Agenda

• Que es Routing? • Network Addressing • Routing Protocols

7-1

Que es Routing?
• Routing is:
– Finding a path between a source and destination (path determination) – Moving information across an internetwork from a source to a destination (switching*) – Very complex in large networks because of the many potential intermediate nodes

• A router is:
– A network layer device that forwards packets from one network to another and determines the optimal path for forwarding network traffic

*

The term “switching”, when used to describe a router’s function, is different from a switch (the network device).
7-2

Routers—Layer 3
Routing Table
192.168.3.0 192.168.1.0 192.168.2.0 Frame Relay Ethernet FDDI

Remote Location Network 192.168.3.0 Frame Relay

Main Site

Network 192.168.1.0 Ethernet

Network 192.168.2.0 FDDI
7-3

Donde se usan los Routers

• LAN-to-LAN connectivity • LAN-to-WAN connectivity • Remote access

7-4

Conectividad LAN-to-LAN
X
A A B B C C

Y

Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical

A
Network Data Link Physical

B
Network Data Link Physical

C
Network Data Link Physical

Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical

• Routers encapsulate and de-encapsulate data packets as they are transferred from system X to system Y
7-5

Determinación de caminos
2 4 1 3 5 8 6 7 9 10 11

Which Path?

• Routers find the best path through the network – Routing tables contain route information – Network addresses represent the path of media connections to a destination
7-6

Multiprotocol Routing
Routing Tables IPX 3a.0800.5678.12ab

Novell Apple
IPX 4b.0800.0121.ab13

DEC

IP

Token Ring

IP 15.16.50.3

AppleTalk 100.110 DECnet 5.8
VAX
Token Ring

IP 15.16.42.8 AppleTalk 200.167 IP 15.17.132.6

DECnet 10.1

VAX

7-7

Routing Tables
• Routing algorithms
– Initialize and maintain routing tables to help with path determination
To Reach To Reach Network: Network: 27 27 57 57 17 17 24 24 11 11 72 72 Send Send To: To: Node A Node A Node B Node B Node C Node C Node B Node B Node B Node B Node A Node A

• Route information types
– Destination/next-hop associations – Path desirability – Vary depending on routing algorithm

• Message = Routing table maintenance communications
– Routing update messages – Link-state advertisement

7-8

Objetivos de los algoritmos de Routing
• Optimality
– Selecting the best route based on metrics and metric weightings used in the calculation

• Simplicity and low overhead
– Efficient routing algorithm functionality with a minimum of software and utilization overhead

• Robustness and stability
– Correct performance in the face of unusual or unforeseen circumstances (e.g., high load)

• Rapid convergence
– Fast agreement, by all routers, on optimal routes

• Flexibility
– Quick and accurate adaptation to changes in router availability, bandwidth, queue size, etc.
7-9

Métricas de Routing
• Path length
– Total hop count or sum of cost per network link

• Reliability
– Dependability (bit error rate) of each network link

• Delay
– Useful because it depends on bandwidth, queues, network congestion, and physical distance

• Communication cost
– Operating expenses of links (private versus public)

• Bandwidth and load
7-10

Direccionamiento de nodos y redes
Network 1 Node 1 2 3 1 1
1.2 1.3 1 2.1 1.1 3.1 3

2

2 3

• Network address—Path part used by the router • Node address—Specific port or device on the network

7-11

Ejemplos
Network Address 1. 10. 1aceb0b 10. DNIC Node/Host Address 4 8.2.48 0000.0c00.6e25 1. NTN
7-12

Protocol General TCP/IP Novell IPX AppleTalk X.25

NTN: National Terminal Number

Subnetwork
INTERNET
131.108.1.0 131.108.3.0

131.108.0.0

131.108.2.0 131.108.5.0

Subdividing address space into smaller blocks
– Helps organize network – Security (keeps HR separately addressable) – Scalability—Keeps traffic to appropriate segments – Allows single, summarized routing entry (131.108.0.0) to be advertised to external networks – Specific route entries (131.108.8.0) required only for routers in the subnetted block
7-13

HR
131.108.6.0

131.108.4.0 131.108. 8.0

131.108.7.0

Manufacturing

131.108.9.0

R&D
131.108.10.0

Algoritmos de Ruteo
• Single-path versus multi-path • Flat versus hierarchical • Host-intelligent versus router-intelligent • Intradomain versus interdomain • Static versus dynamic routing • Link state versus distance vector
7-14

Static Routing
• Manual table updates by a network administrator • Benefits
A
– Reflects administrator’s special topology knowledge – Private—Not conveyed to other routers in updates – Avoids the overhead of dynamic routing

• Stub network
B “Stub” Network
– When a node is accessible by only one path, a static route is sufficient – Point-to-point or circuit-switched connection
7-15

Dynamic Routing
• Most internetworks use dynamic routing

X

A D

B C

X

A D

B C

A network change blocks the established path...

…and an alternate route is found dynamically.
7-16

Distance Vector versus Link State
• Distance vector – Sends routing table info only to neighbors, so change communication may need one min/router – Also called “routing by rumor” – Easy to configure, but slow • Link state – Floods routing information about itself to all nodes, so changes are known immediately – Efficient, but complex to configure • Cisco’s EIGRP hybrid – Efficient and easy to configure
7-17

Routed versus Routing Protocols
• Routed protocols used between routers to direct user traffic; also called network protocols
– Examples: IP, IPX, DECnet, AppleTalk, NetWare, OSI, VINES

• Routing protocols used between routers to maintain routing tables
– Examples: RIP, IGRP, OSPF, BGP, EIGRP

Network Protocol Protocol name

Destination Exit Port Network to Use 1.0 2.0 3.0 1.1 2.1 3.1

7-18

Evolución de los Protocolos de Routeo
••Distance vector Distance vector ••Developed by Cisco Developed by Cisco ••Addresses problems in Addresses problems in large, heterogeneous large, heterogeneous networks networks

IGRP IGRP

••Distance vector Distance vector ••Most common IGP Most common IGP ••Uses hop count Uses hop count

RIP RIP

Hybrid protocol Hybrid protocol Developed by Cisco Developed by Cisco Superior convergence Superior convergence and operating efficiency and operating efficiency •• Merges benefits of link Merges benefits of link state & distance vector state & distance vector

•• •• ••

EIGRP EIGRP

Distance Vector Hybrid Link State

Link state, hierarchical Link state, hierarchical Successor to RIP Successor to RIP Uses least-cost routing, Uses least-cost routing, multipath routing, and multipath routing, and load balancing load balancing •• Derived from IS-IS Derived from IS-IS

•• •• ••

OSPF OSPF

7-19

RIP y IGRP

19.2 k 64k 64k 64k

19.2 k 64k 64k

64k

RIP Industry standard that selects the path with the fewest hops

IGRP Cisco protocol that selects the fastest path (using load, distance, etc.)
7-20

OSPF y EIGRP
Aspect
Topology Memory & CPU requirements Routing table size Controlling body Convergence Configuration Supported protocols

OSPF
Hierarchical High Large Industry standard Fast Difficult IP

EIGRP
Not restricted Moderate Moderate Cisco proprietary Fast Easy IP IPX AppleTalk
7-21

Resumen
• Routers mueven datos a través de redes de un ______ a __________ • Routers determinan el camino _______ para reenviar tráfico • _______ _________ comunican información de _________ entre routers
7-22

Resumen
• Routers mueven datos a través de redes de un origen a un destino • Routers determinan el camino óptimo para reenviar tráfico • Routing protocols comunican información de accesibilidad entre routers
7-23

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