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MK0400035

APPROVAL TECHNOLOGY FOR ARC WELDING OF St S2-3N STEEL PLATES WITH...

WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION FOR ARC WELDING


OF St 52-3N STEEL PLATES WITH COVERED ELECTRODES
S.Cvetkovski, Faculty of Technology and metallurgy - Skopje
D. Slavkov, Faculty of Technology and metallurgy - Skopje
J. Magdeski, Faculty of Technology and metallurgy - Skopje
Abstract: In this paper the results of approval welding technology for arc welding of plates made of St 52-3N steel
are presented. Metal arc welding with covered electrode is used welding process. Test specimens are butt welded in
different welding positions PA,PF,Pcand PD. Before start welding preliminary welding procedure was prepared. After
welding of test specimens non destructive and destructive testing was performed. Obtained results were compared
with standard DIN 17100 which concerns to chemical composition and mechanical properties of base material. It
was confirmed that in all cases mechanical properties of welded joint are higher than those of base material, so
preliminary welding procedure (pWPS) can be accepted as welding procedure specification WPS for metal arc
welding of St52-3N steel.

INTRODUCTION
Welding is a special process which requires the coordination of welding operation in order to establish
confidence in welding fabrication and reliable performance in service. The tasks and responsibilities of
personnel involved in welding related activities, e.g. planning, executing, supervising and inspection,
should be clearly defined. Welding is considered a special process in the terminology of standards for
quality systems. Standards for quality systems usually require that special processes be carried out in
accordance with written procedure specifications. So welding procedure specifications are needed in order
to provide a well-defined basis for planning of the welding operations and for quality control during
welding. It can be said that Welding procedure (WP) is a specified course of action to be followed in
making a weld, inducing reference to materials, preparation, preheating (if necessary), method and control
of welding and post-weld heat treatment (if relevant), and necessary equipment to be used. But as first
Preliminary welding procedure specification (pWPS) has to be prepared. Preliminary welding procedure
specification is a tentative welding procedure specification, which is assumed to be adequate by the
manufacturer, but which has not been approved. Welding of test pieces is needed for approval of a
welding procedure specification and has to be carried out on the basis of a preliminary welding procedure
specification. If standard requirements are fulfilled, welding procedure specification (WPS) become a
document providing in detail the required variables for a specific application to assure repeatability.

PRELIMINARY WELDING PROCEDURE (pWPS)


The preliminary welding procedure specification was prepared in accordance with EN 288-2. It specuv
tolerance range for all the relevant parameters.
The base material are plates with thickness 30 mm, made of St 52-3N steel. This steel belongs to fir&t
group of steels, according to EN 288 as can be seen below:
Steels with a minimum yield strength Reh < 360 N/mm2 and with analysis not exceeding, in %:
0,24 (0,25 for castings)
cSi =
=
0,60
Mn =
1,70
Mo =
0,70
C
0,045
p=
0,045
Any other single element =
0,3 (0,4 for castings)
All elements total =
0,8 (1,0 for castings)
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APPROVAL TECHNOLOGY FOR ARC WELDING OF St 52-3N STEEL PLATES WITH...


As a welding process metal arc welding process with covered electrode is choosen (111 EN 24063).
Covered electrode EVB 50 intended for welding of carbon and low alloyed steels with yield strength till
610 N/mm2 is recommended to be used a filler material for welding. Before start with welding, drying of
electrodes at temperature of 300 C/2h is recommended.
Welding has to be done in 4 different positions according EN 288 which designation is shown at figure 1.

PA flat

P F vertical upwards

P c horizontal-vertical

PE overhead

Figure 1. Welding positions for different specimens (Butt welds)


For those welding positions and thickness of base material, groove preparations like on the figure 2 are
given.

n
i

a
b
Figure 2 Groove preparation for specimens P A ,PF and PG (a) and Pc (b)
Recommended preheating temperature is 100 C (determined by method of Seferian). The edges of
welding plates are grinded before start of welding.
Used welding parameters are given in tables 1-4, and figures 3.
lable 1 Number of runs and order of filling out the groove for PA welding position
Voltage
Type of current / polarity
[V]

Travel
speed
[mm/min]

Run

Process

Electrode
diameter

Current
[A]

Traveling

EVB50 (t>3.2

110-120

19-20

DC/inverted polarity

100 -105

Traveling

EVB50 <()4

180 -190

22-23

DC/inverted polarity

105-110

Traveling

EVB50 <J5

230 - 240

23-24

DC/inverted polarity

90 - 95

Traveling

EVB50 <1>5

230 - 240

23-24

DC/inverted polarity

95 -100

Traveling

EVB50 <>
t 4

180 -190

22-23

DC/inverted polarity

105-110

Traveling

EVB50 <))4

180 -190

22-23

DC/inverted polarity

105-110

Traveling

EVB50 <H

180 -190

22-23

DC/inverted polarity

120 -125

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Table 2 Number of runs and order of filling out the groove for P F welding position

Voltage
Type of current / polarity
[V]

Travel
speed
[mm/min]

Run

Process

Electrode
diameter

Current
[A]

Traveling

EVB50 03.2

110-120

19-20

DC/inverted polarity

55-60

Traveling

EVB50 $4

150 -160

20-21

DC/inverted polarity

70-75

Traveling

EVB50 (])4

150 -160

20-21

DC/inverted polarity

70-75

Traveling

EVB50 <|>4

140 -150

20-21

DC/inverted polarity

80-85

Traveling

EVB50 04

140 -150

19-20

DC/inverted polarity

75-80

Traveling

EVB50 04

140 -150

19-20

DC/inverted polarity

75-80

Traveling

EVB50 04

130 -140

19-20

DC/inverted polarity

70-75

Table 3 Number of runs and order of filling out the groove for P c welding position

Voltage
Type of current / polarity
[V]

Travel
speed
[mm/min]

Run

Process

Electrode
diameter

Current
[A]

Traveling -

EVB50 03.2

110-120

19-20

DC/inverted polarity

75-80

Traveling

EVB50 04

150 - 170

20-21

DC/inverted polarity

120 -125

3.

Traveling

EVB50 05

200-210

22-23

DC/inverted polarity

175 - 180

Traveling

EVB50 04

200 - 210

22-23

DC/inverted polarity

165 -170

Traveling

EVB50 04

160 -170

20-21

DC/inverted polarity

220 - 225

Traveling

EVB50 04

160 -170

20-21

DC/inverted polarity

125 -126

Traveling

EVB50 04

170-180

20-21

DC/inverted polarity

125 -130

Traveling

EVB50 04

160 -170

20-21

DC/inverted polarity

125-130

Table 4 Number of runs and order of filing out the groove for PE welding position

Process

Electrode
diameter

Current
[A]

Traveling

EVB50 03.2

110-120

18-19

DC/inverted polarity

70-75

Traveling

EVB50, 04

140 - 150

20-21

DC/inverted polarity

90-95

Traveling

EVB50 05

200 - 210

22-23

DC/inverted polarity

85-90

Traveling

EVB50 04

130 - 140

19-20

DC/inverted polarity

70-75

Traveling

EVB50 04

130 -140

19-20

DC/inverted polarity

85-90

Traveling

EVB50 04

130 -140

19-20

DC/inverted polarity

90-95

Traveling

EVB50 04

120 - 130

19-20

DC/inverted polarity

65-70

154

Voltage
Type of current / polarity
[V]

Travel
speed
[mm/min]

Run

Proceedings of 3rd BMC-2003-Ohrid, R. Macedonia

APPROVAL TECHNOLOGY FOR ARC WELDING OF St 52-3N STEEL PLATES WITH...

L ,;;,J
m

PF

''41--'-*

Pc
PE
Figure 3 Number of runs and order of filing out the groove for different welding position

WELDING PROCEDURE TEST


Making and testing of test pieces representing the type of welding used in production are in accordance
with EN 288-3. The welder who undertakes the welding procedure test satisfactorily in accordance with
EN 288-3 is approved for the appropriate range of approval given in the relevant part of EN 287.
Test piece
The welder assembly to which the welding procedure will relate in production shall be represented by
making a standardized test piece or pieces. The test piece for butt welding of steel plates, like in our case,
is in accordance with figure 4. The length of the test piece shall be such as to provide for the appropriate
test specimens as given in Table 1.
Welding of test piece
Preparation and welding of test pieces were carried out in accordance with the pWPS, and under the
general conditions of welding in the production which they shall represent. Standard EN 288-2 defines a
format for the welding procedure specifications for arc welding of metallic materials, which is considered
to fulfill the requirements in current standards for quality systems as regards procedure specifications.
Test pieces for all welding position were prepared. Dimensions of test pieces are like on the picture 4.

a = 3t; minimum value 150 mm b = 6t; minimum value 350 mm


Figure 4 - Test piece for a butt weld of plates
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EXAMINATION AND TESTING


The testing includes both nondestructive examination (NDE) and destructive testing which shall be in
accordance with the requirements of Table 5.
Table 5 Examination and testing of the test pieces
Test piece
Type of test
Extent of testing
Footnote
Butt-weld
100%

Visual
d
100%
Radiographic or ultrasonic
a
Surface crack detection
100%
Transverse tensile test
2 specimens
b
2 root and 2 face
Transverse bend test
f
specimens
Impact test
c
2 sets
Hardness test
Macro-examination
required
1 specimen
Penetrant testing or magnetic particle testing. For non-magnetic materials, penetrant testing.
2 root and 2 face bend test specimens may preferably be substituted by 4 side bend test specimens for / > 12 mm.
c
Not required for parent metals:
- ferrtic steels with Rm 430 N/mm! (R* 275 N/mm2);
- group 9 steels.
R is defined in the relevant product standard.
Ultrasonic testing is only applicable for ferritic steels and. for t > 8 mm.
c
Testing as detailed does not provide information on the mechanical properties of the joint. Where these properties are relevant to the
application an additional approval shall also be held e.g. a butt weld approval.
One set in the weld metal and one set in the HAZ. Required only for t > 12 mm and only for parent metals having specified impact
properties or when required by the application standard. If a testing temperature has not been specified, testing shall be performed at
room temperature.

NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTS


Visual control and radiographic testing were carried out to all test specimens. Unalowed defects were no
detected. The root and the face of welded joints are with regular shape.
DESTRUCTIVE TESTS
Machining probes for destructive testing from test specimens is given in figure 5.
Specimens and testing for transverse tensile testing for butt joint are in accordance with ISO 4136. One
probe for each specimen (welding position is used). Comparing obtained results (Table 6), and the values
for mechanical properties according to DIN 17100 standard (R^ = 345; Rm = 490-r630; A5(%) = 22t, 201),
it can be seen that obtained results are in all cases higher than the values for base material.
~ - Gitcans 2s -va
1

A-'M 2 !tr
- - HMK! t*C tHSifar.l

s<

I!
i

Figure 5 Machining probes of test specimens for a butt weld in plate

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APPROVAL TECHNOLOGY FOR ARC WELDING OF St 52-3N STEEL PLATES WITH...


Table 6 Results of transverse tensile testing of test specimens for different welding positions
As
Reh
Rm
Specimen
[N/ram2]
[N/mm2]
[%]
366
515
26.1
P
PF

365

520

25.2

Pc

364

519

26.0

PE

369

523

25.8

Specimens and testing for bend testing for butt joints shall be in accordance with EN 910. The bending
angle should be minimum of 120, and in our tests angle of 180 were obtained. Two probes were
prepared from each test specimen. As can be seen from Table 7 all results are allowed.
Table 7 Result of bending test
Specimen
Bending 180
P

allowed

PF

allowed

Pc

allowed

PE

allowed

Test specimens and testing for impact tests for butt joints are in accordance with EN 288-3 for position of
specimens and temperature of testing, and with EN 875 for dimensions and testing. Testing of base metal,
welds and HAZ was performed. Machining probes for impact testing is shown in figure 6. Test
temperature was -20 C. Minimum value for impact energy, according Din 17100 is 27 J. It can be seen
from Table 8, that all results are much higher than this value. Significant differences between obtained
results can be explained by heterogeneity of microstructure, because welding was performed with many
runs.

INotch

NolcJi

Figure 6 Machining probes for impact testing of welded joints

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Table 8 Results of impact testing of test specimens

Specimen

PF

Pc

PD

Base metal

HAZ

Weld

104

97

106

85

97

174

96

71

156

89

146

115

70

152

120

70

158

112

101

147

132

100

150

147

102

153

153

86

154

141

80

125

137

63

137

163

The method of hardness testing shall be in accordance with EN 1043. The Vickers method HV10 was
used. The indentation was made in the weld, the HAZs and the base metal. Maximum hardness values
allowed with standard for this group of steel is 380 HV10 (without heat treatment).
Measured hardness values on test specimens are following:
Weld: 159 - 179 HV10
HAZ:
159-183HV10
Base metal 136-140 HV10
Those values are much lower from the values given in standard, and confirmed good welding parameters.
Metallographic testing
The test specimen for macro-examination was prepared and etched on one side in accordance with
EN 1321, to clearly reveal the fusion line, the HAZ and the build up of the runs. Unallowed defect were
no detected. Detailed microstructural examination was carried out to detect characteristic
microconstituents in welded joints, figure 7 (a-e). Microstructure of weld metal (fig 7a) consists of
proeutectoide ferrite which forms at higher transformation temperatures, at the boundaries of primary
austenite grains. Inside the grains, acicular ferrite is formed. This microconstituent enables high tensile
properties and very good impact toughness. Microstructure of coarse grained HAZ consists of ferrite and
bainite and generally has worsened properties, especially impact toughness (7b). The best mechanical
properties has fine grained HAZ which consists of equiaxed bainitic-ferrite grains, figure 7c. Intercritically
HAZ, formed as results of non complete y/a transformation is shown at figure 7d. It could have worsened
properties as a result of martensite forming during subsequent cooling. Striped ferrite-pearlite
microstructure is presented at figure 7e.

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APPROVAL TECHNOLOGY FOR ARC WELDING OF St 52-3N STEEL PLATES WITH...

*V

'
^15?^^.1-'*

Figure 7(a-e) Microstructure of test specimen PA, x500 a. weld metal b. coarse grained HAZ c. fine grained HAZ d.
Intercritically HAZ e. base metal

CONCLUSIONS
Basic idea of this paper was preparing of welding technology for steel plates made of St 52-3N in
accordance with EN 288 standard.
Concerning that, preliminary welding specification was written following standard requirements.
Test specimens for butt welds in positions PA, PF> P c and PD were prepared and welded according
preliminary welding procedure specification.
Non destructive and destructive tests were carried out to test specimens. Radiographic and visual
inspection didn't reveal presence of any significant imperfections. Results of mechanical properties of
welded joint were compared with requirements of DIN 17100 standard, for base material.. It was
confirmed that test results are higher than standard's requirements.
So, preliminary welding specification, become approved welding procedure for metal arc welding of steel
plates, made of St 52-3N plates.
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Literature:
1. EN 287-1 Approval testing of welders - Fusion welding - Part 1 - Steels;
2. EN 288-1 Specifications and approval of welding procedure for metallic materials - Part 1 - General
rules for fusion welding;
3. EN 288-2 Specification and approval of welding procedure for metallic material - part 2 Welding
procedure specification for arc welding;
4. EN 288-3 Specification and approval of welding procedure for metallic material - part 3 Welding
procedure tests for the arc welding of steels;
5. EN 1043 Welded joints in metallic materials - Hardness testing;
6. EN 910 Welded butt joints in metallic materials - Bend tests;
7. EN 895 Welded butt joints in metallic materials - Transverse tensile tests;
8. EN 875 Welded butt joints in metallic materials - Specimen, location and notch orientation for impact
test;
9. EN 26620 Classification of imperfections in metallic fusion welds, with explanations;
10. ISO 1106-1 Recommended practice for radiographic examination of fusion welded joints -Part 1
Fusion welded butt joints in steel up to 50 mm thick;
11. ISO 4063 Welding brazing and soldering processes and braze welding of metals - Nomenclature of
processes and reference numbers for symbolic presentation on drawings;
12. ISO 6947 Welds - Working positions - Definitions of angles slope and rotations.

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