13.8
38.4
18.5

1990

1995

32.5
18.7
22.4
16.0
10.8
37.2
15.0
9.3
25.5
30.2
24.7
24.6
31.8
9.9
28.4
9.3

25.4
15.7
21.4
12.8
10.8
28.8
18.9
11.0
22.8
30.4
23.9
23.8
45.9

69.7
62.1
65.9
126.2
137.5
82.1
60.6
71.9
10.8
315.3
180.7
80.4
131.8
129.2
48.4
106.3
155.1
31.6
13.4
61.3
22.9
38.7
18.6
37.4
15.9

1996

1997

17.2
16.4
14.4
31.6
11.8
23.5
33.7
25.8
25.9

34.6

26.0
13.6

26.4
14.2

24.3

28.5
49.2
56.9

22.9
45.1
54.4

53.4

134.9
50.2
47.9
68.7
0.1
212.5
179.1
80.5
151.3
120.1
75.9
101.4

136.5
51.4
41.9
72.8
0.1
197.2

47.7
37.8
74.3
0.8
146.5

146.4
122.5
71.2
88.7

151.7
115.6
60.0
81.5

62.8

65.1

35.0
23.6

34.9

13.9

THE DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION

245

Table 7. - Life expectancy at birth


Austria
Belgium
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Germany (western)
Germany (eastern)
Iceland
Ireland
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Norway
Sweden
Switzerland
United Kingdom
England and Wales
Scotland
Northern Ireland
Albania
Greece
Italy
Portugal
Spain

M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F

1980
69.0A
76.1 A
70.0A
76.8A
71.2A
77.3A
69.2A
77.6A
70. 2A
78.4A
69.9T
76.6T
68.7A
74.6A
73.3B
79.7B
70.0A
75.2A
72.5A
79.2A
72.3B
79.0B
73.8A
79.7A
72.4B
79.0B
70.5A
76.6A
70.8T
76.9T
68.7A
75.1A
68.8T
75.1T
67. 0B
72.3B
72.2A
76.8A
70.6A
77.4A
67.7A
75.2A
72.5A
78.6A

1985
70.4A
77.4A
71.6B
77.5B
70.1 A
78.5A
71.3A
79.4A
72.0A
78.4A
71.5T
78.1T
69.5A
75.4A

73.1A
19.1k
72.8B
79.5B
74.8A
80.4A
73.5B
80.0B
71.7A
77.4A
71.9T
11.11
70.0A
75.8A
70.3T
76.5T
68.7B
74.4B
72.6A
77.6A

73.3A
19.1k

1990
72.5A
79.0A
12.1k
19.4k
72.0B
77.7B
70.9A
78.9A
72.8A
81.0A
72.0A
78.4A
70.0B
76.2B
75.4A
80.5A
72.1A
75.6A
72.3A
78.5A
73.8A
80.1 A
73.4A
79.9A
74.8A
80.4A
74.0B
8O.8B
12.9k
78.5A
73.2T
78.7T
71. 1A
16.9k
71. 8T
77.6T
69.3B
75. 4B
74.6A
79.5A
73.6A
80.2A
70.4A
77.4A
73.4A
80.5A

1994
73.3A
19.1k
13.4k
80.1A
72.5B
77.8B
72.8A
80.2A
13.1k
81. 8A
73.0T
79.5T
73.5T
79.8T
70.7T
78.2T
77.1A
8 1.2 A
73.2A
78.0A
73.2A
19.1k
14.6k
8O.3A
74.9A
80.6A
76.1A
81.4A
75. IB
81.6B
74.2A
79.4A
74. IT
79.4T
71.9T
77.4T
72.9T
78.4T

1995
73.6A
80.1 A
73.4A
80.2A
72.6B
77.8B
72.8A
80.2A
73.9A
8 1.9 A
73.3T
79.7T
73.8T
80.0T
71.2T
78.6T
75.9A
80.0A
73.0A
78.6A
73.0A
80.2A
74.6A
80.4A
74.8A
8O.8A
76.2A
81.5A
75.3B
81.7B
74.0A
79.2A
74.4T
79.6T
72.1A
11.6k
73.3T
78.7T

75.2A
80.2A
74.7A
81.2A
71.6A
78.6A
74.2A
81.4A

75.0A
80.3A
74.9A
81.4A
71.
78.6A
74.3A
81.5A

1996

72.9B
78.0B
74.2A
82.0A

1997
74.3A
80.6A

73.4A
8O.5A
74.6A
82.3A

76.4B
81.3B
73.5T
79.6T
75.4A
81. 1A
76.5A
81.5A
75.7B
81.9B
74.3A
79.5A

75.5A
81.0A

72.0A
11.1k

72.6A
78.0A

76.2B
82.3B

75.1A
80.3A
71. 3B
78.6B

74.4A
81.5A

246

Bosnia and Hercegovina


Croatia
Macedonia
Slovenia
Yugoslavia
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Slovakia
Hungary
Poland
Romania
Russia
Belarus
Estonia
Latvia
Lithuania
Moldova
Ukraine
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Kirghizstan
Tajikistan
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan

A. MONNIER

M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F

Table 7 (cont.)
1985
1980
1990
67.7B 68.3B
72.6B 73.6B
66.9B 67.0B
74.2B 74. 8B
68. 4B 68.7B
71.8B 72.8B
67.3B 67.4B 69 .4B
75. IB
75.5B
77.3B
68.2A 69.0A
73.0A 74.4A
68.2T 68.0T
74.4T 74.7T
66.8A
67.5A
73.9A
76.0A
66.8A
66.6A
74.0A
75.4A
65.5A 65. 1A 65.1 A
72.7A 73. 1A 73.7A
66.0A 66.5A 66.3A
74.4A 74.8A 75.4A
66.5T 66.8T 66.6T
71.8T 72.8T 73.1T
61.5B
62.3B 63.8A
73.0B 73.3B
74.3A
65.9B 67.4B
66.3A
75.6B 77.2B
75.6A
64.2B 64.6B
64.6A
74.2B 74.4B
74.6A
63.6B 65.5B
64.2A
74.2B
74.5B 74.6A
65.5B
65.5B 66.6A
75.4B
75.4B 76.2A
62.4B
68.8B
64.6B 64.8B
65. 6A
74.0B
74.0B 74.9A
69.5B
69.8B 67.4A
75.7B
75.7B 73.3A
64.2B
65.3B 67.0A
71.8B
73. IB
74.8A
67.1B
67.5B 68.7A
76.1A
74.8B 75.2B
61.6B
62.6B 63.8A
71.9B
72.5B 73.1A
61. IB
62.5B 64.2A
70. IB
70. 2B
72.6A
63.7B
66. 3B
66.8A
68.6B
70. 8B
71.9A
61. IB
61. IB
62.9A
67.8B
68.1B 69.7A
64.0B
64.3B 66.1 A
70.7B
70. 8B
72.4A

1994

1995

69.6A
74.5A
67.3A
74.9A
69.5A
76.6A

69.9A
74.7A

64. 8 A
74.2A
67.2A
75.9A
65.7T
73.4T
57.3A
71. 1A
63.5A
74.3A
61. 1A
73. 1A
60.7A
72.9A
62.8A
74.9A

65.3A
74.5A
67.6A
76.4A
65.7A
73.4A
58.3A
7 1.7 A
62.9A
74.3A
61. 7A
74.3A

62.8A
73.2A

70.0A
76.9A

1996

69.9A
74.6A
67.2T
74.4T
70.4A
77.3A
68.8A
76.7A
66.1 A
74.7A
68.1A
76.6A
59.7A
72.5A
63.0A
74.3A

63.6A
75.2A

69.3A
76.2A

1997

7 LOB
78.6B

70.5A
77.5A

68.5A
77.0A
60.9A
72.9A
62.9A
74.3A
64.7A
76.0A
64.2A
75.9A
65.9A
76.8A
62.9A
70.4A

THE DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION

247
Table 7 (cont.)

1994
1980
1985
1990
1995
1996
1997
Canada
M
71.9T 73.0T 74.0A 75. IT
F
79.0T 79.8T 80.6A 81.2T
United States
M
70.0A 71. 1A 71.8A 72.4A 72.5A 73.1A 73.6A
F
77.4A 78.2A 78.8A 79.0A 78.9A 79.1A 79.2A
Australia
M
71.0A 72.4A 73.9A 75.2T
F
78.1 A 78.8A 80.1 A 81. IT
M
70.4T
71. IT
72.9T 73.7T
New Zealand(l)
F
76.4T 77.1T 78.7T 79. IT
M
73.4A 74.8A 75.9A 76.6A
Japan(2)
F
78.7A 8O.5A
81.8A 83.0A
Israel
M
72.1A 73.5A 74.9A 75.5A
F
75.7A 77.0A 78.4A 79.4A
Note: The letters which follow the figures specify the period concerned by the life table:
A: Single-year life table; B: Two-year life table, attributed to the second year; T: Three-year life table,
attributed to the second year.
(1) New Zealand: 1981, 1986, 1991.
(2) TheJapanese life tables, established from 1 April to 31 March of the following year, centre on 1 October.