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TITLE

SMARTPHONE CHARGING WITH THE APPLICATION OF


THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR USING HUMAN HEAT ENERGY

Brief Introduction of the project, named T.E.C.H:

T.E.C.H is the abbreviation for Thermoelectric Charger for Handphone. T.E.C.H is a


new type of phone charger and the technology that use for this product able to overcome the
problem of battery level low that frequently faced by every single smartphone users. Other
than that, T.E.C.H is designed to increase the portability of smartphone users, which mean
the user can recharge their smartphone without plug in into an electrical socket and available
to use their smartphone anytime and anywhere.

ABSTRACT

T.E.C.H. is done by using the concept of heat energy, or to be more precise, the
thermal energy where heat is converted into electrical energy with the use of thermoelectrical
generator.

The project is done by using the thermal electric generator to produce electricity from
heat, in this case the human body heat. As human loses 80% of their heat, the success of
reusing the wasted heat is high by using a few components to make this project work. With
thermal electric generator, the Seebeck effect is analyzed. In general, Seebeck effect is the
difference between two temperatures where one plate is hot and another plate is cold. When
theres a stark difference of temperatures, electricity could be generated although the
electricity produced is relatively low. In order to overcome the low voltage problem, another
component is used which is the voltage stabiliser to achieve the desired voltage.

With the increase popularity and the demand to use renewable energy products,
T.E.C.H. has the potential to be marketed locally and globally. Not only it has the
conveniency to be able to recharge phone everywhere, it has a special feature where it could
literally generate its own electricity to be able to give an electrical supply when phone is
connected to the T.E.C.H. via the port.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

The concept of heat transfer is the movement of thermal energy from a hotter to a
colder body. It occurs in several circumstances such as:

i.

When an object is at a different temperature from its surroundings;

ii.

When an object is at a different temperature to another object in contact with


it; and

iii.

When a temperature gradient exists within the object.

The direction of heat transfer is set by the second law of thermodynamics, which
states that the entropy of an isolated system which is not in thermal equilibrium will tend to
increase over time, approaching a maximum value at equilibrium. This means heat transfer
always occurs from a body at a higher temperature to a body at a lower temperature, and will
continue until thermal equilibrium is reached.

By using the idea of heat transfer and the thermal capabilities to convert heat energy
to electrical energy, thermoelectricity effect is used around the project build-ups.

The thermoelectric effect is the direct conversion of a difference in temperature into


electric voltage and vice versa. To put it simply, a thermoelectric device creates a voltage
when there is a different temperature on each side of the device. It can also be run
backwards, so when a voltage is applied across it, a temperature difference is created. This
effect can be used to generate electricity; hence the idea to generate electricity by using
human heat energy is not impossible. [Jones, 2006]

Aim

To recharge smartphone by using the thermal energy. This concept is use to capture
the heat from human body and generate electricity to recharge the smartphone so the
smartphone users could recharge their smartphone by only applying their body heat to
T.E.C.H.

Objectives

To review the available literature on how the smartphone can be recharge efficiently
by using heat energy. In this review, the following three objectives could be achieved:

i.

Capture the heat from human body, surrounding and heat generate by
smartphone to produce the thermoelectric conversion (TEC) effect.

ii.

By using the suitable heat-sink material, achieve the highest range of heat
difference to produce the most efficiency power to recharge the handphone
through thermoelectric generator (TEG).

iii.

Shorten the period for smartphone charging.

Problem Statement

Nowadays, smartphones are the most important things in our daily life. It is usually be
used for completing an assignment wherever we are. Sometimes, our battery life or battery
percentage always interferes to do a task. Hence, charging using a plug or power bank is a
solution to fill up the battery life. But, most of the phone charger likes power bank can be
only charge our phone for 3 to 5hour only based on the mAh capacity. Moreover, if we are
travelling or camping in the jungle for a week, depletion battery of smartphone is a big
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problem to solve because there are no electrical sources in the jungle. Even though there are
many types of smartphones with last longer battery life, they are also giving the same
problem for consumer because when they are connected with internet or doing task for a long
time, the battery life was decrease. Therefore Thermal Electric Charger for Handphone
(T.E.C.H) is designed to overcome this problem.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter reviews the similar product according to our final project, T.E.C.H.
BioLite Campstove and Seiko Thermic Watch used the same concept of thermoelectric
conversion (TEC) to produce electricity from wasted heat energy. Since the non-renewable
energy sources in the world keep decreasing, the technology of renewable energy needed to
be carried out. By using this concept, T.E.C.H is designed to convert the body heat energy to
electrical energy in order to recharge the smartphone. Therefore, BioLite Campstove and
Seiko Thermic Watch concepts were used as reference for T.E.C.H. [Clugston, April 6, 2010]

2.1 BioLite CampStove

Figure 2.1.1

BioLite CampStove

Jonathan Cedar and Alexander Drummondi was the inventor of the CampStove as
shown in Figure 2.1. This product officially launched in 2012 under the company of BioLite,
New York City. Before the product launch in the market, it is a prototype project of the both
inventor and won the top prize at ETHOS Comubustion Conference.

The BioLite CampStove is predominantly used by outdoor enthusiasts. That energy


powers a fan for more efficient combustion and can be used to charge small portable
electronics.

According to BioLite's website, twenty minutes of charging yields approximately


sixty minutes of talk time on an iPhone 4S. Figure 2.2 and 2.3 shows how the electricity
produced by the BioLite CampStove. [Cedar and Drummondi, 2009]

Figure 2.1.2

TEC process in BioLite CampStove

Figure 2.1.3

Block Diagram for TEC process in BioLite CampStove

The important device that used to generate electricity by BioLite CampStove is


thermoelectric generator (TEG). TEG is a semiconductor device which has thermocouple
material to produce the difference of heat to produce electricity.

2.2 Seiko Thermic Watch

Seiko Thermic Watch has been known since 19th century that electricity can be
generated through temperature differences. It was first discovered in 1821 by a physicist
Thomas Johann Seebeck. Seiko Thermic is the first practical application of the so-called
Seebeck effect in a watch. When it is worn on the wrist, the watch absorbs body heat from
the back case and dissipates it from the front of the watch to generate power with its thermal
converter.

The power generating capacity depends on the air temperature and individual
differences in body temperature. As the difference between the air temperature and the
surface temperature increases, the power generation performance increases. As the
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difference decreases, the power generation performance will also decrease. If the air
temperature is equal to, or greater than the surface temperature, the watch is unable to
generate power. [Seiko, 1998]

Figure 2.2.1

TEC process in Seiko Thermic Watch

To sum up this review, the main device used by both products is thermoelectric
generator (TEG). TEG is a heat converter which able to capture the waste heat and produce
electricity as the result. Based on the theory in this review, the heat difference between the
hot surface and cool surface of TEG can generate different level of power. The higher the
temperature difference, the higher power can be produced.

In T.E.C.H, TEG is used as the thermoelectric converter. By using the human body
heat, the TEG produced electricity and it is regulated or smoothed by others components in
the circuit in order to recharge the smartphone. Lastly, T.E.C.H is specially designed for easy
handling while having a maximum contact with the body heat in order to function efficiently.

2.3 Hollow Flashlight

Figure 2.3.1

Hollow Flashlight

Figure 2.5 shows the hollow flashlight. A hollow flashlight powered by the heat from
a user's hand, designed by a 15-year-old girl, Ann Makosinski from Victoria. This product
has been picked for the finals of the Google Science Fair in 2013.

While researching different forms of alternative energy a few years ago, Makosinki
learned about devices called Peltier tiles that produce electricity when heated on one side and
cooled on the other. Makosinki experimented with such tiles for the Grade 7 science fair
project and thought of them again as a way to potentially capture the thermal energy
produced by the human body.

Makosinski was unsure whether heat from a person's hand was enough to fuel a
flashlight equipped with an LED bulb. To capture and convert energy, Peltier tiles are settled
on, which produces electricity when the temperature differential between the two sides is 5
degrees Celsius, the phenomenon known as the Peltier effect. The durable material, which
has no moving parts and an indefinite lifespan, was built into the flashlight's casing to
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simultaneously absorb heat from a person's hand along the outside of the flashlight along
with the cool ambient air on the inside of the gadget.

But while the tiles can, according to the calculations, generate beyond the minimum
wattage necessary to power a flashlight (5.7 milliwatts), the voltage output wasn't enough. To
up the voltage, a transformer added, and later, a circuit, to supply what turned out to be more
than enough usable electricity (5 Volts AC).

Once the flashlight able to turn on, Makosinski tested a new invention and found that
the light tended to shine brighter as the outside air got colder. For instance, the flashlight
started to work better when the outdoor temperature dropped from 10 C to 5 C. But even in
warmer environments, the hollowed flashlight sustained a strong beam of light for more than
20 minutes. [Makosinki, September 23, 2013]

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CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This chapter will discuss about the process in designing TEC product. This project
only consists of hardware design. The project must be done step by step and follow the
process flow at below to achieve the stated objective:

Idea and Concept

Literature Review and Research

Circuit design and making

Hardware Integration

Testing and Implementation

Finishing Project
Figure 3.1.1

The procedures for production of TEG

This project was inspired by the waste heat energy from our body and the surrounding
temperature. By using TEG convert the thermal energy to electrical energy, after that by
using the electrical energy to charge our phones.

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In the beginning of this project, various sources have been collected such as journal,
theory and components data sheet from library PUO and internet.

3.2 Circuit flow of the T.E.C.H.

TEG

Voltage Regulator

Voltage stabilizer

Lithium Battery

Figure 3.2.1

Circuit flow of the project

First, the electrical energy that converted from TEG will go through the Voltage
Stabilizer (capacitors) to stabilize the voltage output of TEG. Then, the electrical energy will
store into the lithium battery. When we want to charge our phone, the electrical energy store
in the battery will go through another voltage stabilizer before pass through the voltage
regulator. Make sure the voltage set in the voltage regulator is corresponding to the voltage
use of the phone. Then the phone is charging.

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3.3 Theoretical Research

TEG

Thermoelectric generators are all solid-state devices that convert heat into electricity.
Unlike traditional dynamic heat engines, thermoelectric generators contain no moving parts
and are completely silent. Compared to large, traditional heat engines, thermoelectric
generators have lower efficiency. But for small applications, thermoelectrics can become
competitive because they are compact, simple (inexpensive) and scaleable. Thermoelectric
systems can be easily designed to operate with small heat sources and small temperature
differences. Such small generators could be mass produced fornuse in automotive waste heat
recovery or home co-generation of heat and electricity. Thermoelectrics have even been
miniaturized to harvest body heat for powering a wristwatch.

Seebeck Effect

The theory for the project is using thermoelectric effect. The thermoelectric effect is
the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice versa. A
thermoelectric device creates voltage when there is a different temperature on each side.
Conversely, when a voltage is applied to it, it creates a temperature difference. At the atomic
scale, an applied temperature gradient causes charge carriers in the material to diffuse from
the hot side to the cold side [Thomson, William (1851)].

Inside the theory, there are three separate identified effects: the Seebeck effect, Peltier
effect, and Thomson effect. The main effect we use in the project is Seebeck effect.

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About Seebeck effect:

Figure 3.3.1

Diagram of TEG

A thermoelectric circuit composed of materials of different Seebeck coefficient (pdoped and n-doped semiconductors), configured as a thermoelectric generator. If the load
resistor at the bottom is replaced with a voltmeter the circuit then functions as a temperaturesensing thermocouple.

The Seebeck effect is the conversion of temperature differences directly


into electricity and is named after the Baltic German physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck, who,
in 1821, discovered that a compass needle would be deflected by a closed loop formed by
two different metals joined in two places, with a temperature difference between the
junctions. This was because the metals responded to the temperature difference in different
ways, creating a current loop and a magnetic field. Seebeck did not recognize there was an
electric current involved, so he called the phenomenon the thermomagnetic effect. Danish
physicist Hans Christian Orsted rectified the mistake and coined the term "thermoelectricity".

The Seebeck effect is a classic example of an electromotive force (emf) and leads to
measurable currents or voltages in the same way as any other emf. Electromotive forces
modify Ohm's law by generating currents even in the absence of voltage differences (or vice
versa); the local current density is given by
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J = (

V + Eemf )

where

is the local voltage[2] and

is the local conductivity. In general the Seebeck effect is

described locally by the creation of an electromotive field

Eemf = S

where

is the Seebeck coefficient (also known as thermopower), a property of the local

material, and

T is the gradient in temperature T.

The Seebeck coefficients generally vary as function of temperature, and depend


strongly on the composition of the conductor. For ordinary materials at room temperature, the
Seebeck coefficient may range in value from 100 V/K to +1,000 V/K.

If the system reaches a steady state where J = 0, then the voltage gradient is given
simply by the emf:

V =S

T. This simple relationship, which does not depend on

conductivity, is used in the thermocouple to measure a temperature difference; an absolute


temperature may be found by performing the voltage measurement at a known reference
temperature. A metal of unknown composition can be classified by its thermoelectric effect if
a metallic probe of known composition is kept at a constant temperature and held in contact
with the unknown sample that is locally heated to the probe temperature. It is used
commercially to identify metal alloys. Thermocouples in series form a thermopile.
Thermoelectric generators are used for creating power from heat differentials [Thomson,
William (1851)].

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3.4 Circuit of the Project

Figure 3.4.1

Circuit Diagram of T.E.C.H.

When the switch is on, the current generate from the TEC will pass through the
circuit. First the ampere will be changed to the ampere needed so as to prevent the overflow
of voltage by inductor. Then the current will pass through the diode to make sure the current
flows in one direction. Next, the voltage passes through the capacitors to make sure the
voltage generated is balance. After that the voltage will be regulated by using a Zener diode
to allow it to flow in one direction, but the voltage will be reversed when the voltage reaches
the breakdown voltage. The current will be then stored into battery before the phone charges.
After that, the current in the battery will go through the regulator to convert the voltage to
5V. Before that, the current is reduced by resistor to prevent the current becoming too high.
Then the output voltage of the regulator will go to the USB 2.0 port.

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3.5 Tabulated Data of TEG of Generated Voltage

Temperature of

Temperature of

Difference of

Voltage

Actual Voltage

Surrounding C

Objects

Temperature K

Generated

Generated

(Theory)

(Results)

9.9 X 0.01VK-

0.08 V

Body C
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33.9

9.9

1 = 0.10 V
26

34

8 X 0.01 VK-1

0.06 V

= 0.08 V
28

34

6 X 0.01VK-1

0.04 V

= 0.06 V
Table 3.5.1

Calculation of Voltage Generated Theory vs Actual Voltage Generated

*The voltage generated (Theory) is using the formula below:

Eemf = S T

S = 0.01VK-1

Voltage Generated

Actual Voltage

Percentage Error

(Theory)

Generated (Results)

(Theory Results) / Theory X 100% =

0.08 V

0.06 V

25%

0.10 V

0.08 V

20%

0.06 V

0.04 V

33.33%

Table 3.5.2

Calculation of Percentage Errors

*The data is acceptable if the percentage error is not more than 20%.

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After testing was done on the TEG, few questions arose based on the calculation done
and the tabulated data.

1.

Why does the voltage generated is not similar to the voltage calculated (about
15% error) ?

This is because the area of the TEG which attached to the objects body was not
covered completely by the objects body. Therefore, the heat transfer from the body to the
TEG is not in full power condition, and the formula for calculate is in the situation which the
TEG is covered completely at the area attached to heat object. With this problem, the noncovered area will share the heat transfer from body to the area that attached to the body. This
process was known as thermal equilibrium. This will cause the temperature down, and it will
also let the non-covered area expose to the surrounding and give it a chance to release the
heat from the non-covered area. The lower the difference temperature, the clearly effect can
be seen. Therefore, we have to bind the TEG tide to the objects body to make sure the surface
of TEG is contacted well to the objects body and covered completely.

2.

Does the voltage generated is able to charge the phone?

The answer is no. This is because the voltage is too low and the phone batteries can
only be charge when the input current is higher than the current that batteries release. The
voltage for phone batteries use normally is 4V or higher. Therefor the voltage generated from
the TEG has to pass through DC-DC converter and step-up transformer before charging the
phone/batteries

Therefore, in conclusion, the result of the actual voltage generated by TEG is different
than the voltage calculated in theory. The voltage generated by TEG is 30mVmin and to be
step-up to 5Vmax in order to charge the smartphone.

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3.6 Design and Prototype

Li-ion Battery

Full Mode

Medium
Mode

Low Mode

Circuit

USB Connecter
Heat Sink
USB Cover
TEG
Strap

Figure 3.6.1

Figure 3.6.2

Internal layout of T.E.C.H.

Isometric view of T.E.C.H.

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Figure 3.6.3

Layout of T.E.C.H.

From the figure above, T.E.C.H. has adjustable straps that could be worn on wrists or
arms. The external design of the T.E.C.H. has 3 different colours of LED that would suggest
the power stored inside the Li-ion battery. It has been discussed that human produces
approximately 100 watt at rest. Because human tends to move and use their upper and lower
arms a lot, thus a lot of work is done throughout the activity done by the people.

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Figure 3.6.4

T.E.C.H. strapped on a mans arm while jogging.

During the course of humans intense physical activities such as jogging, heat is
released as a form of radiation. From these wasted heat loss, by applying T.E.C.H. and
strapped onto the arm of the athlete, the differences of temperatures between heat generated
by the body and the ambient air surrounding the athlete could be taken advantage of to
convert the wasted heat into electrical energy and then stored the power into the Li-ion
battery.

From these, T.E.C.H. could be used anywhere and anytime no matter the activities
that were done by the people. Hence, its portability and functionability to generate power to
recharge smartphones is proven further.

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T.E.C.H Features Description

i.

Copper Alloy Casing

Copper alloy is select as the material for T.E.C.H casing. Copper alloy is selected
because it has low heat capacitor. The small amount of heat is able to increase the
temperature of copper alloy easily. At the same time, the temperature will decrease fast when
the heat is released. Therefore, the body heat is able to transfer easily through copper alloy
casing to TEG and produce electricity. Other than that, copper alloy have high corrosive
resistance which can prevent rusting when contacted with sweat or water vapor.

ii.

Air Ventilation

Based on theory of TEG, the higher the temperature difference between hot plate and
cold plate, the more the electricity can be produce. Air ventilation is designed to allow the
ambient air flow in into T.E.C.H to cool down the cold plate of TEG.

iii.

Size

The size of T.E.C.H is 40 mm x 80 mm x 20 mm.

iv.

Rubber Strap

Since the size of T.E.C.H is small, the rubber strap is added for user is to wear it
anytime and anywhere. Which means, the body heat that are present will produce electricity
in T.E.C.H while T.E.C.H is strapped on the body.
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v.

USB Port

Allow user to charge the smartphone by using a USB cable to smartphone.

vi.

Slot

There are two slots inside the T.E.C.H. The slots used to slot in the battery and TEG
together with the circuits.

vii.

Battery

Battery that are used to store the power generated is Li-ion Battery.

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CHAPTER 4

RESEARCH PLAN AND BUDGET

4.1 Components Used In The Project

There are a few components use in the project such as thermoelectric generator
(TEG), capacitors, voltage regulators, and lithium battery/

a.

Thermal Electrical Generator

Figure 4.1.1

Thermoelectric Generator Device

Figure 4.2 shows the thermal electric generator (TEG). The thermoelectric generator
comes with 6-inch insulated leads and is perimeter sealed with RTV Silicon for moisture
protection. This TEG can be used for power generation, cooling or heating.

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Features:

b.

i.

40 mm x 40 mm x 3.3 mm

ii.

Operates from 0-16 volts DC and 0-10.5 amps

iii.

Operates from -60 C to +180 C

iv.

Each device is fully inspected and tested

v.

Fitted with 6-inch insulated leads

vi.

Perimeter sealed for moisture protection.

Voltage Regulator

Figure 4.1.2

Voltage Regulator

Features:

Diode Zener Single 4.2V 2% 500mW 2-Pin ALF Ammo


Package:

2ALF

Configuration:

single

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Nominal Zener Voltage:

4.2 V

Zener Voltage Tolerance:

2%

Maximum Power Dissipation:

500mW

Maximum Reverse Leakage Current:

3A

Operating Temperature:

-55 C to 175 C

Mounting:

Through Hole

c.

Capacitor

Figure 4.1.3

Capacitor

Features:

i.

Stable, Low Cost Ceramic Capacitor

ii.

Accuracy: 20%

iii.

Wide Operating Temperature Range - +10C to +85C

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4.2 Budget

Item

Quantity

Cost (RM)

Thermoelectric Generator (TEG)

1 piece

100

Pyrolytic Grahpite Sheet

1 sheet

200

Prototype Casing

150

Capacitor

Zener Diode 4.2V

Soldering Iron and Stand

30

Soldering Lead

17g (3m)

13

Jumper wire

2m

USB Receptacle

Strap

30

Total Cost

540

# Via attachment (page 25 and 26) for the supplier details.

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4.3 Flow Chart and Gantt Chart of Project

Semester 6
Flow chart

Do research and study


about Thermal Energy
Converter (T.E.C)
materials

Brainstorming
idea by using
(T.E.C) concept

Sketch out the idea

Further research
If fail or need
addition

Prepared budget (costing)

Do the proposal

Presentation of project

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Semester 6
Flow chart

Purchase Material

Report writing

Start The Project


-experiment
-prototype

Troubleshoot
problem

Video

Poster Design

Project Presentation

Assemble & Test

If success

Fail

DONE
E

MEDspec
Exhibition

30

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2 WEEKS

4 WEEKS

9 WEEKS
7 WEEKS
7 WEEKS

TEAM PLANNING
DECIDE A CONCEPT
SKETCH OUT IDEAS
PRE-PROPOSAL PHASE
PREPARATION OF SCHEDULE/CHARTS
PLAN REVIEW

PROPOSAL PROJECT
CONCEPT DESCRIPTIONS
FURTHER RESEARCH ON TEC'S THEORY
RESEARCHERS ANALYSIS REVIEW
STUDY OF COMPONENTS OF TEC
BUDGET PREPARATIONS
PROPOSAL DUE

TEC'S LITERATURE REVIEWS


PREPARATION OF PRESENTATION
PREPARATION OF FINALIZE PROPOSAL REPORT
SUBMISSION OF FINALIZE PROPOSAL REPORT
PRESENTATION OF PROJECT

WEEK 5
WEEK 7
WEEK 7
WEEK 14
WEEK 16

WEEK 5

WEEK 4

Jun-14
Jul-14
Aug-14
Sep-14
TASK NAME DURATION ON WEEK
PRODUCTION TIMELINE (SEMESTER 5)
16 WEEKS
W-1 W-2 W-3 W-4 W-5 W-6 W-7 W-8 W-9 W-10W-11W-12W-13W-14W-15W-16
TEAM ORGANIZATION
1 WEEK WEEK 3
SETUP TEAM
SELECTING A SUPERVISER

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12 WEEKS WEEK 2

12 WEEKS
1 WEEK
6 WEEKS
7 WEEKS

PROJECT DEVELOPMENT
PROTOTYPE CONSTRUCTION
PROTOTYPE TROUBLESHOOTING I
CAD DRAWING
PROTOTYPE MODIFICATION
PROTOTYPE TROUBLESHOOTING II
FINALIZE PROTOTYPE

VIDEO
POSTER DEISGN
PREPARATION OF PROJECT PRESENTATION
PREPARATION OF FINALIZE REPORT II
SUBMISSION OF FINALIZE REPORT II
PROJECT PRESENTATION

WEEK 2
WEEK 14
WEEK 8
WEEK 7
WEEK 14
WEEK 16

2 WEEKS WEEK 1

PROJECT PREPARATION
ORDER MATERIALS
MATERIALS TESTING

Dec-14
Jan-15
Feb-15
Mar-15
TASK NAME DURATION ON WEEK
PRODUCTION TIMELINE (SEMESTER 6)
16 WEEKS
W-1 W-2 W-3 W-4 W-5 W-6 W-7 W-8 W-9 W-10W-11W-12W-13W-14W-15W-16

CHAPTER 5 EXPECTED RESULT/POTENTIAL CONTRIBUTION

With this idea of T.E.C.H., a new kind of charging method has put the users at ease
where the users not only could charge their phone conveniently in terms of portability, this
prototype could also make the smartphone users to gain easy access in terms of electricity
supply hence the additional cost could be reduced.

This product could also be potentially commercialized as it has the potential to be


marketed in the business industry because of its function and convenience towards the
smartphone users. While the function is almost the same as a powerbank, T.E.C.H. product
has a special feature wherein it could generate its own electricity to supply power to the
phone when it is connected via the USB port.

This product could also potentially be made as research or thesis project towards the
other undergraduates and those people who would like to make their own self-recharging
phone with the use of human body heat.

T.E.C.H itself could overcome the battery low issue where for the users it is
deemed as an issue, thus increasing the likelihood of this product being commercialized
successfully in the marketing industry. Last but not least, T.E.C.H is an environmental
friendly product and it plays a very important role in order to achieve a sustainable energy.

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ii.

Shabany ,Younes, (2010).Heat Transfer. Thermal Management of Electronics, Boca


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Popular Mechanics. Survival Tech. Volume 191. No 5, (Issue May 2014), pg 63

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Lee. Wayne. (March 29, 2003). Penang Island, Malaysia. Seiko Thermic. Retrieved
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x.

Booker, Richard, and Boysen, Earl. (2005). Nanotechnology for Dummies. 111 River
Street, Hoboken: Wiley Publishing, Inc. (ISBN: 978-0-7645-8368-1)

xi.

Bar-Cohen, Joseph. (2014). High Temperature Materials And Mechanisms. 6000


Broken Parkway NW, Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742: Taylor & Francis
Group, LLC. (ISBN: 978-1-4665-6645-3)

xii.

Dr. S. Momani. (2013). 2013 International Conference On Electrical, Control And


Automation. 439 North Duke Street, Lancaster, Pennsytvania 17602, U.S.A: DEStech
Publications, Inc. (ISBN: 978-1-60595-148-5)

xiii.

Sunden, B, Brebbia. (2014). Heat Transfer XIII. Simulation And Experiments In Heat
And Mass Transfer. Ashurst, Southampton, SO40 7AA, UK: WIT Press. (ISBN 9781-84564-794-0)

xv.

The Electrochemical Society Interface. (Fall 2008). Retrieved from:


http://www.electrochem.org/dl/interface/fal/fal08/fal08_p54-56.pdf

35

APPENDICES

Attachments

Contact of suppliers:

i.

Meyear Electronic Sdn. Bhd.

ii.

Shun Electronic Components.

36

iii.

States Electronic Sdn. Bhd.

iv.

Wintec Electronic Trading.

v.

Calor Electronic Corporation.

37

vi.

Vinsheng Maerketing Sdn. Bhd.

38