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Solved Problems on

Lect 5: Look Angle Determination

Lect.

Lecturer: Dr.

Dr Abdelhamid Gaafar

Tutor: Khalid Salim

Summary of Lecture 5

Angle Definitions

Sub-Satellite Point

Nadir

direction

Sub

Zenith

direction

Latitude L:

Angle in deg. N or S of the equator.

L

Longitude

it d l :

Angle in deg. from a the ref.

Greenwich line in London

Local Horizontal:

Horizontal plane at the

earth station location or

the plane tangential to

earth at that point

S b S t llit Point

Sub-Satellite

P i t

Satellite Range

Latitude Ls

Longitude

ls

g

Elevation Angle

El = - 90o

Central Angle

Latitude Le

Longitude le

Earth Radius = R

Look Angles

Satellite

the local horizontal plane

at the earth station to the

satellite path.

Earth Station

Azimuth:

A

i th E

Eastward

t

d

(clockwise) from geo. N

to sat. path projection

on the local horizontal

plane at earth station.

Central Angle : Non-negative and generally calculated by

Ls 0 cos cos Le cos l s l e

Range to Satellite d:

1/2

re

e

d rs 1 2 cos

rs

rs

2

Elevation Calculation

Elevation Angle El:

cos El

sin

cos re rs

El tan

sin

1/2

re

e

1 2 cos

rs

rs

2

Intermediate Angle : Allows the correct quadrant of the earth station

location to be found since the azimuthal direction can lie anywhere from

0o (true N) 360o (back to true N again).

g

tan l s l e

tan

sin Le

1

Geometrically

Geometricall is defined as the Acute

W

the direction of the satellite ppath pprojection

j

on the local horizontal plane regardless of

the direction of measurement

NW

NE

E

Equator

t

E

SW

SE

Case 1: Earth station in the Northern Hemisphere

N

Az = 180o -

Local

Horizontal

Plane

A Z 180

Path

P h to Sat.

S

Earth St.

Equator

GEO Sat.

Projection

Case 1: Earth station in the Northern Hemisphere

N

Projection

A Z 180

Local

Horizontal

Plane

Path to Sat.

Az = 180o +

Earth St.

Equator

GEO Sat.

Case 2: Earth station in the Southern Hemisphere

N

a: Satellite to the NE of the earth station

AZ

Az =

GEO Sat.

Equator

Earth St.

Path to Sat.

Local

Horizontal

Pl

Plane

Projection

Case 2: Earth station in the Southern Hemisphere

A Z 360

GEO Sat.

Path to Sat.

Local

Horizontal

Plane

Equator

Earth St.

Az = 360o -

Projection

Visibility Test

Visibility Test: Determines if a satellite can operate in a given location.

location

For a satellite to be visible from the earth station, the Elevation must be

non negative

non-negative.

El 0

re

1 re

rs

cos

cos

rs

Operational Limitations:

For Geostationary Satellites

Usual limits are:

C-Band

K B d

Ku-Band

Ka- and V-Band

5o

10o

20o

81.3o

assume height

h i ht above

b mean sea llevell = 0 m)) andd wantt tto point

i t your

satellite antenna towards TELESATs new geostationary satellite

ANIK F2,

F2 now positioned at 111.1

111 1o WL (west longitude).

longitude) It is billed

as the worlds largest commercial communications satellite. Find the

look

oo angles

a g es and

a the

t e range

a ge to tthee sate

satellite.

te.

Given: Le = 44 N, le = 79 35 W, Ls = 0, ls = 111.1 W.

Req.:

Req : El,

El Az,

Az d.

d Assume rs = 42,164

42 164 km and re = 6,378.14

6 378 14 km.

km

Note:

N

Using

l e 79 35' W

Calculator

79.58333 W

Step 1 Get :

cos cos Le cos l s l e cos 44 cos 111.1 79.58333 0.6132

SStepp 2 G

Get El::

cos re rs

El tan

sin

i

6378.14

0.6132 42164

30.32

tan 1

sin 52.177

Step 1 Get :

tan l s l e

tan

i Le

sin

1

tan

41.436

sin

i 44

Earth St. N and Sat. SW (as ls > le in W Direction) Case 1.b

Az 180 180 41.436 221.436 Clockwise from true N

Range to Satellite:

1/ 2

r 2

r

d rs 1 e 2 e cos

rs

rs

1/2

6378.14

6378 14

6378 14

6378.14

42164 1

2

0.6132

42164

42164

38,583.29 km

satellite

t llit antenna

t

in

i your bbackyard

k d (l

(longitude

it d 115o 35

35 E,

E latitude

l tit d 31o

25 S, height above mean sea level = 100 m).You want to point your

antenna to Indonesias

Indonesia s PALAPA B2P geostationary satellite

positioned at 113.0o E. Find the look angles and the range to the

sate te.

satellite.

Given: Le = 31o 25 S, le = 115o 35 E, Ls = 0, ls = 113.0o E,

hsea = 100 m

Req.: El, Az, d. Assume rs = 42,164 km and re = 6,378.14 km.

Note:

Using

Le 31 25'S

Calculator

31.41667 S

Using

l e 115 35'E

Calculator

115.58333 E

re re hsea 6,378.24 km

Step 1 Get :

cos cos Le cos l s l e cos 31.41667 cos 113 115.58333 0.8525

cos 1 0.6132 31.512

cos re rs

El tan

sin

6378.24

0.8525

42164

53.3

tan 1

sin

i 31.512

31 512

Step 1 Get :

tan l s l e

tan

i Le

sin

1

tan

4.947

i 31.41667

31 41667

sin

Earth St. S and Sat. NW (as ls < le in E Direction) Case 2.b

Az 360 360 4.947 355.053

Range to Satellite:

1/2

r 2

r

d rs 1 e 2 e cos

r

rs

s

1/2

6378.24

6378.24

42164 1

2

0.8525

42164

42164

36,877.576 km

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