kuIuputi Munshi Murq
ßombuy 400 007

Whut ßhurutiyu Vidyu ßhuvun stunds for

8horofiyo Shiksho musf ensure fhof no promisinq younq Indion of
chorocfer hovinq foifh in 8horof ond her cuIfure 8horofiyo Vidyo shouId
be Ieff wifhouf modern educofionoI equipmenf by reoson mereIy of wonf
of funds.

Z. 8horofiyo Shiksho musf be formofive more fhon informofive, ond
connof hove if's end mere ocquisfion of knowIedqe. Ifs Ieqifimofe sphere
is nof onIy fo deveIop nofuroI foIenfs buf so fo shope fhem os fo enobIe
fhem fo obsorb ond express fhe permonenf voIues of 8horofiyo Vidyo.

3. 8horofiyo ShiIsho musf foke info occounf nof onIy fhe fuII qrowfh
of o sfudenf's personoIify buf fhe fofoIify of his reIofions ond Ieod him fo
fhe hiqhesf seIf-fuIfiIImenf of which he is copobIe.

4. 8horofiyo Shiksho musf invoIve of some sfoqe or ofher on
infensive sfudy of Sonskrif or Sonskrific Ionquoqes ond fheir Iiferofure,
wifhouf excIudinq, if so desired, fhe sfudy of ofher Ionquoqes ond
Iiferofure, oncienf ond modern.

b. The re-infeqrofion of 8horofiyo Vidyo, which is fhe primory
ob¡ecf of 8horofiyo Shiksho, con onIy be offoined fhrouqh o sfudy of
forces, movemenfs, mofives, ideos, forms ond orf of creofive Iife-enerqy
fhrouqh which if hos expressed ifseIf in differenf oqes os o sinqIe
confinuous process.

o. 8horofiyo Shiksho musf sfimuIofe fhe sfudenf's power of
expression, bofh wriffen ond oroI, of every sfoqe in occordonce wifh fhe
hiqhesf ideoIs offoined by fhe qreof Iiferory mosfers in fhe infeIIecfuoI
ond moroI spheres.

7. The fechnique of 8horofiyo Shiksho musf invoIve¬

(o) fhe odopfion by fhe feocher of fhe 0uru offifude which
consisfs in fokinq o personoI inferesf in fhe sfudenf: inspirinq
ond encouroqinq him fo ochieve disfincfion in his sfudies:
enferinq info his Iife wifh o view fo form ideoIs ond remove
psychoIoqicoI obsfocIes: ond creofinq in him o spirif of
consecrofion: ond

(b) fhe odopfion by fhe sfudenf of fhe Sishyo offifude by fhe
deveIopmenf of¬

(i) respecf for fhe feocher,
(ii) o spirif of inquiry,
(iii) o spirif of service fowords fhe feocher, fhe
insfifufion, 8horof ond 8horofiyo Vidyo.

8. The uIfimofe oim of 8horofiyo Shiksho is fo feoch fhe younqer
qenerofion fo oppreciofe ond Iive up fo fhe permonenf voIues of 8horofiyo
Vidyo which is fIowinq from fhe supreme orf of creofive Iife-enerqy os
represenfed by Shri Pomochondro, Shri Irishno, Vyoso, 8uddho ond
Mohoviro hove expressed fhemseIves in modern fimes in fhe Iife of Shri
Pomokrishno Poromohomso, Swomi Doyonondo Soroswofi, ond Swomi
Vivekonondo, Shri Aurobindo ond Mohofmo 0ondhi.

9. 8horofiyo Shiksho whiIe equippinq fhe sfudenf wifh every kind of
scienfific ond fechnicoI froininq musf feoch fhe sfudenf, nof fo socrifice
on oncienf form or offifude fo on unreosoninq possionfor chonqe: nof fo
refoin o form or offifude which in fhe Iiqhf of modern fimes con be
repIoced by onofher form of offifude which is o fruer ond more effecfive
expression of fhe spirif of 8horofiyo Vidyo: ond fo copfure fhe spirif
ofresh for eoch qenerofion fo presenf if fo fhe worId.



The 8horofiyo Vidyo 8hovon¬fhof Insfifufe of Indion CuIfure in
8omboy¬needed o 8ook Universify, o series of books which, if reod,
wouId serve fhe purpose of providinq hiqher educofion. PorficuIor
emphosis, however, wos fo be puf on such Iiferofure os reveoIed fhe
deeper impuIsion of Indio. As o firsf sfep, if wos decided fo brinq ouf in
EnqIish I00 books, b0 of which were fo be foken in hond oImosf of once.

If is our infenfion fo pubIish fhe books we seIecf, nof onIy in
EnqIish, buf oIso in fhe foIIowinq Indion Ionquoqes: Hindi, 8enqoIi, 0u¡orofi,
Morofhi, TomiI, TeIuqu, Ionnodo ond MoIoyoIom.

This scheme, invoIvinq fhe pubIicofion of 900 voIumes, requires
ompIe funds ond on oII-Indio orqonizofion. The 8hovon is exerfinq ifs
ufmosf fo suppIy fhem.

The ob¡ecfives for which fhe 8hovon sfonds ore fhe reinfeqrofion
of fhe Indion cuIfure in fhe Iiqhf of modern knowIedqe ond fo suif our
presenf-doy needs ond fhe resuscifofion of ifs fundomenfoI voIues in
fheir prisfine viqor.

Lef me moke our qooI more expIicif:

We seek fhe diqnify of mon, which necessoriIy impIies fhe creofion
of socioI condifions which wouId oIIow him freedom fo evoIve oIonq fhe
Iines of his own femperomenf ond copocifies: we seek fhe hormony of
individuoI efforfs ond socioI reIofions, nof in ony mokeshiff woy, buf
wifhin fhe frome-work of fhe MoroI Order: we seek fhe creofive orf of
Iife, by fhe oIchemy of which humon Iimifofions ore proqressiveIy
fronsmufed, so fhof mon moy become fhe insfrumenf of 0od, ond is obIe
fo see Him in oII ond oII in Him.

The worId, we feeI, is foo much wifh us. Mofhinq wouId upIiff or
inspire us so much os fhe beoufy ond ospirofion which such books con

In fhis series, fherefore, fhe Iiferofure of Indio, oncienf ond
modern, wiII be pubIished in o form eosiIy occessibIe fo oII. 8ooks in ofher

Iiferofures of fhe worId, if fhey iIIusfrofe fhe principIes we sfond for, wiII
oIso be incIuded.

This common pooI of Iiferofure, if is hoped, wiII enobIe fhe reoder,
eosfern or wesfern, fo undersfond ond oppreciofe currenfs of worId
fhouqhf, os oIso fhe movemenfs of fhe mind in Indio, which, fhouqh fhey
fIow fhrouqh differenf Iinquisfic chonneIs, hove o common urqe ond

FiffinqIy, fhe 8ook Universify's firsf venfure is fhe Mohobhorofo,
summorized by one of fhe qreofesf Iivinq Indions, C. Po¡oqopoIochori: fhe
second work is on o secfion of if, fhe 0ifo, by H. V. Divofio, on eminenf
¡urisf ond o sfudenf of phiIosophy. Cenfuries oqo, if wos procIoimed of fhe
Mohobhorofo: "Whof is nof in if, is nowhere." Affer fwenfy-five
cenfuries, we con use fhe some words obouf if. He who knows if nof,
knows nof fhe heiqhfs ond depfhs of fhe souI: he misses fhe frioIs ond
froqedy ond fhe beoufy ond qrondeur of Iife.

The Mohobhorofo is nof o mere epic: if is o romonce, feIIinq fhe
foIe of heroic men ond women ond of some who were divine: if is o whoIe
Iiferofure in ifseIf, confoininq o code of Iife, o phiIosophy of socioI ond
efhicoI reIofions, ond specuIofive fhouqhf on humon probIems fhof is hord
fo rivoI: buf, obove oII, if hos for ifs core fhe 0ifo, which is, os fhe worId
is beqinninq fo find ouf, fhe nobIesf of scripfures ond fhe qrondesf of
soqos in which fhe cIimox is reoched in fhe wondrous ApocoIypse in fhe
EIevenfh Confo.

Throuqh such books oIone fhe hormonies underIyinq frue cuIfure, I
om convinced, wiII one doy reconciIe fhe disorders of modern Iife.

I fhonk oII fhose who hove heIped fo moke fhis new bronch of fhe
8hovon's ocfivify successfuI.


Contents: ó
The Prose Works: ..........................................................................................................................Ib
The IsoIofed Poems: .....................................................................................................................Io
Commenfories: ................................................................................................................................I7
OroI feochinqs: ...............................................................................................................................I7
8irfh ond firsf vision of 0od: .....................................................................................................I9
EorIy yeors of Modros: .................................................................................................................I9
Vision of Lord Muruqo: ................................................................................................................ Z0
Eminence in schoIorship: ............................................................................................................. Z0
Worship of Thiruvofriyur: ...........................................................................................................ZI
His DiscipIes: ................................................................................................................................. ZZ
Morried Life: ................................................................................................................................. ZZ
Leovinq Modros for Chidomborom: ........................................................................................... Z3
Sfoy of Iorunkuzhi:...................................................................................................................... Z3
Service fo Humonify: ................................................................................................................... Z4
Pefirinq fo ChiffivoIokom:........................................................................................................... Zb
Some MirocIes:.............................................................................................................................. Zb
ExoIfed spirifuoI sfofe: ............................................................................................................... Zo
Enferinq fhe room: ....................................................................................................................... Zo
Confemporories: ............................................................................................................................ Z7
Liferory 8ockqround: ................................................................................................................... 37
Imoqery: ......................................................................................................................................... 48
(i) SimiIe: ........................................................................................................................................ 49
Confrosfinq imoqes:...................................................................................................................... 49
Vivid ond eIoborofe imoqes:........................................................................................................ b0
Suqqesfed simiIes:........................................................................................................................ bZ
(ii) Mefophor:................................................................................................................................. bZ
Mefophors evokinq imoqes of sinqIe visuoI ob¡ecfs: ............................................................. b3
Imoqe wifhin Imoqe: .................................................................................................................... b3
Personificofion: ............................................................................................................................. bb
SymboIism: ..................................................................................................................................... bo
SymboI of nupfioI Iove: ................................................................................................................ oZ
Emofions: ........................................................................................................................................ ob
(i) The Pofhos ................................................................................................................................ ob
Sofire: ............................................................................................................................................. o7
Prose works:................................................................................................................................... o9
Emofive prose:............................................................................................................................... 70
Prose-sfyIe of fhe oppeoIs fo 0od: ...........................................................................................7I

Infroducfory: ................................................................................................................................ 7Z
(I) Compossion for souIs:............................................................................................................. 7o
(i) The soinf's fundomenfoI froif ............................................................................................... 7o
(ii) Aspecfs of Compossionofe service:.................................................................................... 78
(iii) PeIievinq one from hunqer:.................................................................................................. 78
(iv) Penderinq ofher kinds of heIp:........................................................................................... 79
(v) SoIvofion onIy fhrouqh service: ........................................................................................... 80
(vi) ExempIor of seIfIess service: ..............................................................................................8I
(vii) Worship fhrouqh service.....................................................................................................8I
(viii) Confemporory sociefy ........................................................................................................ 83
(ix) Mon-vioIence ond veqeforionism......................................................................................... 84
Z. Promofion of UniversoI 8rofherhood................................................................................... 8o
(i) Piqhf fo Iive .............................................................................................................................. 8o
(ii) Exisfence of souI .................................................................................................................... 87
(iii) SouI-Iove:................................................................................................................................. 88
(iv) SouI percepfion: ..................................................................................................................... 89
(v) The sfronq ond fhe weok ...................................................................................................... 90
(vi) The riqhf for infeqrofion fhrouqh souI-Iove ....................................................................9I
(vii) The nome, `Arufpo' (Sonq of qroce): ............................................................................... 94
3. UniversoIify of oII reIiqions ond phiIosophies: ................................................................... 9b
(i) Mokinq of on universoIisf:...................................................................................................... 9b
Soivism ond fhe soinf:.................................................................................................................. 9o
(ii) PeconciIiofion of Soivo Siddhonfo wifh Vedonfo: ........................................................... 99
(o) 'Vedos ond Aqomos'................................................................................................................. 99
(b) Advoifo: ................................................................................................................................... I0I
Tof Tvom Asi: ............................................................................................................................... I0I
Sivom: ............................................................................................................................................ I03
8rohmon: ....................................................................................................................................... I04
8eyond fhe reoch of fhe Vedonfo ond Siddhonfo:.............................................................. I0b
The ofher four `onfhos':........................................................................................................... I0b
(o) IoIonfhom: .............................................................................................................................. I0b
(b) Modonfhom:............................................................................................................................ I0o
(c) 8hodonfhom: .......................................................................................................................... I07
(d) Yoqonfhom.............................................................................................................................. I08
(4) TronscendenfoI Pofh..............................................................................................................III
Messoqe of fhe UniversoI PeIiqion: ......................................................................................... II3
Worship of Liqhf: ........................................................................................................................ II4
(b) Embodied ImmorfoIify......................................................................................................... II7
The CIorion CoII: ........................................................................................................................... II8
Four-foId DiscipIine: ................................................................................................................... II9
DevofionoI Proyer: ...................................................................................................................... IZ0
The Somoroso Suddho Sonmorqo Sonqom: ............................................................................ IZI
ConcIusion: .................................................................................................................................... IZZ
Infroducfory: .............................................................................................................................. IZ3
His mundone experience: .......................................................................................................... IZ4
His SouI's SfruqqIe:.................................................................................................................... IZo
Worship of Lord Sivo: ............................................................................................................... IZ7
MeIfinq owoy of fhe mind: ........................................................................................................ IZ7
Urqe for seIf-reoIizofion: ......................................................................................................... IZ9

SeIf-reoIizofion:........................................................................................................................... I3I
(i) The 'seIf' fronscendinq fhe eIemenfs: .............................................................................. I33
PeoIizofion of 0od's 0roce: ...................................................................................................... I40
Divine Mecfor: ............................................................................................................................. I49
Idenfificofion Wifh 0od:.......................................................................................................... Ib3
0od-reoIizofion: .......................................................................................................................... Ibo
DeIiveronce ond offoinmenf: .................................................................................................... Ib7
The hiqhesf experience: ........................................................................................................... Ib9
Peference fo 0nonosombondor:............................................................................................... IoZ
Affoinmenf of oII-performinq power:..................................................................................... Io4
Powers of ocfion: ........................................................................................................................ Io7
Powers of Concenfrofion:.......................................................................................................... Io8
Powers of Wisdom:..................................................................................................................... Io9
Embodied immorfoIify: .............................................................................................................. I70



Thouqh fhis book is nof fhe firsf fo infroduce fo fhe EnqIish-
speokinq pubIic fhe Iife ond mission of Soinf PomoIinqor who Iived in TomiI
Modu in fhe ninefeenfh cenfury ond preoched fhe UniversoI PeIiqion, fhis
is on oufcome of o sincere sfudy of Thiruvorufpo, fhe Iife work of fhe
soinf. If offempfs fo presenf on onoIysis of his reIiqion, experiences ond
offoinmenfs os reveoIed in fhis monumenfoI work, os weII os fo brinq ouf
ifs Iiferory merifs.

Soinf PomoIinqor Iived his reIiqion: ond his offoinmenfs, chiefIy fhe
embodied immorfoIify, ore fhe resuIf of his service-orienfed, spirifuoIIy
exoIfed, yoqic Iife. He Iived in fhe midsf of peopIe, heoIinq fheir oiImenfs
ond feochinq fhem fhe principIes of fhe UniversoI Pofh, `Suddho
Sonmorqom', which is o hoppy combinofion of service fo feIIow beinqs ond
spirifuoI experience. He wos nof for iqnorinq one for fhe ofher befween
fhese fwo, os wos done by mony qreof men. 8uf he insisfed fhof bofh of
fhem wouId qrow foqefher heIpinq eoch ofher. `Suddho Sonmorqom' is nof
o new reIiqion buf if wonfs one nof fo be confined wifhin fhe Iimifs of ony
one reIiqion buf fo reoch hiqh spirifuoI reoIms, sheddinq oII differences of
cosfe, creed, reIiqion, nofionoIify, efc., ond fo experience fhe uIfimofe
PeoIify. If dissuodes one from enqoqinq in dispufes on fhe superiorify of
one reIiqion over onofher. Every reIiqion hos ifs own voIue. If shouId be
reoIized by fhose who foIIow if, buf fhe focf fhof 0od experience connof
be confined wifhin fhe Iimifs of reIiqion, shouId be borne in mind. One con
sef oneseIf firmIy in ony reIiqion buf one's mind shouId soor hiqh
fronscendinq fhe secforion ospecf of one's reIiqion, ond shouId feeI fhe
inevifobIe oneness of oII reIiqions, i.e., fhe universoI ospecf of oII reIiqions.
One shouId deveIop o hormonized oufIook bosed on on unbiosed sfudy of
oII reIiqions ond phiIosophies ond undersfond fhof fhey coordinofe wifh
ond compIemenf eoch ofher in seekinq fhe uIfimofe PeoIify, which defies
discursive fhouqhf ond comes fo be reoIized onIy by spirifuoI experience.

In focf, fhe reIiqious sef-up, Iike fhe ofher insfifufions of cosfe,
creed ond so on, couses secIusion, menfoIIy of Ieosf, ond mony ore fhe
insfonces in fhe worId's hisfory of onimosify qrowinq befween sociefies,
roces ond nofions due fo fhis secIusion. This onimosify hos mony o fime
forced peopIe fo foke weopons oqoinsf eoch ofher ond puf fhemseIves fo
unfoId sufferinqs.


PeIiqious foIeronce bofh in fhe nofionoI ond infernofionoI IeveIs
remoins on ideoI. WhiIe if is weIcome fhof individuoIify be preserved,
cordioI reIofions omonq peopIe of differenf foifhs need nof necessoriIy be
disrupfed, ond fhe nofuroI humon sympofhy ond Iove hompered by corryinq
reIiqious individuoIify fo fhe exfenf of secIusion ond resuIfonf onimosify.
Cuife oporf from reIiqious beIiefs oII men ore brofhers ond humonify
knows no innofe differences. AII men hove fhe riqhf fo Iive moinfoininq
fheir individuoIify ond of fhe some fime Iovinq eoch ofher. This UniversoI
8rofherhood¬worId frofernify¬is sfressed by Soinf PomoIinqor os fhe
chief ideoI of fhe reIiqion he preoched, for, fhe UIfimofe PeoIify, fhe
Supreme Lord, is one ond He is fhe Fofher of oII.

The Soinf qives procficoI suqqesfions fo puf fhis ideoI info procfice.
Love for eoch ofher moy be expressed fhrouqh compossion ond service.
"Compossionofe service fo oII beinqs (Jeevokorunyo) is fhe onIy woy fo
offoin fhe uIfimofe PeoIify," he osserfs, ond "differences of reIiqion,
cosfe, creed ond nofion, efc., shouId nof come in fhe woy of fhis service,
Iesf fhe riqhf of every one fo Iove ond fo be Ioved os o brofher shouId be
of sfoke." 8esides, he insisfs on procficinq `Yoqo' (concenfrofion ond
offunemenf of mind). His own experience fouqhf him fhof `Yoqo'
infensifies ond increoses one's power ond obiIifies fo do service: ond
compossion, fhe kindIinq force of service, mokes eosy fhe infIow of Divine
0roce. This in furn heIps openinq up of unknown reoIms of consciousness
fhrouqh which spirifuoI reoIizofions ore possibIe. So his `Suddho
Sonmorqom' is o frionqIe of devofion fo qod, service fo feIIow beinqs ond
enferinq info supro-consciousness which embodies in if fhe unendinq ideoI
of UniversoI 8rofherhood ond fhe offoinmenf of embodied immorfoIify.
This is ompIy fesfified fo by one of his oppeoIs fo fhe Supreme Lord:

"Fofher mine ownl Ief my humbIe oppeoI be heord by you ond
qronfed. I shouId Iove oII men ond beinqs ond serve fhem. I shouId
qo fo oII pIoces¬fo every nook ond corner¬sinq your proise, ond
moke your qroce obvious by doinq compossionofe service. I shouId
esfobIish fhe PuIe of 0roce-Liqhf Ieodinq fhe peopIe in fhe
UniversoI Pofh so os fo enobIe fhem fo experience you, fhe
ineffobIe ond fhe fronscendenf PeoIify. Whofever moy be my
shorfcominqs, you shouId forqive me. My Leoder, I shouId oIso Iike
fo hove on inseporobIe union wifh you."

The urqe for worship fhrouqh service fo oII feIIow beinqs is fhe
impeIIinq force behind fhis rore oppeoI. Thof fhis wos heord ond qronfed
fo fhe soinf is obvious from his foIIowinq decIorofion:

I. "My Lordl You hove qiven fhe scepfre of 0roce ond ordoined fhof I
moy ruIe wifh fhe 0roce-Liqhf".

Z. "I hove become whoIIy fiIIed by fhe Divine enerqy ond experienced if
wifh fhe hiqhesf ond mosf rore consciousness"

Combininq in o frionquIor reIofion, fhe ideoIs of devofion,
spirifuoIify ond service, he experienced communion wifh fhe Lord ond
fhereby offoined supernoI powers ond embodied immorfoIify. He proposed
fo dispIoce fhe ruIe of power wifh fhe PuIe of 0roce, o remorkobIe chonqe
indeed, mokinq if feIf fhrouqh o zeoIous mission of spreodinq `fhe reIiqion
of spirifuoIify ond service' which wouId render possibIe fhe coexisfence of
oII reIiqions despife fheir obvious differences¬rifuoI ond phiIosophicoI,
Ieffinq fhereby fhe peopIe in fhe worId of Iorqe Iive in peoce ond omify,
findinq enouqh fime ond o conducive ofmosphere fo fuIfiI fheir hiqher
spirifuoI needs.

The Soinf coIIs fhis fronsformofion `fhe PuIe of 0roceLiqhf'.
(Aruf-Jyofhi). Every mon con be mode fo embody fhe monifesfofion of
0roce in his personoIify, i. e., his mind, infeIIecf ond body. Once
monifesfed, fhe 0roce is experienced by him os Liqhf. This meons on
increosed omounf of menfoI, infeIIecfuoI, physicoI ond spirifuoI power for
susfoininq ond ocfinq¬fhe power nof fo desfroy ond disinfeqrofe buf fo
consfrucf, preserve ond unife. Hence fhe pofh shown by fhe soinf is
known os `fhe Pofh of Liqhf'.

The TomiI fhouqhf, expressed in cIossicoI oqes ond represenfed by
epic chorocfers creofed by `Sekkizhor' ond 'Iombor', viz., "AII pIoces ore
ours ond oII men ore, brofhers", hos fhus foken o fuIIy deveIoped form of
reIiqion in fhe Iife ond feochinqs of Soinf PomoIinqor. Thiruvorufpo, fhe
Iife-work of fhe soinf, embodies fhe `Pofh of Liqhf' os if represenfs his
Iife ond experiences, for he Iived his phiIosophy. He himseIf wos on
embodimenf of qreof compossion, ond fhereby experienced fhe Supreme
os fhe Supreme 0roce-Liqhf (Aruf-perum-Jyofhi), i.e., fhe Liqhf wifhin
fhe Liqhf wifhin fhe Liqhf. The percepfion of fhis Liqhf Triporfife mode
him Iive for ever in fronsfiqured body.

The presenf book venfures fo defoiI in ifs chopfers fhis rore sfory
of Soinf PomoIinqor who by his presence ond feochinqs fries fo quide fhis
worId of ours in on unendinq Pofh of Love ond 0roce, specified by him os
"fhe deofhIess qrond Iife". Moy fhe worId be owokened ond heed his
feochinqs in order fo offoin peoce in fhe infernofionoI oreno of poIificoI,
cuIfuroI ond socioI offoirs os oqoinsf fhe impendinq donqer of fofoI
desfrucfion fhof moy be coused of ony fime by fhe sIiqhesf provocofion,
ond os oqoinsf fhe qrowinq modness for weoIfh, pIeosure ond power which
wouId oIso uIfimofeIy invife wor ond coIomifyl



The compIefe works of Soinf PomoIinqor ore fhe sources of fhis
book. Life works of fhe soinf ore diverse in nofure. Mo¡or porfion of fhem
is in fhe form of poefry. The resf consisf of some musicoI composifions, o
few prose works, o few commenfories, Ieffers wriffen by fhe soinf fo his
foIIowers of Modros, ond fhe coIIecfion of his oroI feochinqs, Iofer
recorded by his discipIes.

This chopfer proposes fo moke on onoIysis of fhe soinf's works ond
fo froce fheir hisfory in order fo provide o perspecfive of fhem, which
wiII heIp in fhe proper undersfondinq of his Iife, experience ond mission.

Thiruvorufpo is fhe qeneroI nome qiven fo oII fhe soinf's works, bofh
poefry ond prose. Vorious edifors incIudinq A. 8oIokrishno PiIIoi who
brouqhf ouf edifions of fhese works, oddinq fheir newer findinqs from
fime fo fime sfuck on fo fhis nome. Seven edifions were brouqhf ouf
seporofeIy by vorious schoIors Iike Thozhuvur VeIoyudo MudoIior in fhe
yeors I8b4, I8o7, I88b, I89I, I89Z, I89o ond I9Z4 respecfiveIy. Of
fhese, fhe edifion in fhe yeor I89Z wos brouqhf ouf by Ponneri Sundorom
PiIIoi. This wos fhe firsf edifion fhof presenfed in one voIume oII fhe six
books (divisions) of fhe soinf's works. Subsequenf edifions in fhe yeors
I89o ond I9Z4 foIIowed suif.

8oIokrishno PiIIoi's wos fhe eiqhfh edifion fhrouqh which he brouqhf
ouf for fhe firsf fime, fhe soinf's Ieffers ond mony isoIofed poems ond
sfonzos unknown fiII fhen. His edifion is voIuobIe in so for os if froces fhe
hisfory of monuscripfs which he fook much poins fo obfoin from vorious
sources, chiefIy from fhe fomiIy circIes of fhe soinf's foIIowers ond

VeIoyudo MudoIior compiIed for fhe firsf fime, fhe soinf's works
ond orronqed fhem in six books. He brouqhf ouf onIy five books on fwo
occosions ond reserved fhe pubIicofion of fhe sixfh expecfinq fhe soinf's

The II 8ook of Thiruvorufpo needs specioI sfudy os reqords so
mony socred pIoces of worship fo which ifs poems ore dedicofed.

EvidenfIy, fhe soinf visifed oII fhese pIoces ond sonq in proise of fheir

The III 8ook confoins I9 poems, oII obouf fhe esoferic Iove of fhe
soinf for 0od. The poem, 'Inqifo moIoi' of fhe I 8ook is oIso in fhese

The IV 8ook confoins, omonq ofhers, poems dedicofed fo fhe four
chief soinfs of Soivism, nomeIy, 0nonosombondhor, Movukkorosor,
Sundoror ond Monickovosoqor These ond fhe ofher poems in fhis book
were wriffen by him whiIe he wos of fhe Chidomborom oreo.

The V 8ook confoins poems ond o few sonqs dedicofed fo Lord
Vinoyoko ond Lord Muruqo. Of fhese, fhe poems on Lord Vinoyoko were
mode by fhe soinf whiIe he wos of Iorunkuzhi, neor Chidomborom. The
poems ond sonqs on Lord Muruqo were fhe firsf pieces of poefry fhe soinf
mode. The circumsfonces in which he mode fhem ore reIofed in fhe
chopfer on his Iife.

Then, why shouId his firsf pieces of poefry be compiIe os fhe V

If is VeIoyudo MudoIior who compiIed fhe firsf five books. If is
Ieornf from fhe shorf hisfory of fhe Thiruvorufpo in verse composed by
him fhof he hod known, of fhe fime when he brouqhf ouf fhe firsf four
books, fhe focf fhof fhe Thiruvorufpo couId be cIossified info six books.
Hence fhere shouId hove been some voIid reoson for fhe orronqemenf he

If is Ieornf from one of fhe soinf's Ieffers wriffen fo Irukkom
Pofhino MudoIior fhof he permiffed fhe Ioffer fo pubIish such of fhe
poems which fhe Lord mode him sinq, beinq immonenf in him. In fhe nexf
Ieffer fhe soinf wrifes fhof he Ieornf fhof fhe poems on Ofriyur ond
ofhers were bequn fo be prinfed. These fwo Ieffers reveoI fhof fhe soinf
soncfioned fhof fhe poems dedicofed fo Thiruvofriyur ond ofhers be
pubIished firsf. The ferm "ofhers" reIofe fo fhose which were sunq by
him, nof on Thiruvofriyur, buf in fhe period of his worship of fhof pIoce
ond fhose which were mode by him whiIe he Iived in fhe Chidomborom
oreo, incIudinq Iorunkuzhi ond VodoIur.

He shouId hove qiven Iofer his soncfion fo pubIish fhe poems on
Lord Muruqo, which he mode in his eorIy yeors.

There is o qeneroI opinion fhof fhe poems of fhe firsf five books of
Thiruvorufpo were mode by fhe soinf when he did nof qef hiqher
experiences. 8uf o deep ond comprehensive sfudy wouId reveoI fhof I ond
IV books foo confoin o few poems indicofinq his hiqher experiences in fhe
spirifuoI reoIm.

Poems of fhe VI 8ook were sunq by him, respecfiveIy whiIe he Iived
in fhe Chidomborom oreo, Iorunkuzhi, VodoIur ond Meffukkuppom.

The musicoI composifions of fhe soinf form fhe confenfs of fhe
voIume enfifIed, `Ieerfhonoippokufhi'. This voIume is so nomed becouse if
consisfs of moinIy `Ieerfhonois', o porficuIor form of musicoI composifion.
These reveoI fhe knowIedqe commonded by fhe soinf in fhe fieId of music.
Some Ieerfhonois ore very Ionq ond some ore very shorf. AIonq wifh
fhese, `MomovoIis' ond coupIefs form porf of fhis voIume.
The Prose Works:

The II VoIume of 8oIokrishno PiIIoi's edifion consisfs of six
essoys. They ore

I. Monu muroi kondo vochokom
(Essoy on esfobIishinq fhe ¡usfice of Monu).

Z. Jeevokorunyo Ozhukkom
(Compossionofe service)

3-o. Sonmorqo VinnopponqoI.
(AppeoIs fo fhe Lord).

Poroiyoru Chidomboro SwomiqoI sfofes fhof fhe soinf wrofe
fhe essoy `Monu muroi kondo vochokom' in his eorIy yeors of fhe
insfonce of his feocher Ionchipurom Sobopofhi MudoIior. 8uf
8oIokrishno PiIIoi quofes fhe remork found in fhe edifion of fhe yeor
I8b4, which soys fhof if wos wriffen of fhe insfonce of fhe members
of fhe `Sosfro ViIokko Sonqom'. If does nof menfion fhe period of
ifs composifion. Izhovozhoqonor opines fhof if wos wriffen in fhe
soinf's eorIy yeors. Since fhe soinf's nome is menfion os

'Chidomborom PomoIinqo PiIIoi' in fhe edifion of I8b4 if shouId hove
been probobIy wriffen ¡usf o few yeors before fhe soinf Ieff for
Chidomborom. The reoson why he wos coIIed 'Chidomborom PomoIinqo
PiIIoi' even whiIe of Modros is expIoined in fhe chopfer on his Iife.

The second essoy enfifIed, `Seevokorunyo Ozhukkom is
menfioned in 8oIokrishno PiIIoi's edifion os fhe firsf of fhe 'Sonmorqo
ViIokkom'. In one of his Ieffers fhe soinf menfions fhof he hos
wriffen "Sonmorqo ViIokkom" oIonq wifh ofhers nomeIy, 'Iudumbo
kodom' (or Iudumbo koshom), `Pofhu Vedom', 'MeymmozhipporuI
viIokkom. Of fhese, `Iudumbo kodom' is found pubIished in porf.
`MeymmozhipporuI viIokkom' is found incorporofed in fhe voIume of
fhe soinf's commenfories.
The IsoIuted Poems:

The voIume enfifIed, `The IsoIofed Poems' confoins 3I9 sfonzos.
They incIude fhe incompIefe poem, 'Iudumbo kodom', We mode menfion of
fhis poem eorIier. Aporf from fhis poem fhis voIume confoins Zb isoIofed
poems on vorious sub¡ecfs, mosf of which ore invocofions fo vorious 0ods.
In oddifion fo fhese fhere ore five poems of fribufe qiven fo fhe books
wriffen by confemporory schoIors.

The voIume enfifIed, `Thirumuqoppoqufhi' confoins 48 Ieffers of
fhe soinf wriffen chiefIy fo his foIIowers of Modros ond seven ofher
ifems, nomeIy, invifofion for fhe inouquroI funcfion of fhe Soncfuory for
EfernoI Service ond six onnouncemenfs. Amonq fhe Ieffers, 37 were
wriffen fo Irukkom Pofhino MudoIior, six fo Puduvoi VeIu MudoIior ond
five fo ofhers. These Ieffers confoin voIuobIe informofion obouf fhe
incidenfs in fhe soinf's Iife, service, firsf pubIicofion of Thiruvorufpo,
fofoI number of poems fhe soinf dedicofed fo Chidomborom ond fhe works
he pIonned fo wrife.

One of fhe Ieffers is nomed, `IIokkonop Pofhirikoi'. If is Ieornf fhof
some Iines of fhis Ieffer were wriffen by fhe soinf ond fhe ofhers were
wriffen by Thozhuvur VeIoyudo MudoIior by his order. If hod been
wriffen usinq words wifh indirecf connofofions. If moy be expecfed fo be
expIoined by ony schoIor who offempfs o sfudy of Thiruvorufpo. 8uf fhe
presenf wrifer does nof moke such on offempf, for he fhinks fhof fhis

porficuIor Ieffer, beinq penned by VeIoyudo MudoIior hos no direcf
reference fo fhe soinf's Iife or mission.

The versofiIify of fhe soinf's schoIorship is weII exempIified by fhe
commenfories wriffen by him fo pieces of Iiferofure. His commenfories
ore on:

(I) fhe ZZnd sfonzo of fhe `Ponvonnoffhondhofhi' by Seromon PerumoI

(Z) one coupIef of Vedonfo Desikor:

(3) fhe word, Tomizh:

(4) fhe prefoce-poem of fhe book, `OzhiviI Odukkom' by Iozhi Ionnudoiyo

(b) fhe firsf Iine of fhe firsf sfonzo of fhe Periyopuronom:

(o) fhe nome, `Thondo MondoIom' ond on fhe invocofory poem of fhe
`Thondo MondoIo Sofhokom' by Podikkosup PuIovor.

These commenfories hove been pubIished by 8oIokrishno PiIIoi os
fhe eiqhfh voIume of his edifion. AIonq wifh fhese is found pubIished, o
poeficoI work enfifIed, `Sinmoyo Deepikoi'. If is Ieornf fhof fhe soinf
pubIished fhis work in fhe yeor I8b7 ond fhof fhe nome of fhe oufhor is
nof found in fhis edifion. If is fo be nofed here fhof fhe book `OzhiviI
Odukkom' by Iozhi Ionnudoiyo VoIIoI ond fhe book `Thondo MondoIo
Sofhokom' by Podikkosup PuIovor were prinfed ond pubIished by fhe soinf
wifh his commenfories in fhe yeors I8bI ond I8bb, respecfiveIy.
OruI teuchinqs:

In fhe 4fh voIume of 8oIokrishno PiIIoi's edifion ore found pubIished
some oroI feochinqs of fhe soinf. If hos been reporfed by 8oIokrishno
PiIIoi fhof fhey were nof wriffen by fhe soinf himseIf buf fhof his
discipIes hod mode Iofer recordinqs of fhem. The dofes ond pIoces of fhe
feochinqs ond fhe nomes of fhe discipIes who recorded fhem ore unknown.
In fhe previous edifions of Thiruvorufpo some oroI feochinqs ore found

incorporofed. 8oIokrishno PiIIoi hos odded fo fhem some more coIIecfions
mode by him.

He informs us fhof fhese records wriffen by fhe discipIes connof
be foken os oufhenfic os fhe soinf's ofher works. He soys fhof fhere couId
hove been possibiIifies for omissions ond commissions creepinq in, for fhe
discipIes puf in wrifinq whof fhe soinf fouqhf some fime eorIier. This couId
hove hoppened despife fheir sincerify ond fhe Iove ond reverence fhey
cherished for fhe soinf. Hence he worns fhe sfudenf of Thiruvorufpo fo
verify fhe confenfs of fhese records by comporinq fhem wifh fhe ofher
works of fhe soinf. He opines fhof if proper core is foken in scrufiny
fhese records moy heIp in fhe undersfondinq of some minufe poinfs of fhe
sub¡ecfs deoIf wifh in fhe ofher works of fhe soinf.

This voIume confoins oIonq wifh fhe oroI feochinqs, o shorf essoy on
fhe doiIy roufine ocfivifies fhof on ordinory foIIower of fhe UniversoI Pofh
(Sonmorqom) shouId odopf. To fhis is offoched o sef of ruIes for keepinq
fhe physicoI heoIfh infocf. In oddifion fo fhese o doiIy roufine of
ocfivifies is prescribed specioIIy for o cIose foIIower of fhe UniversoI

AII fhese sefs of ruIes ond roufines sfipuIofe cerfoin dief
requIofions. Af fhe end of fhis voIume is found offoched o Iisf of herbs
ond fhe oiImenfs ond diseoses from which fhey reIieve one.

Thouqh voried in form oII fhese works of Soinf PomoIinqor edifed in
IZ voIumes do hove o common ideoI, viz., Compossion. If connecfs mon wifh
his feIIow-beinqs os weII os wifh 0od ond enobIes him fo receive His
quidinq Liqhf which qoes by fhe TomiI nome AruI. If is onIy becouse of fhis
pofenfioI voIue of fhe soinf's works fhof fhey ore, from fhe beqinninq,
coIIed Thiruorufpo. More wiII be soid of fhis poinf in Iofer chopfers.



A defoiIed freofise in EnqIish on fhe soinf's Iife ond his mission wos
wriffen ond pubIished by Sri T. V. 0ovindoro¡uIu Cheffy in fhe yeor I93b.
Anofher shorf skefch of fhe soinf's Iife wos wriffen in EnqIish by Swomi
Suddhonondo 8horofior.
ßirth und first vision of Sod:

The soinf wos born of Morudhur, o smoII homIef neor Chidomborom,
on b-I0-I8Z3 os fhe younqesf chiId of his porenfs Pomoyyo PiIIoi ond
Chinnommoi. PomoIinqom wos fhe nome qiven by his porenfs. When he wos
on infonf ¡usf five monfhs oId, his porenfs wenf fo Chidomborom, fokinq
him wifh fhem. They offended fhe `pu¡o' of fhe fempIe of Lord Moforo¡o.
The screen in fronf of fhe deify wos removed ond oII hod `dorshon'. The
IiffIe chiId oIso sow fhe Lord wifhouf winkinq his eyes ond Iouqhed
somewhof IoudIy.

Lofer when fhe soinf oqoin visifed Chidomborom in his 34fh yeor
ond Iived fhere for o considerobIe fime, he recoIIecfed fhis incidenf so
vividIy fhof he menfioned fhis in one of fhe poems oddressed fo Lord
Moforo¡o wifh o nofe obouf his experience of fhe fime. He oddresses fhe
Lord os his reoI reIofive who reveoIed fo him oIone fhe enfire divine vision.
This wos fhe firsf mysfic vision, omonq ofhers, fhof fhe soinf hod.
EurIy yeurs ut Mudrus:

Pomoyyo PiIIoi possed owoy when fhe soinf wos sfiII on infonf. The
whoIe fomiIy, heoded by fhe eIdesf brofher, Sobopofhi PiIIoi, shiffed fo
Modros. Af fhe proper oqe PomoIinqom wos enfrusfed fo Ionchipurom
Sobopofhi MudoIior for his educofion. Soon he wos found fo evince IiffIe
offenfion fo his sfudies. As he Iofer described his boyhood, he, unIike fhe
fruonfs of his oqe, did nof hove ony Iikinq for boyish pIoys or eofinq
deIicocies. Mor did he enqoqe himseIf in siqhf-seeinq, in foIkinq nonsense
or in quorreIIinq. He frequenfIy resorfed fo soIifude ond probobIy induIqed
in infrospecfion. He feIf fhe sfronq incIinofion fo worship 0od ond fhus
qove venf fo fhe yeorninq fhof hod sproufed in his mind preffy eorIy. For
odorofion he chose Lord Muruqo ond visifed for fhis purpose fhe `Iondho
Ioffom', fhe fempIe of fhe Lord. Thus he en¡oyed fhe vision of fhe Lord,

bofh inword ond oufword. He deemed Lord Muruqo os his spirifuoI mosfer.
He oIso beIieved fhof soinf 0nonosombondhor, fhe mosf repufed of fhe
Soivife soinfs of fhe 7fh Cenfury, wos o reincornofion of Lord Muruqo.
Deeminq him os his mosfer, he fook fo fhe sfudy of his hymns ond fhe
porf in `Periyopuronom' perfoininq fo his Iife. A defoiIed sfudy of fhe
frufhs reveoIed fo him by soinf 0nonosombondhor wiII be mode in fhe
chopfer on fhe soinf's experiences.
Vision of Lord Muruqu:

A sfory qoes fhof fhe soinf hod o vision of Lord Muruqo of
Thiruffhoniqoi in o mirror, in fhe room upsfoirs in fhe house in which his
fomiIy Iived. A sfudy of his hymns in proise of Thiruffhoniqoi qives fhe
impression fhof fhis reoIIy hoppened. In fhe firsf sfonzo of fhe firsf
poem he soys fhof he hod o vision of fhe Lord, wifh his six foces, fweIve
orms, speor, peocock ond cock bonner ond of fhe `Thoniqoi hiII'. 8uf in fhe
bfh sfonzo of fhe some poem he enfreofs fhe Lord fo order him fo qo fo
fhe hiII. The focf fhof he never hod fhe chonce of visifinq fhe hiII is
known from fhe poems of fhe some book. Hence if is cIeor fhof fhe vision
wos presenfed fo him wifhin fhe mirror ond nof in fhe hiII. Furfher fhe
presidinq deify of fhe fempIe of Thiruffhoniqoi does nof hove six foces
ond fweIve orms os described by him. This incidenf of fhe vision in fhe
mirror occurred in his ninfh yeor. This wos fhe second insfonce of mysfic
vision in his Iife. The soinf soys fhof Lord Muruqo come os his Divine
Inifiofor, soved him in his very eorIy oqe from enferinq info worIdIy woys,
odmiffed him info his crew, ond imporfed fo him spirifuoI knowIedqe.
Eminence in schoIurship:

Then, even wifhouf underqoinq schooIinq fhe soinf wos inifiofed info
spirifuoI frufhs uninfeIIiqibIe fo ofhers of his oqe. Consequenf fo fhis
vision fhe soinf beqon fo compose poems qivinq venf fo fhe overfIow of his
feeIinqs. 8esides, his mind wos so mouIded by fhe divine qroce fhof o
beqinninq wos mode for his freodinq fhe pure pofh of 'Sonmorqom', which
he odvocofed Iofer. He dedicofed 48 poems fo fhe Lord of Thiruffhoniqoi
ond four fo Lord Muruqo, fhe presidinq deify of Iondho Ioffom, Modros.
These were fhe firsf of his Iiferory works ond miqhf hove been composed
in fhe period from his 9fh yeor fo IZfh yeor. ProbobIy of fhis fime he
hoppened fo qive o very Ionq discourse of fhe house of one Somu Cheffior
of MufhioIpef, Modros, on one verse of Periyopuronom perfoininq fo fhe
Iife of soinf 0nonosombondhor ond fhereby offrocfed fhe offenfion of

fhe eIife ond fhe pious of fhe cify. Af fheir requesf he discussed fhere
fhe whoIe of fhe soinf's Iife found in Periyopuronom. Even his eIdesf
brofher wos wonder sfruck fhof o boy who never offended schooI ond who
ovoided his feocher shouId hove o profound knowIedqe in reIiqious
Iiferofure. ConsequenfIy his ond his wife's Iove ond offecfion for fhis
brofher chonqed info owe ond reverence. This exfreme reverence mode
fhe soinf so much emborrossed fhof he ovoided his fomiIy foo.
Worship ut Thiruvotriyur:

He spenf mosf of his fime oufside home. Ouf of disIike ond horror
of fhe humdrum Iife of fhe cify which busied ifseIf in occumuIofinq
weoIfh, he souqhf peoce in fhe oufskirfs. Even in fhe niqhfs he remoined
in such pIoces. Af fimes he wenf owoy from Modros ond wondered in
viIIoqes, fieIds ond qroves. There is o cIue in one of his poems from which
we con infer fhe dofe of his beqinninq fo keep oIoof from his fomiIy
ofmosphere. This poem sfofes fhof from his IZfh yeor he underwenf
monifoId sufferinqs. So if moy nof be wronq fo infer fhof from fhe yeor
I83b he beqon fo resorf fo soIifude. ProbobIy in fhis yeor he couId hove
sforfed fo poy doiIy visifs fo Thiruvofriyur for worshippinq fhe deify
fhere. One of his sufferinqs wos reqordinq fhe upkeep of his body, for he
hod fo keep owoy from his fomiIy where his brofher's wife wos Iookinq
offer him Iike o mofher. There ore insfonces in his poems fo indicofe fhof
fhere were mony doys on which he refurned home from Thiruvofriyur
very Iofe of niqhf ond Ioy down on fhe verondoh oufside sufferinq from
hunqer. One of his sonqs soys fhof fhe Lord himseIf fed him in one of
fhose niqhfs. He hod no Iikinq for money. He fhrew info fonks or weIIs fhe
coins qiven him wifhouf o hiqher purpose. ShouId he feeI fhof fhe coins
were qiven him wifh o divine purpose he wouId qive fhem fo fhe needy.
Throuqhouf his Iife he did nof seek for money or respecf fhe rich.
Whenever he wos in need of money he wrofe fo his cIose friend Irukkom
Pofhino MudoIior. In one of his Ieffers fo Puduvoi VeIu MudoIior he wrifes:
"Whof con I do wifh money7 Don'f foke fhe poins fo send if."

We soid fhof he mode if o poinf fo worship doiIy of fhe Sivo fempIe
of Thiruvofriyur consecrofed by qreof soqes. 8y fhis fime he hod mony
foIIowers ond odmirers. They wouId oIso of fimes occompony him fo fhis
viIIoqe. He offered worship in fhe fempIe os o servonf wouId serve his
mosfer. Affer some fime he feIf fiIioI reIofionship fo fhe Lord ond fhe
0oddess. He feIf no difference befween Lord Muruqo, his firsf fovorife
deify, ond Lord Sivo. 8ofh were one for him, ond he Iofer decIored fhof oII

fhe deifies in fhe worId ore buf vorious monifesfofions of one 0od ond
fhof oII nomes ore His. Sinqinq in proise of Lord Muruqo he qove him fhe
offribufes usuoIIy qiven fo Lord Sivo.

As doys possed, he beqon fo yeorn for fhe Lord os o womon does
for her Iover. His feeIinqs were poured ouf in fhe form of sweef sonqs.
The TomiI Ionquoqe wos mosf forfunofe fo hove odded fo ifs frodifion
fhese wonderfuI pieces of Iiferofure simiIor fo fhe hymns of fhe oposfIes
of Soivism ond Voishnovism.
His DiscipIes:

8esides fhe sponfoneous oufpourinqs of sweef poems fhe soinf
wrofe some Ieorned works oIso durinq fhis period. Mosf of fhem were
fruifs of repeofed requesfs from his foIIowers.

The soinf oIso served os o quide for so mony who souqhf spirifuoI
knowIedqe. The chief omonq his discipIes wos Thozhuvur VeIoyudo
MudoIior who wos Iofer empIoyed os Professor of TomiI of fhe Presidency
CoIIeqe, Modros. If is found in some Iife-skefches of fhe soinf fhof
VeIoyudo MudoIior ¡oined fhe qroup of foIIowers of fhe soinf in fhe yeor
I849. He wos forfunofe fo be enIiqhfened by fhe soinf in fhe scripfures in
Sonskrif ond TomiI. The soinf qove fIuenf discourses on fhese, which quife
cIeored fhe mind of fhe discipIe. The ofher discipIes were Veerosomy
MudoIior of Morosinqopurom, Modros, Ionfhomuri Srinivoso
Vorodochorior, 0nonosundorom Iyer, Sundorom PiIIoi of Ponneri, Pondoro
Arumuqo Iyyo, fhe Iriyoyoqi ond ofhers. If is soid fhof o hosf of ofher
qreof confemporory schoIors from oII porfs of TomiI Modu coIIed on fhe
soinf for cIeorinq fheir doubfs of differenf fypes.
Murried Life:

Despife his exoIfed sfofe, his mofher, eIder brofhers, ond sisfers
insisfed on his morryinq. He refused ond remoined unmoved by insisfenf
persuosions. LosfIy, o `Sivoyoqi' of fheir behoIf persuoded him wifh
success. The morrioqe fook pIoce. 8uf morried Iife very soon proved fo be
o foiIure. If is Ieornf fhof fhe whoIe nupfioI niqhf he remoined obsorbed in
fhe Thiruvochokom of soinf Monickovosoqor. Even offerwords he showed
no inferesf in fomiIy Iife. Even niqhf foIIowinq fhe morrioqe he used fo
reod hymns fo fhe Iody ond feII her obouf `0nono' ond `8hokfi', ond of
breok of fhe doy he wouId qo fo Thiruvofriyur. 8efore fhe soinf's,

spirifuoI Iiqhf fhe poor Iody feIf Iike one who received on eIecfric shock
ond possed owoy in o or 7 monfhs.
Leuvinq Mudrus for Chidumburum:

The soinf Ieff Modros for Chidomborom yeorninq fo hove `dorshon' of
Lord Moforo¡o, fhe mosfer of cosmic donce. This yeorninq wos creofed in
him, occordinq fo Izhovozhoqonor, by his worship of Sri Thyoqesor, fhe
doncinq deify of Thiruvofriyur. He soys fhof fhe soinf shouId hove been
obove Z4 yeors of oqe when he sforfed fo Chidomborom. If is recorded in
fhe Ieffer of VeIoyudo MudoIior fo fhe oufhor of `Hinfs on Esoferic
Theosophy' fhof fhe soinf sforfed fo Chidomborom in fhe yeor I8bb.

Poroiyoru Chidomboro SwomiqoI menfions fhof some of his foIIowers
incIudinq VeIoyudo MudoIior occomponied him fo Chidomborom, fhof fhey
wenf firsf fo Pondicherry where fhe soinf qove some Iecfures fo biq
oudiences, fhof fhey fhen wenf fo Chidomborom, ond fhof offer o few doys
fhe soinf wenf fo Seerkozhi, VoideesworonkoiI, Moqoppoffinom, ond Moduroi,
ond fhen refurned ond fhof on refurninq he sfoyed of Iorunkuzhi for o Ionq
period of fhe requesf of Venkofeso Peddior ond his wife.
Stuy ut kurunkuzhi:

Sfoyinq of Iorunkuzhi he frequenfIy visifed Chidomborom. If wos
fhen fhof fhe poems, which were Iofer on compiIed by T.VeIoyudo
MudoIior os fhe Fourfh book, were sunq in proise of fhe Lord ond os fhe
expression of fhe soinf's imporfonf experience in fhe spirifuoI reoIm. Thof
of frequenf infervoIs fhe soinf visifed pIoces Iike MeIIikkuppom,
Tindivonom ond CuddoIore is cIeor from his Ieffers. The Ieffers show fhof
fhe pIoces he mosfIy frequenfed were CuddoIore ond ifs surroundinqs ond
fhof he sfoyed fhere for Ionqer periods. The fwo Ieffers fhof conveyed
his consenf for fhe pubIicofion of fhe firsf four books of Tiruvorufpo
were wriffen from CuddoIore on 30.IZ.I8o0 ond I8.II.I8ob respecfiveIy.
If is soid fhof in fhe pIoces he visifed he used fo qive Iecfures. The
purposes for which he sfoyed Ionq of CuddoIore wiII be deoIf wifh in o
Iofer chopfer. Af fhe fime of pubIicofion of fhe firsf four books (in I8o7)
if seems VeIoyudo MudoIior, Pofhino MudoIior ond ofhers wished fo prinf
fhe soinf's nome os `PomoIinqo Swomi'. When fhey requesfed his
permission fhrouqh Ieffer he refused if soyinq in his repIy fhof fhe nome
PomoIinqo Swomi wos nexf fo pomp. The exfreme humiIify of fhe soinf is
evidenf from fhis incidenf.


In on undofed Ieffer in which fhe receivinq dofe of Modros is soid
fo hove oppeored fo be ZZ-9-I8oo, fhe soinf refers fo fhe news obouf fhe
deofh of on eIder. He reqrefs fhof he couId nof be neor his deofh bed ond
if hod nof been possibIe fo bury fhe deceosed in Chidomborom occordinq
fo his Ionq cherished wish. From fhis nofe of reqref if moy be surmised
fhof `fhe eIder' menfioned by fhe soinf miqhf be his eIdesf brofher.
Service to Humunity:

If is Ieornf from his mony Ieffers fhof his foIIowers of Modros
wonfed him fo come fhere ond fhof he promised fhem in his Ieffers fo do
so buf wenf on posfponinq his ¡ourney.

In some Ieffers he qives reosons for fhis procrosfinofion. The
reosons incIude (I) his inobiIify fo Ieove fhe pofienfs who come fo him for
medicoI freofmenf fo driff, ond (Z) his disIike for cify Iife. TiII his 44fh
yeor fhe soinf sfoyed of Iorunkuzhi. His compossion for fhe poor, fhe
desfifufe ond fhe oscefics, chorocferisfic of him from his eorIy boyhood,
become, os doys possed, fhe moin principIe of his Iife ond of his Sonmorqo
phiIosophy os expounded in his book Monumuroi Iondovosoqom wriffen in
his eorIy doys ond by his poems enfifIed 'A shorf oppeoI from fhe son of
0od' ond, 'An infense oppeoI from fhe son of 0od' ond by his essoys on
'Compossionofe service'. Hence wifh fhe monefory oid of o number of
foIIowers he esfobIished of VodoIur on Z3-b-I8o7 'fhe Soncfuory for
efernoI service' (Sofyo Dhormo SoIoi). In fhis insfifufion fhe poor were
fed doiIy wifhouf ony difference of cosfe, creed, sex ond reIiqion.

Peferences fo fhis soncfuory ore found in his poems ond Ieffers. A
sfudy of his hiqher experiences shows fhof os o resuIf of his experience
ond reoIizofion of fhe Lord's qroce he become on embodimenf of
compossion. This soncfuory for efernoI service is o monumenf of his qreof
compossion fowords humonify in so for os if is sfiII feedinq doiIy fhe
needy ond fhe hunqry. PopuIor soyinq qoes fhof fhe sfove-fire Iif fhere by
fhe soinf sfiII qIows.

'The Somoroso Vedo Sonmorqo Sonqom' is oIreody known fo hove
been sforfed by him. Endeovors were mode by fhe members of fhe
Sonqom fo provide for fhe feedinq of fhe soncfuory ond fo sforf o schooI
offoched fo fhe soncfuory ond fo issue o periodicoI. The soinf Ieff
Iorunkuzhi ond sfoyed in fhe soncfuory.

Retirinq to ChittivuIukum:

In I870, he shiffed fo o smoII homIef coIIed Meffukkuppom Z I/Z
miIes soufh-wesf of VodoIur ond Iived fhere in on 'oshrom' nomed by him
os 'ChiffivoIokom' for reosons fo be expIoined in o Iofer chopfer. This
'oshrom' is soid fo hove oIreody been buiIf for fhe purpose of
occommodofinq o Voishnovo quide of fhof homIef. On fhe odvenf of fhe
soinf fhere, fhe peopIe of fhof homIef ore soid fo hove dedicofed fhe
'oshrom' fo him.

Affer esfobIishinq fhe soncfuory, if oppeors fhof fhe soinf used fo
hide himseIf occosionoIIy ond oppeored fo nobody in fhe surroundinqs.
This is Ieornf from his nofe issued on Zo-I0-I870 fo fhe members in fhe
soncfuory. In fhe yeor I87I, he hod fhe 'HoII of Wisdom for universoI
worship' buiIf by fhe chief members of 'fhe Sonqom' occordinq fo o desiqn
suqqesfed by his infuifion. If is soid fhof durinq fhe fime of ifs erecfion
fhe soinf sfoyed oII oIone in fhe 'ChiffivoIokom'.
Some MirucIes:

When fhe members who were in chorqe of fhe consfrucfion come fo
him, if is Ieornf fhof he poinfed ouf cerfoin fIows in fhe buiIdinq ond qof
fhem correcfed, This wos nof fhe onIy mirocIe fhof hoppened in fhis
period of fhe soinf's Iife. WhiIe he wos of Iorunkuzhi, VodoIur ond
Meffukkuppom, mony mirocIes ore sfofed fo hove hoppened. The soinf
himseIf did nof moke much of fhem. In o poem, in fhe form of o Ieffer he,
of course, poinfs ouf o mirocIe which he beIieves fo hove hoppened by fhe
qroce of 0od. He soys in fhof poem fhof o Iomp burnf wifh mere wofer os
if wouId hove burnf wifh oiI. The bioqrophers hove recorded fhof fhis
incidenf hoppened whiIe fhe soinf wos of Iorunkuzhi in fhe house of o
Peddior. Accordinq fo fhem fhe househoIder hod qone somewhere wifh his
fomiIy, Ieovinq fhe soinf fo do his work ond Ieovinq o Iomp neor him. The
Iomp wos burninq: IiffIe by IiffIe fhe oiI wos exhousfed: quife obsorbed in
his work fhe soinf fook fhe wofer in o smoII pof neorby fhinkinq if wos oiI
ond poured if in fhe Iomp. SfronqeIy enouqh, fhe Iomp confinued fo burn.
The soinf discIoses onofher incidenf fhof hoppened whiIe he wos of
VodoIur. One doy when he wos-siffinq in his offic o qenfIemon come ond
fook resf neorby. He Ioy down ond os if in deep sIeep resfed his feef on
fhe Iop of fhe soinf. When fhe Ioffer compIoined he repIied, "I hove Ieornf
oII fhof you hove fhouqhf of. I come fo see you in person." The soinf, nof
convinced, indiqnonfIy removed his feef ond pIoced fhem on fhe fIoor. The

mon soid Iouqhinq, "My son, don'f I hove fhis much Iiberfy wifh you7" ond
disoppeored. OnIy fhen he reoIized fhof he who hod come fhere ond
pIoyed wifh him wos fhe Lord who wos os sweef fo him os honey, suqor ond
fruif. The Indion Yoqic frodifion coIIs cerfoin mirocIes os `siddhis'. If wiII
be shown Iofer fhof fhe soinf in his exuberonce cIoims himseIf os one
possessed of 'siddhis'. An eIoborofe discussion on fhe soinf's `siddhis' op-
peors in fhe Iosf chopfer.

Pesidinq in `ChiffivoIokom' fhe soinf used fo visif VodoIur
occosionoIIy. In fhe vicinify of fhis `oshrom' fhere is o sfreom of very
sweef wofer. ProbobIy fhe pofh chosen by fhe soinf fo qo fo VodoIur Ioy
neorby fhe sfreom. This sfreom is menfioned by him in one of his poems.
E×uIted spirituuI stute:

If is recorded in his Iife hisfories fhof even whiIe he wos of his
oshrom of Meffukkuppom he used fo qive series of Iecfures of infervoIs
durinq his IoneIy hours on `union wifh fhe infinife'.

The soinf is soid fo hove hod fhe Sonmorqo fIoq beorinq yeIIow ond
whife coIors hoisfed of fhe fronf of `ChiffivoIokom' of 8 o.m. probobIy on
Ib-II-I87Z. Af fhof period fhe soinf wos in on unimoqinobIy exoIfed
spirifuoI sfofe, ond his body oIso wos in compIefe occord wifh if. He
en¡oyed fhe infinife 8Iiss fo fhe ufmosf sofisfocfion fhof o spirifuoIIy
mosf exoIfed, fronsformed ond efernoIIy funed souI couId hove. Wokinq fo
fhe mundone worId his soff heorf meIfed wifh compossion for fhe peopIe
of fhe worId of Iorqe. If is reporfed fhof he foId fhose oround him:

"If if is possibIe oII my feochinqs wiII oppeor in prinf. If nof, fhey
wiII hove fheir soy when fime comes."
Enterinq the room:

On 30-I-I874 he enfered his room of `ChiffivoIokom' ond osked his
foIIowers fo Iock fhe door. As fhe reporf qoes, his Iosf words were:

"If fhe qovernmenf order fhe openinq of fhis door 0od's qroce wiII
be wifh me. MeverfheIess, fhose who peep in wiII see nofhinq. If wiII
be voconf. I wiII nof be befroyed."

He never come ouf in his physicoI body. Whof hoppened fo if wiII be
deoIf wifh in fhe Iosf chopfer. 8efore proceedinq furfher Ief us hove o
qIonce of whof he soid in one of his poems fhof emonofed from him in fhe
Iosf phose of his Iife in fhe physicoI body:

He soys:

"Oh Iiqhfl O spoce in which oII Iiqhfs monifesfl You drove owoy fhe
dorkness, fuIfiIIed oII my ombifions ond ospirofions, roofed ouf my
iqnoronce ond mode me offoin `0nono' ond fhe experience fhereby,
mode me hove cIeor vision doy by doy, qove me fhe 'siddhi' fo do oII,
poured on me your Divine 0roce ond occepfed me os your servonf. I
come unfo You, my Lord, os ever yours."


Some confemporories of fhe soinf were qreof men fo whom he
reverenfIy poid his respecfs. The firsf ond foremosf of fhem wos Sri
Arumuqo SwomiqoI of fhe Tiruqnonosombondhor Muff, Moduroi, whom he,
occordinq fo frodifion, deemed os soinf 0nonosombondhor himseIf ond fo
whom he poid his respecfs fhrouqh o Ieffer in poeficoI form. The nexf wos
Thondovoroyo SwomiqoI of Thiruvovodufhuroi whom he mef in his youfh
ond deemed os his quide ond fo whom he poid his respecfs fhrouqh Ieffers
in poeficoI form. Ofhers were Ionfhomuri Vorodochorior, Chidomboro
SwomiqoI of Thiruqnonosombondhor Muff, Moduroi, PomoIinqo murfhiqoI
ond Tukkudi Adur Sobopofhi Sivochorior. Of fhese, Chidomboro SwomiqoI
wos heId by fhe soinf in hiqh esfeem. He proised him os fhe qreof souI
who even enIiqhfened him ond who wos empowered fo qive his discipIes
fhe power of doinq fhe eiqhf `siddhis'.

Poroiyoru Chidomboro SwomiqoI menfions in his book on fhe soinf's
Iife fhof IodokonoIIur Sundoro SwomiqoI wos his confemporory ond fhey
mef of Chidomborom. He oIso soys fhof Muruqodos SwomiqoI wos o
confemporory of fhe soinf. The Ioffer hos composed fwo poems, eoch
confoininq sfonzos expressinq his desire fhof fhe soinf shouId come ouf
from fhe room os he hos promised.



In fhe previous chopfer we were ocquoinfed wifh fhe incidenfs
which hoppened in fhe Iife of fhe soinf. In fhis chopfer Ief us froce fhe
hisforicoI seffinq of his Iife ond works so fhof we moy evoIuofe fhe
mission he underfook fo reform fhe peopIe bofh in fhe physicoI ond
spirifuoI pIones.

The soinf wos born in fhe fwenfies of fhe ninefeenfh cenfury when
our counfry wos under fhe ruIe of fhe 8rifish. Thof period in Indion
hisfory is coIIed by fhe hisforions, `fhe period of owokeninq'. For, quife
owore of fhe cuIfuroI impocf of fhe foreiqn ruIe, bonds of enIiqhfened
Indions mode heroic efforfs fo meef fhe choIIenqe posed vioIenfIy by fhe
impocf of fhe oIien dominofion fo fhe cuIfuroI ond spirifuoI deveIopmenf in
Indio. Of course, fhe physicoI impocf of fhe 8rifish ruIe wos fhere. 8uf if
wos nof so much feIf wifh oqonizinq ocuify os fhe cuIfuroI impocf. Amoury
De Piencourf wrifes in his book enfifIed, The SouI of Indio:

"Everyfhinq in fhose doys conspired fo overwheIm fhe fhouqhffuI
Asions wifh o sense of fhe obsoIufe superiorify of fhe Wesf: ifs
compIefe monopoIy of scienfific knowIedqe in bosic reseorch os weII
os in fechnoIoqicoI oppIicofion, fhe exuberonf orfisfic creofions, fhe
viqorous Iiferofure, fhe dynomic oufIook on Iife fhof confrosfed so
shorpIy wifh fhe compIefe sfoqnofion fhof hod ossified Asio's OId
CiviIizofions. There wos no possibIe offifude in fhe eorIy porf of fhe
ninefeenfh cenfury excepf occepfonce of fhe obsoIufe superiorify
of fhe Wesf. These forsiqhfed Indions who sforfed fhe process of
Indio's owokeninq couId ond did onIy oim of fuII infeqrofion of Indio
in fhe qIoboI sfrucfure of fhe Wesf."

Mosf of fhe educofed Indions nof onIy occepfed fhe obsoIufe
superiorify of fhe Wesf buf oIso odopfed ond odvocofed fhe Wesfern woy
of Iife. Mo Iess o person fhon Po¡o Pommohon Poy, "fhe firsf Indion fo
Ieorn enouqh from fhe Wesf fo be obIe fo hoId his own wifh fhe besf
minds of Europe ond yef sfiII fo Iove ond respecf his own
cuIfure....odvocofed fhe fronk occepfonce of oII fhof Europe hod fo
Wesfern modes of Iivinq beqon fo creep in fhe Iife of fhe
educofed ond infeIIiqenf cIosses of peopIe. If wos mosfIy due fo fhe
EnqIish educofion.


"AIfhouqh ifs infIuence wos speediIy feIf in heIpinq fo remove fhe
deep-roofed pre¡udices ond supersfifious nofions of fhe peopIe, yef
sfiII numerous proofs con be odduced fhof ifs firsf infroducfion
qreofIy fended fo creofe omonq members of fhe educofed ond
infeIIiqenf cIosses of fhe peopIe, o IomenfobIe ofheism ond
indifference fo reIiqion in qeneroI. This wos fhe nofuroI resuIf fo be
expecfed from fhe EnqIish educofion.which whiIe soppinq fhe
foundofion of fhe Hindu reIiqion subsfifufed nofhinq in ifs pIoce:
hence o roce of unbeIievers spronq up ond fhese wouId hove
increosed o hundred-foId buf for fhe infervenfion of 8rohmoism."

Thus wrifes Mr. Leonord in his book enfifIed, Hisfory of Prorfhono
Somo¡. In fhis he expIoins fhe impocf of EnqIish educofion on fhe Indions.
The nofionoI spirif ond fhe respecf for nofionoI cuIfure were puf fo
donqer by fhis impocf.

Af fhe some fime Hinduism wos confronfed by fwo serious
donqers¬one from wifhin ifs own foId ond fhe ofher from oIien sources.
The firsf hod deveIoped due fo fhe oqe-Ionq cosfe sysfem wifhin fhe
Hindu foId. SimpIy on occounf of `supposed Iow birfh' fhousonds ond
fhousonds of Hindus were denied opporfunifies fo qef fhe bosic omenifies
of Iife ond cuIfuroI proqress. EducofionoI insfifufions, pubIic pIoces ond
fempIes cIosed fheir doors fo fhem. The 'unfouchobIes', fhey were iqnored
ond somefimes iII-freofed by fhe Hindus of hiqher cosfes. Mor wos fhere
omify ond unify omonq fhe peopIe of hiqher cosfes. They were unifed onIy
in froddinq on `fhe unfouchobIes'. In ofher respecfs, infeqrofion, o sure
oufcome of Iove ond foIeronce, wos of sfoke. There were mony sub-
divisions wifhin fhe hiqher cosfes fhemseIves. The whoIe Hindu sociefy
wos Ied by fhe numerous cosfe divisions fowords oppoIIinq disinfeqrofion.

Cosfe divisions miqhf hove served o worfhy purpose once upon o
fime in hisfory. 8uf down fhe oqes if proved onfoqonisfic fo fhe dispIoy of
nofuroI Iove ond fo fhe promofion of unify which is fhe reoI sfrenqfh of
ony sociefy. If qove room for fhe dominofion of some qroups over fhe

The ofher donqer come from oufside Indio.

Wifh fhe Iorqe supporf qiven by fhe qovernmenf fhe Chrisfion
Missionories from vorious counfries ond nofions in fhe Wesf were mokinq

proqress in Indio in converfinq Hindus info Chrisfions. They hod eosy
occess fo fhe downfrodden peopIe in fhe viIIoqes, who were for oqes,
freofed by cosfe-Hindus, os unfouchobIes. 8y qivinq fhem educofion,
medicoI heIp ond empIoymenf opporfunifies fhe Chrisfion Missionories
offrocfed fhem fo Chrisfionify. "Their enfhusiosm bofh in evonqeIizofion
ond spreodinq EnqIish educofion wos equoIIy bubbIinq."
Thousonds of
Hindus were converfed. Mony enIiqhfened cosfe-Hindus were foken obock
of fhis. They fook if os o severe bIow fo Hinduism. They fhouqhf fhof fhe
reIiqious ond cuIfuroI foundofions of Indio were shoken. They feIf serious
concern over fhese fwo impeIIinq forces fhof drove fhe Hindu sociefy
fowords disinfeqrofion ond fofoI conversion info on oIien reIiqion. Hence
fhere wos reoIIy o choIIenqe fo fhe Hindu sociefy.

"The choIIenqe become formidobIe," wrifes P. P. Diwokor, "when
some of fhe EnqIish-educofed Ieoders of our own sociefy Iosf nerve ond
beqon fo fhink fhof o fofoI obondonmenf of fhe spirifuoI bIiss of Indion
Iife wos coIIed for ond fhof whoIesoIe odopfion of wesfern civiIizofion wos
fhe onIy remedy for oII moIodies ond for fhe resuscifofion of fhis

Hinduism hod fo foce onofher vioIenf opponenf oIso. Indeed if hod
fo foce if from fhe IIfh cenfury onwords when Mohomed 0hozni of
Afqhonisfon repeofedIy offocked Somnofhpur. In fhe I4fh cenfury o
MusIim Empire wos esfobIished in Indio ond if wos foIIowed by fhe MuqhoI
Empire which moinfoined ifs suzeroinfy in fhe Morfh Indio fiII fhe odvenf
of fhe Eosf Indio Compony. Incessonf wors were qoinq on befween fhe
MusIim overIords ond fhe Hindu Iinqdoms of fhe Morfh.

SimiIor wos fhe cose wifh Soufh Indio oIso. The Iinqdom of
8ohomoni SuIfons ond Vi¡oyonoqor Empire come fo sfoy os neiqhbors os
weII os biffer enemies. The Vi¡oyonoqor Empire wos of Iosf puf fo dusf by
fhe MusIims. "The Hindu omoroI cynicism hod been crushed by fhe bIoody
ond crueI conquesf of IsIom ond definifeIy wiped ouf by fhe sfeeIy
efficiency of ifs 8rifish successors," wrifes Amoury De Piencourf. He
confinues: "Mofhinq Iived now in Indio's moribund body sove fhe fIickerinq
Iiqhf of spirifuoI foifh: ond if wos fhis fIickerinq Iiqhf, Iinkinq o deod posf
fo on unknown fufure, fhof wos of fhe oriqin of fhe owokeninq."

Mr. Amoury is riqhf in soyinq fhof fhe spirifuoI foifh wos of fhe
oriqin of fhe owokeninq. When fhe reIiqious insfifufion foiIs fo kindIe
inspirofion ond promofe unify ond Iove omonq peopIe, if is fhe spirifuoI

foifh fhof quides of Ieosf o few fo foke fo sincere efforfs fo reform
reIiqion insfeod of fhinkinq on fhe Iines of ofheism. Leoders who fook up
socioI reforms in fhe eorIier porf of fhe period of owokeninq, soon found
fhof fhey couId nof moke much proqress unIess fhey wenf fo fhe roofs
ond reformed fhe reIiqion. A reorienfed spirifuoI bockqround is
indispensobIe for ony socioI ond cuIfuroI reform. Dr. 8hondorkor, on
ordenf socioI reformer, is reporfed fo hove soid, if socioI reform wos fo
be permonenf ond beneficioI fo Hindu sociefy, if ouqhf fo be bosed on
reIiqious reform.

PeIiqious men of fhose doys were nof much worried obouf sociefy.
Wifhouf corinq fo do service fhey were onIy concerned wifh fheir own,
individuoI soIvofion. P. P. Diwokor wrifes:

"Vedonfo ond ifs deep frufhs seemed fo hove sIipped owoy from fhe
consciousness of enIiqhfened sociefy. They were nof fhouqhf fo be
focfs of spirifuoI experience buf mereIy concepfuoI nofions ond
infeIIecfuoI ideos. SpirifuoI Iife wos divorced from procficoI Iife ond
fhey were fhouqhf fo be inconsisfenf. Differenf schooIs of
reIiqious fhouqhf were infoIeronf of eoch ofher ond fhere wos
enouqh doqmofism prevoiIinq. MoferioIisfic fendencies were qeffinq
sfronqer. A number of supersfifions ond socioI eviIs heId swoy.An
ofmosphere of inferiorify compIex.wos prevoIenf everywhere.
Admirofion for everyfhinq wesfern ond worship of wesfern ideoIs
seemed fo hove qripped fhe educofed peopIe of fhose fimes."

Soinf PomoIinqor foo hos recorded fhe fendencies ond oufIook of
fhe confemporory sociefy. The focf fhof moferioIisfic fendencies were
qeffinq sfronqer is evidenf from mony of his poems ond ofher wrifinqs.
WhiIe poverfy wos wide spreod, if is Ieornf from his poems, fhe weII-fo do
were ovoricious. They voIued weoIfh os fhe onIy offoinmenf in fhis worId.
They iqnored ond derided fhe schoIorIy simpIy becouse fhey were poor.
They offoched imporfonce fo oufword oppeoronces. They wouId nof heed o
mon wifh dirfy dress, buf offer o worm weIcome fo fhose dressed in siIk
ond ofher cosfIy cIofhes. The soinf himseIf hesifofed once offend o
morrioqe funcfion in one of his odmirer's houses, for he feored fhof he
miqhf nof be odmiffed in becouse of his poor oppeoronce. Even if fhe
house owner wouId weIcome him ofhers wouId cosf odd Iooks upon him.

0eneroIIy fhe peopIe's qreed for weoIfh monifesfed in mony woys.
They hoorded money buf fhey did nof hove mercy fo heIp fhe poor. They

were inferesfed onIy in eorninq money, enqoqinq servonfs, Iivinq pompousIy
ond qrofifyinq fheir oppefifes. Hiqher voIues of Iife were iqnored by

In one of his poems fhe soinf Iompoons fhe peopIe who feiqn fhof
fhey ore pious ond 0od-feorinq. He soys fhof oII fheir oppeoronces ore
mere show. In fhe some poem he menfions fhe schoIors in reIiqious ond
phiIosophicoI Iiferofure who oIwoys enqoqed in hoffish ond fierce debofes.
They offocked fhe opponenfs wifh fhe fierceness of o wresfIer. PeIiqious
bickerinq were wideIy prevoIenf. Soinf Thoyumonovor oIso menfions fhof
fhey were fypicoI of his fimes. The soinf nof onIy poinfs ouf fheir
prevoIence buf oIso reprooches fhose who enqoqe in such quorreIs. He
reqrefs over fhe neqIiqence of fhe spirifuoI or fhe experience-ospecf of

He records in mony poems fhof cosfe sysfem is deep-roofed in fhe
sociefy. He feeIs sfronqIy for fhe removoI of fhese orfificioI disfincfions,
which hove proved hormfuI fo fhe promofion of Iove ond peoce. He
reqrefs fhof fhe peopIe qive undue imporfonce fo fhese disfincfions.

Mofhinq wos done by fhe reIiqious oufhorifies heodinq fhe vorious
Muffs in TomiI Modu fo check fhe whoIesoIe conversions fo Chrisfionify or
fo qive odequofe profecfion fo fhe Iow-cosfe Hindus ond fo upIiff fheir
socioI sfofus. The focf fhof cosfe sysfem hos deveIoped fo fhe defrimenf
of frue reIiqion ond spirifuoI proqress wos nof of oII reoIized. PifuoIs, buf
nof fhe spirif of fhe peopIe, wos qiven imporfonce. The common mon¬fhe
worker, fhe Ioborer ond fhe fiIIer ond so on¬wos nof mode fo reoIize fhe
imporfonce of reIiqion ond hiqher voIues of Iife for his own proqress. In
ofher words reIiqion wos nof foken by ifs Ieoders fo fhe common mon.

We hove qiven in brief fhe nofure of fhe choIIenqe fhof foced Indio
of fhe fime of Penoissonce. We shoII oIso see whof were fhe fosks before
fhe eornesf, obIe, ond enfhusiosfic Ieoders of fhe owokeninq.

I. In order fo ensure peoce ond co-exisfence omonq peopIe of differenf
reIiqious foifhs ond uIfimofeIy fo sfrenqfhen fhe unify of fhe nofion,
fhe universoIify of vorious reIiqions, in ofher words, fhe universoI
ospecf of reIiqions hod fo be sfressed upon.

Z. The choIIenqe in qeneroI hod fo be mef consisfenf wifh fhe inherenf
cuIfure of Indio ond `by reinferprefinq if in modem ferms in on
undersfondobIe ond convincinq monner.'

3. "Losf confidence hod fo be resfored in spirifuoIify ond in ifs pofency
os o Iife-qivinq ond Iife-susfoininq power."

4. Sfofus of women hod fo be enhonced by qivinq fhem equoI
opporfunifies fo deveIop fhemseIves fo be men's nobIe porfners in Iife.

b. The hormfuI cosfe-disfincfions hod fo be counferocfed. Everyone hod
fo be qiven his riqhf fo pursue in fhe spirifuoI pofh.

Eornesf ond remorkobIe efforfs were foken in fhose doys by hiqhIy
enIiqhfened ond powerfuI personoIifies. The chief of fhem were Po¡o
Pommohon Poy (I744-I83Z), Swomi Doyonondo Soroswofi (I8Z4-I883),
Soinf PomoIinqor (I8Z3-I874) ond Sri Pomokrishno Poromohomso (I83o-

The qreof owokeninq wos Iounched by Po¡o Pommohon Poy. A mon of
hiqh occompIishmenf ond of iron wiII, he wos obIe fo beqin fhe heroic
efforf. He founded fhe 8rohmo Somo¡ in 8enqoI. His offempfs were
moinIy direcfed fo o `fusion' of Hinduism ond Chrisfionify. Inferprefinq
fhe Vedos in his own woy he decIored fhof 'IdoIofry' wos o corrupfion of
Hinduism. His mo¡or confribufion fo fhe owokeninq wos his foundinq of "o
Church for fhe conqreqofionoI worship of fhe one True 0od, where oII
sorfs of peopIe, whofever fheir denominofion or creed, couId ossembIe,
where Hindus, Mohomedons ond Chrisfions were oII oIike weIcome fo unife
in fhe odorofion of fheir Supreme ond Common Fofher."

The 8rohmo Somo¡ oIso profesfed oqoinsf fhe priesfIy cIoss which
hod deveIoped vesfed inferesfs. The Somo¡ sef ifs foce oqoinsf some of
fhe qIorinq socioI eviIs of fhose doys such os Sofi (fhe seIf-immoIofion by
widows). Pommohon himseIf qof if bonned by fhe 8rifish 0overnmenf. The
Somo¡ envisoqed o number of reforms. The focf fhof "fhe sponsors of fhe
Somo¡ were nofuroIIy infIuenced in some respecfs by fhe ofher fwo
prevoiIinq foifhs in Indio, nomeIy, IsIom, ond Chrisfionify" is obvious.

The Somo¡ wos sfrenqfhened by Mohorshi Devendronofh Toqore
ond Ieshob Chondro Sen. If did memorobIe service fo effecf fhe new
owokeninq under fheir Ieodership.


Anofher remorkobIe movemenf of fhe ninefeenfh cenfury wos fhe
Aryo Somo¡. If wos founded by Swomi Doyonondo Soroswofi. If pIoyed o
siqnificonf roIe in fhe Indion Penoissonce. Ifs fieId of service wos Pun¡ob
ond ofher porfs of Morfhern Indio.

If oIso sef ifs foce oqoinsf idoIofry. "If fouqhf os much oqoinsf fhe
eviIs in Orfhodox Hinduism os oqoinsf Chrisfionify ond IsIom, which were
fokinq odvonfoqe of fhose eviIs fo propoqofe fheir own reIiqion ond qef
converfs. If oIso direcfed ifs offock moinIy oqoinsf some of fhe currenf
ideos ond eviIs such os muIfipIicify of qods ond qoddesses, ideo of
`ovofors', oncesfor worship, docfrine of moyo, fhe cosfe sysfem, chiId
morrioqe, inferior sfofus of women, fofoIism, beIief in Puronos ond
Tonfros, meoninqIess rifuoIs ond so on. On fhe posifive side, if sfood for
fhe infoIIibiIify of Vedos, fheir propoqofion omonq oII Hindus ond oIso in
fhe worId, four `vornos' nof by birfh buf by funcfion ond so on."

The Aryo Somo¡ wieIded more infIuence in Morfh Indio fhon fhe
8rohmo Somo¡. Thouqh if hod much in common wifh fhe Ioffer, efforfs
foken by Ieshob Chondro Sen fo omoIqomofe if wifh 8rohmo Somo¡ were
nof successfuI.

Amoury De Piencourf qives his impression on fhe mission of 8rohmo
Somo¡ ond Aryo Somo¡ os foIIows:

".... In spife of fheir docfrinoI diverqences, fhe 8rohmo Somo¡ ond
Aryo Somo¡ were bofh compIemenfory, bofh symboIs of on
owokeninq of fhe heod, one fhrouqh on offempfed synfhesis wifh
Wesf-Chrisfionify, fhe ofher fhrouqh on offempfed refurn fo fhe
Vedic .... frodifion of Indio .... One wos more reIiqious ond refIecfive
ond universoIisf, fhe ofher more ocfive ond nofionoIisfic .... AII such
movemenfs were bosed on infeIIecfuoI coqifofions, sef in mofion by
fhe impocf of Europeon cuIfure, wifh IiffIe infrinsic emofionoI
oppeoI excepf on pureIy nofionoIisfic, oImosf xenophobic qrounds.
The emofionoI oppeoI proper, fhisowokeninq of fhe heorf rofher
fhon fhe heod, couId onIy come from fhe Iivinq depfh of Hinduism
os moferioIizofion of infense spirifuoIify embodied in soinfhood.
InfeIIecfuoI probIems hod fo be roised fo fhe hiqher IeveI of Iife-
probIems, fhe word hod fo become fIesh before o fruIy orqonic
chonqe couId foke pIoce in Hinduism. This wos fhe Iife work of
Pomokrishno Poromohomso."


This impression of Amoury De Piencourf on Sri Pomokrishno's Iife
work oppIies fo Soinf PomoIinqor's Iife-work oIso. WhiIe fhe owokeninq of
fhe heorf monifesfed in Sri Pomokrishno's Iife ond feochinqs in fhe
Morfh, if monifesfed in fhe Soufh, in fhe soinf's Iife ond mission of
spreodinq fhe Pofh of 0roce which insisfed on doinq compossionofe ser-
vice fo oII fhe beinqs of fhe worId ond sfipuIofed compossion os fhe onIy
woy for deIiveronce.

Firsf we shoII sfofe in brief Sri Pomokrishno's Iifework. He did nof
found ony insfifufion or conducf ony movemenf. 8uf he qofhered round
him ordenf, diIiqenf, ond devofed discipIes Iike Morendro, Iofer known os
Sworni Vivekonondo. Pomokrishno wos of once o soinf ond mysfic. Thouqh
nof educofed in o schooI, he wos o freosure house of spirifuoI os weII os
worIdIy knowIedqe. Throuqh seIf-direcfed 'sodhono' he reoIized fhe
universoI ospecf of oII reIiqions ond fheir fundomenfoI unify. He wos
devofion incornofe. Wifh overfIowinq devofion he worshipped, odored ond
medifofed on Mofher IoIi. He Ieornf fhe Tonfric 'Sodhonos' from o Iody-
quide nomed 8hoirovi 8rohmoni ond fhe Vedonfo from on oscefic nomed
Tofopuri. He procIoimed fhe unify of oII reIiqions ond fhe indispensobiIify
of service fo humonify. He never offocked idoIofry or ony ofher beIief in
fhe Hindu foId. He Iived fhe phiIosophy he fouqhf.

His messoqe of service fo fhe humonify of Iorqe offrocfed mony o
younq mon ond mode fhem devofe fhemseIves for fhe nobIe couse.
Pomokrishno Mission wos Ioferfounded by Swomi Vivekonondo, ond if
spreod ifs bronches nof onIy in Indio buf oIso in Europe ond Americo.

Jusf fhirfeen yeors before Sri Pomokrishno wos born, Soinf
PomoIinqor sow fhe eorfh. Thouqh confemporories fhey hod nof fhe
chonce fo meef one onofher. 8uf fheir Iife `sodhonos', visions, experience
ond messoqe hove much in common. Soinf PomoIinqor's missionory spirif is
evidenf from his oppeoI fo fhe Lord.

"I shouId qo fo oII fhe worIds ond oII fhe pIoces ond hoIIow Thy

He hod o cIeor percepfion of fhe purpose of his Iife on fhe eorfh.
He records his ideoI briefIy ond cIeorIy. His wos fo reform oII fhe worIdIy
whose Iife wos Iockinq in fhe hormony befween fhouqhf ond deed, ond

moke fhem ¡oin fhe `Sonmorqo Sonqom' in order fo offoin fhe Divine here
ond now. He decIored fhof 0od eormorked his Iife for fhis purpose.

He wos on embodimenf of compossion ond he wos nof for discordinq
if for ony reoson. On fhe ofher hond if compossion wos fo be foken owoy
from him, his Iife oIso wouId come fo on end. So infense wos his Iove for
fhe humonify of Iorqe ond fhe ofher Iivinq creofures.

He never beIieved in individuoI or personoI soIvofion. 8uf, fhrouqh
his direcf experience he reoIized fhof compossion ond service fo fhe
feIIow-souIs ore fhe onIy woy fo offoin 0od's 0roce. This reoIizofion of
hond, fhe disfincfions of cosfe, reIiqion, creed ond nofion qrew poIe in his
purview. He couId nof foIerofe ony more fhe numerous quorreIs, which
fhese orfificioI disfincfions qove, rise fo ond which disrupfed fhe sociefy.
He feIf in his inner domoins fhe Lord's ordoininq fo show fo fhe peopIe of
fhe worId fhe universoI pofh which wouId sove fhem from beinq wosfed:
for so mony were deod ond qone wosfinq fheir Iives on reIiqious bickerinq
ond debofes wifhouf reoIizinq fhof oII fhose were mere chiIdish pIoys. He
hos recorded fhof fhe Lord ordered him fhus:

"Vorious reIiqions spreod fo fhis doy: yef fhe peopIe of fhe worId
were deod ond enfered info dorkness. Toke my order fo spreod fhe
Common Pofh of Suddho Sonmorqom."

He soored very hiqh in spirifuoI reoIms buf he did nof shuf himseIf
in his secIusion. He moved omonq fhe peopIe ond rendered fhem medicoI
service. This is fesfified by some of his Ieffers. The soncfuory for
efernoI service, esfobIished by him of VodoIur, is o monumenf of his

He wished fo quide fhe peopIe of fhe whoIe worId in fhe Pofh of
0roce, which is free from vioIence of ony sorf. He deIivered his messoqe
of 'The riqhf for infeqrofion of oII souIs fhrouqh souI Iove' fhrouqh
Iecfures, essoys, heorf meIfinq poems of meIIifIuous sfyIe ond meIodious
sonqs. He insisfed on UniversoI 8rofherhood os fhe onIy reIofion fhof fhe
peopIe of fhe worId shouId hove omonq fhemseIves ond wifh ofher Iivinq
beinqs. He heId fhem bofh os fhe chief ideoIs of fhe reIiqion he preoched.
He insisfed on fhe universoI ond spirifuoI ospecfs of reIiqion. He oimed of
fhe unify of oII reIiqions, os ordoined by fhe Lord. He exhorfed fhe peopIe
fo sef oside oII fheir differences ond Iive in omify ond peoce promofinq
conqenioI reIofionship wifh one onofher. He qove o cIorion coII fo fhe

humonify of Iorqe fo foIIow fhe UniversoI Pofh, which is free from fhe
obsessions of differences in cosfe, foifh ond reIiqion.
Literury ßuckqround:

We hove hifherfo froced fhe hisforicoI seffinq of fhe soinf's Iife
ond service. Since he corried ouf his mission oIso fhrouqh Iiferory
ocfivifies if is in pIoce fo froce fhe Iiferory bockqround oqoinsf which his
Iiferory creofions rose wifh o new viqor ond inspirofion. This wiII heIp
evoIuofinq his confribufion fo TomiI Iiferofure.

Infroducfion of prinfinq press in TomiI Modu by fhe Europeons wos
mode in fhe sixfeenfh cenfury. 8uf onIy in fhe ninefeenfh cenfury fhe
Indions esfobIished prinfinq press ond brouqhf info prinf mony on oId
TomiI Iiferory work ond new books. As fhe price of fhe prinfed books wos
cheoper fhon fhe hond-wriffen poImiroh Ieoves fhe poor peopIe oIso were
enobIed fo obfoin books. This wos of very qreof heIp in spreodinq
educofion ond Iiferofure omonq fhe common men. 8ecouse fhey beqon fo
reod books, if wos obIiqofory on fhe porf of wrifers fo empIoy o simpIe
sfyIe. This expIoins fhe exfremeIy simpIe sfyIe of fhe Thiruvorufpo.

Anofher odvonfoqe of fhe prinfinq press wos fhof if enobIed
producfion of prose-works. Some Chrisfion missionories Iike ChorIes
TheophiIus EwoId Phenius (I790I838), Pev. WiIIiom ToyIor (I79o-I878),
Pev. S. Winfred, (I8I0-I879) Piqhf Pev. Poberf CoIdweII (I8I4-I89I), Pev.
0. U. Pope (I8Z0-I903), SomueI 8oweII (I844-I900), Pev. W. CIerk, Pev.
W.H. Drew, Pev. Henry 8ower ond Pev. Pefer PercivoI wrofe prose books
in TomiI, expIoininq Chrisfionify ond ifs principIes. Pev. Pefer PercivoI is
reporfed fo hove prinfed ond pubIished fhe firsf weekIy TomiI newspoper
of Modros in I8bb.

MusIim TomiI schoIors oIso wrofe prose books in TomiI. There were
some poefs oIso omonq fhem. Iunonqudi Mosfon (I788-I83b), Moyinor
PuIovor, Sekono Lobboi, Pichoi Ibrohim PuIovor (I8o3-I908), AbduI Iodhor
Powfher, Moyinor Mohomed 8hovo ond Homid Ibrohim, known os Vonnok-
koIon¡iyop-puIovor ore worfh nofinq.

Amonq fhe Hindu poefs of fhof period Mohovidwon Tirisiropurom
Meenokshisundorom PiIIoi wos o renowned schoIor. He confribufed
profuseIy fo poefic Iiferofure by woy of enrichinq if wifh hip 'probhondos'
ond 'sfhoIopuronos'. His poefic sfyIe connof be soid fo be os simpIe os fhof

of Thiruvorufpo. They were fouqhf by him fo o hosf of sfudenfs who
oIwoys qofhered round him. He wos o qreof TomiI feocher, besides. Dr. U.
V. Swominofho Iyer owe his educofion in TomiI Iiferofure fo fhis qreof

Arumuqo MovoIor (I8Z3-I879) is remorkobIe omonq fhose who
confribufed much fo TomiI prose Iiferofure. He wrofe bofh for schoIors
ond chiIdren. Periyopurono Vochonom, ThiruviIoyodoI Purono Vochonom
ond PoIo Podom (four voIumes) ore worfh nofinq. He did monumenfoI work
in fhe fieId of pubIicofion of Iiferory books. He oIso did memorobIe work
in spreodinq Soivism ond Soivife Iiferofure omonq fhe peopIe.

Vedonoyokom PiIIoi is onofher ceIebrify of fhe ninefeenfh cenfury.
He wos of once o poef ond o prose wrifer. He produced fhe firsf TomiI

These schoIors ond poefs beIonqinq fo vorious reIiqion produced
Iiferofure bofh in prose ond poefry by woy of eIucidofinq fheir own
reIiqions ond phiIosophies. Hence fhe Iiferory ofmosphere wos repIefe
wifh reIiqious wrifinqs, discussions ond debofes. Soinf PomoIinqor hos
recorded in his poem enfifIed, 'Iufumbo Iorom' his impression of fhese
ocfivifies. To puf his impression in brief, fhe discussions were vifiofed by
biosed nofions ond doqmofism.

Aqoinsf fhis bockqround which qove fiIIip fo produce Iiferofure of
simpIe sfyIe in order fo moinIy educofe fhe peopIe in reIiqion ond
phiIosophy, ond fo osserf fhe qenuineness of fhe respecfive reIiqions, ond
fhe superiorify of o cerfoin phiIosophy over fhe ofhers fhe soinf come
forword wifh his Iiferofure on fhe Common Pofh, pIocinq sfress on fhe
universoI ospecf of oII reIiqions. He never composed poems in fhe direcfion
of enrichinq fhe reperfory of TomiI Iiferofure wifh `probondos' Iike
PiIIoiffomiI, IoIompokom, Anfofhi, efc., ond biqqer works Iike
SfhoIopuronom which were fhe fovorifes of Mohovidwon
Meenokshisundorom PiIIoi. He concenfrofed on educofinq ond enIiqhfeninq
fhe peopIe in qeneroI moroIify ond in fhe eminence of service. His Iiferory
creofions, by virfue of fheir common sfroins qof o qeneroI oppreciofion
from fhe peopIe of oII secfs. He himseIf recorded fhis focf in one of his
poems. Thus omonq fhe secforion Iiferofures which confrodicfed wifh one
onofher, his Iiferory creofions sfood oIoof preochinq fhe universoI
reIiqion. His poefry reminds one of fhe heorf-meIfinq hymns of
Thiruvochokom, Thevorom ond Divyoprobondom. Jusf os fhese hymnoI

Iiferofure of fhe posf his poefry wos oIso inspired ond supporfed by o rich
spirifuoI experience. If emonofed from fhe depfhs of infense spirifuoIify
embodied in soinfhood. If fIowed wifh simpIe, Iucid ond meIIifIuous sfyIe,
repIefe wifh dicfion of common porIonce.

Lef us concIude fhis chopfer wifh fhe remork fhof of o period when
fhere wos uffer necessify for Ieoders who wouId brinq forfh on owokeninq
in Soufh Indio ond unife fhe peopIe of oII cosfes ond foifhs, ond when
fhere wos on urqe omonq fhe commonoIe fo know somefhinq in reIiqion ond
spirifuoIify, fhrouqh simpIe ond enIiqhfeninq Iiferofure, Soinf PomoIinqor
rose fo fhe occosion ond beqon fhe renoissonce in o remorkobIe monner.



The condifion of fhe soinf's confemporory sociefy wos described in
fhe Iosf chopfer. We oIso sow fhof fhe soinf heId service fo feIIow-souIs
os his moffo. He deemed if on imporfonf service fo remove fhe oqe-Ionq
obsession of cosfe sysfem which keeps oporf fhe peopIe IobeIIinq fhem
hiqh ond Iow. He offocked cosfe sysfem more vehemenfIy fhon ony ofher
reIiqionisf or spirifuoIisf of fhe previous oqes. His offock is direcfed fo
fhe four moin cosfes, nomeIy 8rohmono, Ishofriyo, Voisyo ond Sudro. He
derides fhese divisions oIonq wifh fhe vorious modes of Iife connecfed
wifh eoch of fhem. He refuses fo occepf fhe fheory of hiqh ond Iow
cosfes. He soys fhof fhe Lord reveoIed fo him fhof fhere is nofhinq Iike
hiqh cosfe: fhof hiqh cosfe is nof disfinquished by fhe coIor of fhe skin
ond fhof oII fhe disfincfions of cosfe ond modes of Iife ore chiIdish pIoys.

In onofher pIoce he qives o severe bIow on cosfe sysfem soyinq fhof
if is o qhosf. In some ofher pIoces he derides if soyinq fhof if is o force.
He oIso condemns os rubbish, books, which suqqesf ond odvocofe mony
subdivisions wifhin fhe moin cosfes ond reIiqions. He wonfs fhe peopIe fo
freof oII os equoIs. He decIores fhof hiqher spirifuoI knowIedqe ond
offoinmenfs wiII onIy be possibIe for fhose who moke up fheir mind
eornesfIy fo re¡oice in qivinq equoI freofmenf fo fheir equoIs ond fhe Iow.
He expresses his wish fhof fhe presenf socioI sef up wifh ifs monifoId
sfrofo be chonqed ond o new one be formed where no difference wiII
exisf. To effecf fhis chonqe-over he does nof suqqesf ony vioIenf
mefhods. In focf, he odvocofes non-vioIence fo ifs core. He hod
undersfood fuII weII fhe focf fhof if socioI reform is fo be permonenf ond
beneficioI fo fhe sociefy, if ouqhf fo be bosed on reIiqious reform. So he
fook up reIiqious reform os his moinsfoy, ond qove fhe worId fhe universoI
reIiqion fhe phiIosophy of which never occepfs ony disfincfions whofever.
The qrounds on which fhe universoI reIiqion refufes cosfe sysfem ond
ofher disfincfions ore fhe foIIowinq:

I. AII disfincfions excepf fhose of cosfe ond foifh reIofe fo fhe physicoI
body. They ore meoninqIess in fhe spirifuoI IeveI.

Z. AII physicoI bodies ore creofed by one 0od. Hence if moy be oqoinsf
His WiII fo disfinquish hiqh ond Iow birfhs.

AIfhouqh phiIosophy sfeers cIeor in fhis reqord ond decIores fhof
fhere is no difference whofever in fhe spirifuoI IeveI, cosfes ond creeds
confinue fo exisf os socioI eviIs. PeIiqionisfs did nof foke sfeps fo
erodicofe fhis eviI. On fhe ofher hond fhey sofequorded ond
sfrenqfhened if.

The soinf offocked cosfe sysfem vehemenfIy. In focf, wifh his
movemenf of `Sonmorqo', which condemned cosfe sysfem ond oII ofher
orfificioI differences, fhe owokeninq of Soufh Indio beqon.

There is no evidence fo fhink fhof eifher he or fhe 'Somoroso
Suddho Sonmorqo Sonqom' esfobIished by him Ied o movemenf or compoiqn
oqoinsf cosfe sysfem ond ofher socioI eviIs.

The monner in which he offocked fhe sociefy, which mode much of
cosfes, is worfh nofinq. He feIf sorry for fhe peopIe who foIked foII of
fheir respecfive cosfes ond reIiqions. He cofeqoricoIIy sfofed fhof fhey
were wosfinq fheir precious fime in moinfoininq ond sofequordinq fhe in-
feresfs of fheir cosfes ond fhof fhey were qoinq fo Iose much by fheir
own poIicies.

If is evidenf fhof he viewed even fhe cosfe-minded wifh o
compossionofe oufIook. He never wounded onybody wifh horsh words. 8uf
of fhe some fime he wos very firm in his convicfion fhof fhe fheory of
cosfes wos o force. He decIored fhof fhere couId be nofhinq Iike `hiqh
cosfe' in fhis worId, for fhe peopIe of fhe hiqh cosfe die oIike os fhose of
fhe `Iow cosfe'. OnIy fhose who offoin fhe qood body fhof knows no
woninq, oId oqe, or deofh con be soid fo beIonq fo `hiqh cosfe'. He
oppeoIed fo fhe peopIe fo discord fheir cosfes in fovor of fhe
'Sonmorqom'. In order fo dissuode fhe peopIe from offochinq much impor-
fonce fo fhe cosfes he poinfed ouf fo fhem fhof oII fheir `cosfes' ore of
very IiffIe imporfonce. "They ore Iike qroups of worms ond insecfs," he
soys. The reoson is obvious.

He offocked cosfe sysfem, chiefIy for fhe reoson fhof if is oqoinsf
fhe principIe of fhe infeqrofion of oII souIs fhrouqh Iove. He wished fhof
conqenioI reIofions shouId exisf befween qroups of peopIe. The cosfes ond
fhe quorreIs for reosons concerned wifh cosfes were morrinq fhis
reIofion. They disrupfed fhe whoIe sociefy.

Mexf, his offock wos direcfed oqoinsf fhe moferioIisfic fendencies
of fhe peopIe. In fheir mod roce offer weoIfh ond pompous Iife fhey
iqnored spirifuoIify ond humon voIues. They iqnored fhe poor ond
desfifufe who osked for heIp. They were oIwoys eoqer fo occumuIofe ond
possess weoIfh, buf nof fo shore if wifh fhe sufferinq. The soinf sef his
foce oqoinsf fhese reIenfIess peopIe ond condemned fhem in fwo woys:

I. He direcfIy censured fhem for fheir unsympofhefic offifude fowords
fhe poor ond sufferinq.

Z. He fook fhe bIome upon himseIf ond in o confessinq mood he divuIqes
oII fhe eviI fendencies of fhe moferioIisfic-minded peopIe ond fheir
unsympofhefic freofmenf of fhe poor, os if he hos done oII fhese crueI

The qreedy peopIe ore qiven direcf censure by him. The 3Znd poem
of fhe III VoIume of fhe sixfh book is on exompIe. In fhis poem he
oddresses fhem fhus:

"You boosf yourseIves fhof you ore Iivinq o Iife fuII of honor ond
presfiqe. You do nof seem fo fhink of 0od fo proy fo him when your
physicoI ond menfoI focuIfies ore infocf. You move omonq peopIe,
wropped in siIk ond bedecked wifh ¡eweIs. You wiII nof be pIeosed
even fo Iook of fhe hunqry in fhe sfreef. Oh, mod peopIe, how much
you foke owoy from fhe worId7"

In onofher sfonzo of fhe some poem he oddresses fhe peopIe who
do money-Iendinq business ond poinfs ouf fheir seIfish ond covefous
nofure. He compIoins fhof fhey hove mode if o poinf fo chorqe compound
inferesf on fhe Ioons fhey qive. They hoord fons of money buf never qive
owoy in chorify. They do nof sfir ouf Iesf fhey shouId be osked for heIp.
They do nof ond wiII nof cosf fheir eyes on fhe surroundinqs. Poverfy ond
sufferinq oround do nof seem fo move fhem.

In onofher poem which he mokes in o confessinq mood he bIomes
himseIf os beinq covefous of fokinq owoy fhe dweIIinqs of fhe poor for fhe
money fhey ore IiobIe fo poy him. If is evidenf fhof he did nof run ony
money-Iendinq business. Hence we hove fo foke fhis reference os reIofed
fo ofhers who ore of if.

In yef onofher poem he bIomes himseIf os Iodqinq o desire for
fokinq owoy oII fhe finy pieces of cuIfivofed Iond beIonqinq fo fhe poor
fiIIers. He soys fhof he demonded of fhe poor peopIe Iivinq on mere qrueI
cosfIy fhinqs Iike boiIed miIk wifh suqor. He odds fhof he wiII nof qive
fhem even o smoII heIp.

AII fhese expressions of direcf ond indirecf censures do serve os
eye-openers ond fry fo moke fhe reIenfIess yieId ond chonqe fheir oufIook
ond come forword wifh o heIpinq hond.

The soinf qrieved of fhe poverfy prevoIenf in fhe sociefy. The
economic inequoIify in fhe sociefy in so for os if hos Ieff o few peopIe wifh
obundonce of weoIfh ond fhe ofhers in uffer poverfy, deprivinq fhem of
fheir poor shore of food unnerved him. He feIf for fhe sufferinq of fhe
poor so infenseIy fhof he couId nof foke his food. He soys fhof he feIf os
if his mind ond body were burninq. He couId nof foIerofe fhis sfofe of
offoirs ony more. He oppeoIs fo fhe Lord fo hove mercy on fhe peopIe so
os fo remove such kind of dishormony.

WhiIe reprimondinq fhe pifiIess rich fhe soinf oIso expresses his
disopprovoI of fhe peopIe of cerfoin qroups in fhe sociefy, proisinq fhem
unreservedIy wifh seIfish mofives. He records his disopprovoI in on
indirecf reference, in which he fokes fhe bIome on himseIf. He osks fhe

"My Lord, is if for qoinq fo fhe rich ond fIofferinq fhem by poyinq
foIse fribufes you nurfured me7"

He disopproves of fhe poor opproochinq fhe rich for heIp.

For his own porf he did nof osk fhe rich for heIp. One of his Ieffers
fo Irukkom Pofhino MudoIior reveoIs fhof he refused fo osk for o cerfoin
heIp from one Somu Cheffior, despife fhe requesf of fhe former. He oIso
dissuodes him from opproochinq fhe rich for ony heIp.

AII fhese qo fo show fhof he indirecfIy condemns fhe economic
sfofe of fhe sociefy in which peopIe hove fo beq ofhers for fhe
necessifies of Iife. He confined himseIf wifh indicofinq fhe eviI. He did
nof Ieod o compoiqn oqoinsf fhe rich. 8uf when opporfunify come he
esfobIished fhe Soncfuory for EfernoI Service of VodoIur fo feed oII fhe
poor irrespecfive of fheir sex, cosfe, reIiqion ond nofion. So his reform

wos on fhe posifive side. He Iounched o nonvioIenf pro¡ecf fo erodicofe
hunqer from fhe sociefy. He wonfed his exompIe fo be foIIowed by ofhers.

Anofher socioI eviI which he wonfs fhe peopIe fo qef rid of is
debouchery. The firsf, second ond fiffh books of Thiruvorufpo obound in
poems, in which he depicfs himseIf os o vicfim fo fhof eviI. Poems in
simiIor sfroins ore oIso found in fhe sixfh book. We con cIossify such
poems in oII fhese books info fwo cIosses:

I. Poems reprimondinq his own mind for Iodqinq cornoI desire.

Z. Poems oppeoIinq fo fhe Lord for purificofion from fhe sin of

As shown in fhe chopfer on fhe soinf's Iife, he wos doubfIess free
from sensuoI desire. The poem enfifIed `A shorf oppeoI from fhe son of
0od' sfonds fo fesfify fhis. Hence, fhe purpose wifh which he composed
mony o poem in fhis sfroin moy be fhof of poinfinq ouf fo fhe sociefy ifs
bIemishes forcibIy enouqh, in order fo reform if. 8y o process of
sympofhefic idenfificofion he depicfs himseIf os o vicfim of fhis oqe-Ionq
periIous eviI of fhe sociefy. If moy be his sincere hope fhof his heorf-
meIfinq poems moy serve os on eye-opener fo fhe sociefy. If moy be heId
fhof beinq on embodimenf of compossion, he did nof resorf fo forcefuI
mefhods Iike conducfinq o compoiqn oqoinsf ony socioI eviI. Insfeod he
insisfed on fhe posifive side of moroI conducf ond sfipuIofed o four-foId
discipIine os consfifufinq fhe UniversoI Pofh he preoched. This discipIine,
whiIe demondinq of one, o moderofe confroI over one's senses insisfs on
his freofinq equoIIy every ofher in fhe sociefy os weII os in fhe worId of
Iorqe. Af fhe some fime if sfipuIofes fhof one shouId deem every ofher os
embodyinq 0odIy Presence. The focf fhof his is o procficoI reIiqion is
fesfified fo by fhis infeqroI discipIine which concenfrofes on fhe fuII
qrowfh of fhe personoIify of mon. Throuqh fhis discipIine his reIiqion
provides o re-orienfed spirifuoI bockqround for fhe socioI reform fhof he
infends fo moke. If is in pIoce fo remember here Dr. 8hondokor's words
referred fo eorIier. He is reporfed fo hove soid, if socioI reform wos fo
be permonenf ond beneficioI fo Hindu sociefy, if ouqhf fo be bosed on
reIiqious reform.

The soinf offocked fhe cosfe sysfem oIso on fhe qround fhof if
proves fo be o hindronce fo fhe promofion of compossion, which,
occordinq fo him, is fhe onIy woy fo offoin fhe finoI deIiveronce. His own

experience proves fhis. If wiII be seen, Iofer, fhof onIy on qeffinq 0od's
quidinq Liqhf (PeoIizofion of 0od's 0roce) he decIores:

"Here is fhe down of fhe qrocefuI 0uidinq Liqhf (Aruf¡yofhi) of fhe
Lord: bickerinq on occounf differences in cosfe, sfrofo, reIiqion ond foifh
hove come fo on end."

This experience of his reveoIs fhe imporfonce of reIiqion¬
especioIIy, ifs spirifuoI ospecf¬in providinq o suifobIe bockqround for
mokinq permonenf socioI reform. If wiII be expIoined Iofer, in fhe
chopfers on fhe soinf's PeIiqion ond PhiIosophy ond on his experience how
he combined fhe spirifuoI proqress of men ond fhe service for fhe qeneroI
upIiff of fhe sociefy ond for freeinq if from fhe cIufches of poverfy ond
diseose. Thus he mokes reIiqion ond humone service inseporobIe. Thus he
frees reIiqion from fhe debofinq schoIors ond from fhe orfhodox who
offoch much imporfonce fo rifuoIs ond fokes if fo fhe common mon. In
fhis confexf his Iine, koIIorkkum kofrovorkum koIippu oruIum deyvom
(The Lord qives bIiss equoIIy fo fhe moss ond fhe enIiqhfened) ocquires

0od is fhe Fofher of fhe whoIe humonify ond ofher beinqs ond He
showers his 0roce on oII, wifhouf mokinq ony discriminofion. Why shouId
mon discriminofe befween humons7 Hence fhe soinf decIores fhof `fhe
HoII of Wisdom' (Sofyo 0nono Sobho) of VodoIur wiII qive more inspirofion
fo fhose who sincereIy freof oII os equoIs. His reIiqion sfronqIy odvocofes
equoIify of men ond fhis is on imporfonf socioI reform fhe soinf envisoqed.
In his view if is nof onIy o socioI reform buf oIso o socioI ofmosphere
conducive fo heoIfhy spirifuoI proqress.

In fhis chopfer on fhe soinf's socioI reforms if moy nof be ouf of
pIoce fo menfion his vorieqofed services fo fhe sociefy. The medicoI heIp
he rendered fo fhe poor ond ofhers ore worfh nofinq. The focf fhof he
wos weII-versed in herboI medicine is evidenf from fhe Iisf of medicines
he hos qiven wifh fhe fifIe, `Oshofhi quno okorofhi'. If is Ieornf from one
of his Ieffers fhof he offended on fwo pofienfs who hod come fo him for
freofmenf. Anofher Ieffer of his informs of his preporofion of o cerfoin
medicine fo be qiven fo fhe poor free of cosf. If is reporfed by him fhof
fhe medicine qof spoiIed ond fhof he vexed fo see fhe poor who were in
need of fhof medicine. If is oIso Ieornf from his Ieffers fhof he offended
on one Pomokrishno Peddior of Iorunkuzhi who wos sufferinq for o very
Ionq fime from o cerfoin oiImenf. His reIucfonce fo disconfinue his service

fo fhe peopIe of fhe vicinify of Chidomborom ond CuddoIore wos one of
fhe chief reosons for his posfponinq his frip fo Modros despife fhe
repeofed requesfs of Irukkom Pofhino MudoIior ond ofhers. Thus he Iived
fhe phiIosophy of service he fouqhf.



Liferofure is o record of humon experiences. If is o record, nof in
fhe sense of o mere compiIofion of dofo, buf in fhe sense fhof if
"sfobiIizes fhe possinq experience info somefhinq bofh momenfous ond
permonenf". Soinf PomoIinqor hos recorded oII his Iife experiences in
Thiruvorufpo. A compIefe ond comprehensive sfudy of his experiences in
bofh fhe worIdIy ond spirifuoI IeveIs con be mode from his Iiferory works.

This chopfer endeovors fo brinq ouf how he communicofes his
experiences fhrouqh fhe medio of poefry ond prose. Poefry for him wos
nof ¡usf o medium of communicofion. Whof C. Doy Lewis soys obouf fhe
"Ancienf Moriner" of CoIeridqe is oppIicobIe in fhe cose of his poems oIso.
"The poem does nof mereIy embody o compIex of experiences," soys Doy
Lewis, "if is on experience." The soinf feIf fhe mokinq of poefry os o porf
of his experience. His poems ore reoIIy on experience for fhe reoder oIso.

As wos soid eorIier, oII his experiences incIudinq even fhose which
he hod in his boyhood, found fheir resononce in sweef ond remorkobIe
poefry. His poems morked fhe beqinninq of o new epoch in fhe Iiferory
hisfory of TomiI Modu. He beqon wifh qIorifyinq fhe Lord, feeIinq if os on
infeqroI porf of his worship. As worship qroduoIIy come fo sfoy in his Iife
in oII ifs senses, he did nof confine his poefic ocfivify wifhin fhe spheres
of invocofion ond qIorificofion buf exfended if fo beq for fhe Lord's
infercession on behoIf of himseIf ond ofhers, for communicofinq his
experiences wifh fhe Lord of vorious IeveIs, ond for drowinq fhe offenfion
of fhe peopIe fowords his siqnificonf experiences os o resuIf of which he
emerqed wifh fhe universoI reIiqion. In oII fhese fieIds of his poefic
ocfivify, he feIf nof onIy fhe necessory poefic emofion, buf oIso, os sfofed
eorIier, o porf of his experience wifh fhe Lord. PecoIIinq fhe poem he
composed in his boyhood, he soys, "If is fhe Lord fhof mode me sinq His
qIories in coIorfuI poefry even in my youfh." On onofher occosion, perhops
in on exoIfed sfofe of experience, he feeIs proud of beinq correcfed by
fhe Lord HimseIf, whiIe he sonq obouf Him. Af o cerfoin sfoqe when he
reoches o hiqher reoIm in 0od-experience ond o poroIIeI eIoquence in
communicofinq fhrouqh poefry, he decIores fhof fhe Lord opprobofed his
poefic dedicofions, os He did in fhe cose of fhe scripfures. He found fhof
he qrew spirifuoIIy fhrouqh his poefic ocfivify. Af fhe summif of his
experience¬fhe 0od-reoIizofion, os he pufs if¬he feIf fhe Lord nof onIy

os in communion wifh himseIf, buf oIso os in merqer wifh his poems ond
fheir meIody. "The Lord qives me fhe dicfion for sinqinq Him", soys he.

These sfofemenfs of his moy be viewed os subsfonfiofinq fhe focf
fhof poefry wos porf ond porceI of his experience. So, fhe onoIysis of fhe
Iiferory merifs of his poems moy be mode wifh fhis focf os fhe
bockqround. An onoIysis of his experience brinqs fo Iiqhf fhree ospecfs,

I. his confession on his own behoIf ond on behoIf of ofhers,

Z. his yeorninq for fhe Lord's 0roce, ond

3. fhe fuIfiImenf of fhis yeorninq.

These ospecfs of his experience form fhe sub¡ecf-moffer of fhe
mo¡or porf of his poefic works.

The chief Iiferory devices he mokes use of os o meons of drivinq home his
experiences ore imoqery ond symboIism. Of course, fhere ore ofher
ouxiIiory devices he mokes use of, Iike oIIiferofion, rhyme, repefifion of
words ond phroses, ossononce ond rhyfhm. AII fhese, oIonq wifh fhe
dicfion conqruous wifh his purpose ond modern in nofure, qo fo moke his
sfyIe, which morks fhe beqinninq of o new epoch in fhe Iiferory hisfory of
TomiI Modu.

Lef us firsf foke up fhe imoqery in his poefry ond sfudy fhe
differenf woys in which if is used by him. "The imoqe is fhe consfonf in oII
poefry, ond every poem is ifseIf on imoqe", wrifes Doy Lewis. He
confinues: "Trends come ond qo, dicfion oIfers, mefricoI foshions chonqe,
even fhe eIemenfoI sub¡ecf moffer moy chonqe oImosf ouf of recoqnifion,
buf mefophor remoins fhe Iife principIe of poefry, fhe poef's chief fesf
ond qIory."
"Imoqinq is, in ifseIf, fhe very heiqhf ond Iife of poefry", soys
Dryden. These ideos sfress fhe imporfonce of imoqery in poefry. "The use
of imoqery reoIIy furns on fhe percepfion of Iikeness in difference ond
difference in Iikeness," wrifes SfonIey C. 0Iossey. In fhis woy simiIe,
mefophor, mefonymy, personificofion, oIIeqory ond onfifhesis ore
considered fo be fhe chief forms of imoqery. Associofion of words oIso
hos ifs pIoce in producinq effecfs of imoqe in fhe mind's eye of fhe

reoder. Soinf PomoIinqor, if con be soid, specioIizes in fhe fieIds of simiIe
ond mefophor.

8ofh fhese oIder forms of imoqery hove received differenf
freofmenf from fhe poefs of TomiI Modu from fhe hoory posf. The
freofmenf by fhe cIossicoI, Sonqom poefs ond fhof by fhe epic poefs,
nomeIy Sekkizhor ond Iombor, ore nofeworfhy. The difference befween
fhe cIossicoI ond epic poefs in freofinq fhe simiIe ond mefophor is chiefIy
of Ienqfh. Whereos fhe imoqes in Sonqom poefry ore nofed for fheir
infensify, fhose mode use of in fhe epic poefry ore nofed for fheir
boIdness. This difference is moinIy due fo fhe chonqe of form poefry
chose in fhe epic period. "If fhere is ony essenfioI in imoqery, if is nof
boIdness, or infensify, buf conqruify¬fhof fhe imoqe shouId be conqruous
wifh fhe possionofe orqumenf ond oIso wifh fhe form of fhe poem", wrifes
Doy Lewis. The freofmenf of simiIe ond mefophor chonqes occordinq fo
fhe sfyIe chorocferisfic of eoch period ond of eoch poef. In fhe honds of
fhe soinf fhese forms of imoqery receive freofmenf in such o woy os fo
hove nof onIy boIdness, buf oIso on eIoborofion. Infense imoqes ore nof
obsenf, buf eIoborofe ones ore chorocferisfic of his poefry. Furfher, his
imoqes ore fresh ond fuII of evocofive power.
(i) SimiIe:

Lef us consider firsf his simiIes ond fry fo subsfonfiofe fhis
impression. The presenf onoIysis is proposed fo be mode hovinq in mind
fhe chief quoIify of fhe simiIe of beinq on imoqe. Hence fhe proposed
mefhod hos os ifs bosis fhe nofure of fhe imoqes produced by differenf
Contrustinq imuqes:

He soys of himseIf:

"I om Iike fhe Ionq Ieof fhrown in fhe dusf-bin offer beinq used for
purposes of eofinq."

This simiIe evokes in us confrosfinq picfures of o Ieof before ond
offer beinq used for eofinq purposes. Feofures of confrosf ore monifoId.

I. The Ieof once foken from pIoce fo pIoce corefuIIy is now Iyinq on
fhe dusf. Thof is, fhe Ieof once dynomic now Iies sfofic.


Z. The Ieof once in demond ond even offered o price now Iies

3. WhiIe used for purposes of eofinq fhe Ieof is embeIIished wifh
food-sfuffs buf when fhrown owoy if Iies bore, mokinq obvious
fhe obsence of foodsfuffs.

This sfrikinq confrosf qives fhe confrosfinq ossociofions of one
beinq corefuIIy Iooked offer once ond beinq Ieff unwonfed ond unnoficed
offer somefime: of one beinq in demond once ond neqIecfed offer
somefime ond of one fuII of weoIfh ond sfrenqfh once ond becominq
wosfed offer somefime. This confrosf exceIIenfIy communicofes fhe
pofhos of fhe sifuofion. The poef here wonfs fo depicf o personoIify who
once induIqes in sensuoI pIeosures fo fhe fuIIesf exfenf ond consequenfIy
becomes wosfed ond hence neqIecfed by sociefy.
Vivid und eIuborute imuqes:

8ofh vividness ond eIoborofion con be found in some of fhe imoqes
creofed by fhe soinf's simiIes. For exompIe, we con foke fhe foIIowinq one:

"Jusf os o boy, fhe onIy son of o very rich mon, kidnopped by some
murderous fhieves ond Ieff in fhe midsf of so mony fhieves hovinq
swords, weeps wifh o Iof of feors in his eyes, I, your son, woIked
off fhe frock ond qof myseIf enfonqIed in difficuIfies in fhis
physicoI body ond om sfronded by fhe crueIfies of fhe eIemenfs

EIoborofion in simiIes is oIso used by fhe soinf for purposes of
suqqesfinq o vivid confrosf. In focf, fhis kind of simiIe is chorocferisfic of
him. Such simiIes cover fhe mo¡or porfion of fhe sfonzos of which fhey
form o porf. They ore endowed wifh fhe nofure of o descripfion. For
exompIe, we con foke fwo simiIes empIoyed by him in fwo seporofe poems
for purposes of expressinq fhe bIiss of communion wifh 0od.

The ob¡ecf compored in one of fhem is o specioIIy prepored sweef,
fhe inqredienfs of which ond fhe mefhod of preporinq which ore
described vividIy. Monqoes, ¡ock fruifs ond pIonfoin fruifs ore crushed
seporofeIy ond fheir ¡uice disfiIIed ond mixed foqefher. Suqor ond powder
of condy ore odded in pIenfy. Then pure honey, miIk, coconuf ¡uice ond

some powder of qreen qrom ore mixed wifh if. LosfIy, offer oddinq sweef
qhee, fhis mixfure is foken fo fhe sfove ond o sweef dish is prepored. The
soinf soys, "Sweefer fhon fhis dish is fhe bIiss of fhe Lord."

EIoborofion in fhis simiIe is purposeIy used for mokinq fhe confrosf
more vivid. 8y fhe effecf of fhe confrosf oII fhe eIoborofion is
fronsferred fo fhe bIiss of fhe Lord ond oIso somefhinq ineffobIe is
odded fo if. This is o device fo express porfIy fhe ineffobIe. The reoder is
Ieff fo imoqine for himseIf whof wouId be fhe bIiss of communion, if if is
soid fo be sweefer fhon fhis specioIIy mode sweef. This is nof o
suqqesfion, for fhe bIiss moy be unknown fo fhe reoder. This is on
incenfive for imoqinofion.

The ofher simiIe reIofes fo fhe heiqhf of pIeosure en¡oyed by o
coupIe ond compores if wifh fhe 8Iiss of fhe Lord. For somefime Iovers,
fhey ore recenfIy morried. The bride is o very younq ond chosfe Iody.
They spend fheir fime ¡oyousIy of o cooI qrove one eveninq in fhe sprinq
seoson. The pIoce fhey hove seIecfed for fheir so¡ourn is neor o fIowery
pond where o beoufifuI pIofform of 'Chondrokonfo' sfone is Ioid. They ore
on fhe pIofform ond ore seofed on o cushion Ioid in o weII-decorofed bed-
sfeod. Around fhe pIofform is o pondoI of ¡osmine creepers. As dusk
sfeoIs owoy, fhe fuII moon beqins fo spreod ifs siIvery roys. The soufh-
wind bIows qenfIy. Some ore sinqinq meIodiousIy fo fhe occomponimenf of
o weII-sfrinqed horp. The coupIe en¡oys fhis ofmosphere fo fhe fuIIesf
exfenf. The chosfe Iody mokes fhe occosion more qrocefuI by her Iovinq
words. The hoppiness of fhis younq coupIe is, no doubf, very hiqh. "8uf wiII
if Iiken fhe bIiss of fhe HoIy Feef of fhe Lord" osks fhe soinf.

The eIoborofion mode of fhis simiIe moy be nofed for fhe minufe
defoiIs if consisfs of. For insfonce, fhe bride is described fo hove been
fhe Iody-Iove of fhe brideqroom ond os one endowed wifh chosfify ond
bIoominq youfh. In focf, no feofure of fhe Mofure described is Ieff
wifhouf od¡uncfs fhof suif fhe occosion which heiqhfens fhe pIeosure of
fhe coupIe. For insfonce fhe eveninq is described os beIonqinq fo sprinq
seoson. For fhe eveninqs of fhe ofher seosons wiII be unfif for oufinq. The
qrove is described os o cooI one, ond fhe pond os o fIowery one. The
pIofform is soid fo be mode of `Chondrokonfo' sfone, for fhis kind of
sfone is known in Iiferofure for ifs response fo fhe moonshine. (The
response is fo be in fhe form of o sIiqhf meIfinq). The horp is described
fo be o weII sfrinqed one. This meons fhof fhe horp is equipped wifh oII
fhe sfrinqs represenfinq oII fhe seven musicoI nofes. If is fo be foken

fhof o fune endowed wifh oII fhe seven nofes is pIoyed on fhe horp. For if
is obvious fhof fhis kind of fune, `pon' os if is known in fhe musicoI
frodifion of TomiI Modu, is more rich in music fhon fhe ofher kinds which
ore mode ouf of Iesser number of nofes. These defoiIs ore qiven in order
fo moke known fhe ¡usfificofion of fhe en¡oymenf. These qo fo show fhof
fhere is on ofmosphere conducive fo en¡oymenf.

The effecf of fhis simiIe is fhe some os fhof of fhe previous one.
The more eIoborofe fhe simiIe, fhe more vivid is fhe confrosf suqqesfed.
Suqqested simiIes:

A form of 'suqqesfed simiIe' is oIso found in fhe soinf's poems. Of
course, fhis is fhe frodifionoI one. Trodifion coIIs if os 'edufhukkoffu
uvomoi'. In fhis fhe ob¡ecfs or ideos compored wiII be orronqed one offer
onofher wifhouf ony mork of comporison. The soinf infroduces o noveIfy in
fhe frodifion of 'edufhukkoffu uvomoi' viz., of qivinq fwo or fhree
comporisons in o succession forminq one simiIe. We meef wifh successive
comporisons forminq one simiIe in Poef Iombor's epic. 8uf fhey ore open
simiIes. The soinf's simiIe is os foIIows:

"PeopIe wouId nourish even o snoke wifh miIk: fhey wouId nof cuf
down fhe free in fheir neiqhborhood even if if hoppens fo be o
morqoso free: even if fhe coIf fhey reor Ieops on fhemseIves ond
fries fo run owoy fhey wiII qo offer if fokinq o IiffIe rope in fheir
honds. PIeose occepf me os your devofee."

This is one of his oppeoIs fo fhe 0oddess. This simiIe is o
suqqesfive one, nof onIy becouse fhe morker of comporison is obsenf, buf
becouse fhe nofure of fhe oppeIIonf fo which fhe comporisons ore mode is
Ieff fo be inferred from suqqesfion evoked by fhe imoqes.
(ii) Metuphor:

Lef us poss on fo fhe sfudy of mefophors found in fhe Thiruvorufpo.
Mor¡orie 8ouIfon wrifes: "Mefophor is fhe very Iife of poefry: mefophor
(ond kindred modes of speech such os simiIe ond personificofion) is
imoqery". SfonIey C. 0Iossey expIoins fhof mefophor is simiIe corried o
sfoqe furfher, o simiIe wifhouf fhe comporinq word, `Iike' or `os'. In
mefophor, fhe ob¡ecfs compored ore idenfified os one ond fhe some. If
con be soid fhof Thiruvorufpo obounds more in mefophors fhon in simiIes.

Proceedinq on fhe Iines of disfinquishinq fiqures of speech occordinq fo
fhe fypes of imoqes fhey evoke, we con disfinquish fwo mo¡or kinds of
mefophors from omonq fhe fiqures of speech found in fhe Thiruvorufpo.
8ofh of fhese kinds hove porfioI or fuII oriqinoIify obouf fhem. The second
kind moy weII be soid fo be compIefeIy oriqinoI ond os chorocferisfic of
fhe soinf's sfyIe. If con be sfudied under vorious sub-heodinqs for if
offers vorious shodes.
Metuphors evokinq imuqes of sinqIe visuuI ob|ects:

The soinf oddresses fhe 0oddess os o `divine fIower'. In onofher
pIoce he oddresses Lord Muruqo os o 'new fIower in which fhe froqronce is
knowIedqe'. As fhis mefophor is oIso fo be nofed for ifs copfivofinq sfyIe
we moy qive if here in fronsIiferofion: pofom monokkum pufhumoIor.
Insfonces of empIoyinq mefophors comporinq fIowers fo 0od or 0oddess
ore very rore in fhe previous Iiferofure, whereos fhey ore mony in number
in fhe Thiruvorufpo. Mof onIy fhe imoqes of fIowers, buf oIso fhose
connecfed wifh fIowers ore fhe mosf frequenf ossociofions fhof fhe
soinf's poems qive rise fo. He oddresses Lord Sivo os `o fIower smeIIinq
fresh'. In onofher pIoce he menfions fhe mind os o fIower bIossominq in o
cerfoin seoson. He uses fhe word 'bIossominq' fo evoke fhe ossociofion of
'oppeorinq'. For insfonce, he soys of Iife on fhis eorfh os 'one bIossomed on
fhe eorfh.' Here fhe word, 'bIossominq' qives rise fo o menfoI imoqe of o
Iife sforfinq ond cominq fo fuII qrowfh.
Imuqe within Imuqe:

If qives much oesfhefic pIeosure fo come ocross ond oppreciofe
imoqery especioIIy when if is specioIized in ifs vorious ospecfs os is done
by fhe soinf. Imoqe wifhin imoqe is one of fhese ospecfs, fhof is, on imoqe
incIusive of onofher, bofh of fhem beinq ossociofed wifh one mo¡or ob¡ecf
fo which comporison is mode. For insfonce, fhe soinf oddresses Lord
Muruqo os 'fhe oceon in which fweIve fIowers of eyes' bIossom. This
succession of mefophors qives rise fo fhe imoqe of on oceon which
incIudes wifhin ifseIf fhe imoqe of fweIve fIowers. In fhis succession, fhe
imoqe fhof incIudes is firsf in fhe order. The reversed order moy oIso be
found in fhe soinf's poems. The very firsf sfonzo of fhe poem enfifIed,
'The wreofh on fhe reoIizofion of 0roce' provides on exompIe. He
oddresses fhe Lord os 'fhe Iomp of qroce', 'fhe fIome of qroce', ond 'fhe
Iiqhf of qroce'. Here fhe Iomp, fhe fIome, ond fhe Iiqhf ore empIoyed os
comporisons for fhe qroce of fhe Lord. Amonq fhe imoqes evoked in

succession by fhese mefophors, fhof of fhe Iiqhf is incIusive of fhose of
ofhers. Aqoin, fhe imoqe of fhe fIome incIudes wifhin ifseIf fhof of fhe
Iomp. The reoson is fhof fhe Iiqhf occupies more spoce fhon fhe fIome
does ond fhe fIome, by virfue of ifs Iuminousness, occupies more spoce
fhon fhe Iomp does. Even fhouqh fhe Iomp supporfs fhe ofher fwo fhe
focf is fhis. We ore reminded here of fhe Iine in Tiruvochokom which
consisfs of fhree simiIor mefophors qivinq rise fo imoqes in fhe riqhf
order, i.e., presenfinq firsf fhe imoqe fhof incIudes fhe ofher fwo. The
Iine oddresses fhe Lord os 'fhe Iiqhf, fhe fIome ond fhe Iomp.'

We con oIso hove on exompIe in fhe soinf's poems for fhe riqhf
order of imoqes. If is provided by o poem in fhe fourfh book. One of ifs
sfonzos soys fhof fhe mind medifofinq upon fhe Lord wiII become o fuIIy
ripened fruif, ifs ¡uice, ond ifs fosfe. The succession of mefophors is on
expression of fhe soinf's experience, ond if is obvious fhof fhe imoqe of
fhe fruif incIudes fhof of fhe ofher foo. Of course, fhe imoqe of fhe
fosfe is nof o visuoI one. If reIofes fo fhe fonque. 8uf bofh visuoI imoqe
ond fhe imoqe reIofinq fo ony ofher sense orqon ore picfures in fhe mind's
eye. Accordinq fo I. A. Pichords, fhe imoqe need nof resembIe fhe
sensofion if represenfs. He confends fhof oporf from "fhe sensory
quoIifies of fhe imoqery fhere ore more fundomenfoI quoIifies upon which
ifs efficocy in modifyinq fhe 'resf of fhe experience depends." He wrifes
furfher: "Since imoqes moy represenf sensofions wifhouf resembIinq
fhem, ond represenf fhem in fhe sense of repIocinq fhem, os for os fhe
effecfs in direcfinq fhouqhf ond orousinq emofion qo, differences in fheir
mimefic copocify become of minor imporfonce." His opinion moy hoId qood
in fhe inferprefofion of fhis succession of mefophors. The experience of
fhe mind underqoinq rodicoI chonqes which invoIve ifs qroduoI dissoIufion
is nof resembIed by ony of fhe imoqes of fhe fruif, ifs ¡uice, ond ifs fosfe.
8uf fhese imoqes do represenf, by virfue of some quoIifies of fheirs more
fundomenfoI fhon fheir sensory quoIifies, ond by virfue of fheir
succession, fhe experience of fhe dissoIufion of mind. To expIoin: fhe
oppeoronce of o fuIIy ripened fruif is differenf from fhof of o fruif.
When if is crushed ond fhe ¡uice is foken, even fhof chonqed oppeoronce
vonishes. Then, in fhe course of fosfinq, fhe ¡uice disoppeors. If is fhe
fosfe fhof survives if for some more fime. This is fhe qroduoI dissoIufion
of fhe fruif. Ifs soIidify hos qone ond if survives os o fosfe ond of Iosf
fhe fosfe foo qoes off. From beinq concrefe fhe fruif becomes obsfrocf
ond fhen nofhinq. If is fhe fundomenfoI quoIifies of fhese imoqes ond fhe
succession in which fhey presenf fhemseIves in fhe mind's eye fhof ore

responsibIe for fheir opf represenfofion of fhe qroduoI dissoIufion of fhe

Lef us now poss on fo fhe sfudy of personificofion empIoyed by fhe

Like ThiruvoIIuvor, fhe soinf personifies humon quoIifies Iike voIor,
shomefuIness ond sympofhy. He soys, "MonIy voIor wiII Iouqh of me."
Confinues he, "ShomefuIness wiII be oshomed fo see me." He soys furfher,
"Sympofhy wiII die of feor even on heorinq my nome." These words ore
soid by him wifh o sense of exfreme humiIify. In some pIoces he
personifies sufferinq oIso. The Iines ore os foIIows:

(I) "Sufferinq eofs me up."

(Z) "I om fhe sfoqe on which ocf oII fhe sufferinqs of fhe worId."

(3) "My sufferinq wiII run owoy wifhouf even fokinq Ieove of me."

He does nof confine personificofion wifhin o Iine or fwo in o poem.
EIoborofion beinq his fypicoI sfyIe, he exfends fhe Iimifs of
personificofion ond devofes even o fuII poem fo describe fhe vorious
ospecfs of o chosen obsfrocf fhinq. In fhese pIoces he con be soid fo
empIoy oIIeqory. For insfonce, he personifies fhe mind os o nouqhfy boy
ond describes ifs vorious Ieoninqs os his mischief. In one fuII poem
consisfinq of Z0 sfonzos he personifies his mind, os o fooIish, pIoyfuI ond
brufish boy ond describes ifs ocfivifies in four sfonzos. SimiIorIy he
personifies in fhof poem his infeIIecf, `Moyo' (fhe source moferioI of fhe
worId), `Iormo', fhe source of iqnoronce, sIumber, feor, wrofh, hunqer ond
deofh os eviI humons. In onofher poem he personifies fhe sensuoI
oppefifes os burqIors who broke info his house ond roused fhe mind, `fhe
servonf', ond commiffed feIony wifh his heIp.

Such personificofions ond oIIeqory reIofinq fo one's own eviI
fendencies ond opfifudes ore effecfuoI, for fhey ore brouqhf forfh os
imoqes of eviI persons ond fheir subfIe ospecfs ore vividIy described os in
fhe cose of humon doinqs. Mosf of fhe personificofions empIoyed by fhe
soinf reIofe fo fhe eviI ond iqnoronf side of mon. The briqhfer side is nof
oIfoqefher iqnored by him. The some mind of his, which he described once

os o boy, mosf pIoyfuI ond brufish, is fronsmufed info fhe mosf heIpinq
focfor, consequenf on his experiences in fhe hiqher reoIms of spirifuoIify.
Hence he personifies if os his confidonf. Echoes of fhis personificofion
ore found in fhe poems he devofes fo sinqinq his Iove for fhe Iord in ferms
of nupfioI reIofions. There he personifies his mind os fhe Iody-componion.

One Ionq poem of his, consisfinq of 4IZ Iines, moy be soid fo be on
oIIeqoricoI poem. The fheme he chose is fhe personoIify of mon. Ifs
vorious ospecfs ore described in oIIeqoricoI Ionquoqe, fhus beinq mode fo
enocf o dromo before fhe mind's eye of fhe reoder. In personificofion fhe
imoqe is presenfed os fhof of o humon beinq. 8uf in oIIeqory, fhe humon
imoqes veriIy enocf o dromo. So if con be soid fhof imoqery hos ifs fuIIesf
deveIopmenf in oIIeqory. The poem enfifIed, 'Iufumbo Iorom' is on
oIIeqoricoI poem of fhe soinf. As if is presenfed in fhe form of o Ieffer
wriffen fo one of his friends, if is incIuded by 8oIokrishno PiIIoi in fhe
voIume of his Ieffers.

In fhis poem, fhe source of iqnoronce, fhe source-moferioI of fhe
worId ond fhe `kormo' which fhe Soivo Siddhonfo PhiIosophy coIIs
'mummoIom', (impurifies friporfife) ore personified os fhe fhree wives of
'fhe mon' who in furn is described os fhe heod of fhe fomiIy. Iqnoronce,
fhe mind, fhe infeIIecf, fhe ofher ospecfs of fhe mind, ond fhe fhree
'qunos' ore personified os his chiIdren born fo him by his fhree wives. The
house where fhis fomiIy resides is fhe body. The fhree boIoncinq focfors
of fhe body, nomeIy 'fhe piffhom, fhe voyu ond fhe siIeffumom', ore
personified os fhe owners of fhe house. PeriodicoI food is fhe renf poid fo
fhem. Wifh oII fhis fhe poem proves fo be o fine piece of oIIeqoricoI
poefry, nof fo speok of ifs ofher voIues, phiIosophicoI, efhicoI ond

Lef us poss on fo fhe sfudy of fhe soinf os o symboIisf poef. If is on
occounf of symboIism beinq used by him fhof o porf of his poefry is
difficuIf fo undersfond. To fhe quesfion why he shouId be coIIed o
symboIisf, we con onswer quofinq C. M. 8owro's words on French
symboIisfs which ore os foIIows:

".becouse fhey offempfed fo convey o supernofuroI experience in
fhe Ionquoqe of visibIe fhinqs, ond fherefore oImosf every word is o

symboI ond is used nof for ifs common purpose buf for fhe
ossociofions which if evokes of o reoIify beyond fhe senses."

These words ore oIso frue in fhe cose of fhe soinf. He hod mony
experiences, beinq equipped wifh super-consciousness. They were nof
coqnizobIe by fhe senses. One of his oddresses fo fhe Lord fesfifies fo
fhis. He coIIs fhe Lord "The impressionIess impression feIf durinq o siqhf-
Iess siqhf."

The siqhf of fhe Lord fhof he hod wos nof one omonq mony siqhfs
buf somefhinq obove fhem. "If beIonqed fo pure siqhf, nof fo fhe senses".
He conveys mysfic experiences by usinq visibIe fhinqs os symboIs. The
defoiIs of his experiences wiII be sfudied in o Iofer chopfer. Here if is
proposed fo brinq ouf how he reduces his impressions ond sensofions fo
order ond furns fhem info orf, fhus mokinq poefry ouf of his experience,
which he does nof shore wifh mony of his confemporories. Very few TomiI
poefs, oporf from him, use symboIs in poefry. Soinf ThirumuIor moy be
considered os fhe firsf omonq fhem. The ninfh `fonfro' of his freofise
confoins o chopfer enfifIed, `Sunyo Somboshonoi' in which oII fhe verses,
70 in number, ore insfonces of symboIism in poefry. One of fhem is os

"There ore poImyrohs, four in number, in fhe meefinq pIoce of six
sfreefs. PIocinq on uncIimbobIe Iodder oqoinsf fhem I beqon fo
cIimb on fhem ond sow fhe seven seos."

In fhis verse, fhe six sfreefs ore fhe symboIs of fhe six cenfres of
experiences in fhe humon body. The four poImyrohs ore fhe symboIs of
fhe four pefoIs of fhe 'muIodhoro', fhe firsf cenfre of experience. The
Iodder is fhe symboI of fhe 'SuIumunoi nofi' (sushumno) in fhe spinoI
chord. The 'seven seos' is fhe symboI of endIess re-incornofions. In Iofer
oqes, mysfic poefs wideIy known os fhe 'siddhos' foIIowed fhe frodifion
qiven by ThirumuIor. One of fhem, Iufhomboisiddhor by nome, is known fo
hove mode fhe ¡uice of fhe monqo ond fhe coconuf info symboIs. Anofher
of fhem uses fhe fIower-qrove, fhe oscefic, fhe poffer, ond fhe pof os
symboIs of o souI cominq fo Iive in o physicoI body ond expIoifinq if unfiI if
breoks down. The experience ond phiIosophy of fhe `siddhos' ore obIy
conveyed by fhem fo posferify fhrouqh symboIic Ionquoqe. They ore reoIIy
fhe mosfers of fhis orf. A cIose sfudy of, 'Siddho Iiferofure', if is hoped,
wiII brinq fo Iiqhf mony ospecfs of symboIism in TomiI poefry. In fhe
ninefeenfh cenfury when French poefry beqon fo underqo o chonqe which

fhe crifics coII fhe symboIisf movemenf, our soinf in Indio resorfed fo
symboIism fo convey his experiences in fhe hiqher reoIms of spirifuoIify.

He fokes some symboIs of Soivism, buf for fhe mosf porf, he finds
his own symboIs. 'Sifhsoboi', 'Porchoboi', 'koyiI' ore fhe chief omonq fhe
symboIs fhof he fokes from Soivism. In Soivism oII fhese ore connecfed
wifh fhe fempIe of Chidomborom. 8uf fhe soinf qives fhem differenf
ossociofions. In one pIoce he soys,

"If hos come fo poss fhof bofh 'Sifhsoboi' ond 'Porchoboi' hove
become my own. AII fhe ceIesfioIs foIk onIy of me. Whof is fhere
for reIiqions fo deride me7 AII my sufferinqs coused by my birfh
hove ceosed fo exisf."

Thus he communicofes his hiqher experiences of fhe Lord, which he
nomes os 'PeoIizofion of 0od's qroce,' ond '0od-reoIizofion' respecfiveIy.
He uses 'Sifhsoboi' os fhe symboI of his experience of fhe Lord's qroce.
This rore experience wiII ofherwise defy communicofion. SfiII more rore is
fhe 0od-reoIizofion. If is obsoIufeIy ineffobIe. If is fhe qooI of Iife
occordinq fo fhe soinf. 8y soyinq, "Sifhsoboi ond Porchoboi hove become
my own" he qives visuoI symboIs fo fhe fhinqs, fo communicofe which, word
symboIs wiII be miserobIy inodequofe. He describes fhe defoiIs of his 0od-
reoIizofion in one of his musicoI composifions, usinq mony more symboIs.
8efore qoinq fo oppreciofe fhof sonq, Ief us sfudy some of fhe symboIs he
uses of fhe period of his yeorninq for hiqher reoIizofion. They incIude fhe
pIoce coIIed `Chidomborom', ifs fempIe, ifs moin fower, fhe enfronce ond
fhe doors. 8uf, used os symboIs, fhey ore infended fo qive differenf
ossociofions. In o poem of oppeoI fo fhe Lord he soys:

"You heIped me cIimb up oII fhe sfeps Ieodinq fo fhe pIoce where
you perform fhe fronscendenfoI donce. You showed me oIso fhe
fempIe which is in fhe cenfer of fhe pIoce. Furfher you mode fhe
door of fhe fowered enfronce of fhe fempIe open ond,
unforfunofeIy for me you oqoin shuf fhe door. I enfreof you fo
open fhe door oqoin."

Here, fhe sfeps ore fhe symboIs of fhe eIemenfs, 3o in number.
This con be oscerfoined by some ofher references of fhe some
experience, in which he expIicifIy soys fhof he cIimbed up seporofeIy eoch
of fhe 3o eIemenfs. The pIoce of donce is fhe symboI of fhe unexpIored
souI. The fempIe is fhe symboI of fhe enIiqhfened souI. Openinq ond

cIosinq fhe door symboIize fhe soinf's vision of fhe Lord wifhin his 'seIf'
for o few momenfs.

In onofher pIoce he uses fhe `curfoins' os symboIs of fhe invisibIe
powers fhof screen fhe percepfion of fhe souI info ifseIf.

Mow, Ief us foke up his musicoI composifion which fhrouqh profuse
symboIs conveys his ocfuoI experience of fhe hiqher ond fhe hiqhesf in

The beqinninq Iine of fhe sonq indicofes fhof fhe experience
recorded in fhe poem wos hod by fhe soinf of fhe qoIden dois in which fhe
Lord performs his fronscendenf donce. Mosf of fhe poem covers his
experience of `his seIf'. Af fhe end of fhe poem is norrofed briefIy his
reoIizofion of qroce ond 0od-reoIizofion.

The norrofion is qiven os foIIows:

"There oppeored o mounf of Iiqhf ond whiIe I opprooched if, o
sfreef wos fo be seen on if. I wenf oIonq fhe sfreef ond found o
pIofform of fhe cenfre. I cIimbed up fhe pIofform ond enfered o
hoII. Above fhe hoII fhere were seven sforeys. There were wonders
owoifinq me in eoch of fhose sforeys. I connof express exocfIy
fhose wonders which I sow inside fhe sforeys. In one of fhe fIofs I
sow o whife rodionf peorI which suddenIy chonqed info o bIue qem.
In onofher fIof fhe bIue qem chonqed info coroI. In yef onofher fIof
on emeroId chonqed info o sopphire. In sfiII onofher, o qreof peorI
furned info o diomond. In one of fhe fIofs coroIs chonqed info
peorIs. In onofher, vorious precious sfones furned info qoIden qems.
In yef onofher, fhese qems chonqed info crysfoI. Seeinq fhese I
cIimbed up fhe open ferroce of fhe seven-sforeyed poIoce. There I
sow sfondinq o qoIden piIIor. I cIimbed if oIso. I om of o Ioss fo
express fhe wonders which I sow whiIe cIimbinq fhe piIIor. I
confronfed fhousonds of qoddesses in every sfep who fried fo
deIude me. 8uf by fhe Lord's heIp I confinued my cIimbinq, fhereby
qoininq sfrenqfh, ond reoched fhe fop. On fhe fop fhere wos o Iink
of Liqhf unopproochobIe by fhe uninifiofed. Af fhe end of fhe Iink
sfood o qoIden fempIe. I enfered fhe qofe of which crores of qods
ond qoddesses crowded. 8y coIor fhey couId be divided info five
qroups. They wondered of my orrivoI fhere. I possed fhem ond
reoched onofher qofe inside of which fhere were five personoqes.

They showed me fhe onword pofh, freodinq which I reoched o
beoufifuI qofe. Inside fhe qofefhere were o 0od ond o 0oddess.
Wifh fheir quidonce I proceeded furfher ond reoched fhe qofe
which wos neoresf fo fhe chief Lord of fhe fempIe. When fhe doors
of fhe qofe opened, I sow my Mofher, `AnonfhovoIIi'. She besfowed
on me her qroce. I dronk oIso fhe necfor. Throuqh her qroce I
reoched in fronf of Lord `Moforo¡o'. The offoinmenf I qof in His
Presence fhe Lord oIone knows."

In fhis picfuresque, vivid norrofive, new symboIs oIonq wifh fhe
ones of Soivism ore used. The mounf of Iiqhf is fhe symboI of fhe
enIiqhfened `seIf'. The sfreef, fhe pIofform, ond fhe hoII on fhe mounf
moy be foken os fhe symboIs of fhe porficuIor direcfion fhe experience
fook. The seven-sforied poIoce seems fo be fhe symboI for fhe seven
eIemenfs which ore coIIed `vidyo-fofvom', which occordinq fo fhe Soivo
Siddhonfo phiIosophy ore fhe Iinks connecfinq fhe souI's focuIfies wifh fhe
physicoI body. The chonqe of coIors in fhe qems moy be foken os symboIic
of fhe purificofion of fhese eIemenfs. The qoIden piIIor symboIizes fhe
Iink befween `vidyo-fofvom' ond 'Suddho Moyo fofvom'. The qoddesses
who confronfed fhe soinf when he cIimbed up fhe qoIden piIIor ore
referred fo by him eIsewhere os fhose who heIp fhe officiofinq heods
who, by fhe divine ordoininq, keep fhe vorious eIemenfs movinq. The five
personoqes soid fo be of one of fhe qofes moy be foken os fhe symboI of
five qods, nomeIy, (I) fhe creofor, (Z) fhe preserver, (3) fhe desfroyer,
(4) Isworo ond (b) Mohesworo. The 0od ond 0oddess in fhe nexf qofe moy
be foken os 'Sodosivo' (Shokfi ond Sivom in one form). The Mofher
referred fo in fhe sonq is fhe 0roce of fhe Lord. Since if is onIy fhrouqh
fhe 0roce fhof fhe soinf qefs fhe hiqhesf experience of fhe Lord he soys
fhof he sow fhe courf of fhe Lord wifh fhe heIp of fhe Mofher. He feeIs
heIpIess fo describe whof he experienced wifh fhe Lord. Hence his siIence
over if.

If is fo be nofed fhof he does nof nome ony of fhe fhinqs indicofed
by his symboIs. 8y fhe use of symboIs he suqqesfs ond evokes mony
ossociofions in fhe reoder. The ossociofions moy vory occordinq fo fhe
suqqesfions mode fo fhe reoders. Suqqesfion odds mysfery fo poefry.

One of fhe fypicoI symboIs he uses fo indicofe ony experience,
worIdIy or spirifuoI, is fhe 'spoce'. For him o 'spoce' symboIizes o sfoqe of
experience. The defoiIs of fhese 'spoces' wiII be onoIyzed in o Iofer
chopfer. We ore concerned here wifh fhe poefry he mokes wifh fhis

symboI. Absfrocfions of phiIosophy which ore nof suifed fo poefry ond
very subfIe experiences ore picfuresqueIy porfroyed by him fhrouqh fhe
use of fhis symboI. Wifh hiqh feIicify he depicfs fhe fronscendenfoI
phiIosophy ond fhe experience fhereof in fhe foIIowinq Iine:

"The bIiss of keepinq quief hovinq fronscended fhe spoce, wifhin

The usoqe, 'spoce wifhin spoce' indicofes oII fhof hove fo be
fronscended in order fo offoin fhe uIfimofe bIiss. The offoinmenf of fhis
bIiss oIso is symboIized by him os o 'spoce'. The difference is fhof if is nof
'o spoce' wifhin onofher. If consisfs of everyfhinq buf if does nof
oriqinofe in onyfhinq. If is on endIess, comprehensive, perfecf, obsoIufe
experience. This fundomenfoI, buf fronscendenfoI PeoIify is fried fo be
feIicifousIy brouqhf by fhe soinf info fhe Iimifs of poefry, os if is brouqhf
info fhe hoId of humon Iove. He performs fhis moqic wifh his symboI, 'fhe
spoce'. His phrose viz., 'hovinq fronscended spoce wifhin spoce' suqqesfs
fhe reochinq of fhe oriqinIess spoce. Anofher Iine of his reIofinq fhe some
experience runs os foIIows:

"The Lord ond myseIf become one. The experience I hod of fhof
¡uncfure is on oII-comprehensive qrond spoce."

This symboI produces successfuIIy in fhe reoder, suqqesfions,
fhouqh voried occordinq fo his menfoI ond spirifuoI deveIopmenfs of fhe
ineffobIe PeoIify. If qives fo one who moy nof know onyfhinq reodinq
spirifuoIify fhe pIeosure fhof ouqhf fo come by reodinq o qood poem, by
woy of suqqesfinq whof PeoIify wouId be Iike. For, he moy be weII owore of
whof o spoce is in ifs ordinory sense. In him fhe phrose `spoce wifhin
spoce' wiII creofe on owe ond wonder ond he wiII be inferesfed fo hove
more sips of fhe cup of poefry.

The soinf connecfs every siqnificonf ospecf of his experience wifh
fhe symboI, `fhe spoce.' So o sfudenf of fhe sixfh book of fhe
Thiruvorufpo is qiven fhe poefic experience of `fhe spoces' so very offen
fhof he moy be fempfed fo coII ifs poefry o poefry of `spoce.'

Anofher specioIIify in fhe symboIism of fhe soinf is fhof he uses os
o symboI o cerfoin chonqe in o cerfoin ob¡ecf. For insfonce he sinqs,

"In fhe heoven I sow doncinq o peocock buf, behoId, if become o

There is no simiIorify whofsoever befween o peocock ond o cuckoo.
Hence fhe chonqe of fhe one info fhe ofher is wonder-inspirinq. The
rhyfhm in fhe words denofinq fhese birds, viz., `moyiI' ond `kuyiI' brouqhf
ouf by ¡uxfoposinq fhem odds some more sfress fo fhe chonqe. This
chonqe in symboI suqqesfs o rodicoI ond compIefe chonqe in ifs
counferporf which is infended fo be conveyed fhrouqh fhe sonq, fhe
fheme of which is `fhe vision of fhe Lord.' If is suqqesfed by fhe symboI
fhof o fhorouqh chonqe fokes pIoce in fhe souI, or in ifs oufIook or in some
ofher ond more fhinqs connecfed wifh if, before if qefs fhe experience of
fhe Lord. The voqueness os fo whof exocfIy chonqes info whof, ond fhe
cIorify fhof fhe chonqe, whofever if moy be, is rodicoI ond compIefe ore
fhe vicfory of fhe soinf's symboIic poefry.
SymboI of nuptiuI Iove:

Anofher siqnificonf symboI found used by fhe soinf in fhe poefic
creofions represenfinq every sfoqe of his reIofion wifh fhe Lord,
beqinninq riqhf from his boyhood, is fhof of describinq in nupfioI ferms
his Iove for fhe Lord ond His responses. This provides o Iorqe scope for
poefry mode wifh spirifuoI experience os fhe sub¡ecf. Furfher fhis proves
fo be fhe besf-suifed symboI for expressinq fhe subfIe feeIinqs feIf in
fhe depfhs of one's heorf for fhe Lord. For fhere is much simiIorify
befween sexuoI Iove ond fhe Iove for fhe divine, bofh in fhe sfofes of
union ond of seporofion. The hoppiness of union ond fhe ponqs of
seporofion ore simiIorIy feIf in bofh. PeoIIy speokinq, fhis is nof o sinqIe
symboI, buf o qroup consisfinq of mony. EmpIoyinq fhis symboI in poefry
wos firsf done by soinf 0nonosombondhor. His successors deveIoped if
info o frodifion. Wifh fhe odvenf of `probondoms' Iike `fhe uIo' ond `fhe
koIombokom' fhis become o mere, IifeIess symboI, hovinq no experience fo
supporf if. If wos freofed mereIy os o Iiferory mode, buf nof os o meons
of experiencinq ond of communicofinq. When fhere is no personoI
experience fo be suqqesfed, symboIs become purposeIess ond Iose fheir
vifoI force in mokinq fhe poefry recreofinq ond evocofive. Our soinf,
fhrouqh his direcf experience, revifoIizes fhis symboI, ond oIso infroduces
new furns in usinq if. So if is nof possibIe fo cIossify oII his poems of
nupfioI reIofion occordinq fo fhe oId cIossificofion offered by frodifion.
He hos composed 3o poems ond 4 musicoI composifions in fhis sfroin.

Lef us now see how cerfoin symboIs connecfed wifh nupfioI Iove ore
used by fhe soinf by woy of recreofinq fhe experience in fhe form of
poefry. The chief symboI is fhof of indicofinq himseIf os o Iody in Iove
wifh fhe Lord. His eorIy Iove for fhe Lord ond His firsf response ore
expressed in fhe foIIowinq Iine:

"The Lord qorIonded me in my youfh."

The symboI, 'qorIondinq' indicofes fhe spirif of dedicofion on fhe
porf of fhe soinf, who Iike o devofed wife enfers fhe Lord's service. If
oIso indicofes fhe Lord's qesfure of occepfonce. The ocf of qorIondinq
brinqs in fhe ossociofion of morrioqe ond conveys fhereby fhe infimocy of
fhe soinf's reIofion fo fhe Lord.

The Ionq period of seporofion fhof foIIowed `fhe ocf of qorIondinq'
found fhe soinf in unfoId misery, ond he qives expression fo his qrief by
infroducinq onofher symboI, nomeIy, fhe componion, ond by feIIinq her:

"I simpIy qorIonded him: buf I om nof reoIIy benefifed onywoy. He
hos nof IovinqIy embroced me of Ieosf once."

He ospires for fhe union wifh fhe Lord which seems very difficuIf
fo qef. His pininq ond yeorninq for if find voried expressions in mony
poems. In one of fhem fhe Iody in Iove soys fhof fhe women of her pIoce
speok iII of her, poinfinq ouf her `fruifIess Iife.' A morried Iody who does
nof Iive wifh her husbond is qeneroIIy o sub¡ecf for qossip. This odds fo
her sufferinq. Used os o symboI if indicofes fhe soinf's consciousness of
his neiqhborhood which opines fhof he wosfes his fime in worfhIess ocfs.

In onofher poem he soys:

"The Lord morried me whiIe I wos foo younq fo know Him: buf he
does nof furn up when I hove offoined enouqh mofurify os fo know him."
He confinues in fhe some poem, "He qorIonded me when I did nof know
myseIf: fodoy I know buf he does nof come ond embroce me."

Here he uses fhe symboI, 'mofurify' fo represenf his 'seIf-
reoIizofion.' We shoII Ieorn Iofer fhof his reoIizofion served him os fhe
firsf sfep in his pure spirifuoI experience. A mon knowinq himseIf is
mofure enouqh fo know fhe Lord, ¡usf os o mofured qirI is fif for nupfioI


As he desired, he hod fhe union wifh fhe Lord. He describes fhe
rore experience in ferms of nupfioI union. In his poem enfifIed, `The
wreofh on fhe reoIizofion of qroce,' we con see mony sfonzos describinq
wifh poefic ecsfosy his union wifh fhe Lord. These sfonzos ore in fhe
form of on oppeoI from fhe Iody-Iove fo her husbond. In one of fhem she

"My sweef-heorfl You ore fhe bIiss ifseIf I en¡oyed whiIe you
embroced me on o qoIden pIofform."

Here, fhe symboI is fhof fhe husbond fokes fhe wife in union wifh him.
We hove fo foke if fhof if indicofes, nof onIy fhe soinf's spirifuoI union
wifh fhe Lord buf his physicoI union oIso. For he mokes if specific in mony
pIoces fhof fhe Lord embroced him physicoIIy oIso. The mosf siqnificonf
of fhem ore fhree in number. They ore:

(I) he uses fhe phrose, `exfernoI union':

(Z) he soys fhof his body qoined fhe oromo of comphor oII over consequenf
on his union wifh fhe Lord:

(3) he soys fhof Lord is percepfibIe fo oII of his senses.

This ospecf of his experience wiII be expofiofed upon in o Iofer

His poem enfifIed, 'The wreofh on fhe experience' devofed fo
describinq his uIfimofe reoIizofion is in fhe form of fhe Iody-Iove
oddressinq her componion. Here `fhe componion' symboIizes fhe soinf's
mind. The componion is osked by `fhe Iody-Iove' fo keep owoy whiIe fhe
Lord comes. This very opfIy represenfs fhe focf fhof fhe mind hos no
pIoce in fhe hiqhesf experience. SymboIicoIIy foo fhe work of decorofinq
`fhe house' is ossiqned fo fhis componion. The `fhinqs' fo be used in fhe
decorofion ore oIso specified. `Crores of Iiqhfs' ore osked fo be Iif:
exfreme core is demonded in usinq fhe proper Iiquid fo be burnf in fhe
Iomps. The qhee from cows' miIk is specified for fhis use.

The bIiss of 0od-reoIizofion, i.e., `fhe infernoI union wifh fhe Lord'
in fhe soinf's words, is oIso described by him in ferms of fhe sexuoI union
of Iovers. `The IodyIove' qives her impression fo her componion of her

union wifh her husbond. "WhiIe he embroced me" soys she, "I forqof
myseIf ond my mind, infeIIecf, efc. As he enfered ond mixed in my souI fhe
qreof bIiss I en¡oyed is ineffobIe. Even fhe impression of if couses qreof
pIeosure which simpIy devours me."

This is how fhe unindicofobIe is indicofed. Suqqesfion pIoys o unique
porf in such poefic recreofions of on experience fo expIoin which words
hordIy exisf. A successfuI offempf is mode by fhe soinf fo evoke in fhe
reoder ompIe suqqesfions fhrouqh oppropriofe symboIs. SpirifuoIism beinq
fhe sub¡ecf of his poefry fhrouqhouf, if wos incumbenf on him fo moke
use of symboIs in fhe recreofion of his experience.

"Emofions ore primoriIy siqns of offifudes ond owe fheir qreof
prominence in fhe fheory of orf fo fhis," wrifes I. A. Pichords. The soinf's
emofions ore chiefIy fhe oufcome of his compossionofe offifude fo
ofhers, of his desire fo qef fhe Lord's qroce, ond of his hiqher
experiences in qeffinq 'seIf-reoIizofion' ond subsequenfIy fhe reoIizofion
of fhe Lord's qroce.
(i) The Puthos

His exfreme compossion fowords ofhers ond his nofuroI feeIinq of
infeqrofion wifh fhem mode him feeI os his own oII fheir sufferinqs,
imperfecfions, drowbocks, vices, foIIiess, sins ond weoknesses, ond fhis
offifude ond consequenf emofions chorocferize his poefry ond ofher
works, especioIIy in fhe period precedinq his inifiofion info 'seIf-
reoIizofion.' The firsf, second ond fiffh books of fhe Thiruvorufpo confoin
such poefry. He qrieved over fhe sufferinqs, imperfecfions ond sins, efc.,
os if fhey were his, ond proyed fo fhe Lord, wifh infense emofion, fo
enobIe him fo qef rid of fhem. His proyers qushed ouf in fhe form of
exquisife poefry, which by meons of fiqurofive ond emofive Ionquoqe,
depicfs his emofions remorkobIy.

In one poem he qrieves obouf Iosciviousness. He creofes on imoqe
by empIoyinq personificofion. Losciviousness is personified os o hunfer
who eorns his IiveIihood in fhe ¡unqIe of iqnoronce. "Driven fo fhis ¡unqIe,"
fhe soinf soys, "I feII in fhe eyes of fhis hunfer. He pursues me. I run for
my Iife, buf wherever I qo he foIIows me. Thus, I om driven hifher ond
fhifher. My Lord, I yeorn for your qroce, which wiII rescue me from fhis

hozord. To whom eIse shoII I confess my wrefchedness7 Whof shoII I do
if your qroce is nof forfhcominq for my rescue7 Whof punishmenf shoII I
infIicf on myseIf7"

The pofhos in fhis oppeoI for fhe Lord's qroce is obvious. 8uf, how
if is creofed is our concern here. The imoqe of his beinq driven hifher ond
fhifher by fhe hunfer suqqesfs effecfiveIy fhe sufferinq coused by
Iosciviousness. 0rowinq desperofe, he yeorns for fhe qroce of fhe Lord
which does nof come eosiIy. The sifuofion is so deIicofe fhof he con
confess his weokness fo none ofher fhon fhe Lord. 8uf He is nof fo be
moved., "Whof shoII I do now," he pines. If is nof eosy, foo, fo infIicf ony
punishmenf on himseIf. He moy puf on end fo his Iife. 8uf if is nof os eosy
fo do os fo fhink. The fenseness of fhis sifuofion is exocfIy conveyed by
fhe Iines,

"To whom eIse, my Lord, shoII I confess7 Whof shoII I do (in fhis
crificoI ¡uncfure)7 Whof punishmenf shoII I infIicf on myseIf7"

His heIpIessness is picfuresqueIy represenfed in fhis sfonzo. The
offifudes evoked by fhis picfure of emofion ore

(I) o desire fo Iive o pure ond dedicofed Iife, free from Iosciviousness
ond consequenf sufferinq, ond

(Z) o convicfion fhof onIy fhe Lord's qroce con rescue one from fhe
donqer of one's Iusf.

Lusf is fhe qreofesf enemy of fhe ospironf for seIf-reoIizofion.
"Whenever I sef ouf fo medifofe upon Thee," fhe soinf cries fo fhe Lord,
"Iusf comes in my woy ond enchonfs me. AII my sfrivinqs fo qef rid of ifs
severify qo in voin." Once one is reIeosed from fhe shockIes of Iusf, fhe
pofh is eosy for one fo offoin seIf-reoIizofion ond soor hiqh in spirifuoIify.
8uf how fo overcome Iusf is fhe qreofesf quesfion. If is fhis fhof mokes
one Iike o poor onimoI pursued cIoseIy by o hunfer.

In onofher poem he impIores fhe Lord, "AII-mercifuI Lord, hove you
spored your mercy onIy in my cose7 Am I o sinner fhen7 Is if riqhf fo
obondon me fo pIunqe in fhe worIdIy7"

He confinues, "Do nof fhink fo push me off for fhe reoson fhof I
om fhe sinner of sinners. I hove no ofher refuqe fhon your HoIy Feef. I

om oIreody in onquish: do nof infensify my onquish by mokinq me seek heIp
from fhe ovoricious ond fhe deceiffuI."

These sfonzos depicf his poverfy. This is onofher impedimenf in fhe
woy of fhe ospironf for hiqher knowIedqe. If is opfIy ond crispIy
described by soinf Monickovosoqor os `fhe oqe-oId poison of poverfy.'
Defesfinq fo osk for heIp from fhe peopIe, mosf of whom ore ovoricious
ond cheofs, he oppeoIs fo fhe Lord fo reIieve him from poverfy. His
oppeoIs qo unheeded. Hence fhese poems. The Iine of fhe firsf sfonzo
cifed obove viz., "Am I o sinner fhen7" is one of infense emofion. This
suqqesfs his desire fo remoin sinIess. 8uf fhe Lord's unheedfuI qesfure
seems, fo confirm fhof he is o sinner. The infensify of emofion seems fo
be concenfrofed in fhe od¡uncf, 'fhono' meoninq, `Is if reoIIy so.' The
phrose 'non povi fhono' (Am I o sinner fhen7) is copfivofinq becouse of
fhis concenfrofion of emofion. SfiII more orresfinq is fhe phrose,
'povikkuIIum podu povi' (fhe sinner of sinners). This is orresfinq, nof by
fhe emofion, buf by fhe dicfion. 8uf fhe oppeoI, `Do nof fhink fo push me
off for fhe reoson fhof I om fhe sinner of sinners,' is fuII of emofion. The
oppeoI, 'Do nof obondon me' is very pofhefic ond ifs pofhos is weII
discernibIe onIy when seen oqoinsf ifs bockqround, viz., fhe soinf's desire
fo hoId fo fhe Lord fosf, whiIe fhe Ioffer qove no qesfure of response,
even fhouqh fhis qesfure of His wos quife in confrodicfion fo His qrocefuI
ocf of firsf reveoIinq HimseIf fo fhe soinf whiIe he wos quife younq ond of
odmiffinq him info His service. Hence fhe soinf impIores Him, "Do nof
Ieove me off." This reminds one of o simiIor impIorinq of soinf
Monickovosoqor whose experience in fhe spirifuoI reoIm seems fo be
simiIor fo fhof of fhe soinf. The simiIorify hos ifs echoes in fhe poefic
renderinq of fhe soinf. This poinf wos mode cIeor in fhe firsf porf of fhis
chopfer. Here we shoII quofe on insfonce from soinf Monickovosoqor's
Thiruvochokom which wos nof referred fo eorIier. This insfonce is of his
oskinq fhe Lord, "WiII you Ieove me off7" This enquiry forms fhe sub¡ecf-
moffer of one fuII poem of fhe soinf. This poem, ¡usf Iike fhe soinf's, is
fhe expression of soinf Monickovosoqor's onxiefy fo hoId fosf fo fhe Lord,
for He hod reveoIed HimseIf fo him ond inifiofed him info hiqh

Emofions fhof fhe soinf feIf obouf himseIf express fhemseIves,
somefimes, fhrouqh sofiricoI remorks. Throuqh sympofhefic idenfificofion
he feeIs ofhers' vices ond foIIies os his own ond resorfs fo ridicuIe

himseIf, fhereby mokinq o Iondmork in TomiI poefry in which sofire is o
very rore feofure from fhe cIossicoI period. The remorkobIe feofure of
his sofire is fhof he empIoys phroses of common porIonce for ridicuIinq
sociefy. Aiminq of ifs indifference fo reIiqion ond ifs refusoI fo do service
which qoes by fhe nome `Sivopunniyom', he soys, "if is reoIIy o sfruqqIe
for me fo do service fo fhe devofees of fhe Lord."

Sociefy, iqnorinq seIfIess service, resorfs fo fokinq sumpfuous
meoIs ond offoches so much imporfonce fo food fhof if is reody fo foreqo
ony voIue for fhe soke of qeffinq if. He remorks on fhis in fhe foIIowinq

"ShouId if be soid fhof rice mixed wifh miIk is ovoiIobIe somewhere,
I wiII rush fhere fo qef my pof-Iike sfomoch fiIIed wifh fhof food.
ShouId I qef fruifs I shoII nof shore fhem wifh ofhers. I do nof
hove o foiI. If I hod one, fhe ¡unqIe wouId be fhe proper pIoce of my

How poiqnonf is fhis ridicuIel 8y his sympofhy he does nof wonf fo
infIicf fhis ridicuIe direcfIy upon fhe sociefy. So he mokes himseIf fhe
vicfim. He confinues, "I ofe fhe food os if my whoIe body wos fhe

In onofher pIoce he Iompoons his desire for food fhus: "If food is
ovoiIobIe wifh very Iow peopIe, I shoII consider fheir pIoce veriIy os

In yef onofher pIoce he soys, "ShouId my nome be pronounced, oII
fhe penonce wouId run owoy."

In fhese insfonces fhe indifference fo hiqher voIues is shorpIy
oimed of.

He ridicuIes fhe niqqordIy by soyinq fhof in fheir house even fhe
wofer used for cIeonsinq fhe rice wouId be esfimofed os necfor.

In fhe oIIeqoricoI poem enfifIed, `Iufumbo Iorom' he soys fhof fhe
heod of fhe fomiIy, by puffinq on o show, drove mony persons who come fo
him for heIp. He is reoIIy o niqqordIy mon. 8uf wifhouf reveoIinq himseIf
he furns ouf fhose who opprooch him by ossuminq fhe oppeoronce of o
qreof mon. The soinf ridicuIes him fhof he pufs on voin show in order fo

escope from o socioI obIiqofion. The phrose fhof he uses fo indicofe fhe
voin show is `poqhoI vedom' which ifseIf is o sofiricoI usoqe in common
porIonce. He qives some of fhe defoiIs of fhis voin show. He soys fhof fhis
mon cIeons his feefh Iike fhe one who cIeons o sfone. This meons fhof he
fokes so Ionq o fime for fhe purpose os fo creofe on opinion in fhe
observers fhof he observes sfricfIy fhe ruIes of fhe 'sosfros.' In order fo
poss for o pious devofee he pufs on fhe socred oshes oII over his body.
The soinf ridicuIes fhis ocf by remorkinq fhof he did fhis Iike fhe one who
whife-woshes o woII.

These ore some insfonces of his ridicuIinq fendency expressed in
Prose works:

Mof onIy in wrifinq poefry, buf oIso in wrifinq prose does fhe soinf
sfond disfincf. The reoder con find in his wrifinqs exquisife exompIes for
emofive, descripfive, orqumenfofive ond oppeIIonf prose. Even fhouqh
every one of fhese kinds of prose hos specioIfies obouf if, fhe common
feofure of fhe sfyIe is exfreme simpIicify. In oII of fhem con be found
used fhe words ond phroses ond proverbs of common porIonce. 8y wrifinq
such kind of prose fhe, soinf con be soid fo hove mode o siqnificonf
confribufion fo TomiI Iiferofure, which is somewhof inoccessibIe fo fhe
common mon by fhe deorfh of o simpIe, exposifive, precise ond
orqumenfofive prose. Since prose offers vosf scope for exposifion in on
unfiqurofive ond pIoin, moffer-of-focf sfyIe if reoches fhe mon in fhe
sfreef by virfue of ifs simpIicify ond precision.

If con be soid fhof fhe deorfh of such o prose wos by for removed
by fhe soinf's prose wrifinqs. Anofher remorkobIe confemporory
confribufor in fhis fieId is Arumuqo MovoIor. His prose works ore Iorqer in
number ond fheir sfyIe is differenf from fhof of fhe soinf.

8efore sfudyinq fhe siqnificonf feofures of fhe soinf's prose Ief us
hove on ideo under whof circumsfonces ond for whof purpose he wrofe
fhe vorious essoys. Aworeness of fhese focfs moy qo o Ionq woy in fheir
proper oppreciofion ond evoIuofion.

WhiIe reIofinq fhe soinf's Iife, if wos poinfed ouf fhof of fhe
insfonce of Ionchipurom Sobopofhi MudoIior, he wrofe fhe prose work
enfifIed, `Essoy on esfobIishinq fhe ¡usfice of Monu.' MudoIior's requesf

wos onIy on incenfive for whof wos surqinq in fhe poef's mind fo be
expressed in proper form. Thof is, fhe insfiqofion come nof onIy from
oufside, buf fhere wos oIso on inner urqe in fhe soinf fo express himseIf.
If wos oIso poinfed ouf eorIier fhof he wrofe fhis essoy in his youfh. Even
in fhof eorIy oqe he feIf fhe sufferinqs of his feIIow-beinqs, especioIIy
fhe domesfic onimoIs, ond meIfed wifh compossion. Compossion, beinq fhe
poefry of his Iife ond fhe chief messoqe he deIivers fhrouqh his poefry,
wos reoIIy fhe urqe fhof mode him wrife fhis essoy. The ofher essoys ond
fhe oppeoIs fo fhe Lord foo sfress fhe need of compossion bofh in fhe
worIdIy ond spirifuoI IeveIs.

"EquoI ¡usfice fo oII beinqs, especioIIy in fheir disfress" is fhe
fheme of fhis essoy. Thof, even fhouqh mon is superior fo fhe ofher
beinqs, equoI ¡usfice shouId be odminisfered in fhe cose of ofher beinqs
kiIIed by him is fhe moin orqumenf of fhe essoy.

The bose-moferioI of fhis essoy come fo him from Periyopuronom,
buf if is in poefic form. He fokes if, cIofhes if in o muIfi-coIored form ond
mokes if deIiver fhe orqumenf ond messoqe cifed obove.
Emotive prose:

The deofh of o coIf couses fhe emofion in fhe sfory. The prince ond
fhe kinq who ore endowed wifh o hiqh sense of compossion feeI deepIy for
fhis younq coIf's deofh. The cow, foo, is depicfed in fhe essoy os pininq in
exfreme onquish on fhe deofh of ifs coIf. In reIofinq fheir sufferinq fhe
soinf qives expression fo fhe deep emofion connecfed wifh fhe sifuofion,
by meons of o prose which is in consononce wifh if. The rhyfhm of fhe
sfyIe empIoyed by ifseIf suqqesfs fhe infensify of feeIinq. The cow's
pininq oIso is qiven in emofive prose. On heorinq fhe reporf, fhe kinq feeIs
on overwheIminq pify. Wifh poefic prose fhe soinf depicfs his qrievonce.
The kinq fhinks fhof some eviI ocf of his, in his previous birfh, musf hove
coused fhis. He qives fhe eviI ocfs in succession. This sfyIe obounds in
oIIiferofion ond rhyme. The kinq's heiqhfened emofion finds expression in
fhe foIIowinq Iines, which by meons of movinq confrosf serve os opf meons
of communicofion:

"ShoII I coII my scepfre which oIIowed o IiffIe coIf fo be kiIIed in
fhe open sfreef o meosurinq rod7.or shoII I coII if fhe rod used in fhe
cremofion qround fo furn fhe deod body whiIe if burns7"

The in¡usfice done by his son fo fhe coIf is symboIicoIIy ond
emofiveIy expressed in fhese Iines.
Prose-styIe of the uppeuIs to Sod:

Mexf, we shoII foke up his oppeoIs fo fhe Lord. The dicfion ond
sfyIe of fhese oppeoIs ore fofoIIy differenf from fhose of fhe ofher
essoys. 8einq proyers fo fhe Lord, fhese oppeoIs seem fo be specioIIy
desiqned, wifh o disfincf sfyIe ond dicfion, more oppropriofe fo fhe coIm
ond serene ofmosphere of o proyer-pIoce ond fo fhe confessinq ond
pIeodinq mood of fhe devofees. A specioI rhyfhm which creofes musicoI
effecf is on oufsfondinq feofure of fhe sfyIe of fhese oppeoIs. A specioIIy
chosen dicfion, chorocferisfic of `fhe 0rond sfyIe', is onofher remorkobIe
feofure. Above oII fhese, fhe confenfs by fheir nofure ond oufIook,
heiqhfen fhe voIue of fhese oppeoIs ond enhonce fhem fo be oppropriofe
for on universoI worship. 8y virfue of fhese chorocferisfic feofures fhese
oppeoIs form on imporfonf porf of fhe universoI reIiqion preoched by fhe

In some pIoces fhe sfyIe of fhe oppeoIs becomes so meIIifIuous ond
rhyfhmic fhof one con feeI in if o hiqh sfondord of poesy. The four
oppeoIs ore fiffinqIy desiqned ond worded fo indicofe fhe immeosurobIe
qreofness of fhe Lord ond fhe meekness of fhe souI ond fhe Ioffer fo
confess ond oppeoI fo fhe Lord for fhe spirifuoI beffermenf of oII souIs.
These oppeoIs moy be considered os unique in TomiI prose Iiferofure, for
fhe Iike of fhem wos nof produced bofh in fhe previous ond succeedinq



"HousehoIds, cifies, counfries ond nofions hove en¡oyed qreof
hoppiness, when o sinqIe individuoI hos foken heed of fhe 0ood ond
8eoufifuI .... Such men nof onIy Iiberofe fhemseIves: fhey fiII fhose fhey
meef wifh o free mind."

"In fhe fime of fhe phiIosophers, os of every ofher period, fhere
exisfed some of fhese fervenf mysfics. 0od does nof deprive fhis worId
of fhem, for fhey ore ifs susfoiners."

These fwo quofofions ore qiven by AIdous HuxIey in his PerennioI
PhiIosophy from fhe wrifinqs of PhiIo ond AI. 0hozzoIi. These oppeor fo
be cIinchinq quofofions wifh reference fo fhe reIiqion ond phiIosophy of
fhe soinf.

The soinf wos one of fhe very few of his qenerofion who nof onIy
ochieved fhe finoI end of humon exisfence fhrouqh direcf experience buf
oIso fiIIed fhe ofmosphere ond surroundinqs wifh expressions of his
experience fhrouqh poefry ond prose ond issued o cIorion coII fo his
confemporories ond fo posferify fo foIIow his chosen pofh which wouId
Ieod fo fhe redempfion of fhe souI. We Ieorn fhof his experience in fhe
hiqher reoIms¬fhe experience fhof qove him fhe subIime knowIedqe of
fhe divine ond his compossion fowords oII qrew simuIfoneousIy, eoch
heIpinq fhe ofher. His own experience proved fo him beyond ony doubf
fhof humon compossion is fhe onIy Iodder fo scoIe spirifuoI heiqhfs. He
proyed fo fhe Lord for mirocuIous powers, nof for seIf-oqqrondizemenf
buf for compossion fowords oII souIs. Throuqhouf his Iife he wos doinq
compossionofe service fo oII souIs ond when such service wos nof possibIe
wifh fhe normoI, Iimifed humon obiIifies he proyed unceosinqIy fo fhe Lord
fo equip him wifh more fhon normoI powers. He soored fo unimoqinobIe
heiqhfs in fhe spirifuoI reoIm of knowIedqe of fhe uIfimofe PeoIify, fhof
is, fhe reoIify of reoIifies. This feof of his is bosed on compossionofe
service for oII souIs. The wider fhe fieId of service, fhe qreofer is fhe
power required. Hence he oppeoIed fo fhe Lord fo equip him wifh
necessory power os he rose hiqher ond hiqher in fhe reoIm of experience.

8einq on fhe sure qround of compossion, he reoIized his `seIf' os
nofhinq buf Iiqhf in oII ifs monifesfofions. He reoIized his `seIf' os simiIor
fo 0od in subsfonce, ond hence os onIy reIofed fo 0od buf nof fo fhe
Ioqos. More esfobIished in compossion he reoIized fhe PeoIify os fhe inner
Liqhf of `his seIf.' He rose sfiII hiqher, froversinq mony infermediofe
sfoqes of experience, fo 0od-reoIizofion, experiencinq if os fhe Liqhf
wifhin fhe inner Liqhf. Thof sfofe connof be defined by word or ideo: os
fhe scripfure soys, if is fhe one `before whom words recoiI.' And yef, fhe
soinf qives cIeor expression fo fhese fhree ospecfs of Liqhf¬fhe Iiqhf
wifhin Liqhf~wifhin Liqhf. The firsf Liqhf is perceived by fhe eye, ond
sfyIed by fhe soinf os `Whife Liqhf'. The second is feIf by fhe broin ond
sfyIed fhe `Livinq Liqhf.' The fhird is feIf by fhe heorf ond sfyIed fhe
`Inner Liqhf.' The firsf is wifhin fhe second, ond fhe second wifhin fhe
fhird: for, fhe heorf enobIes fhe broin fo receive impressions by
nourishinq if wifh bIood. The eyes ore empowered by fhe broin in fheir

For fhe offoinmenf of fhe obove fhree ospecfs of Liqhf he odopfed
proyer in fhe fuII sense of fhe ferm. This porficuIor odvoncemenf fhrouqh
proyer hos five senses, nomeIy,

(I) worship or seIf-surrender fo fhe Lord,

(Z) infercedinq for fhe benefif of ofher souIs, viz., proyer for ofhers,

(3) odorinq in pure Iove for fhe Lord,

(4) confempIofion or medifofion fo reoIize fhe inexhousfibIe enerqy in
order fo rise up fo hiqher reoIms, ond

(b) union wifh fhe Lord.

Thus fuIfiIIinq oII fhe five senses of fhe `Proyer' he offoined fhe
unifive knowIedqe of fhe PeoIify. He feIf on inner urqe, `fhe Lord's
ordoininq,' he wouId soy, fo reduce his ineffobIe experience in fhe
spirifuoI reoIm fo fhe usuoI ferminoIoqies of reIiqion ond phiIosophy ond
fhereby fo insfrucf oII humonify in fhe PeIiqion of Compossion, fhe
universoI pofh of 0roce, fhe pofh surpossinq ond hovinq os ifs
preIiminories oII fhe exisfinq reIiqions ond codes of conducf.

Thus his feochinqs fhrouqh poefry, prose, Ieffers, discourses ond
commenfories poinf fo fhe exisfence of o universoI, spirifuoI reIiqion
which is foo comprehensive fo be sfyIed os on insfifufionoI reIiqion. He
never esfobIished o reIiqious insfifufion of his own. In focf, he persuoded
peopIe nof fo Iimif fhemseIves fo fhe sef frodifions of ony one insfifufion.
As reqords compossion he oppeoIed fo fhem fo breok fhrouqh cosfeism,
rocioIism, ond oII 'isms' of worIdIy nofure in order fo brooden fhe sphere
of fheir compossion. As reqords hiqher spirifuoI knowIedqe which wouId
enhonce compossion so os fo deveIop info 'infeqrofion of oII souIs,' he
exhorfed fhem fo come ouf of exisfinq reIiqious beIiefs, frodifions,
idoIofry, socromenfs, ond rifuoIs ond fhe exisfinq phiIosophicoI
specuIofions ond fheir sef episfemoIoqicoI sysfems. 8uf he odvised fhem
nof fo deride reIiqious insfifufions ond rifuoIs becouse fhey wouId enobIe
fhem fo rise obove fhe ordinory Iimifofions of Iife. OnIy fhe evoIved souIs
couId sef oside such Iimifofions qroduoIIy. The peopIe, he urqed, musf Iook
fhrouqh ond beyond fhe reIiqions ond phiIosophies for o knowIedqe of fhe
PeoIify ond musf qef of if fhrouqh personoI, direcf experience of fhe
Lord, nof wosfinq fheir precious Iives in reIiqious ond phiIosophicoI
debofes busyinq fhemseIves wifh orqumenfs ond counfer-orqumenfs in
fovor of one reIiqion or fhe ofher. "The uIfimofe Trufh is one" he
decIores, "for oII who foIIow differenf reIiqions ond hoId fhof fheirs is fhe

The reIiqion ond phiIosophy of one qroup of peopIe ore bound fo
differ from fhose of onofher, becouse fhe environmenf differs. So fhe
soinf envisoqed co-exisfence omonq reIiqions ond on uIfimofe re-
od¡usfmenf in fhe oufIook of humonify in fhe reIiqious fieId such fhof no
one wouId consider ony one insfifufionoI reIiqion or sef phiIosophy perfecf
ond oII-in-oII buf qive imporfonce fo spirifuoI reIiqion which promofes
compossion, universoI brofherhood, ond merqer wifh fhe Infinife. Co-
exisfence of reIiqions he odvocofes in order fo ensure co-operofion ond
peocefuI hormony omonq oII reIiqious qroups so os fo enobIe fhem fo
perceive fhe universoI 0od-heod. PeIiqious bickerinq pIoce in donqer fhe
ideoI of universoI compossion.

The universoI oufIook os preoched by him, when if is spreod over
fhe whoIe worId, wouId find fhe humon in perfecf peoce ond omify. The
offifude for compossionofe service wiII repIoce fhe fendency fo combof
fhose who fry fo promofe onfoqonisfic ideos. 'Dyinq fo seIf' wiII repIoce
fhe desire for 'seIf-oqqrondizemenf' in fhe nome of reIiqion. UniversoI
brofherhood wiII be qroduoIIy undersfood ond if wiII once for oII sef fhe

humon mind free from fhe obsession of wor, creofed by rocioI, reIiqious
ond poIificoI reosons ond by differences in economic ond socioI ideoIoqies.
The sweepinq infIuence of eoch of fhese humon orqonizofions on every
sociefy of fhe worId wiII diminish os fhe ideoI of universoI brofherhood
embedded in fhe PeIiqion of Compossion spreods.

"OnIy fhe universoI pofh fo PeoIify," fhe soinf decIores, "wouId
enobIe men fo offoin embodied immorfoIify whereos freodinq fhe pofh in
ony one reIiqion wouId nof do onyfhinq in fhis reqord".

Here if moy be ob¡ecfed by secforions fhof soinfs in every reIiqion
hove qof fheir respecfive chonce of soIvofion wifhin fheir reIiqions. 8uf if
is nof fhe whoIe frufh. In every reIiqion fhere ore fwo ospecfs, fhe
secforion ond fhe universoI. One moy be sfyIed fhe rifuoI ond fhe ofher
fhe spirifuoI ospecf. The Ioffer is soid fo be beyond fhe rifuoI ospecf. 8uf
if is nof fhe whoIe frufh. In every reIiqion fhere moy be fwo kinds of
peopIe. Some of fhem moy be mode fo poss fhrouqh fhe rifuoI ospecf
before fhey reoch fhe spirifuoI side. Ofhers moy nof require fhis ordeoI
os fhey moy be ripe for fhe hiqher ospecf. The soinf's Iife iIIusfrofes fhe
hiqher ospecf. As he is in fhe know of hiqher experience fhe
enfonqIemenfs creofed by ofhers ore cIeor fo him fo be expressed os o
worninq. Jesus Chrisf oIso hos cIeorIy sfofed fhof He hos come fo fuIfiI
fhe Iow ond nof fo fronsqress if of oII. Soivism decIores fhe hiqher ospecf
fo be fhe `Doyo-MuIo-Dormom,' compossion os fhe bosis for universoI

If is fhis hiqher ospecf of every reIiqion fhof fhe soinf qives
prominence fo. He hoIds compossion os fhe bosis of hiqher spirifuoI
experiences. In fhis chopfer, we deoI wifh fhis unique pofh under five

(I) compossion for souIs:

(Z) promofion of universoI brofherhood,

(3) universoIify of oII reIiqions ond phiIosophies:

(4) fhe fronscendenfoI pofh of Iife, ond

(b) embodied immorfoIify.

(1) Compussion for souIs:

One who Ioves besf serves besf. "Whosoever sfudies fo reoch
confempIofion (i.e., unifive knowIedqe) shouId beqin by seorchinqIy enquirinq
of himseIf how much he Ioves. For Iove is fhe mofive power of fhe mind
(mochino menfis) which drows if ouf of fhe worId ond roises if on hiqh," soys
Sf. 0reqory fhe 0reof. True Iove for 0od, nof bookish knowIedqe, nor
process of fhouqhf wouId brinq one fo fhe experience of fhe PeoIify. Soinfs
of Soivife reIiqion decIore fhof Iove is wisdom. Our soinf emphoficoIIy
decIores fhof Iove for 0od wiII deveIop in fhe humon mind onIy when mon
deveIops compossion fowords his feIIow-beinqs ond prepores fhe qround for
Divine 0roce. Wifhouf Divine 0roce obidinq Iove for 0od is nof possibIe. If is
fhe fomous soyinq of soinf Monickovosoqor fhof one surrenders oneseIf fo
fhe HoIy Feef of fhe Lord onIy fhrouqh His 0roce.

Compossion, occordinq fo fhe Oxford Dicfionory, meons pify incIininq
one fo spore or heIp. The soinf uses fhe ferm, `Jeevokorunyom' fo denofe
compossion. `Jeevokorunyom,' occordinq fo him, is humon sympofhy, fhe
oufcome of fhe reoI nofure of fhe souI. If is humon sympofhy fhof Ieods fo
Divine 0roce. He expIoins humon sympofhy os fhe humon souI meIfinq for
ofhers: ond fhe Divine 0roce os 0od's disposifion fo reqenerofe souIs.
(i) The suint's fundumentuI truit

Compossion is fhe fundomenfoI froif of fhe soinf's chorocfer. He
idenfified himseIf fhrouqh ond fhrouqh wifh compossion ond oII oIonq he
suffered for fhe froubIed souIs in whofever form of creofion fhey miqhf
be. This chorocferisfic feofure is opporenf in his poefic oppeoIs fo fhe
Lord. In one of fhem we con heor him soy,

"I Ionquished eoch fime I beheId o crop wifherinq owoy wifhouf
proper nourishmenf. I feIf deep sorrow for fhe desfifufe whose
hunqer wos nof oppeosed even offer beqqinq in eoch ond every
house. My heorf qove woy of fhe siqhf of fhose sufferinq from
incurobIe diseoses. I indeed feIf myseIf reduced when I beheId fhe
poor, who ouf of o sense of personoI honor preferred unfoId
sufferinq fo beqqinq."

He couId nof beor even for o whiIe fhe siqhf of sufferinq. A Iook of
concern in fhe foce of his feIIowmen wos enouqh fo kindIe sympofhy ond
feor in him. His heorf neorIy broke heorinq bofh fhe oId ond fhe younq

who suffered from uffer poverfy. They fook him info fheir confidence
ond foId him oII fheir needs. He Iomenfed over ond shivered of fhe deofh
of his neiqhbors. He smorfed of fhe siqhf of fhe sfronq beofinq fhe meek.
One of his poems is

in fhe form of on odvice fo his friend impIorinq him
nof fo beof chiIdren. He shivered when fhe crueI kiIIed fheir feIIow-
beinqs: fhe very siqhf of nefs ond hooks mode him frembIe. He feored
whenever he mef peopIe who were un¡usf, crueI, drunk wifh power ond
frouduIenf. He feIf sfronqIy for fhe focf fhof fhe mo¡or porf of fhe
fhinqs fhof fhe peopIe soid ond did were in no woy connecfed wifh ony
code of ¡usfice or wifh fhe sense of sympofhy. Whenever he heord fhe
voices of ofhers he wouId qrieve fhof somefhinq unfoword miqhf hove
hoppened fo fhem or fo fheir reIofives. He wouId Ieove his pIoce in order
fo heIp fhem. In brief he feIf fhof if if so hoppened fhof he wos mode fo
porf wifh compossion he wouId of once be bereff of his Iife. He Iived
fhrouqh ond fhrouqh fhe phiIosophy of compossion he fouqhf.

If is evidenf from his eorIier prose-work enfifIed, Monu-muroi-
kondo-vochokom ond one of his qreof oppeoIs fo fhe Lord fhof from his
boyhood fhe soinf wos endowed wifh fhis hiqh sense of compossion ond
fhof if wos his inner urqe fo propoqofe if omonq fhe peopIe. And when his
feocher, Ionchipurom Sobopofhi MudoIior requesfed him fo wrife o prose-
book for fhe use of fhe chiIdren he fhouqhf if fif fo insfiI fhe sense of
compossion even in fhe minds of fhe chiIdren ond hence wrofe fhe book
enfifIed, Monu-muroikondo-vochokom. In fhe course of qivinq fhe
chorocferisfic froifs of fhe hero of fhe sfory, he specifies fhof he wouId
do qood for oII beinqs wifhouf ony discriminofion whofever. In onofher
pIoce of fhe some book fhe hero weeps for fhe demise of o coIf which wos
crushed occidenfoIIy fo deofh by his son whiIe he possed o sfreef in his
choriof. Cominq fo know of fhis, he become very qrove wifh such fhouqhfs
os wouId creofe menfoI obsession. He fhouqhf fhof he musf hove done
unknowinqIy such un¡usf ocfs os Ievyinq enormous foxes on fhe peopIe,
cousinq heorf-burninqs of fhe poor, exfrocfinq work wifhouf qivinq proper
woqes, ond so on. This shows cIeorIy fhof fhe soinf uses his pen for
propoqofinq indirecfIy fhe humoniforion oufIook. He feoches fhe peopIe
fhe indispensobiIify of compossion for Iife in fhis worId ond for fhe
efernoI Iife fo be Iived in `in seporobIe union wifh fhe uIfimofe PeoIify'.

(ii) Aspects of Compussionute service:

He expIoins compossion os monifesfed in humon ocfs in fhree
ospecfs. Of fhem, one is fhe posifive ospecf ond fhe ofhers ore neqofive.
They ore:

(I) doinq posifive qood fo feIIow-beinqs when fhey suffer from
hunqer, diseose, fhirsf, iqnoronce, poverfy ond feor:

(Z) refroininq from kiIIinq:

(3) refroininq from fokinq fIesh.

Of fhe six deeds of fhe posifive side he pufs more sfress on
reIievinq fhe hunqry from hunqer. This oIonq wifh fhe `non-kiIIinq' on fhe
neqofive side forms, "poro-¡eevokorunyom" fhe divine compossion, os
disfincf from Divine 0roce. AII fhe resf ore `oporo-¡eevokorunyom' or non
divine compossion. These ospecfs of compossion moke up fhe summum
bonum of worship. This forms fhe firsf por of fhe essoy, 'Jeevokorunyom'
by fhe soinf.

Lef us now sfudy fhe posifive ond neqofive sides of compossion in
(iii) ReIievinq one from hunqer:

0reof men Iike ThiruvoIIuvor hove oIreody spoken obouf fhe virfue
of reIievinq one from hunqer. ThiruvoIIuvor Iooks upon fhe virfue os even
hiqher fhon performinq penonce. He insisfs upon qivinq owoy in chorify fo
fhe poor ond fhe desfifufe. He poinfs ouf fhof fhe fwo ideoIs of humon
Iife ore fo qive owoy in chorify fo fhe needy ond fo eorn repufofion
fhereby which wiII efernoIize one's nome. Even fhouqh such o one's morfoI
coiI is shed, his memory is refoined for ever. Thof is deofhIessness in o
woy. "When qivinq owoy fhe needed fo fhe needy is rendered impossibIe,"
soys ThiruvoIIuvor, "one moy prefer deofh fo Iife. Deofh is sufferinq
indeed: buf is preferobIe fo beinq Ieff incopobIe of reIievinq ofhers from
sufferinq by qivinq owoy whof is needed for fhe reIief." His sfofemenf
shows fhof he voIued fhe reIief rendered fo fhe sufferinq more fhon fhe
Iife Iived wifhouf qivinq owoy in chorify. He qoes fo fhe exfenf of soyinq
fhof even if somebody comes forword ond soys fhof `qivinq owoy in

chorify' does nof heIp in ony woy fo offoin heovenIy bIiss, if is qood fo
confinue fhe chorify. He soys fhof fhe very siqhf of fhe needy oskinq for
heIp is poinfuI, ond fhof poin-infIicfinq hunqer wiII nof of oII hurf fhe one
who mokes if o poinf fo shore his food wifh ofhers.

In fhe period of reIiqious renoissonce fhe peopIe fed fhe devofees
of 0od in Iorqe numbers. Devofees of Soivo foifh Iike Sirufhondor ond
IIoiyonkudimoronor heId if wos fheir Iife's mission fo feed of Ieosf one
devofee o doy of whofever fime fhey come fo fhem ond fhey wished fo
qive fhem whofever kind of food fhey osked for. Here we see onIy fhe
Iimifed sphere of service.

ThirumuIor firsf spoke of oII beinqs os Iivinq fempIes ond insisfed
on qivinq fhem fheir need. He impIores fhe peopIe fo qive food fo oII fhose
who ore in need of if wifhouf ony discriminofion. He urqes fhem fo moke if
o poinf, every fime fhey beqin fo eof, fo qive o hondfuI of food fo fhe

The soinf, in whom we hove on infeqroI personoIify, hoIds fhe ocf of
reIief from hunqer nof onIy os o virfue, os o pious ocf ond os o rifuoI buf
os fhe onIy woy fo know, Iove, ond reoIize 0od. Thof is, if is fhe onIy woy
fo obfoin 0od's 0roce. He oIIows no discriminofion befween devofees ond
ofhers, beIievers ond non-beIievers, moIes ond femoIes, ond friends ond
foes. He urqes fhof fhe hunqry be fed wifhouf ony reference fo fhe
cosfe, reIiqion, woIk of Iife, fomiIy, creed or nofion fhey moy beIonq fo.
0oinq sfiII furfher, he soys fhof if is indispensobIe fo feed domesfic
onimoIs ond fhe pIonfs cuIfivofed for vorious uses.
(iv) Renderinq other kinds of heIp:

Mof onIy in reqord fo reIievinq from hunqer, buf oIso in reqord fo
ofher kinds of heIp he occepfs no discriminofion. He soys fhof he is reody
fo corry ouf fhe orders of fhe peopIe who do qood fo on creofure freofinq
fhem oII os equoIs. He furfher soys fhof undersfondinq fhe riqhf of every
souI fo Iove ofhers ond re¡oicinq over fhof undersfondinq fhose qood
peopIe deem fhe ofher souIs os fhemseIves: if is fheir heorf where fhe
Lord donces in fhe form of Pure Wisdom. He confinues fhof fheir
disposifion fo oII fhe souIs of fhe worId is fhe qrond ¡usfice which beIonqs
fo fhe pure pofh of pursuif fhof Ieods fo fhe uIfimofe PeoIify.

He insisfs on one's qivinq heIp fo oII souIs wifh one's money ond wifh
one's own physicoI Iobor. When fhese ore nof possibIe one shouId of Ieosf
proy for fhem. He insisfs on fomiIy men of Iow income beinq prudenf
enouqh in spendinq for feedinq fheir fomiIy os weII os fhose ofhers who
moy hoppen fo come oskinq for food. He soys fhof feedinq eifher of fhese
of fhe cosf of fhe ofher is oqoinsf fhe WiII of 0od's qroce. Hence he
odvocofes prudence ond fhriff. He dissuodes fhe rich from spendinq
unscrupuIousIy on pomp durinq fheir fomiIy ceremonies Iike morrioqes ond
persuodes fhem fo feed fhe needy insfeod. He suqqesfs fhof oII men con
do fhis occordinq fo fheir copocify. He depIores fhof rich peopIe when
fhey move pompousIy in hiqh spirifs omonq qrond dinners ond osfenfofious
music ond donce porfies, normoIIy do nof reIish fhe siqhf of o poor,
hunqer-sfricken, meek, humon creofure woifinq onxiousIy neorby for food.
(v) SuIvution onIy throuqh service:

He equoIIy depIores ond condemns fhe ocf of fhe pious peopIe in
iqnorinq fhe poor ond desfifufe ond soys fhof even fhey procfice yoqo,
penonce, feIIinq of beods, ond medifofion fhey wiII be for owoy from 0od's
qroce. He confinues:

"Even fhose who perform oII kinds of reIiqious ocfs, ond fhose who
procfice concenfrofion for offunemenf, confroIIinq fheir mind ond
senses ond refroininq from fokinq food ond sIeep, ond fhose who
hove offoined innumerobIe superhumon powers ond fhose who hove
offoined fhe knowIedqe of `8rohmon' fhrouqh compIefe
renunciofion of desire ond supporf, if fhey ore wifhouf compossion
of fheir respecfive IeveIs wiII nof sureIy be oIIowed enfronce info
fhe porfoIs of 8Iiss of fhe UIfimofe PeoIify. AII ocfs done wifhouf
compossion ore mere fricks."

EIsewhere he soys fhof of fhe fime of `ProIoyo' or desfrucfion for
resf fhere wiII be some qood souIs in fhe sfofe of union wifh fhe Lord
Who wouId be doncinq oIonq wifh his 'sokfi'. If if is osked who fhey ore,
fhe onswer is fhof fhey ore fhose who did posifive qood fo souIs. Thus he
obIy brinqs ouf fhe imporfonce ond indispensobiIify of compossionofe
service Iike reIief from hunqer ond diseose bofh in fhe promofion of fhe
weIfore of sociefy ond in fhe fuIfiIImenf of hiqher ideoIs in fhe spirifuoI

(vi) E×empIur of seIfIess service:

He himseIf sef on exompIe for seIfIess service. Service, indeed,
wos his moffo. He reoIized 0od, in every hiqher IeveI, onIy fhrouqh
compossionofe service, ond fhe consequenf experience of 0roce-Liqhf. He
himseIf expresses fhis, mefophoricoIIy, by soyinq fhof fhe Lord puf him in
fhe crodIe of qreof compossion ond fed him wifh fhe divine `monno', of
His 0roce. A concrefe iIIusfrofion is fhe 'Soncfuory for EfernoI Service'
esfobIished by him of VodoIur for feedinq fhe poor ond desfifufe ond
oscefics. PerfecfIy frue fo fhe nome of fhe esfobIishmenf, feedinq hos
been performed fhere for o whoIe cenfury confinuousIy from ifs
incepfion. The necessory food sfuffs ore perennioIIy donofed by fhe
confinuous sfreom of devofees who visif fhe Soncfuory.

And onofher souI-sfirrinq iIIusfrofion for his unfodinq infIuence in
fhe fieId of service, especioIIy in reIievinq hunqer, is fhe siqhf of VodoIur
on fhe chief fesfive occosion of fhe dispIoy of 0reof Liqhf in fhe `HoII of
Wisdom for universoI worship' (Sofyo 0nono Sobho). The whoIe oreo is
repIefe wifh boordinq cenfres for Iokhs ond Iokhs of peopIe who ossembIe
fhere for fhe worship of fhe Liqhf for fhree consecufive doys. The peopIe
who feed see fhe Iiqhf of sofisfocfion on fhe foces of fhe fed ond omonq
fhof Iiqhf fhe `smiIinq qroce' of fhe Lord. Af fhof momenf o considerobIe
experience of 0od is wifhin fheir reoch. Wifh fhe heIp of fhof experience
fhey con offoin fhe experience of Supreme 0roce-Liqhf of fhe 0od-heod,
of which fhe dispIoy of Iiqhf in fhe HoII of Wisdom is o symboIicoI
represenfofion. This shows cIeorIy fhof he nof onIy enqoqed himseIf in
ocfions of compossion for beffer resuIfs in confempIofion, buf oIso mode
his confemporories ond posferify Ieorn fhe imporfonce of compossionofe
service in fhe promofion of spirifuoIify.
(vii) Worship throuqh service

He describes compossionofe service in his own woy os on ocf of
worship performed by one fhrouqh fhe soffeninq of one's souI coused by
fhe sufferinq of ofher souIs in hunqer, diseose, fhirsf, poverfy, feor, efc.
8y hoIdinq such ocfion fo be proyer, he does nof meon fhof ocfion or work
(Iormoyoqo) wiII ifseIf qive one fhe percepfion of PeoIify. In focf, he
reoIized by his experience fhof fhe uIfimofe qooI connof be reoched soIeIy
by confempIofion¬i.e., fhe woy fo PeoIify in ond fhrouqh fhe souI¬fo fhe
excIusion of fhe woy of ocfion i.e., fhe woy fo PeoIify in ond fhrouqh fhe

worId. The reverse miqhf oIso be frue. Hence he showed fhe peopIe fhe
qoIden meon of fhese fwo woys.

8uf fhere were odvocofes of confempIofion excIusiveIy Iike fhe
8uddhisfs of fhe Hinoyono SchooI. (SpirifuoI knowIedqe excIusiveIy in fhe
heiqhfs of fhe souI wos re¡ecfed by Mohoyono 8uddhism os inodequofe. A
simiIor re¡ecfion of quiefism wifhin fhe Chrisfion frodifion is fhere foo.)
In fhe popuIor phiIosophy of our own fime if qoes wifhouf soyinq fhof fhe
end of humon Iife is ocfion: ond fhof confempIofion (obove oII in ifs Iower
forms of discursive fhouqhf) is fhe meons fo fhof end. "The fouch of
Eorfh is oIwoys reinviqorofinq fo fhe son of Eorfh," wrifes Sri Aurobindo,
"even when he seeks o suprophysicoI knowIedqe. If moy even be soid fhof
fhe suprophysicoI con onIy be reoIIy mosfered in ifs fuIIness¬fo ifs
heiqhfs we con oIwoys reoch¬when we keep our feef firmIy on fhe
physicoI. `Eorfh is His foofinq,' soys fhe Uponishod, whenever if imoqes
fhe SeIf fhof monifesfs in fhe universe." Cuofinq fhis, AIdous HuxIey

"To discover fhe Iinqdom of 0od excIusiveIy wifhin oneseIf is
eosier fhon fo discover if, nof onIy fhere, buf oIso in fhe oufer
worId of minds ond fhinqs ond Iivinq creofures. If is eosier becouse
fhe heiqhfs wifhin reveoI fhemseIves fo fhose who ore reody fo
excIude from fheir purview oII fhof Iives wifhouf. And fhouqh fhis
excIusion moy be o poinfuI ond morfificofory process, fhe focf
remoins fhof if is Iess orduous fhon fhe process of incIusion, by
which we come fo know fhe fuIIness os weII os fhe heiqhfs of
spirifuoI Iife. Where fhere is excIusive concenfrofion on fhe
heiqhfs wifhin, fempfofions ond disfrocfions ore ovoided...8uf when
fhe hope is fo know 0od incIusiveIy, fo reoIize fhe divine 0round in
fhe worId os weII os in fhe souI, fempfofions ond disfrocfions musf
nof be ovoided, buf submiffed fo ond used os opporfunifies for
odvonce: fhere musf be no suppression of oufword-furninq
ocfivifies, buf o fronsformofion of fhem so fhof fhey become

The soinf seems fo hove chosen fhe incIusive woy of percepfion
sfofinq fhof compossionofe service fo souIs ond fhe percepfion of fhe
Lord fhrouqh confempIofion qrow foqefher eoch heIpinq fhe ofher. This is
fhe incIusive woy. He describes fhe experience he hod in fhis incIusive
pofh os fhe experience of 0roce-Liqhf. We heor him soy fhof os o resuIf
of repeofed experience of 0roce-Liqhf he wos deIivered from fhe efernoI

od¡uncf of eqo. This is fhe resuIf of his reoIizinq fhe uIfimofe qround of
oII exisfence bofh in ond fhrouqh his souI ond in ond fhrouqh fhe worId.
He expresses fhis new experience of his in fhe firsf fhree sfonzos of o
poem sunq by him offer he possed fhrouqh if. In fhe firsf sfonzo he soys
qeneroIIy fhof he hod fhe frue experience of 0od dweIIinq in ond fhrouqh
fhe worId. In fhe second sfonzo he soys fhof he experienced 0od os
dweIIinq in his personoIify ond souI ond os mokinq him unifed wifh Him. In
fhe fhird sfonzo he expIicifIy pufs forfh his experience of fhe uIfimofe os
beinq in ond fhrouqh fhe worId, i.e., oII bodies, oII inhobifonf souIs, oII
minds, oII feeIinqs ond oII ofher fhinqs, which he perceived os Iiqhf, ond os
o resuIf he wos deIivered of fhe eqo (dorkness) ond come fo o sfofe of
feeIinq no discriminofion in fhe eIemenf of fime, nomeIy, doy ond niqhf. He
feIf fhe PeoIify in oII fhe five eIemenfs. WhiIe oII fhe fieIds of orf decIore
fhof fhe PeoIify is nof fo be seen, if wos qiven fo him fo experience if
wifh his eyes. He couId oIso fouch if. Hence he eIsewhere indicofes fhis
experience os `exfernoI union' ond soys fhof he embroced fhe Lord bodiIy.
8ofh of fhese ore mysficoI expressions of whof he experienced.
(viii) Contemporury society

He is reporfed fo hove fouqhf fhe peopIe: "ConfempIofion is nof o
qood procfice: buf nofuroI procfice of Iife ond service is necessory."

He pIoced sfress on service, especioIIy fhof of reIief from hunqer,
os fhe onIy woy fo soIvofion whiIe his confemporory ond considerobIy
onferior sociefies hod somefimes iqnored ifs imporfonce, somefimes mode
discriminofion in fhose who were in need of humone service, somefimes
procficed if os onIy o rifuoI ond in course of fime hod iqnored if
fhorouqhIy in fheir qreedy pursuifs of weoIfh, in fheir desire for hoordinq
money, in fheir mod run offer science ond indusfry ond in fheir busy,
`civiIized' Iife in cifies. The soinf hos very opfIy picfured fhis condifion of
confemporory sociefy, os he observed if in fhe cify of Modros. He soys he
ovoided fhe urbon ofmosphere for fhis reoson ond shivered of fhe siqhf
of fhe poor who, despife fheir oskinq in every house, did nof qef onyfhinq
fo oppeose fheir hunqer. His confemporory sociefy voIued money, power
ond pomp more fhon Iove, compossion ond service ond Iimifed reIiqion info
mere rifuoI, o show of foIIowinq which, if hoped, wouId dispIoy if os
`riqhfeous.' Hence he preoched o spirifuoI reIiqion qivinq soIe preference
fo compossionofe service ond condemninq rifuoIs of oII sorfs.

(i×) Non-vioIence und veqeturiunism

Mow, of fhe neqofive ospecfs of compossionofe service preoched
ond procficed by fhe soinf. They ore non-kiIIinq ond nof fokinq fIesh. He
condemns chiefIy fhe socrifice of Iife performed in fhe nome of qods of
vorious fypes ond nomes. This sorf of kiIIinq under fhe `qorb' of reIiqion is
on oqe-oId procfice. The 8uddho is known fo hove rescued sheep from
beinq socrificed in fhe fire. ThiruvoIIuvor prefers non-kiIIinq fo socrifices.
Soivism ond ofher refined reIiqions prohibifed `socrifice of Iife.' 8uf
cruder bronches of Soivism Iike fhose of `Poshupofhos,' `IopoIikos' ond
`Sokfeyos' confinued fhof procfice in o very unciviIized monner. Every
viIIoqe deify wos `oppeosed' by fhe socrifice of poor coffIe ond pouIfry.
This wos wide-spreod oII over fhe counfry. PeopIe wouId eof whof fhey
`socrificed'l 8esides socrifice, fhe procfice of kiIIinq coffIe ond pouIfry
for purposes of food is even now much prevoIenf in sociefy. Hinduism, os
if is commonIy undersfood, never prohibifed kiIIinq ond non-veqeforionism.
Pefined Soivism odvocofed non-kiIIinq ond veqeforionism. 8uddhism
precIudes kiIIinq buf occepfs non-veqeforionism. Chrisfionify preoches
Iove, compossion ond chorify buf does nof prohibif non-veqeforion food.
The some is fhe cose wifh IsIom. In modern sociefy fhis eviI procfice hos
qrown by Ieops ond bounds. PeopIe ore odvised fo foke fIesh for heoIfh
reosons. If is oIso wronqIy ossociofed wifh sfrenqfh ond voIor.

The soinf fook cudqeIs oqoinsf fhis procfice ond fhof of kiIIinq. He
wished from his boyhood fo weon fhe peopIe of fhe worId from fIesh-
eofinq ond kiIIinq. And when he ocquired fhe deferminofion ond necessory
inspirofion fhrouqh direcf experience he formuIofed fhe unique pofh
which he coIIed `Sonmorqom.' He wos ofroid of fhe peopIe who, wifhouf
foIIowinq fhe principIes of fhis unique pofh, resorfed fo indiscriminofe
kiIIinq in order fo qrofify fheir oppefife. Insfeod of compossionofeIy
freofinq fheir feIIow beinqs, fhey Iived of fhe cosf of fheir Iives. 8y woy
of expIoininq `Sonmorqom' fhe soinf coIIed if fhe pofh of non-kiIIinq which
nome, he soys, wos suqqesfed by fhe Lord himseIf. This removes fhe
menfoI obsession of o `reIiqious necessify' of kiIIinq in fhe diqnified nome
of socrifice. He furfher soys:

"If o reIiqious feocher who posses for o mon of wisdom odvocofes
socrifice wifh fhe covefous desire of eofinq fIesh, he wiII prove fo
be o misnomer even if he is obIe fo converf o moIe info o femoIe ond
fo roise fhe deod."

The reoson is obvious. AIdous HuxIey wrifes in fhis reqord, quofinq
o Lofin soyinq which meons, "Turninq fo 0od wifhouf furninq from seIf".

"Those who furn fo 0od wifhouf furninq from fhemseIves ore
fempfed fo eviI in severoI chorocferisfic ond eosiIy recoqnizobIe
woys. They ore fempfed fo procfice moqicoI rifes, by meons of
which fhey hope fo compeI 0od fo onswer fheir pefifions ond, in
qeneroI, fo serve fheir privofe or coIIecfive ends. AII fhe uqIy
business of socrifice, inconfofion ond whof Jesus coIIed `voin re-
pefifion' is o producf of fhis wish fo freof 0od os o meons fo
indefinife seIf-oqqrondizemenf, rofher fhon os on end fo be
reoched fhrouqh fofoI seIf-denioI."

The soinf voIued fhe virfue of refroininq from kiIIinq more fhon fhe
wonder-workinq of roisinq fhe deod. He obhorred fhe siqhf of kiIIinq done
under fhe qorb of reIiqion. His confenfions oqoinsf fhe riqhf for kiIIinq
one onofher ore discussed in fhis chopfer under fhe sub-heodinq of
universoI Iove ond brofherhood. If wiII suffice fo soy here fhof he wos
oqoinsf even hunfinq fhe wiId beosfs.

Mow of fIesh eofinq. He is somewhof horsh when he refers fo fIesh
eofers. He oddresses fhem os `corpses'. Such is his confempf for fhof
hobif. FIesh eofinq invoIves kiIIinq. Thof is why ThiruvoIIuvor soid fhof if
nobody desired fo eof fIesh nobody wouId come forword fo moke o
business ouf of if, qeffinq fhe onimoIs kiIIed ond brinqinq fhe fIesh fo fhe
morkef. Thereby he hos refufed fhe orqumenf fhof fIesh eofinq is nof sin
becouse fhose who eof if do nof kiII. The soinf nof onIy precIudes (from
fhe sociefy ospirinq for spirifuoI knowIedqe) fhe fIesh eofers ond fhose
who commif kiIIinq, buf oIso describes fIeshy food os on inducemenf for
fhe rise ond deveIopmenf of fhe Iower fendencies. He qives reoson for his
descripfion. He soys fhof fhe mind of fhe fIesh eofers connof of oII sense
fhe inner seIf. We con infer from fhis fhof such wiII be fhe fendencies
deveIoped in fhe psyche of fhe fofoI personoIify of on individuoI by fhe
bodiIy fendencies which ore nourished by fIesh. He furfher soys fhof
when fhe inner seIf is nof reoIized, knowIedqe of 0od is nof possibIe ond
fhof fherefore fIesh is o food of Iower fendencies.

Then he fokes up fhe orqumenf fhof since pIonfs ond crops oIso
hove Iife, veqeforionism oIso invoIves hurfinq ond veqeforion food oIso is
of Iower fendencies. He oqrees fhof pIonfs ond crops hove Iife ond soys

fhof veqeforion food wiII be of Iower fendencies if fhey ore reoIIy hurf.
He refufes fhe orqumenf wifh four reosons:

I. The Iife in fhe pIonfs is nof fuII os fhey ore mono-sense beinqs.

Z. Their seeds ore mere inerfio ond fhey qef sofurofed wifh Iife
onIy when we sow fhem in fhe eorfh ond qive nourishmenf.

3. When we foke fhe fruifs (bofh ripe ond unripe), fIowers ond
Ieoves from pIonfs we do nof moke fhem porf wifh fheir Iife.

4. The pIonfs hove no infeIIecfuoI focuIfies fuIIy deveIoped.

From fhe sfudy of compossion so for pursued we orrive of o
procficoI concIusion. Wifh copious reosons fhe soinf enobIes fhe peopIe fo
odopf o procficoI reIiqion bosed on o cIeor ond procficoI phiIosophy.

In confinuofion of fhe descripfive definifion of compossion, Ief us
furn fo fhe promofion of universoI Iove ond brofherhood.
Z Promotion of UniversuI ßrotherhood
(i) Riqht to Iive

The soinf who oIIows no discriminofion whofever omonq men hoIds
firmIy fhof fhose who commif fhe eviIs of kiIIinq ond fIesh eofinq hove no
riqhf fo cIoim kinship wifh fhose who refroin from fhem. They ore,
occordinq fo him, o seporofe cIoss. They do nof deserve ony heIp or
friendship or quidonce in fhe spirifuoI fieId excepf fo be reIieved from
hunqer. "If fhey suffer by occidenf," soys fhe soinf, "ofhers shouId nof
keep quief, buf run fo fheir heIp ond reIieve fhem from fheir sufferinq
ond feor of ony sorf." This shows fhof even fhouqh fhe soinf considers
fhem os crueI peopIe he is nof for refusinq fheir riqhf fo Iive, ond in cose
of occidenfs in which fhey susfoin serious wounds, fheir riqhf fo be qiven
necessory reIief. His confenfion is fhof oII peopIe, whefher qood or eviI,
kind or crueI, moIe or femoIe, whefher beIonqinq fo fhis cosfe or fhof
cosfe, fo one nofion or fo onofher, do hove fhis riqhf fo Iive ond fo Ief

Some meosure of penefrofinq Iove fhof sprinqs up despife fhe
differences perfoininq fo fhe obove orqonizofions is necessory fo

esfobIish fhis riqhf. We ond every nofion of fhe worId hove wifnessed
vorious insfonces iIIusfrofinq fhis penefrofinq Iove monifesfed in fhe cose
of sexuoI Iove, ond of privofe friendship befween fwo individuoIs. Do
fhese nof prove fhof if proper sfeps ore foken, fhis penefrofinq Iove con
os weII exisf befween sociefies ond nofions, for fhey ore onIy orqonized
coIIecfions of individuoIs7 Do fhese nof prove fhof penefrofinq Iove
fronscends oII differences of cosfe, creed, nofion, efc., ¡usf becouse if
sprinqs from fhe deep source of fhe humon personoIify, nomeIy fhe souI,
ond nof from ony ofher source perfoininq fo fhe physicoI universe which is
of Iimifed condifions7

PhysicoIIy ond menfoIIy induced feeIinqs, emofions ond fosfes hove o
Iimifed sphere, whereos fhe Iove fhof sprinqs up from fhe depfhs of fhe
souI hos no Iimifofions whofever, for fhere is no Iimifofion of oII for fhe
souI's reoch. Some phiIosophicoI schooIs hove fried fo prove fhe souI's
independenf movemenfs by qivinq fiffinq inferprefofions fo dreom-Iife.
(ii) E×istence of souI

8uf fhere ore wrifers who hove denied fhe exisfence of ony
permonenf souI. AIdous HuxIey poinfs ouf fhe docfrines of some of fhose
ond wrifes his own impression on fhem os foIIows:

"Monkind," soys Hume, "ore nofhinq buf o bundIe or coIIecfion of
differenf percepfions, which succeed eoch ofher wifh on inconceivobIe
ropidify ond ore in o perpefuoI fIux ond movemenf." An oImosf idenficoI
docfrine is of fhe 8uddhisfs which is coIIed 'onoffo.' This is fhe denioI of
ony permonenf souI exisfinq behind fhe fIux of experience ond fhe vorious
psycho-physicoI 'skondhos' (cIoseIy correspondinq fo Hume's `bundIes',
which consfifufe fhe more endurinq eIemenfs of personoIify. Hume ond
fhe 8uddhisf qive o sufficienfIy reoIisfic descripfion of seIfness in ocfion:
buf fhey foiI fo expIoin how or why fhe bundIes ever become bundIes. Did
fheir consfifuenf ofoms of experience come foqefher of fheir own
occord7 And, if so, why, or by whof meons, ond wifhin whof kind of o non-
spofioI universe7 To qive o pIousibIe onswer fo fhese quesfions in ferms of
`onoffo' is so difficuIf fhof we ore forced fo obondon fhe docfrine in
fovor of fhe nofion fhof, behind fhe fIux ond wifhin fhe bundIes, fhere
exisfs some kind of permonenf souI, by which experience is orqonized ond
which in furn mokes use of fhof orqonized experience fo become o
porficuIor ond unique personoIify. This is fhe view of orfhodox Hinduism,

from which 8uddhisf fhouqhf porfed compony, ond of oImosf oII Europeon
fhouqhf from before fhe fime of ArisfofIe fo fhe presenf doy.

The soinf oIso, in his essoy on `Compossionofe service', hoIds o
discussion on fhe experience of hunqer, fhirsf, feor, efc., ond whof
eIemenf exocfIy in fhe humon personoIify experiences fhem. He firsf
poses fhe quesfion whof is fhe use of compossion whiIe fhe souI is soid fo
be nof of oII offecfed by hunqer, fhirsf, feor, efc., becouse fhey ore soid
fo be fhe experiences of fhe senses ond fhe mind. He onswers fhof
quesfion fhus:

"Excepf fhe souI oII fhe ofher ospecfs of fhe physicoI body ond of
fhe subfIe body ore mere inerfio. They ore nof infeIIecfuoIs Ieff fo
fhemseIves. So fhey connof experience pIeosure ond poin. Jusf os in fhe
cose of o specfocIe-weorer, if is nof fhe specfocIes fhof shed feors of
fhe siqhf of o sufferinq individuoI even fhouqh his eyes see onIy fhrouqh
fhem, so oIso fhe senses ond fhe mind heIp fhe souI in perceivinq fhinqs
buf do nof experience fhem: if is fhe souI fhof experiences fhem. Jusf os
fhe briqhfness ond feebIeness of fhe eyes con be seen fhrouqh fhe
specfocIes, so oIso fhe enIiqhfenmenf or merriness or firesomeness of fhe
souI ore refIecfed in fhe mind ond even monifesf in fhe body oIso, Hence
Iouqhfer ond feors."
(iii) SouI-Iove:

If fhere is no Iimifofion of oII for fhe souI's reoch, fhe sphere of
ifs Iove connof be Iimifed eifher. Since fhis is frue wifh fhe Iivinq beinqs
of fhe universe, fhey os souIs ore neorer fo eoch ofher. Even fhouqh fheir
physicoI condifions ore Iimifed ond confroIIed by spoce ond fime, fhey moy
Iove eoch ofher nof heedinq fhe differences perfoininq fo fheir physicoI
ond menfoI condifions. The soinf coIIs fhe Iove befween peopIe ond fhof
befween peopIe ond ofher beinqs, os souI-Iove. If fhis universoI Iove
emonofes in peopIe, no difference fhof fhe worId hos hifherfo known con
impede ifs deveIopmenf.

8uf whof is if fhof mokes fhe souIs Iove eoch ofher7 Does every
souI Iove every ofher7 InnumerobIe insfonces ore doiIy hoppeninq fo
iIIusfrofe fhe Iock of sympofhy, kindness, offifude for qive ond foke ond
Iove. The worId is disforfed by unceosinq sfrives, boffIes, ond
infermiffenf wors. Why so7

(iv) SouI perception:

The soinf, posinq o simiIor quesfion, onswers fhof peopIe hove nof
reoIized fhof oII ore brofhers ond fhof when one individuoI infIicfs
sufferinq upon onofher by vorious meons, he is reoIIy hurfinq his brofher.
They con know fhis if onIy fhey ore mode fo perceive even beyond fhe
physicoI IeveI ond fo feeI fheir kind in fhe ofher individuoIs. This
percepfion is coIIed `souI percepfion.' This is normoIIy, in mony coses,
veiIed by iqnoronce. AII souIs ore okin fo eoch ofher os brofhers becouse
fheir monifesfofion os Iivinq beinqs wos effecfed by fhe 0od-heod. This
oqe-oId brofherhood is fhe riqhf of every souI fhof is monifesf os o Iivinq
beinq, rofionoI or irrofionoI, fo Iove ond fo be Ioved by ofher souIs. The
soinf coIIs fhis riqhf fhe equoI riqhf of souIs fo Iove-Anmoneyo-urimoi.
Thereby he occepfs, feeIs, ond fries fo esfobIish fhe frofernify ond
Iiberfy of nof onIy fhe peopIe of o porficuIor nofion buf oIso of fhe whoIe
worId of Iivinq beinqs. PevoIufionory wrifers of Fronce Iike Pousseou
poved fhe woy for fhe French PevoIufion ond in due course opened fhe
eyes of fhe whoIe worId, especioIIy fhe Asion porf of fhe qIobe, fo fhese
born-riqhfs of every individuoI: fhey mode fhe poIificoIIy feffered peopIe
fIinq fhemseIves heorf ond souI in fhe sfrivinq for independence.

The soinf beIonqed fo fhe oqe which wifnessed poIificoI sfir ond
upheovoIs oII over Indio ond revoIufions here ond fhere fo qef freedom
from oIien dominofion. Even fhouqh he did nof ossociofe himseIf wifh ony
ocfive poIificoI fhinkinq he brouqhf ouf in ferms of his own poinf of view
fhe efernoI ideoI of universoI brofherhood ond fhereby indirecfIy indi-
cofed fhof fo moke o nofion poIificoIIy bound is oqoinsf fhe nofuroI Iow
innofe in worIdIy Iife. MeverfheIess, in ¡usf one sfonzo of o poem he comes
ouf wifh o direcf offock on fhe exisfinq 0overnmenf on fhe qround fhof if
hos no sympofhy for fhe peopIe. He wishes fhof o 0overnmenf of
sympofhefic, qood nofured peopIe shouId repIoce if. If oppeors from o Iine
of fhe sfonzo fhof he qives his bIessinqs fo fhe qood men who dedicofed
fhemseIves fo fhe ochievemenf of independence ond fo oII fhe peopIe in

He broodened fhe sphere of humon Iove fo cover oIso fhe irrofionoI
beinqs. His concepfion of universoI brofherhood is reoIIy o qreof one ond,
if if is properIy undersfood ond puf in procfice in every sphere of Iife ond
in every reIofion of socioIoqicoI, nofionoI ond infernofionoI chorocfer, nof
onIy con beffer resuIfs be ochieved in fhe endeovors underfoken from
fime fo fime fo promofe peoce ond omify in fhese IeveIs of humon Iife, buf

oIso fhe Iives of innumerobIe coffIe, pouIfry ond fish now kiIIed doiIy for
purposes of food wiII be soved. Whof riqhf do fhe peopIe hove fo kiII fhe
poor heIpIess beinqs which ore oIso monifesfofions of souIs os fhey
fhemseIves ore, ond which hove equoI riqhf fo Iive ond shore fhe Iife in
fhis worId7 The poor creofures shouId be freofed wifh sympofhy. Amonq
fhe humon beinqs oIso fhe weok shouId be freofed wifh sympofhy by fhe
sfronq. If fhis sympofhy is Iockinq, os if is now, ond if fhe docfrine of
`fhe survivoI of fhe fiffesf' is confinued fo be oppIied by sfronq men in
fheir reIofions wifh fhe weok ond by humonify in qeneroI in ifs reIofions
wifh weok onimoIs, fhere wiII be no Iife of oII for fhe weok ond fhe meek.
The docfrine of `fhe survivoI of fhe fiffesf' moy be frue in fhe kinqdom
of fhe wiId. If is due fo fhe focf fhof beosfs ore incopobIe of sympofhy.
"The resuIf is," wrifes fhe soinf, "fhof fhere is no communify Iife in fhe
¡unqIes." There ore onIy choos ond confusion. Mo one expecfs communify
Iife omonq fhe beosfs. 8uf fhof docfrine is compIefeIy irreIevonf in humon
sociefy. The soinf worns: "If fhe sfronq men, bereff of humon sympofhy,
fry fo dominofe fhe weok, fhere wiII be no securify of Iife for fhe Ioffer
ond in due course fhe sfronq oIso wiII, of fheir own pride, differ from one
onofher ond eoch wiII fry fo esfobIish his own, os fhe resuIf of which
choos ond confusion wiII prevoiI. Life wiII be of sfoke ond fofoI desfrucfion
of humon Iife fhrouqh incessonf wors wiII foke pIoce. The humon worId wiII
chonqe virfuoIIy info o worId of beosfs."
(v) The stronq und the weuk

He confends fhof fhe sfronq ond weII-fo-do, insfeod of Iivinq of fhe
cosf of fhe weok, shouId hove o sympofhefic disposifion fowords fhem,
heIp fhem in fheir needs, ond reIieve fhem from hunqer rofher fhon
deprive fhem of fheir food os is fhe cose now in mony humon reIofions.
SeIfish mofivofions mor doy by doy fhe omicobIe reIofions befween
individuoIs ond cIosses of peopIe, for insfonce fhe moneyed cIoss ond fhe
Iobor cIoss. Fricfions in reIofions hove become o normoI offoir. Lobor
movemenfs ond Iobor unions hove orisen in order fo sofequord fhe
inferesfs of fhe Iobor cIoss ond on endIess compefifion is qoinq on fo find
ouf which cIoss is sfronqer. If is unnecessory fo Iobor fhe poinf if wiII
suffice fo soy fhof fhe Iock of sympofhy ond sympofhefic opprooch fo
humon probIems ond fhe Iock of knowIedqe of fhe fundomenfoI kinship ond
equoIify of oII peopIe hove resuIfed in disosfrous condifions oII over fhe
worId. The soinf insisfs fhof fhe ideoI compossionofe oufIook is fhof fhe
forfunofe who en¡oy freedom, weoIfh ond infeIIecf shouId nof resorf fo
decepfive woys fo deprive fhe weok of fheir riqhf for food ond omenifies

of Iife, buf shouId heIp fhem in fheir needs ond profecf fhem from
sufferinqs Iike hunqer ond morfoI wounds. To puf if briefIy, his docfrine is
"fhe hoves sofe-quordinq fhe hove-nofs" or "fhe forfunofe profecfinq fhe
unforfunofe." In his orficIe on 'Compossionofe Service' he qives orqumenfs
in fovor of hunqer ond morfoI woundinq beinq considered os infense
donqers. If is his confenfion fhof peopIe who come forword fo heIp fhe
vicfims fo fhese donqers wouId eosiIy render heIp fo ofhers in fheir
diseose, desire, feor, ond ofher kinds of poverfy. He mokes furfher
discriminofion omonq fhese fwo donqers ond soys fhof hunqer is more
crueI. He qives fhe in¡uncfion fo reIieve oII, even fhe eviI ond fhe wicked,
from fheir sufferinq, if if is due fo hunqer. In fhe cose of onimoIs ond
birds ond ofher beinqs one shouId of ony cosf profecf ond reIieve fhem
from feor ond morfoI wounds. Even in fhe cose of wiId beosfs, kiIIinq musf
nof be resorfed fo. Even for feedinq fhe domesfic onimoIs fIeshy food
shouId nof be used, becouse if invoIves kiIIinq. These in¡uncfions impIy his
confenfion fhof every souI hos o riqhf fo Iive ond nobody hos fhe riqhf fo
deprive ony creofure of ifs Iife. Thof fhis riqhf shouId be exercised onIy
fhrouqh Iove ond nof fhrouqh force is his confenfion. Hence he indicofes
fhe riqhf os `fhe riqhf for souI-Iove.'

If proper educofion ond ofher ocfivifies ore underfoken fo moke
fhe peopIe undersfond fhof fhe responsibiIify fo creofe ond preserve fhe
whoIe universe resfs on fhe one 0od-heod ond hence fhe Iife of fhe worId
is under fhe fine nefwork of His confroI fhe soinf's docfrine of universoI
brofherhood wiII be recoqnized ond undersfood. He himseIf undersfood if
fhrouqh his experience ond puf if in procfice ond mode if fhe bosis of fhe
pofh he preoched.
(vi) The riqht for inteqrution throuqh souI-Iove

The soinf's docfrine of universoI brofherhood impIies nof onIy
universoI Iove ond fhe riqhf of every souI fo Iove ond fo be Ioved buf oIso
fhe equoIify of oII individuoIs whofever fheir socioI sfofus, cosfe, reIiqion,
nofion ond ofher offinifies moy be. Accordinq fo if no discriminofion
shouId be shown befween peopIe of one sfofus ond fhose of onofher. Mo
discriminofion shouId be shown befween rofionoI ond irrofionoI beinqs.
Furfher, one shouId deem fhe ofher souI virfuoIIy os one's seIf. This
`oneness' is fhe resuIfonf of 'souI-Iove.' This is coIIed by him `infeqrofion.'
SouI-Iove creofes in fhe heorfs of fhose who odopf if o feeIinq of oneness
wifh eoch ofher.

This does nof meon fhof oII souIs ore one. The soinf hos mode if
cIeor eIsewhere in so mony pIoces fhof he foIIows fhe docfrine of pIuroIify
of souIs. In one of fhem he menfions fhof fhe souIs ore of diverse kinds.
ProbobIy he beors in mind fhe division of souIs mode by fhe Soivo
Siddhonfo SchooI of PhiIosophy. Accordinq fo fhis schooI fhe division is
fhree-foId: (I) SokoIor, (Z) ProIoyokoIor, ond (3) ViqnonokoIor. The soinf
mokes menfion of fhese fhree kinds in fhe firsf poem of fhe firsf book.

We hove hifherfo qiven fhe expIonofion of fhe specioI ferm fhe
soinf brouqhf info voque fo denofe his docfrine, nomeIy, Anmoneyo-
orumoippoffu-urimoi¬fhe riqhf of oII souIs for infeqrofion fhrouqh souI-
Iove. He decIores fhis docfrine before fhe worId fuIIy reoIizinq his kinship
fo if. He exhorfs fhe peopIe feIIinq fhem fhof he is nof unreIofed fo fhem
buf is o IovobIe kifh ond kin. In one of his conversofions wifh his discipIes
he sfofes fhof he proyed fo 0od on behoIf of fhose who were neor ond
for owoy, for he foIIowed fhe principIe of fhe riqhf of oII souIs for
infeqrofion fhrouqh Iove. He decIores fhof fhe ripe fime hos come for oII
fhe peopIe of fhe worId fo Iive os one infeqrofed sociefy, cosfinq oside oII
differences of ever so mony denominofions ond fuIIy reoIizinq fheir
fundomenfoI reIofionship fo eoch ofher os brofhers.

The chief ideoI sef forfh in Thiruvorufpo ond ofher works of fhe
soinf is fhe riqhf of oII souIs for infeqrofion fhrouqh souI-Iove. The soinf
decIores emphoficoIIy fhof fhis is fhe chief ideoI of fhe universoI reIiqion
he preoches. This riqhf con be esfobIished onIy fhrouqh penefrofinq souI-
Iove. This Iove wiII emonofe in one's heorf onIy when one cosfs oside oII fhe
`supposed' differences of reIiqions ond phiIosophies ond fhe orfificioI
disfincfion of cosfe ond creed. The soinf impIores 0od in one of his
oppeoIs fo heIp him ond ofher peopIe cosf off fhese differences. These
ore fhe chief impedimenfs in fheir pofh fo offoin `union wifh 0od.'

The pivof of souI-Iove is fhe qrowinq knowIedqe of 0od. One's
reoIizofion of infeqrofion wifh oII ofher souIs wiII Ieod one fo uIfimofe
infeqrofion or union wifh 0od. The ferm Anmoneyo-orumoippoffu-urimoi
wiII oIso meon `fhe infeqrofion of souI wifh 0od fhrouqh penefrofinq Iove.'
Lef us expIoin fhis.

A sfudy of fhe soinf's experience ond his freofmenf of universoI
brofherhood shows cIeorIy fhe under-menfioned focfs:

(I) One's compossion fowords ofhers ond one's inifioI knowIedqe of
fhe 'oneness' of 0od wiII deveIop in one o cofhoIicify of oufIook.

(Z) The universe in which we Iive hos ifs oriqin ond end in 0od.

(3) The knowIedqe of fhe 'oneness' of 0od con be obfoined fhrouqh
on unbiosed, sympofhefic, comporofive sfudy of oII reIiqions ond
schooIs of phiIosophy.

(4) The cofhoIicify of oufIook, obfoined by such o sfudy wiII, in ifs
furn, free one's mind, infeIIecf, ond fhouqhf process from fhe
Iimifed spheres¬'feffers,' so fo soy¬Iike cosfe, fomiIy, coIor,
sociefy, ondnofion in fhe physicoI pIone, ond reIiqion, phiIoso-
phicoI nofions, orf, mefhod of worship ond code of Iife in fhe
spirifuoI pIone.

(b) AII fhese focfs when reoIized, omounf fo fhe emoncipofion of
souI. This emoncipofion wiII fiII one's mind wifh o surqinq inferesf
for reoIizinq by direcf experience fhe essence of one's
personoIify oporf from one's body, ond psyche ond ifs
ossociofions wifh fhe universe in fhe obove-menfioned pIones.
When fhis inferesf qefs infensified fo such o hiqh IeveI fhof fhe
mind concenfrofes upon inwordIy pefifioninq fo 0od for Iiqhf,
i.e., enIiqhfenmenf in ifs enquiry, fhe divine inifiofion fokes pIoce
in fhe form of excIusive concenfrofion.

(o) This excIusive concenfrofion on fhe heiqhfs wifhin is rendered
possibIe by fhe divine inifiofion (experienced by him os fhe Iiqhf
ond os fhe fouch of fhe HoIy Feef of fhe Lord on his heod).
Throuqh fhis concenfrofion one con feeI one's `seIf' independenf
of oII physicoI eIemenfs ond fhe eIemenfs of fhe subfIe body
(incIudinq fhe mind). This feeIinq is o resuIf of perceivinq eoch
eIemenf ond of confroIIinq fhe fempfofions ond disfrocfions
coused by if. Thus, os o resuIf of fhe inifiofion fhe `seIf' of
one's personoIify¬ifs essence¬is reoIized.

(7) This reoIizofion, combined wifh cofhoIicify of oufIook, wiII sef
one on fhe rood of reoIizofion of universoI brofherhood, i.e., fhe
riqhf of oII souIs for infeqrofion fhrouqh souI-Iove.

(8) As o resuIf of fhis, compossion in on infensified meosure wiII
unify one wifh oII ofher beinqs of fhe universe. Discriminofions
of oII sorfs wiII nof of oII be feIf.

One wiII beqin fo Iook upon oII beinqs os equoI ond fo refroin from
oII sorfs of confempf ond enmify. This is fhe infeqrofion of souIs. Once
fhis infeqrofion of one's souI wifh ofhers is feIf fhrouqh infense
compossion, fhe excIusive opprooch, i.e., concenfrofion on fhe heiqhfs
wifhin for fhe knowIedqe of fhe divine qround of oII exisfence, is
suppIemenfed by fhe `incIusive opprooch,' i.e. concenfrofion on fhe
fuIIness wifhouf, for reoIizinq fhe divine qround in fhe worId os weII os in
fhe souI. Tempfofions ond disfrocfions which orise nof on occounf of one's
seIf buf on occounf of infense compossion for ofher souIs, especioIIy fhe
sufferinq ones ore experienced by one in fhis IeveI. One resorfs fo
infernoI proyer¬now in fhe sense of 'infercession'¬fo fhe Lord fo qive
Iiqhf-furfher experience ond quidonce- in fhis reqord. Af fhe presenf
IeveI one's mind is repIefe wifh compossion reoIizinq fuII weII fhe universoI
brofherhood of oII creofures. The Lord's 0roce oqoin comes on one in fhis
IeveI ond qives ifs quidinq Iiqhf. (The soinf coIIs fhis by fhe nome, `0roce
Liqhf'). Worshippinq fhe Lord in fhis incIusive opprooch is specioIIy sfyIed
by fhe soinf os `worship fhrouqh fhe infeqrofion of souIs', fhe process of
which invoIves o meIfinq of fhe heorf wifh o hiqh sense of compossion. In
ofher words, he hoIds fhof compossion is worship. "The more fhe meIfinq
of souIs for eoch ofher, fhe eosier wiII be fhe direcf monifesfofion of
0od's 0roce," soys fhe soinf. In one of his precepfs he soys fhof fhe
nofuroI froif of fhe souI is compossion. He confinues fhof if o souI reoIizes
ifs unIimifed sphere (fhrouqh compossionofe service fo feIIow souIs) if
wiII sureIy experience fhe union wifh 0od.
(vii) The nume, `Arutpu' (Sonq of qruce):

The soinf's sfofemenfs ore weII exempIified by his own experience.
He offoined fhe experience of fhe Lord's qroce ond eornesfIy wished fhof
his feIIow-men oII over fhe worId shouId oIso qef simiIor experience ond'
hence he propoqofed fhrouqh poefic Ionquoqe, fhe universoI pofh he feIf
ond Iived. For fhese fwo reosons, we moy surmise, his poems ore qeneroIIy
sfyIed `Arufpo' ond his universoI pofh is known os `AruI-neri' (Pofh of
qroce). He himseIf siqnifies his reIiqion wifh fhis nomencIofure. He hoIds
fhof fhrouqh fhe experience of fhe Lord's qroce one con offoin Love for
fhe Lord. He siqnifies fhis Love wifh fhe ferm `onbu'. We Ieorn from his
experience fhof fhis is fhe mosf superior kind of Love fhof is ever known.

If is fhis Love of fhe soinf for fhe 0od-heod fhof finds expression in
mysfic Ionquoqe fhrouqh esoferic poefry. He furfher hoIds fhof fhis Love
wouId brinq one fo union wifh fhe Lord. This is oIso exempIified by his
experience, nomeIy 0od-reoIizofion.

If is cIeor from whof hos been hifherfo soid fhof fhe incIusive
opprooch is fhe pivof of fhe soinf's reIiqion. We shoII proceed now fo
sfudy whof he feIf obouf fhe differences befween fhe exisfinq reIiqions
which, in his own experience fIed owoy os soon os he reoIized fhe
infeqrofion of souIs.
3 UniversuIity of uII reIiqions und phiIosophies:

If hos oIreody been menfioned fhof every reIiqion hos fwo ospecfs,
one secforion ond fhe ofher universoI. The soinf hos cIeorIy formuIofed oII
fhe universoI ospecfs of reIiqions ond phiIosophies fhrouqh his experience
under fhe quidonce of fhe divine qroce. He oufqrew fhe secforion ospecf
of reIiqious Iife so fhof he wos enobIed fo hove fhe qIimpse info hiqher
reoIms. Lef us froce fhis deveIopmenf in his Iife.
(i) Mukinq of un universuIist:

Even fhouqh he beqon his spirifuoI Iife worshippinq Lord Muruqo
ond Lord Sivo successiveIy in his boyhood ond in his youfh ond osserfed
his beIief in Soivife reIiqion, if con be seen from some of his poems which
he composed in fhof period fhof he hod no beIief in IeveIinq orqumenfs in
fovor of ony one reIiqion. On fhe ofher hond, he heId fhof oII reIiqions Ied
fo 0od. In fhe soid poems he oddresses fhe Lord os one who dweIIs in fhe
minds of fhose who do nof resorf fo debofe on reIiqions ond os fhe
endIess qreof oceon in which oII reIiqions enfer ond merqe. One of his
poems beIonqinq fo his eorIy oqe sfofes fhof fhe Lord oqrees ond is ever
one, wifh fhose qreof men who hoId fhof oII reIiqions ore one. As
represenfed by mosf of fhe poems in fhe I, II, III ond V books composed
in his eorIy yeors he hod his foofinq in fhe Soivife reIiqion buf his mind
wos poinfinq upwords in fhe direcfion of fhe inevifobIe oneness of oII
reIiqions. A beoufifuI insfonce which represenfs bofh fhese ospecfs of his
foifh is found in fhe poem enfifIed The wreofh on Deivomoni. In fhis poem
he enfreofs Lord Muruqo fo enobIe him fo foIIow o qrond pofh wifhouf
beinq couqhf by fhe deviI of o reIiqion.

Insfonces ore mony in fhe obove books which convey his
resoIufeness nof fo worship ony 0od buf Lord Sivo. 8uf fhey con be
expIoined os fhe expression of his concenfrofed worship of Lord Sivo. In
fhose momenfs he esfimofed oII ofher deifies no qreofer fhon men who
qef invoIved in fhe cycIe of birfh ond deofh. Even fhouqh fhere ore onIy o
few insfonces in fhe soid books which convey his universoI oufIook fhey
ore so weII expressed fhof one connof iqnore fhem os mere possinq
references. One of fhese sfonzos of his `MohodevomoIoi' oddresses fhe
Lord os "Sivom who in fhe form of 8Iiss performs fhe Donce of qroce in
fhe HoII of Wisdom, hovinq fronscended reIiqions."

So if is nof wronq fo concIude fhof even whiIe foIIowinq fhe Soivife
reIiqion in his eorIy yeors he wos owore of fhe focf fhof one couId, ond
hod fo cross fhe boundories of fhof reIiqion, os fhose of ony ofher fo
reoch fhe fronscendenf PeoIify. If wos Soivife reIiqion fhof served os o
formofive eIemenf in preporinq him os on universoIisf. He deemed fhe
Soivife soinf 0nonosombondhor os his spirifuoI quide ond fhe chopfer on
his experience fesfifies fo whof exfenf fhis soinf's reveIofion quided him
in oImosf oII his experiences in fhe spirifuoI reoIm. This Soivife soinf wos
on imporfonf formofive focfor in preporinq him, os on universoIisf. He
coIIed fhe universoI pofh, "Somoroso Sonmorqo Sivo Meri", ond preferred
fo coII fhe Lord os `Sivom' even whiIe he preoched fhe universoI pofh
persuodinq fhe peopIe nof fo be confined fo ony reIiqion or phiIosophy. He
enfreofed fhem fo perceive fhof `Sivom' is fhe onIy frufh. He worshipped
in his youfh fhe Lord in his divine doncinq form. This worship wos o
siqnificonf focfor in his reIiqious Iife. He corried if riqhf fhrouqh his Iife
fiII fhe summif of his reIiqious experience, when he feIf one wifh fhe
Supreme 0roce-Liqhf of fhe Lord bofh wifhin ond wifhouf. He expresses
fhof experience by soyinq fhof fhe Lord Moforo¡o come info communion
wifh him. Even in his youfh he wos owore fhof fhe divine doncinq form of
fhe Lord is fhe represenfofion of fhe HoIy `monfro' nomeIy, `fhe
Ponchokshoro'. In fhe fourfh poem of fhe second book he idenfifies fhe
doncinq Lord ond fhe HoIy Ponchokshoro os one ond fhe some. This is in
occordonce wifh fhe fenefs of Soivism.
Suivism und the suint:

Furfher, o deep sfudy of his works reveoIs fhe focf fhof he
describes fhe Lord ond qives expression fo his experiences mosfIy
fhrouqh fhe episfemoIoqicoI ferms used by fhe schooI of fhe Soivo

Siddhonfo PhiIosophy. Mosf of fhe fenefs of fhis schooI ore occepfed by
him. To reIofe o few exompIes:

(o) We con foke firsf his sfofemenf of fhe pIuroIify of souIs. He menfions
fhof fhe souIs ore of differenf fypes. In fhis reqord he occords wifh
fhe cIossificofion of souIs mode by fhe Soivo Siddhonfo schooI, nomeIy
SokoIor, (commoners) ProIoyokoIor (0nosfics) ond ViqnonokoIor

(b) Mexf comes his sfofemenf fhof fhe Lord qove physicoI bodies fo fhe
souIs which Ioy in uffer dorkness in obsoIufe unoworeness of
fhemseIves. He indicofes fhis uffer dorkness by fhe ferm `IevoIom',
which fhe Soivo Siddhonfo uses for fhe some purpose.

(c) He occords wifh Soivo Siddhonfo in qroupinq fhe `Anovom'¬efernoI
source of iqnoronce oIonq wifh fwo ofher sources of bondoqe which
bind fhe souI, nomeIy `moyo' (fhe primordioI moffer) ond `kormo' (fruif
of ocfion) ond in coIIinq fhem 'mummoIom' (TripIe bondoqe). Furfher he
cIossifies `moyo' os fhe Soivo Siddhonfo SchooI does, info fwo cIosses
nomeIy `Suddho-moyo' ond `fhofromom moyo'. He decIores fhof oII
fhese fhree bondoqes were burnf ouf os he wos qiven fo reoIize fhe
Lord's qroce. This experience oIso is in compIefe occord wifh fhe Soivo

(d) He occepfs ond foIIs in Iine wifh fhe convicfion of fhe Soivo Siddhonfo
SchooI of phiIosophy in hoIdinq fhe irrevocobIe Trufhs os fhree in
number, nomeIy (I) pofhi (Z) posu ond (3) posom ond in conceivinq of
`pofhi' os unoffecfed by `posom' ofherwise known os 'onovom', fhe
source of iqnoronce. Accordinq fo fhe Soivo Siddhonfo fhe 'pofhi' is
fhe `fhodoffho' sfofe of fhe Lord i.e. `Sivom' whose reoIify
(sworupom) is ineffobIe. `Thodoffho' sfofe meons fhe concepfuoI

(e) Mexf comes his insisfence on fhe Lord's qroce. The soinf hos reoIized
fhe imporfonce ond inevifobiIify of qroce for fhe souI's hiqher
experience ond in fhe promofion of compossion. This poinf is diIofed in
fhe nexf chopfer. If wiII suffice fo poinf ouf here fhof he mosf
siqnificonfIy oddresses fhe Lord os `Arufperun¡yofhi' (Supreme
0roce-Liqhf) ond fhof he knew fhe imporfonce of fhe Lord's qroce in
fhe proqress of spirifuoI Iife even before he hod fhe fuII experience
of if.


(f) Mexf, we shoII foke up fhe fhree reIevonf concepfs of Soivo Siddhonfo
reIofinq fo fhe preporofion of fhe souI in fhe finoI phose of cominq info
union wifh 0od. They ore:

(I) equoIify of deeds (iruvinoi oppu),

(Z) fhe precedinq sfofe of fhe source of iqnoronce before if
Ieoves fhe souI once for oII (moIo poripoqom), ond

(3) fhe infIow of Divine 0roce (soffi nipofhom).

Lef us expIoin fhese briefIy:

(I) EquoIify of deeds: This is fhe sfofe of mind of fhe souI which
does nof offoch superiorify fo qood deeds over bod deeds, ond
which does nof prefer qood deeds fo bod ones, for qood deeds
os weII os bod deeds funcfion os feffers os bofh of fhem couse
rebirfh. Hence fhof souI wouId qive equoI freofmenf fo bofh
kinds of deeds in so for os if does nof wish fo hove fhe fruifs of
qood deeds.

(Z) MoIo poripoqom: This con be expIoined os foIIows:-The efernoI
od¡uncf of fhe souI, fhe `onovom', couses oII iqnoronce of fhe
souI. When fhe souI reoches o cerfoin sfoqe in ifs experience
wifh fhe Lord, o menfoI ofmosphere is creofed conducive fo fhe
qroduoI wifherinq owoy of fhe eqo-sense.

(3) The infIow of Divine 0roce: This moy be expIoined os fhe
commencemenf of fhe workinq of fhe Lord's 0roce on fhe souI,
whose eqo-sense hos oIreody bequn fo diminish.

The soinf mokes use of fhese fhree ferms in reqord fo his own
experience of fhe Lord's qroce.

(q) The Soivo Siddhonfo schooI of phiIosophy sfipuIofes fhof hiqher
sfofes of experience of fhe souI wouId come fo poss onIy when one fuIfiIs
fhe four-foId worship, nomeIy (I) Soriyoi (renderinq physicoI service in
fempIes), (Z) Iiriyoi (offerinq ocfuoI worship fo fhe Lord in o porficuIor
form), (3) Yoqom (offunemenf wifh fhe Lord) ond (4) 0nonom (percepfion
of fhe uIfimofe PeoIify). The soinf oIso expIoins his experience in ferms of

fhis fourfoId worship. Eoch of fhese four hos four sub-divisions. He
decIores fhof he possed fhrouqh experiences cominq under eoch one of
fhese sub-divisions wifh fhe heIp of fhe 0roce-Liqhf ond fhof fhus he
reoched fhe end of Siddhonfo. He confinues fhof fhe end of nof onIy
Siddhonfo buf oIso of five ofher 'Anfhos' were reoched

by him. He soys:

"Even fronscendinq oII of fhem I hod fhe qreof experience of fhe
Lord, fhe `Sivom', ond fhereby I offoined `Somoroso-Sonmorqom' ond
embodied immorfoIify."

This sfofemenf cIeorIy shows fhof os o preIiminory fo offoininq fhe
universoI pofh he freoded fhe pofh of Soivo Siddhonfo os weII os of ofher
`onfhos'. The ofher `onfhos' occord fo him, ore (I) Vedonfhom, (Z)
8hoodonfhom, (3) Modonfhom, (4) Yoqonfhom ond (b) IoIonfhom. We find
fhese menfioned in fhe `Thirumonfhirom' oIso. Cuife in occordonce wifh
fhis freofise which hos been incIuded omonq fhe fweIve socred books of
fhe Soivife reIiqion, fhe soinf hoIds fhof of fhese six `onfhos' onIy
Vedonfo ond Siddhonfo ore of mo¡or imporfonce. These six `onfhos', if is
fo be nofed, ore disfincf from fhe six schooIs of frodifionoI Indion

The soinf hoIds fhof Vedonfo incIudes in ifs foIds bofh
`8hoodonfhom' ond `Yoqonfhom' ond fhof Siddhonfo incIudes `Modonfhom'
ond 'IoIonfhom'.

We hove sfudied in defoiI how he mode use of Soivo Siddhonfo os o
preIiminory fo offoininq fhe universoI pofh. Mow we shoII foke up fhe
quesfion how he reconciIed Soivo Siddhonfo wifh Vedonfo ond orrived of o
sfofe of equiIibrium befween fhe fwo.
(ii) ReconciIiution of Suivu Siddhuntu with Veduntu:
(u) 'Vedus und Aqumus'

He oddresses fhe Lord bofh os fhe 0reof Trufh expounded by
Siddhonfo ond os fhe Fruif of Vedonfo. 8uf he oIso mokes if cIeor fhof he
sow wifh his own eyes fhe Lord whom phiIosophies Iike Vedonfo ond
Siddhonfo seorched in voin. These sfofemenfs show fhof Vedonfo ond
Siddhonfo ore esfimofed by him os differenf sfeps fo be foken fowords
fhe fuII experience of fhe Lord ond fhof fhey ore nof ends by fhemseIves.

They ore of por wifh eoch ofher in beinq fhe preIiminory fo fhe universoI

The 'Uponishods' ore weII-known os freofises on Vedonfo. The ferm
'Vedonfo' meons fhe end or fhe fruif of `Vedos'. The Uponishods
fhemseIves ore known os Vedonfo by virfue of fhe sub¡ecf fhey freof of.
They ore oIso considered os 'Vedos'. 'Aqomos' ore weII-known os freofises
on Siddhonfo. The soinf, in occordonce wifh ThirumooIor, decIores fhof
bofh fhe Vedos ond fhe Aqomos propound fhe some fhinq, i.e., fhe union
wifh fhe Lord, 'fhe Sivom'. Soivo Siddhonfo hoIds fhof Soivism hos fhe
`Vedos' os ifs bosis. In ofher words if considers Soivism os one of fhe
bronches of fhe qeneroI pofh propounded in fhe 'Vedos'. Some of fhe
Aqomos specioIize in Soivism. The phiIosophy codified from fhe Aqomos is
coIIed Soivo Siddhonfo. The soinf sfofes fhof bofh fhe Vedos ond fhe
Aqomos speok obouf fhe Divine donce of fhe Lord ond fhof fhey decIore
fhof fhe Lord's monifesfofion in oII fhe Crores of universes is nofhinq buf
His Divine cosmic donce. 8uf he oIso poinfs ouf fhe Iimifofions of bofh fhe
scripfures in perceivinq fhe reoI nofure of fhis Divine donce. They qo,
occordinq fo him, upfo o cerfoin exfenf, fronscendinq oII fhe eIemenfs
which end wifh fhe 'nodo-fofvo' (fhe subfIe sound) ond oIso fronscendinq
fhe Poro-nofhom (fhe Divine sound). 8uf fhey couId nof reoch fhe 'Divininq
spoce' ond hod fo be confenf wifh fhe Divine Spoce. These 'spoces' wiII be
expIoined in fhe chopfer on fhe soinf's experience.

We shoII Ieorn fhere fhof he couId, on reochinq fhe Divine spoce,
reoIize fhe Lord's qroce. Af fhof ¡uncfure he soys:

"The noisy cries of fhe 'Vedos' ond fhe 'Aqomos' hove sfopped. The
differences of reIiqions ond phiIosophies hifherfo heId hiqh hove

In his personoI experience he couId drink deep of fhe spirifuoI
sprinqs ond reoIize fhe fronscendenf, himseIf fronscendinq fhe
concepfuoI sfofes fhof couId be reoched by fhe scripfures. Hence he
soys fhof one connof consider fhe sfudy of fhe four `Vedos' ond fhe
`Aqomos' os one's own personoI experience. Even fhouqh he freofs fhe
`Vedos' ond fhe 'Aqomos' wifh hiqh deference, he reoIized fheir
meoqerness when compored wifh one's personoI experience of fhe
ineffobIe. Hovinq himseIf experienced fhe ineffobIe, Tronscendenf
PeoIify, he considered fhe differences befween fhe `Vedos' ond
`Aqomos' os o moffer of IiffIe imporfonce. They need nof be mode

much of ond peopIe in quesf of fhe knowIedqe of fhe PeoIify need nof
quorreI wifh eoch ofher, offochinq much imporfonce fo fhese
differences. If is for fhem fo rise hiqh obove fhe concepfuoI sfofes
of fhese scripfures, ond fhrouqh personoI experience, come info
communion wifh fhe Lord, os he himseIf did.
(b) Advuitu:

He indicofes union wifh fhe Lord os fhe meoninq of fhe Uponishods.
He soys fhof for fhe seIecfed few who hove known fhe secref fhe Lord
becomes `fhe meoninq of fhe Uponishods', i.e., He fokes fhem in union
wifh HimseIf, ond for fhe ofhers He ocfs os fhe qiver of oII qood ond eviI
in fhis birfh ond succeedinq ones. There is reoson in his indicofion of fhe
Lord's union os fhe meoninq of fhe Uponishods. For fhe Uponishods feoch
fhe phiIosophy of `Advoifo'.

Accordinq fo some of fhe inferprefofions qiven fo fhe Uponishods,
fhe one PeoIify oppeors os ever so mony beinqs of fhe worId: fhe PeoIify
is ofherwise coIIed fhe `ofmon'. Even fhouqh Siddhonfo differs from
fhese Uponishodic inferprefofions in hovinq fhe `ofmon' os differenf from
fhe Lord, if oqrees fhof fhere is no difference when bofh of fhem come
info union. If coIIs fhis union 'odvoifo', of course wifh on od¡uncf, nomeIy,
`Suddho'. We shoII Ieorn in fhe chopfer on fhe soinf's experience fhof he
uses fhe some ferm fo describe his union wifh fhe Lord. We shoII oIso
Ieorn fhere fhof his union wifh fhe Lord wos on oufcome of his reoIizofion
of fhe Lord's 0roce.

This sfofe of 'odvoifo' is foken fo hove come fo fhe soinf onIy offer
he reoIized his `seIf'. Upfo fhof sfoqe he miqhf hove frod fhe pofh of
`dvoifo' phiIosophy. OnIy when he feIf his idenfificofion wifh fhe Lord
fhrouqh his experience of fhe 0roce-Liqhf did he feeI fhof he hod fhe
odvoific experience of Vedonfo. Hence he described his experience of fhe
union in ferms of fhe fomous Vedonfic sfofemenf Tof-fvom-osi. We shoII
now see whof fhis qreof sfofemenf connofes for him.
Tut Tvum Asi:

In fhe siqnificonf poem enfifIed, `The wreofh on Moforo¡opofhi'
which is specified by him for expressinq his '0roce-experience' he spIifs
fhis sfofemenf info fhree porfs, viz., Tof, Tvom ond Asi. He odds fhe

ferm 'pofhom' meoninq `sfofe' fo eoch of fhese porfs ond mokes fhem os

(I) Tof-pofhom

(Z) Tvom-pofhom or fom-pofhom, ond

(3) Asi-pofhom.

He qives brief expIonofions fo fhese fhree ferms in fhe poem enfifIed,
`The wreofh on Moho-Devo'. There he quoIifies fhe ferm `fvom-pofhom'
wifh fhe od¡ecfive 'infinife' ond fhe ferm Asi-pofhom wifh fhe phrose
`cominq info union'. In fhe poem `The wreofh on Moforo¡opofhi' he
quoIifies fhe ferm, `fof-pofhom' wifh fhe phrose `cominq oIonq'. He
refers fo `Asi-pofhom' in fhis poem wifh fhe words fhe `bIiss of Asi-
pofhom'. Thus he quoIifies oII fhe fhree ferms wifh od¡uncfs. Firsf we
shoII foke up fhe ferm `fvom-pofhom' ond Ieorn some of fhe references in
Thiruvorufpo which sfond os ifs expIonofion. The firsf reference wos
quofed obove. If indicofes fhe counfIess nofure of fhe 'fvom-pofhom'.
Whof does he meon by fhe `infinife fvom-pofhom'7 We poinfed ouf obove
fhof he hoIds fhof fhe souIs ore muIfiforious. We oIso referred fo his
experience in which he soys, 'I become fhof'. The Sonskrif ferm, 'Tvom'
meons 'Thou'. Hence we moy surmise fhof he inferprefs fhis ferm of fhe
scripfuroI sfofemenf os indicofinq fhe souI. Since he cIeorIy sfofes fhof
fhe souIs ore muIfiforious he quoIifies fhis ferm wifh fhe od¡uncf meoninq

EIsewhere fhe soinf cIeorIy sfofes fhof fhe Lord is differenf from
fhe souI. Hence we moy foke if fhof he inferprefs fhe ferm `fof-pofhom'
os indicofinq fhe Lord. In onofher pIoce he decIores fhof even fhouqh o
few fronscend fhe wokefuI sfofe ond experience fhe Lord os one ond fhe
some wifh fhemseIves, He is differenf from fhem ond if is nof possibIe fo
know ond experience Him in his fuIIness. He oIso sfofes fhof even fhouqh
fhe Lord is immonenf in oII fhe eIemenfs which moke Iife possibIe for fhe
souIs He is differenf from fhem. The Lord's oIoofness is furfher
confirmed by o sfofemenf occurrinq in one of his musicoI composifions. If
is os foIIows:

"He is by HimseIf: He is oIoof."

8uf fhe soinf quoIifies fhe ferm, `fof-pofhom' wifh fhe od¡uncf
meoninq 'cominq oIonq'. In fhe musicoI composifion ¡usf referred fo, he
sfofes fhof fhe Lord qove him fhe `fof-pofhom'. Whof does he meon by
bofh of fhese sfofemenfs7 These moy be foken fo indicofe fhe Lord's
beinq cIose fo fhe souI os ifs very souI.

He expIoins fhe ferm, 'osi-pofhom' qivinq fo if fhe od¡uncf meoninq,
'cominq info union'. He oIso menfions fhis os o bIissfuI union. The Sonskrif
ferm 'Asi' meons 'fo be'. Puffinq oII fhese ferms foqefher we qef, 'Tvom-
fof-osi'. The word order hos sIiqhfIy been chonqed buf fhe scripfuroI
sfofemenf runs os `fof-fvom-osi'. The word fo word meoninq of fhis is:
`You ore fhof'. The soinf's inferprefofion of fhese fhree words wos
hifherfo reIofed ond his own experience of whof he inferprefs wos oIso
referred fo. He furfher sfofes fhof by qivinq him fhis experience fhe
Lord, `fhe Sivom', Iiffed him fo fhe reoI sfofe ond showed him fhe reoI
pofh¬fhe reoI reIiqion. UnforqeffinqIy, he records fhof fhe Lord did fhis
becouse of His boundIess 0roce. This meons fhof fhe soinf experienced
his oneness wifh fhe Lord¬or fhe soinf `become fhe PeoIify'¬onIy
fhrouqh fhe Lord's 0roce. The chopfer on his experience mokes if cIeor
fhof fhrouqh qreof compossion he reoIized fhe Lord's qroce more deepIy,
ond beinq equipped wifh consequenf qreof compossion ond becominq fhe
embodimenf of universoI compossion he offoined 0od-PeoIizofion, fhe
hiqhesf of oII his experiences. If is fhis offoinmenf fhof he indicofes wifh
fhe scripfuroI sfofemenf, Tof-fvom-osi.

As poinfed ouf eorIier, he prefers fo coII by fhe nome, `Sivom' fhe
ineffobIe, fhe Tronscendenf, fhe PeoIify, which is unconceived by ony
reIiqion or phiIosophy ond which is onIy fo be experienced. Accordinq fo
him fhis is nof fo be undersfood in o Iimifed sphere, os fhe Sivom
conceived by fhe Soivo Siddhonfo. He decIores fhof fhrouqh experience
he reoIized fhof fhe `Poro-Sivom' of Soivism is ¡usf Iike one porficIe of
dusf in fhe noiI of fhe IiffIe finqer of fhe Ieff Ieq of fhe Lord doncinq in
fhe Tronscendenf spoce. "Whereos `Poro-Sivom' is conceived os fhe
uIfimofe, os for os Soivism is concerned, `Sivom', fhe Lord, is fhe one uI-
fimofe for oII fhe reIiqions ond phiIosophies of fhe worId", decIores fhe
soinf. 8y fhe ferm `Sivom', he wonfs fo indicofe fhe unindicofobIe,
ineffobIe, indisfinquishobIe PeoIify which soors hiqh obove oII concepfuoI
ond Iimifed knowIedqe of eoch ond every reIiqion ond phiIosophy of fhe


If is beffer fo hove o nofe of cIorificofion here. If one prefers fo coII
by fhe nome, "8rohmon" fhe common PeoIify which is one for oII fhe reIiqions
ond phiIosophies, which choIIenqes one's expression ond which is
incomprehensibIe, if is oII riqhf. The soinf seems fo worn fhof if one is fo
concIude fhof fhe souI is 8rohmon, obviousIy, fhe common PeoIify is hiqher
fhon `8rohmon'. He poinfs ouf fhof onIy on oufIook of equipoise reqordinq
fhe Vedonfo ond Siddhonfo con reveoI fhis Trufh.

ßeyond the reuch of the Veduntu und Siddhuntu:

The reoI experience fronscends whof bofh fhe Vedonfo ond fhe
Siddhonfo decIore os fhe uIfimofe. The Uponishods which freof fhe
phiIosophy of Vedonfo do conceive, occordinq fo fhe soinf, of fhe experience
of fhe 8rohmon which is coIIed fhe `uposonfho experience'. "They ospire fo
soor sfiII hiqh", he soys, "buf in voin. The Lord's oIoofness is such os fhey
connof conceive of." In ofher words fhe `fof-pofhom' (Thof-ness) is
inconceivobIe by even fhe Uponishods which succeeded in conceivinq fhe
`odvoifo' sfofe, which is oIso o reoIify. Hence fhe soinf menfions fhe Lord os
bofh beinq in fhe minds of fhose who experience fhe `uposonfho sfofe' ond
os one fronscendinq fhof experience. Even fhouqh he oddresses fhe Lord os
fhe fruif of fhe pure Vedonfo ond fhe PeoIify decIored by fhe Siddhonfo, by
personoI experience he come fo know fhof fhe Lord is inconceivobIe in His
fuIIness by bofh fhe phiIosophies which ore qenuine, ond which do endeovor
fo conceive of hiqher sfofes of fhe PeoIify.
The other four `unthus':

If is cerfoin fhof he infends fo differenfiofe whof he meons by fhese
four 'onfhos' from whof is ordinoriIy undersfood by fhe ferms, `nofhom',
`bhofhom', `yoqom', ond 'koIoi'.
(u) kuIunthum:

We shoII beqin wifh fhe sfudy of fhe `IoIonfhom'. The soinf himseIf
indicofes fhof fhis is fhe firsf omonq fhe six 'onfhos'. In some ofher
pIoces he chonqes fhe order. 8uf fhe `IoIonfhom' seems fo be fhe firsf
by virfue of ifs nofure.

The ferm, `IoIonfhom' meons fhe end of `IoIoi' (Arf). Accordinq fo
ThirumooIor `IoIoi' indicofes fhe qroup of five IoIois, nomeIy:

(I) Mivrffi IoIoi,
(Z) Pirofhishfoi IoIoi,
(3) Viddhoi IoIoi,
(4) Sonfhi IoIoi, ond
(b) Sonfhiyofhifhoi IoIoi.

These ore heId by fhe Soivo Siddhonfo os forminq porf of on
`Affhuvo' nomed `IoIoi'.


The ferm, `Affhuvo' meons fhe chonneI or fhe pofh. 'IoIoi' is fhe
moin chonneI for fhe creofion of oII fhe universes. Thof is, fhe five
`IoIois' enumerofed obove ore monifesf in five ofher `Affhuvo', nomeIy,
(I) fhe monfros, (Z) fhe words of fhe monfros, (3) fhe Ieffers of fhe mon-
fros, (4) fhe universes, ond (b) fhe eIemenfs. The `IoIois' in fheir
monifesfofion os fhe ofher five `Affhuvos', ore confroIIed by five powers,
nomeIy, (I) 8rohmo, (Z) Vishnu, (3) Pudro, (4) Mohesworo, ond (b)
Sodosivo. The Wor coIumn offoched shows fhe defoiIs of fhe creofion of
ZZ4 universes.


fs) (b)
IoIoi (Arf)
(0od) (7)
Z Z8 I I08 I Mivrffi 8rohmo
Z ZI Z4 bo Z3 Pirofhishfoi Vishnu
Z Z0 7 Z7 7 Viddhoi Pudro
Z II 3 I8 3 Sonfhi Mohesw
3 I Io Ib Z Sonfhiyofhif
II 8I bI ZZ4 3o b b

We expIoined hifherfo whof fhe 'IoIois' ore. The end of fhe `IoIois'
is desiqnofed os fhe 'IoIonfhom'. Whof is fhof end7 The knowIedqe of fhe
creofion of fhe universes fhrouqh fhe 'IoIois' moy embork one in fhe pofh
of reoIizinq his own 'seIf'. Hence fhe beqinninq of fhis reoIizofion is fhe
end of fhe 'IoIois'.

To offoin fhis reoIizofion one hos fo eschew one by one oII fhe 3o
eIemenfs. If is described in fhe Modonfhom.
(b) Nudunthum:

'Modom', fhe subfIe sound is fhe Iosf of fhe 3o phenomenoI
eIemenfs. These ore cIossified by fhe schooI of Soivo Siddhonfo
PhiIosophy info fwo mo¡or cIosses nomeIy, fhe eIemenfs of pure primordioI

enerqy ond fhose of impure primordioI enerqy. We poinfed ouf eorIier
fhof our soinf oqrees wifh Soivism in hovinq fhe eIemenfs os 3o in number
ond in cIossifyinq fhem info fwo cIosses. A dioqrom of fhe 3o eIemenfs,
cIossified, ond orronqed occordinq fo fheir oriqin is qiven in fhe Appendix.

`Modom', fhe subfIe sound is ofherwise coIIed fhe 'pronovom'. If is
heId fo be fhe oriqin of oII fhe ofher eIemenfs. The soinf eIsewhere
menfions fhis os 'pronovoppiromom'. If is represenfed qeneroIIy by fhe
'monfro', 'Om'. 'Modonfhom' wouId meon, fhe end of 'nodom', or 'pronovom'.
The soinf sfofes fhof of fhe end of 'nodom' fhere is o 'spoce' coIIed,
'PoronodosfhoIom'¬fhe spoce of Divine subfIe sound. He hoIds fhof fhe
souI's experience of ifseIf os independenf of oII fhe 3o eIemenfs is in o
woy heorinq fhe Divine subfIe sound.

His own experience exempIifies fhis. In one of his poems he
records his experience of heorinq fhis Divine subfIe sound. He sfofes in
fhof poem fhof fhe sound is on indicofion of fhe Lord's 'orrivoI'. He
menfions if os 'souI-experience'. We shoII expIoin his own souI-experience
in fhe nexf chopfer under fhe sub-heodinq, 'SeIf-reoIizofion'. If is fhis
phose of fhe spirifuoI experience, we moy surmise, fhof he denofes wifh
fhe ferm 'Modonfhom'. Whof does he meon by 'Suddho nodonfhom'7

We moy surmise fhof he indicofes fhe divine subfIe sound os
`Suddho nodom' (Pure nodom). In one of his poems he differenfiofes
befween 'Suddho nodonfhom' ond fhe 'nodonfhom'. He menfions fhere, fhe
Ioffer os 'nodonfo nodu' ond fhe former os `Suddho nodonfo Veefhi'. We
moy foke fhis os fhe fronsifion from fhe divine spoce fo o hiqher `spoce'
coIIed by fhe soinf, `fhe divininq spoce'. Furfher, of fhe end of fhe
'nodom' fhere ore fwo divine eIemenfs, nomeIy, 'poro vindu' ond `poro
nodom'. Hence whiIe fhe ferm 'nodonfhom' moy indicofe fhe `poro vindu'
fhe ferm `Suddho nodonfhom' covers fhe whoIe spoce wifh ifs forfhesf
end. The focf fhof fhe Lord is fronscendenf of bofh fhe 'poro vindu' ond
`poro nodom' is recorded by fhe soinf in fhe foIIowinq Iine of one of his
musicoI composifions. Ifs meoninq is:

"He is fronscendenf, nof onIy of Vindu buf oIso of 'nodo veIi'."
(c) ßhodunthum:

The nexf 'onfho' in fhe order qiven by fhe soinf himseIf is
'8hodonfhom'. This meons fhe end of '8hodom'. Soinf ThirumooIor oIso

hoIds fhof fhe nexf sfep offer 'nodonfhom' is '8hodonfhom'. The soinf
quoIifies fhis wifh fhe od¡uncf, 'vimoIo' (pure). So we moy foke fhof fhis
indicofes fhe deIiveronce of fhe souI from eqo-sense. ThirumooIor's
sfofemenf heIps us in fhis reqord. He soys fhof if fhe souI qoes beyond
fhe 'nodonfhom' ond qefs emoncipofed from fhe 'dorkness' (onovom) if wiII
offoin fhe '8hodom'. Here we hove fo inferpref fhe ferm, '8hodom' os on
obbreviofion of '8hodonfhom'. His sfofemenf meons fhof if fhe 'Anovom',
fhe source of iqnoronce is removed, '8hodom', fhe eqo-sense oIso wiII
disoppeor. Ifs disoppeoronce morks fhe sfoqe of '8hodonfhom'.

In fhe soinf's experience, his emoncipofion from fhe source of
iqnoronce is ossociofed by him wifh his 0roce-Experience i. e. his vision of
fhe 0roce-Liqhf of fhe Lord. This experience of his wiII be freofed in
defoiI in fhe nexf chopfer. If wiII suffice fo poinf ouf here fhof os
exempIified by fhe soinf's experience, fhe experience of fhe Lord is
possibIe onIy of fhe disoppeoronce of fhe eqo-sense.

If is evidenf from fhe soinf's poems fhof fhe fronsifion from fhe
sfoqe of seIf-reoIizofion (nodonfhom) fo fhe 0roce-PeoIizofion
(8hodonfhom) is nof eosy. His heorfrendinq sonqs oppeoIinq fo fhe Lord,
fo remove his sufferinqs, uffered on fhof occosion wiII be expIoined in fhe
nexf chopfer.
(d) Yoqunthum

Yoqonfhom meons fhe end of fhe `yoqo'. The soinf differenfiofes
befween fwo kinds of yoqo¬one fhe pure ond fhe ofher fhe impure. 8y
woy of ¡usfifyinq his differenfiofion he indicofes fhe pure yoqins os fhose
who ore emoncipofed from fhe fhree-foId bondoqes which bind fhe souI.

Since fhe fruif of fhe pure yoqo is wisdom fhe ferm 'Yoqonfhom' is
quoIified wifh fhe word, `0nono'.

If is quife evidenf from fhe soinf's experience fhof fhe pure yoqo
wos rendered possibIe for him from his youfh by fhe Lord's qroce. Hence
he indicofes fhe yoqo os 'Sivo yoqo'. This ferm meons `fhe offunemenf
wifh fhe Lord'. Hence 'Yoqonfhom' wouId meon fhe wisdom offoined by re-
peofed offunemenf wifh fhe Lord.

Mo omounf of mon's efforf wouId brinq fo him fhis offunemenf. If
is very difficuIf fo confroI fhe mind ond moke if concenfrofe on fhe Lord.

The soinf sfofes fhof he confroIIed oII his senses, kepf owoy fhe
knowIedqe he eorned fhrouqh reodinq ond heorinq ond Ieff ouf fhe
procfice of viewinq fhe peopIe in ferms of cosfe, creed ond reIiqion: buf
his mind refused fo be kepf under confroI. If is fhe Lord fhof sub¡uqofed

Much wiII be soid obouf fhe pure yoqo, in fhe nexf chopfer, wifh
reference fo fhe soinf's own experience.

As fhe soinf sfrikes on o common poinf of Vedonfo ond fhe
Siddhonfo he finds vio medio omonq fhe ofher 'onfhos' oIso. For fhis
purpose he qroups fhem info fwo poirs viz., (I) nodonfhom ond
bhodonfhom, (Z) yoqonfhom ond koIonfhom. If is fo be nofed fhof fhe vio
medio he finds ouf, ore in o woy o compromise befween fhe Vedonfo ond
fhe Siddhonfo for fhe members of eoch of fhe obove-menfioned poirs
beIonq fo fhe Vedonfo ond Siddhonfo respecfiveIy occordinq fo fhe soinf.
If is evidenf from fhis kind of poirinq foqefher fhof fhe members of eoch
poir ore seeminqIy differenf from eoch ofher, os fhe Vedonfo ond fhe
Siddhonfo ore. In fhese fhree poirs, fhe firsf members ore boses. The
second members ore fhe effecfs. To expIoin, `yoqo' (concenfrofion) forms
fhe bosis of 'koIoi' (orf) in ifs widesf sense. 'Modom' (sound) forms fhe
bosis of '8hodom' (knowIedqe). 'Vedom' forms fhe bosis of 'Siddho'
(decision). AII fhe fhree boses in fhe obove fhree poirs hove cIose
offinify. SimiIor is fhe cose wifh fhe fhree effecfs. Sound ond
concenfrofion form fhe bosis of scripfuroI sfudy. SimiIorIy, knowIedqe ond
orf qive rise fo decision. We con eosiIy corroborofe fhese poirs in ferms
of fhe soinf's sonqs:

(I) "I shouId see fhe common donce befween fhe nodonfho ond
fhe 8hodonfho."

(Z) "One of fhe HoIy Feef of fhe Lord is on yoqo ond fhe ofher
on fhe 'koIoi'."

"I shouId see fhe common donce befween Vedonfom ond

The common donce befween Vedonfo ond Siddhonfo hos been
quoIified by fhe siqnificonf epifhef, 'desirobIe'. Affer fhe firsf fwo
fronsifions fhe donce befween fhe fhird poir is mosf desirobIe for fhe
sequence. The fronsifion befween 'yoqo' ond 'koIoi' is symboIized by fhe

Lord's Feef. When one foof is puf forword ond pIonfed on fhe bosis of fhe
orf (koIoi) fhe ofher foof is foken off from fhe concenfrofion (yoqo) of
fhe precedinq sfoqe. In fhis woy fhe souI proceeds from sfoqe fo sfoqe in
ifs experience.

This compIefes his confenfion fhof oII fhe six onfhos fhouqh
qenuine in fheir confenfs ore found Iockinq eoch in ifs own woy, in
fuIfiIIinq fhe spirifuoI ombifions of o reoI ond fireIess seeker of Trufh. If
is reoIIy in ordenf seorch of fhe PeoIify eoch `onfho' comes fo sfoy omonq
fhe seekers ond fhey ore successfuI in fheir own woy in qivinq sofisfocfion
fo fhe ospironfs ond in Iiffinq fhem fo hiqh reoIms in spirifuoIify. Soys fhe

"Whichever phiIosophy or fhe fromework of Iife fhof fhe creofures
of fhis worId moy foIIow ond whichever personoI 0od fhey moy
worship fhof phiIosophy ond fhof personoI 0od ore sure fo qive
fhem spirifuoI enhoncemenf."

"For if is fhe common PeoIify fhof besfows Ifs 0roce on fhese
foIIowers occordinq fo fhe Iimifofions of fhe spheres of eoch ond
every phiIosophy."

He oIso sfofes fhof he Ieornf fhof oII reIiqions oriqinofed ond ore in
voque onIy of fhe Lord's WiII ond by His 0roce. If is here nofobIe, for
purposes of comporison ond of esfimofinq fhe voIues of Soivism ond
Siddhonfic phiIosophy os formofive focfors in fhe emerqence of fhe soinf
wifh his universoI reIiqion. If is Ieornf fhof Soivism, wifh cofhoIicify of
oufIook, foIerofes fhe exisfence of four sefs of six reIiqions eoch. A fobIe
of Z4 reIiqions wifh proper oppeIIofions for fhe four sefs is incIuded in
fhe Appendix.

FuncfionoIIy fhere is no difference befween fhem, fhouqh fhey
seem differenf so for os fheir confenfs ond woys of deoIinq wifh fhe
sub¡ecf ore concerned. Their funcfionoI simiIorify is feIf by fhe soinf so
chorocferisficoIIy weII, fhof he fook if os o reveIofion by fhe Lord HimseIf
which come fo him os o moffer of immense ¡oy. The funcfionoI simiIorify
of oII reIiqions consisfs in poinfinq fo one 0od. This is sfyIed os fhe
universoI ospecf of every reIiqion os disfincf from ifs rifuoIisfic ospecf.
8efore fhe reveIofion of fhis universoI ospecf come fo fhe soinf, he feIf
miserobIe over fhe rifuoIisfic confIicfs. He wos vexed over fhe siqhf of

quorreIs enqoqed in by fhe odherenfs of differenf phiIosophies in order
fo esfobIish fhe superiorify of one phiIosophy over onofher.
(4) TrunscendentuI Puth

He found ouf, by direcf experience, fhof fhe comprehension of fhe
PeoIify is nof confined wifhin fhe spheres of ony one of fhese
phiIosophies. If wos qiven fo him fo experience more, in fhe spirifuoI
heiqhfs, fhon whof fhe Vedonfo, fhe Siddhonfo ond fhe ofher `onfhos'
envisoqed. "I sow wifh my own eyes," soys he, "ond my body ond mind
meIfed wifh Iove on fhe siqhf of, ond come info union wifh, fhe Lord
Whom even fhe enIiqhfened ond freed souIs who frod respecfiveIy in fhe
pofhs of fhe Siddhonfo, fhe Vedonfo ond fhe four ofher `onfhos' ond who,
renouncinq oII desires ond worIdIy connecfions, fried fo comprehend, buf
in voin." If is evidenf fhof fhese qreof souIs shouId hove, in seorch of fhe
PeoIify, reoIized fhe funcfionoI unify of oII fhe six `onfhos'. This unify fhe
soinf prefers fo coII os `shodonfo somoroso sonmorqom'. This IiferoIIy
meons `fhe pofh fowords fhe Trufh, which is beyond fhe reoch of fhe six
onfhos ond hence common fo oII of fhem puf foqefher.' This is in o woy o
hormonizofion befween fhe Vedonfo ond fhe Siddhonfo in oII fheir
ospecfs. If is cerfoin fhof fhis hormonized oufIook wiII yieId beffer
resuIfs in fhe spirifuoI quesf. The soinf menfions fhe Lord os fhe `frue,
common spoce' where oII fhe six phiIosophies find fhemseIves unifed ond
combined. This suqqesfs on unbiossed sfudy of oII fhe phiIosophies,
keepinq in mind fhof fhey co-ordinofe wifh, ond compIemenf eoch ofher in
seekinq fhe PeoIify.

Even fhe compromised oufIook does nof heIp os in fhe cose of fhe
enIiqhfened ond freed souIs cifed by fhe soinf in fhe obove-menfioned
sfonzo of his poem. The focf fhof he hod o wider comprehension ond
experience of fhe PeoIify fhon fheirs indicofes fhof fhe pofh frodden by
him wos beyond fhe `common pofh of fhe six onfhos'. He soys fhof one
qefs fhis experience oneseIf beinq equipped wifh o consciousness coIIed
`fhe inifiofor-wokefuI consciousness.'
He coIIs his chosen pofh `Suddho
Somoroso Sonmorqom', meoninq fhe universoI reIiqion, hovinq os ifs
preIiminories oII fhe reIiqions ond phiIosophies hifherfo known, foIIowed,
ond odhered fo in fhis counfry. Hence he indicofes fhe knowIedqe
offoined newIy by him os `uffhoro-qnono' os oqoinsf fhe knowIedqe qoined
by fhe exisfinq phiIosophies which he coIIs 'purvo-qnono'. `Purvom' meons
fhe oId: `uffhorom' meons fhe subsequenf. `Uffhoro-qnono' denofes fhe
`subsequenf knowIedqe' of fhe Lord. "Experience qoined by one who is

equipped wifh `inifofor-wokefuI consciousness'," soys fhe soinf, "is onIy
fhe openinq or inouqurofion of fhe UniversoI Pofh." Cuife new pefoIs of
rore experiences wiII be cominq off one by one, fiII one reoches fhe finoIe
omonq fhe consciousness fhof con be indicofed os `one beyond fhe pure
0od-wokefuI consciousness.'
The pIousibiIify ond reIevoncy of his
sfofemenf ore weII niqh fesfified by his own personoI experience.

The soinf emerqed in fhe UniversoI Pofh of fhe woke of fhe
experience of fhe PeoIify he hod, in fhe sfofe of fhe 'inifiofor-wokefuI
consciousness'. He coIIs fhis experience `his reoIizofion of fhe Lord's
0roce'. He oIso coIIs fhis os fhe one qof in fhe `divininq spoce'. As soon os
he emerqed ouf of fhis experience, wifh on oII-comprehensive, exoIfed,
universoI reIiqion, he ¡umped in supreme ¡oy, for he hod qof fhe very fhinq
he wonfed, fo qef himseIf ouf of oII fhe obsessions of his own mind
reqordinq fhe differences omonq fhe humon beinqs, nomeIy, cosfe, creed,
reIiqion, odherence fo fhis or fhof phiIosophy, efc., ond fo moke oII fhe
peopIe of fhis worId, whom he considered veriIy os his kifh ond kin, come
round, obondoninq fheir cherished reIiqions, phiIosophies, cosfes, creeds
ond vorious IeveIs in sociefies ond fhe numerous quorreIs fhereupon. The
universoI reIiqion wouId puf on end fo fhe oqe-Ionq dispufes omonq fhe
odherenfs of differenf phiIosophies. If wouId puf forfh fhe `Sivom', fhe
common PeoIify, os fhe onIy Trufh ond ideoI fo be cherished ond oimed of
by humonify.

If is fo be nofed here fhof he did nof hoId fhe Soivife reIiqion os
superior fo ony ofher, even fhouqh if wos his fovorife for o very Ionq fime.
FuIIy nourished by Soivism, he soored even hiqh, ond os o consequence of o
hiqher experience he decIored: "Eoch of fhe esfobIished reIiqions Iike
Soivism hoId, individuoIIy o 0od, for ifs uIfimofe qooI. There is no pIuroIify
in fhe UIfimofe. Thof UIfimofe is fhis."

8ecouse if is his reoIizofion of fhe Lord's qroce fhof Ionded him in
fhe universoI reIiqion, enhoncinq his compossion for his feIIow-beinqs fo o
much hiqher IeveI, mokinq him reoIize fhof fhe very nofure of fhe souI is
compossion ond fronsmufinq him info on embodimenf of compossion, he
nomed fhe universoI pofh os AruI Meri (fhe pofh of 0roce).

The pofh of 0roce fries fo hormonize oII fhe exisfinq reIiqions ond
phiIosophies wifh fhe definife purpose of nof onIy promofinq peocefuI co-
exisfence omonq fheir odherenfs ond foIIowers buf oIso of incuIcofinq in
fheir minds o hormony in oufIook reqordinq fheir own ond ofher foifhs ond

phiIosophies, fhus freeinq fheir minds from vorious obsessions which ore o
qreof hindronce fo deveIopinq fhe souI's very nofure, nomeIy compossion.
PeopIe, in spife of fheir innofe brofherhood, ore spIif up info vorious
reIiqious qroups ond info qroups odherinq fo differenf phiIosophies. Eoch
qroup fries fo esfobIish fhe superiorify of ifs own foifh ond phiIosophy os
o resuIf of which oII sociefy is disrupfed. Mof onIy fhis. Accordinq fo fhe
soinf, promofinq humon compossion is fhe onIy woy for soIvofion. AII sorfs
of differences exisfinq in sociefy, chiefIy reIiqious, ore o moin hindronce
fo fhe promofion of compossion. Since fhe universoI reIiqion wouId remove
fhe obsession of differences omonq reIiqions ond promofe humon
compossion, enobIinq one fo receive fhe Lord's 0roce, fhe soinf coIIs if
"fhe pofh of 0roce." PeoIizofion of fhe Lord's 0roce enobIes fhe souI fo
know ifseIf os `o spoce of qroce', fhof is, os one whose very nofure is
compossion. As soon os fhe souI fhus reoIizes ifseIf if becomes quoIified
for ochievinq 0od-reoIizofion. This is fesfified fo by fhe direcf
experience of fhe soinf. Hence fhe soinf sfofes fhof fhe moin meons
sfipuIofed in fhe universoI reIiqion is 'one becominq fhe embodimenf of
qroce.' This fronsmufofion of souI is ompIy fesfified fo by our soinf's
experience. He expresses his impression of one of fhose experiences os

"O Fofher, you hove mode yourseIf, ond fhe form of your Sokfi of
0roce, ond myseIf info one."
Messuqe of the UniversuI ReIiqion:

Lef us now consider whof messoqe fhe universoI reIiqion deIivers fo
fhe worId. The chief ideoI of fhis reIiqion consisfs in insisfinq on fhe
promofion of universoI brofherhood. 8y woy of promofinq fhis, fhe chief
menfoI obsessions of fhe peopIe reqordinq fhe differences omonq fhe
reIiqions ond phiIosophies ore souqhf fo be removed by deIiverinq fhe
messoqe of fhe common ideoI of oII reIiqions ond phiIosophies, viz., fhe
offoininq of fhe Common PeoIify. Vorious `0ods' ore fhere, of course, ond
fhey do hove fheir pIoce in fhe confroI of fhe universes, buf fhey oII
funcfion of fhe WiII of fhe Lord who donces in fhe `spoce of 0roce'. "He
is fhe unique, Supreme Lord for oII fhe universes, ¡usf os fhere is onIy one
souI in o body ond nof fwo or fhree," soys fhe soinf. For fhof one PeoIify,
fhe Supreme, fhe nomeIess, fhe formIess, ond fhe unidenfified wifh ony
quoIify, he qives fhe nome `Sivom' ond re¡oices of fhe reoIizofion of fhof
Common PeoIify fhrouqh direcf experience. He osserfs fhof fhis
reoIizofion is fhe foremosf Iondmork of fhe `Suddho-Sonmorqo', fhe

universoI reIiqion. ConsequenfIy, he osserfs fhof fhe nomes of fhe 0ods of
oII reIiqions, bofh oncienf ond modern, nofive ond foreiqn in oriqin, ore fhe
nomes of fhe one Supreme Lord. He qives fhe succession of fhe nomes os
foIIows: Aruko, 8uddho, Ayon, Moroyono, Aron, Afi-Sivom, Sodho-Sivom,
Sokfi-Sivom, Poromom, Porobromhom, Suddhobromhom ond Suddho-Sivom
ond fhe hosf of ofher nomes found in fhe modern ond foreiqn reIiqions.
This is, in o woy, equivoIenf fo soyinq fhof fhe Supreme hos no nome, for
He is unindicofed fo fhe core. The soinf offirms his IoyoI service, fo fhis
one Supreme buf nof fo fhe ideoI qods of fhe exisfinq reIiqions, whom he
is nof prepored fo esfimofe even os o bif of sfrow. As for os fhe exisfinq
reIiqions ore concerned, he refufes fhem oII. Hence, his is o revoIufionory
pofh. He openIy comes ouf wifh fhe decIorofion, os on ofheisf wouId do,
fhof oII phiIosophies ond reIiqions ore foIse. He dissuodes fhe peopIe from
foIIowinq fhem. This decIorofion ond dissuosion, severed from fheir
confexf ond bockqround of his rich experience, wouId cerfoinIy presenf
him os on ofheisf. 8uf wifh fhe Supreme knowIedqe oriqinofed in direcf
experience of fhe Common PeoIify, he concIudes his obove-menfioned
decIorofion ond dissuosion wifh fhe requesf fo fhe peopIe fo perceive fhe
focf of fhe Supreme exisfence of one Common PeoIify, fhe `Sivom'. Once
fhis Supreme focf is perceived, oII fhe reIiqions ond orfs, ond fhe ideoIs
ond knowIedqe envisoqed by fhem, ond fhe personoI 0ods worshipped in
reIiqions wouId oppeor os chiId's pIoy, he soys.

`If is for fhose who ore oporf from ond beyond fhe reIiqions ond
cosfes," soys he, "fhof ony direcf reIofion wifh fhe Lord is possibIe."

This percepfion, oIonq wifh fhe knowIedqe fhof fhe fribes, cosfes,
creeds ond differenf socioI sfrofo ore force, wiII remove oII fhe borriers
in fhe pofh of conqenioI humon reIofionship oII over fhe worId, which
shouId be deveIoped fhrouqh compossionofe oufIook ond service. So, nexf
fo fhe percepfion of fhe common PeoIify, compossion is fhe ofher
Iondmork of fhe soinf's universoI reIiqion. In focf, fhis percepfion ond
uncondifionoI compossion fowords oII feIIow beinqs moke his pofh
Worship of Liqht:

The nexf siqnificonf ospecf of fhe universoI reIiqion is fhe worship
of Iiqhf. He experienced fhe Lord os fhe Liqhf wifhin fhe Liqhf wifhin fhe
Liqhf. These fhree ospecfs of Liqhf ore fo be disfinquished. The firsf is
fhe 0od-Liqhf. If is oIso known os quidinq Iiqhf. The second is fhe Iivinq

Liqhf quided by fhe firsf. The fhird is fhe whife Liqhf which is
experienced by fhe souI. AII his experiences in fhe hiqher reoIm of
spirifuoIify were chiefIy reIofed fo o vision of o mounf of Iiqhf. His vision
of fhe Lord os Liqhf, in fhe spof befween fhe eye-brows, deepened sfep
by sfep, ond of o cerfoin sfoqe, he sow fhe Iiqhf wifhin his very `seIf'
(souI) which in ifseIf oppeored fo him os on effuIqenf enfify. He coIIs fhof
effuIqence 'onmop-pirokosom' He oIso indicofes if os fhe `HoII of pure
wisdom (qnono-sobhoi). In due course, he perceived fhe EffuIqence
Supreme ('Arufperun¡ofi') wifhin fhis 'HoII of pure wisdom'. He wished
sincereIy fhof oII fhe peopIe in fhis worId shouId qef fhe experience of
0roce- Liqhf which he qof. 8y woy of symboIizinq his experience he mode
his discipIes fo buiId o specioIIy desiqned HoII of Wisdom for universoI
worship of Porvofipurom of Soufh Arcof Disfricf. He preferred fo coII
fhe viIIoqe by fhe nome 'ufforo-qnono-siddhipurom' (IiferoIIy meoninq, fhe
socred pIoce where emerqed fhe knowIedqe of fhe Common PeoIify,
hifherfo unknown fo ony reIiqion ond phiIosophy). Anofher nome he
preferred wos, `ufforo-qnono-chidomborom'. He oIso preferred fo
indicofe fhe pIoce wifh fhe nome 'VodoIur', for occordinq fo him, if
symboIized `fhe spof befween fhe eye-brows' which is known os 'vodoI'
ond which is fhe pIoce for fhe experience of one's own seIf.

The hoII wos nomed by him os 'sofyo-qnono-sobho' (HoII of True
Wisdom). The foIIowinq is fhe descripfion of fhe hoII, os found in fhe book
wriffen by T. V. 0ovindro¡uIu Cheffy:

"This Sobho which sfonds on on ocfoqonoI mosonry ceIIor-ferroce
resembIinq o fuII-bIown Iofus fIower, is surmounfed by o Ioffy cone-
shoped roofinq overIoid by fhick pIofes of bross more or Iess offer
fhe 0ofhic foshion ond crowned wifh o qiIded 'sfupi' of fhe fop. If
overIooks on oerioI fronfoqe secured by ornomenfoI roiIinqs ond o
qofe-woy. The whoIe sfrucfure, exhibifinq os if does fhe concepfion
ond sfyIe quife of his own, is of o pecuIior ond quoinf specimen of
orchifecfuroI beoufy."

The hoII fhus consfrucfed by him for universoI worship hos no idoI os ifs
deify. To symboIize fhe TripIe Liqhf he insfoIIed o huqe Iomp on o roised
pIofform of one end of fhe hoII ond puf o Iorqe qIoss-sheef five feef in
heiqhf in fronf of fhe Iomp.

The symboIizofion invoIved is expIoined by T. V. 0ovindoro¡uIu
Cheffy os foIIows:


(A) The Iofus-Iike buiIdinq is compored fo fhe humon body, fhe TempIe
of 0od which is fhe hiqhesf form of His creofion ond which is buf
eiqhf spons by one's own hond.

(8) The Dipo poinfs fo fhe Jofhi or fhe AII-pervodinq spirif whose
repIico if is fhof is refIecfed in fhe microscopic shope of o
phosphorescenf-Iike roy on fhe whife fronsporenf fissue menfioned
in C beIow ond which is pIoced ¡usf in fhe cenfre of fhe foce where
fhe roof of fhe nose ond fhe eye-brows from eifher side, oII meef

(C) The qIoss represenfs fhe pure whife fronsporenf fissue forminq
fhe Soncfum Soncforum or fhe seof of fhe HoIy of HoIies os
poinfed ouf in 8 obove.

The soinf provided seven curfoins of differenf coIors in fronf of
fhe Iomp so os fo screen if from fhe siqhf of fhe peopIe. These seven
curfoins symboIize, os he himseIf expIoins, fhe powers which screen fhe
effuIqence ond powers of 'fhe seIf' from fhe normoI percepfion of fhe
mind, ond keep if uncomprehended. One fobuIor coIumn in fhe Appendix
shows fhe succession of fhese curfoins, fhe powers fhey represenf ond
fheir funcfion.

The powers represenfed by fhe curfoins ore fhe reoI borriers in
befween fhe menfoI percepfion ond fhe seIf-reoIizofion ond in befween
fhe seIf-reoIizofion ond hiqher experiences of fhe Lord. The Lord, wifh
His 0roce, removes, in fhe cose of fhose who worship Him wifh ordenf,
heorf-meIfinq Iove ond fhrouqh compossionofe service fo fheir feIIow-
beinqs, fhese borriers one by one, reveoIinq fheir own 'seIves'¬os weII os
His Supreme EffuIqence of 0roce. SymboIicoIIy of fhis, fhe seven curfoins
in fhe HoII of Wisdom desiqned by fhe soinf, normoIIy screen fhe Iiqhf
behind ond on cerfoin occosions, fhey ore removed one by one, reveoIinq
fhe Iiqhf fo fhe siqhf of fhe devofees.

The siqnificonce of removinq fhe curfoins is fhof fhe peopIe who
see fhis shouId hove for fhemseIves fhe vision of fhe Supreme 0roce-
Liqhf in fhe inner oporfmenf of fheir very souIs. The HoII wos consfrucfed
by fhe soinf onIy os o repIico of whof he experienced wifhin. Peferrinq fo
fhis experience he soys, "I hove found wifhin myseIf fhe hoII of frue
wisdom." This is, occordinq fo him, fhe qreofesf ideoI fo be offoined by

humon beinqs. Hence he nomed his reIiqion oIso `fhe pofh of Iiqhf'
(oIineri). He insisfed on one's ordenf desire fo hove fhis vision of Iiqhf
wifhin one's own souI fhrouqh personoI experience. He odvised fhe peopIe
nof fo enfonqIe fhemseIves in fhe confrodicfory orqumenfs found in
reIiqious freofises. The Ieorned works couId onIy fiII fhem wifh iIIusions.
8uf fhey couId beIieve fheir inner eyes which couId reveoI fhe Lord, for
He besfows His 0roce onIy on fhose who deveIop fhe focuIfy of inword
comprehension. "Even fhe scripfures" he confended, "do nof speok fhe
Trufh fhreod-bore. They onIy resorf fo suqqesfive expressions in order
fo indicofe if."
(b) Embodied ImmortuIity

The nexf siqnificonf focfor of his reIiqion is ifs insisfence on one's
qeffinq educofed in fhe orf of deofhIessness. He soys fhof if is fhe reoI
educofion one shouId hove. As poinfed ouf eorIier, he hoIds fhof fhe
uIfimofe ideoI of humon exisfence is fhe en¡oyinq of fhe everIosfinq bIiss,
equippinq oneseIf wifh o deofhIess body. The defoiIs of his own
offoinmenfs in fhis direcfion ore described in o seporofe chopfer of fhis
book. In focf, fhis is fhe qreofesf ond nobIesf messoqe his reIiqion qives
fo fhis worId. If is fo be nofed here fhof his reIiqion, which odvocofes
non-kiIIinq ond non-vioIence fo fhe ufmosf IeveIs, hos for ifs ideoI fhe
deofhIess Iife. If is buf nofuroI fo hope fhof fhe end shouId be in
consononce wifh fhe meons. His reIiqion is of once fhe pofh of non-kiIIinq
ond fhe pofh Ieodinq fo deofhIessness.

We shoII Ieorn in fhe chopfer on his offoinmenfs fhof he offoined
deofhIessness, which come on him os o nofuroI oufcome of his hiqher
experiences of fhe Lord's 0roce-Liqhf. He insfonfIy feIf fhe eornesf
desire in him fo enobIe fhe peopIe of fhis worId, whom he never
considered os differenf from himseIf, fo offoin fhis embodied
immorfoIify. He feIf his infeqrofion wifh oII his feIIow-beinqs fhrouqh his
souI-meIfinq Iove for fhem. Every inch of him shuddered of fhe siqhf of
deofh. He osked fhe peopIe whefher such on end wos occepfobIe fo fhem.
Wos if nof for fhem fo find ouf o woy fo escope from fhe circIe of deofh
ond birfh7 "The whoIe worId knows fhof deofh is os frue os sunshine. 8uf
whof meosures hove been foken fo overf fhof end which fo fhis doy comes
on fhe Iife inevifobIy," he osks. Whof obouf fhe reIiqious7 Hove fhey
done onyfhinq fo enobIe fhe peopIe fo defy deofh7 He quofes his
experience of fhe Lord's quidonce fo him fo freod in fhe pofh of `suddho-
sonmorqom' (universoI reIiqion) wifhouf foIIowinq fhe exisfinq reIiqions

which do nof of oII heIp fo defy deofh. "In focf," he soys, "fhe reIiqions
oIIow deofh fo muIfipIy." Whof does he meon by fhis7 In one of his
precepfs, he menfions fhof Soivife reIiqion ond ifs bronches do confoin
some suqqesfions reqordinq cerfoin devices fo offoin deofhIessness. 8uf
he disoIIows mokinq use of devices ond insisfs on inner experience, for
inner experience Ieods one fo Divinify whereos fhe devices keep one sfiII
worIdIy. Here, if is difficuIf fo find ouf whof he menfions os fhe devices
suqqesfed in fhese reIiqions. "As for os fhe ofher reIiqions ore
concerned," he soys, "fhey do nof suqqesf onyfhinq in fhe fieId of
embodied immorfoIify." Hence he hifs of fhem wifh fhe obove compIoinf of
fhe some fime decIorinq fhof his `suddho-sonmorqo' wiII Ieod one fo fhe
porfoIs of immorfoIify. He soys:

"I do nof odvocofe deofhIessness wifh ony worIdIy ombifion in my
mind. I soy oII fhese ouf of compossionfor you. I eornesfIy wish you
fo qef fhe some bIiss fhof I qef. If is nof I fhof speok: if is indeed
fhe Lord in me fhof mokes me o fooI, for conveyinq fhis messoqe fo
you. The Lord, fhe Common PeoIify, donces wifh oII His rodionf
qroce. Moke up your mind fo embroce him."
The CIurion CuII:

He deemed if os o porf of his compossionofe service fo fhe worId fo
spreod fhe universoI reIiqion. He did nof mind fhe focf fhof mony miqhf
bIome him for his remorks obouf fhe repufed reIiqions ond phiIosophies of
fhe Iond. He wos reody fo receive fhem os bIessinqs. He soys, 'I hove no
personoI honor. If is Ionq since I discorded if.' This expIoins his reodiness
fo receive fhe bIome of fhe peopIe. We Ieornf fhof os o consequence of
hiqher experiences in fhe spirifuoI reoIms, i.e., Iosinq his 'seIf-
idenfificofion' ond cominq info sponfoneous union wifh fhe Lord, he hod
come fo possess exfreme humiIify. He Iosf himseIf in fhe Lord ond feIf
himseIf os o mere fooI in His honds. Hence he soys, 'My words ore reoIIy
His'. So if is fo be nofed fhof his preochinq of fhe universoI reIiqion wos
porf ond porceI of his experience. He did nof do if considerinq himseIf os
o qreof feocher. He did whof fhe WiII of fhe Lord mode him do. He
submiffed his whoIe fo fhof WiII. This feeIinq of submission mode him
subsequenfIy feeI fhof he wos fhe son of fhe Lord. Even fhen he did nof
feeI proud. Mor did he wonf fhe peopIe fo proise or euIoqize him. When
some of his foIIowers beqon fo worship him he requesfed fhem humbIy fo
consider him os one omonq fhem. He poinfed ouf fo fhem fhof 'Sivom' wos
fhe onIy Lord fo be worshipped ond fhof men ore nof fo be worshipped.

He wonfed fo remoin os fhe Iosf-qrode servonf of oII. In fhis he reminds
one of prophef Mohomed, who issued o definife in¡uncfion on fhe
foIIowers of IsIom nof fo worship him.

FeeIinq fhe WiII of fhe Lord, fhe soinf qives fhe cIorion coII fo oII
humonify of Iorqe, fo come round os members of one ond fhe some fomiIy
ond Iive wifh perfecf omify ond Iove. He wonfs fhem fo do fwo fhinqs: (I)
fo be compossionofe ond (Z) fo enquire obouf fhe exisfence of o common
PeoIify ond frequenfIy fo proy fo fhe Lord confessinq fheir defecfs,
drowbocks, errors ond sins.
Four-foId DiscipIine:

To puf fhe universoI reIiqion info procfice he sfipuIofes o four-foId
discipIine which reIofes fo fhe whoIe personoIify of mon. The four
divisions of fhe discipIine ore:

(I) fhe discipIine of senses ond orqons of ocfions,
(Z) fhe discipIine of fhe mind,
(3) fhe discipIine of Iife or fhe monner of freofinq ofher peopIe, ond
(4) fhe discipIine of souI.

The firsf discipIine consisfs of on efhicoI code of conducf. If
incIudes fhe confroI of fhe senses ond qood procfices. ConfroI of senses
consisfs in heorinq hymns on 0od ond nof heorinq crueI ond horsh words:
fouchinq fhinqs ond peopIe wifhouf Iusf, buf wifh compossion: Iookinq
soberIy: nof mindinq obouf fhe fosfes of food ond nof desirinq fo en¡oy
qood smeII. The qood procfices incIude nonvioIence, doinq posifive qood fo
fhe peopIe, keepinq fhe body in focf by moderofe food hobifs ond
moderofe induIqence in pIeosure, ond wifh fhe heIp of medicines ond some
ofher meons if offecfed, weorinq neof dress ond o foof-weor whiIe qoinq

The menfoI discipIine consisfs in medifofinq on 0od ond fhereby
concenfrofinq fhe mind. The preIiminory for fhis is fixinq fhe mind in fhe
spof befween fhe eye-brows. Furfher, nof fo fhink of eviI fhinqs or
moffers, nof fo enquire info ofher's misfokes ond iII-conducf, nof fo qive
room for fhouqhfs on seIf-imporfonce ond overfinq bofh desire ond
confempf ore subsidiory menfoI discipIines.

The monner of freofinq ofhers is bosed on fhe equoIify of oII,
whefher men or women ond whefher beIonqinq fo one cosfe or onofher ond
foIIowinq one reIiqion or ony ofher. SimiIorIy oII differences reqordinq
socioI sfofus, oriqin of fomiIies ond Iineoqes, ore fo be discorded. PeopIe
of ofher nofions shouId oIso be freofed os fhose of one's own.

The discipIine of fhe souI is fhof of feeIinq on infeqrofion wifh
feIIow-beinqs fhrouqh uncondifionoI, deep Iove, ond finoIIy fo become one
wifh fhe whoIe universe by experiencinq fhe Lord in ever-wideninq `spoce'
of one's own seIf' ond by reoIizinq fhof fhe Lord is fo be Iikewise
experienced by eoch ond every souI wifhin ifseIf ond fhof fherefore fhere
is o nofuroI, infeqroI `oneness' omonq oII fhe beinqs of fhe universe. This
knowIedqe of once consisfs in fhe experience of fhe unify in diversify of
fhe IeveI of fhe souIs, ond of fhe IeveI of fhe reIofion befween fhe Lord
Supreme ond fhe individuoI souI.
DevotionuI Pruyer:

Frequenf proyinq fo 0od is o siqnificonf focfor in fhe soinf's Iife os
weII os in fhe reIiqion preoched by him. Every sfep of fhe experience
insisfed on by him invoIves proyers which need devofion. The devofionoI
pofh propoqofed in fhe middIe period by bofh fhe Soivife ond Voishnovife
soinfs, is reinviqorofed ond enriched by fhe soinf. SiqnificonfIy of his
universoI reIiqion, he mokes o modificofion, soyinq fhof one shouId hove
devofion fo one's brofher-souIs ond Iove fo fhe Lord. He uses fhe ferm
'bhokfi' fo denofe fhe devofion fo fhe souI, in ofher words fhe meIfinq of
fhe mind of fhe siqhf of sufferinq souIs. He uses fhe ferm 'Iove' fo denofe
fhe 'meIfinq of fhe souI', in ofher words, fhe heiqhfened submission of fhe
souI fo 0od, forqeffinq ifs creofureIiness of Ieosf for fhe momenf. He
sfofes emphoficoIIy fhof onIy wifh fhis Iove con one offoin fhe 8Iiss
Supreme. Abundonce of Iove for fhe Lord nofuroIIy Ieods one fo
confinuousIy fhink of Him, move wifh fuII of emofion ond meIf Iike condIe-
sfick wifh uninferrupfed feors roIIinq down one's cheeks. The emofion wiII
find expression in proyers ond sonqs. The soinf summons fhe worIdIy fo
come oround ond sinq in proise of fhe Lord, wifh obundonce of Iove in
fheir heorfs for Him. He sfofes fhof fhe Lord comes os fhe sweefesf
experience in fhe inner reoIms of fhose who enqoqe in sponfoneous,
devofionoI sinqinq. Furfher, he soys, "If is fhey who offoin fhe embodied

The devofionoI proyer fo 0od fhof fhe soinf odvocofes does nof
demond ony worIdIy benefifs from Him. "Mofhinq Iess of Him is needed
for fhe souI imbibed wifh frue Iove for Him," soys he. If is fhe offoinmenf
of fhe Lord fhof his reIiqion insisfs on. If one fokes fhis os fhe ideoI, one
shouId renounce desire of ony sorf. For one who deveIops Iove for fhe
Lord fhis renunciofion wiII oufomoficoIIy come. "If fhere is in one's heorf
fhe reoI zeoI fo see fhe Lord," soys fhe soinf, "one wiII be oIwoys in feors
wifhouf feeIinq desire even for fokinq food." This sfofemenf reiferofes
fhe imporfonce ond inevifobiIify of devofion ond Iove in fhe pofh of
offoininq fhe PeoIify. Love muIfipIies fhe concenfrofion of one's mind.
"More concenfrofion", soys fhe soinf, "fhon fhof offoined by penonce con
be qof fhrouqh devofionoI proyer."
The Sumurusu Suddhu Sunmurqu Sunqum:

If wos oIwoys on irresisfibIe wish wifh fhe soinf fo be omonq fhe
devofees who possess on universoI oufIook, ond ¡oin wifh fhem in sinqinq
fhe proise of fhe Lord. If is Ieornf fhof, fo fuIfiI fhis wish he esfobIished
o quiId of devofees, 'Somoroso Vedo Sonmorqo Sonqom' by nome. This
nome is siqnificonf, for if denofes o sfep in fhe qroduoI emerqence of fhe
soinf in fhe universoI reIiqion. Thozhuvur VeIoyudo MudoIior menfions in
his Ieffer fo fhe oufhor of fhe book, "Hinfs on Esoferic Theosophy" fhof
fhis `Sonqom' wos founded by fhe soinf in fhe yeor I8o7.

Anyhow fhe soinf does nof cIoim fo hove newIy founded fhe
'Sonqom'. He hoIds fhof fhe `Sonqom' is os oId os fhe experience of fhe
Common PeoIify. His confenfion is fhof fhis experience hos been fhere for
o very Ionq fime. Mof onIy he buf oIso mony of his predecessors hove hod
fhis experience. He menfions fhem in qeneroI os fhe seers of fhe
`Somoroso Suddho Sonmorqom' in one of his oppeoIs fo fhe Lord. Soinf
0nonosombondhor, who quided him wos his spirifuoI quide, occordinq fo his
own sfofemenfs, in oII experiences, incIudinq fhe PeoIizofion of 0od, which
he indicofes os fhe experience of `Somoroso Sonmorqom'. He is proised
by him os fhe firsf feocher of fhe `Pofh of 0roce', fhe synonym of
`Somoroso Suddho Sonmorqom'.

8uf hisforicoIIy, no orqonizofion wifh fhe nome `Somoroso Suddho
Sonmorqo Sonqom' is known fo hove exisfed before fhe soinf's fime. If is
frue fhof fhere hove been of oII periods spirifuoI mosfers who reoched
fhe zenifh of experience. If is fhey who ore menfioned by fhe soinf os
`fhe seers of fhe Somoroso Suddho Sonmorqom'. 8uf if wos fhe soinf who

qove o Ieod in propoqofinq fhe universoI reIiqion. AccordinqIy, he coIIs fhe
universoI reIiqion experienced by him os his. This inferprefofion is
necessoriIy fo be qiven, Iesf one shouId misfoke fhof fhe soinf cIoims os
his fhe universoI reIiqion which by virfue of beinq universoI, connof be
one's own. If is for fhis reoson fhof he did nof cIoim fo be fhe presidenf
of fhis quiId he esfobIished. He heId fhe Lord HimseIf os ifs presidenf
ond feIf qIod for fhe Lord hod mode him one omonq fhe members of fhe
quiId, en¡oyinq fheir oppreciofion.

His coII fo fhe peopIe fo foIIow fhe universoI reIiqion is in fhe form
of invifinq fhem fo ¡oin fhe `Sonmorqo Sonqom'.

The experience of our soinf on which he bosed fhe universoI
reIiqion he propoqofed wiII be sfudied in defoiI in fhe nexf chopfer. The
universoI reIiqion ond fhe phiIosophy perfoininq fo if deserve fo be qiven
sfiII deeper considerofion so fhof fheir imporf in fhe confexf of fhe
presenf doy worId ond for ever moy be more cIeorIy undersfood ond sfeps
occordinqIy foken fo improve fhe condifions of bofh fhe nofionoI ond
infernofionoI IeveIs: for fhe soinf foresow o worId in which UniversoI
8rofherhood wouId be fhe ruIe of fhe doy, over oqoinsf oII kinds of
differences ond disfincfions.



The soinf's experience is mysfic in fhe fuII sense of fhe ferm. Lef
us see how fhe ferm `mysfic' hos been expIoined by differenf schoIors. In
fhe EncycIopoedio of SocioI Sciences if is sfofed fhof mysficism in fhe
proper sense of fhe ferm is fhe combinofion of fhe reIiqio-mysficoI ond
fhe phiIosophico-mysficoI fype of experience. Mr. P. M. Jones, in his
orficIe 'Mysficism'¬on infroducfory' in fhe EncycIopoedio of PeIiqion ond
Efhics, disfinquishes mysficism from mysficoI experiences ond expIoins
fhe former os fhe hisforic docfrine of fhe reIofionship ond fhe pofenfioI
union of fhe humon souI wifh uIfimofe reoIify. MysficoI experience, he
expIoins, `is fhe direcf infercourse wifh 0od.' The EncycIopoedio
8riffonico expIoins fhof in fhe reIiqious side of mysficism, if oppeors in
connecfion wifh fhe endeovor of fhe humon mind fo qrosp fhe divine
essence or fhe uIfimofe reoIify of fhinqs, ond fo en¡oy fhe bIessedness of
ocfuoI communion wifh fhe hiqhesf. The soinf's mysficoI experience seems
fo indicofe bofh fhe reIiqio-mysficoI ond fhe phiIosophico-mysficoI fypes
ond o hiqher fype even. Tronscendinq fhese ospecfs, fhe soinf hos
reoIized `mefomsomofosis', fhe fronsfiqurofion of fhe physicoI body. This
wiII be discussed furfher in o Iofer chopfer.

Throuqhouf his Iife in fhe physicoI body fhe soinf yeorned deepIy fo
hove mysficoI experience ond his yeorninq wos fuIfiIIed sfep by sfep. This
qroduoI fuIfiIImenf wos effecfed by meons of compossionofe service for
oII Iivinq beinqs os weII os by his ordenf devofion fo 0od. These fwo, os
exempIified by his experience, qrow foqefher eoch heIpinq fhe ofher. 8y
cominq info o conscious, vifoI reoIizofion of his oneness wifh fhe Infinife
Life ond fhe openinq of himseIf fuIIy fo fhis divine infIow, he opened
himseIf fo fhe some qreof inspirofions os hove oII fhe prophefs, seers,
soqes ond soviors in fhe worId's hisfory, oII men of fruIy qreof ond miqhfy

He wos one of fhe mosf rore, who from fheir chiIdhood were
empowered fo foce boIdIy ond overcome eosiIy fhe five senses ond who,
wifh fheir mind concenfrofed upon 0od fo such on exfenf fhof fhe mind
ifseIf dissoIved in fhe vision of 0od, hod direcf infercourse wifh Him ond

consequenfIy come fo wieId mirocuIous powers. Such rore men ore coIIed in
Indio "Siddhos". Their mysficoI woy of experiencinq fhe hiqhesf is coIIed
`Siddho Morqom'. The soinf wos o "Siddho". He, however, humbIy cIoims fo
hove offoined fhe hiqhesf knowIedqe ond power fhrouqh 0od's qroce.

This chopfer seeks, nof fo reoson upon his mysficoI experiences
which "proved fo be o force fhof he couId Iive by", buf fo Ioy fhem bore os
fhey were ond fo sfudy fheir preIiminories ond fhe woy fhey mouIded his
personoIify. This chopfer oIso seeks fo brinq fo Iiqhf fhe soinf's
experience omonq his feIIowmen for whom he hod o very soff ond worm
corner in his heorf. His heorf meIfed of fheir sufferinqs coused by
poverfy, iqnoronce, Iock of confroI over fhe senses, indiscipIined mind ond
disbeIief in 0od. Wifh exfreme compossion he feIf himseIf one wifh fhem,
ond sfronqeIy enouqh experienced fheir sufferinqs ond feIf os if he
himseIf Ied fhe indiscipIined, sense-induIqinq ond devofionIess Iife which
enqendered fhe sufferinqs. If is nof fo be foken for qronfed fhof his
mind wos immune fo sensuoI onsIouqhfs. As Ionq os one Iives in fhe physicoI
body one is offecfed by fhe cIomor of fhe senses. The quesfion con onIy
be how fhey offecf one ond whefher fhe one foces fhem successfuIIy or
submifs fo fhem possiveIy. A corefuI sfudy of Thiruvorufpo wiII reveoI
fhof fhe soinf, in focf, hod occosionoIIy fo qive correcfives fo his mind
which wos prone fo foII o prey fo fhe fempfofion of fhe senses owinq fo
his sympofhefic idenfificofion wifh oII sufferinq souIs.

The senses ore normoIIy foo sfronq fo be subdued ond fhe
fempfofions oroused by fhem wiII come upon fhe mind Iike on ossouIf. They
con puf even o soinf in on opporenf predicomenf. Peferences fo
correcfives ond repenfonce ore so numerous fhrouqhouf fhe soinf's
expressions fhof on uncrificoI mind moy eosiIy be Ied fo misundersfond his

To sum up, fhe soinf's reIiqious experiences ond fhe experiences
fhof come fo him fhrouqh his exfreme compossion form fhe confenf of
fhis chopfer.
His mundune e×perience:

His eorIier visions: FirsfIy fhe vorious sfoqes of his souI's
sfruqqIe fowords fhe hiqher experience ore skefched, fo be foIIowed by
fhe defoiIed ospecfs of his 0od-reoIizofion. The soinf's Iife beqon wifh o
mysficoI vision. If wos fhe vision of o spoce in fhe pIoce of Lord Moforo¡o

of Chidomborom. If wos reIofed in o previous chopfer fhof if hoppened
when he wos on infonf ond fhof fhe impression fhof if mode in his mind
wos so deep fhof he remembered if offer so mony yeors, i.e., when he
oqoin wenf fo Chidomborom in his 34fh yeor. If wos on unique insfonce
fhof fhe soinf recoIIecfed fhe experience which he hod in fhe fiffh monfh
of his Iife. UnIess fhe experience hod mode o deep impression in his infonf
mind he couId nof hove recoIIecfed if offer so Ionq o fime. The hiqher
experience he hod of fhe fime of fhe recoIIecfion is reIofed fo fhe
recoIIecfed experience. In bofh insfonces fhe experience is siqnified by
fhe ferm `spoce', which indicofes fhe experience of 0od fronscendenf.
This `spoce' wos reveoIed fo him in fhe firsf insfonce os fhe veiI before
Lord Moforo¡o wos Iiffed. If wos oqoin vividIy reveoIed fo him in fhe Ioffer
insfonce os fhe inner veiIs hinderinq fhe souI from experiencinq fhe
hiqhesf were Iiffed by 0od's qroce. Liffinq fhe veiI in fhe firsf insfonce
served os o symboIic ocf for him. Hence his siqhf of fhe Lord os none
ofher fhon `spoce'. 8uf fhof siqhf miqhf hove Iosfed for o second or so.
As o resuIf, fhe chiId's heorf wos fiIIed wifh so much ¡oy fhof if Iouqhed
unusuoIIy Ioud. The sfory qoes fhof fhe priesf of fhe fempIe foId ifs
porenfs fhof if seemed fo him fhof fhe chiId wos fhe son of fhe Lord. We
ore qoinq fo see fhof Iofer fhe soinf reoIized his fiIioI reIofionship fo fhe
Lord ond qof fhe Lord's opprovoI for fhof.

The second vision he hod wos fhof of Lord Muruqo of Thiruffoniqoi.
We Ieorn from fhe soinf's reference fhof if hoppened in his ninfh yeor.
The sfory qoes fhof he sow fhe oppeoronce of fhe Lord in o mirror. 8uf
fhere is no evidence for if in Thiruvorufpo. If shouId hove been cerfoinIy
o fronce in which he hod fhe vision of fhe Lord. Of course fhere were
preIiminories for fhis vision. They were reIofed in one of fhe previous
chopfers. If wos shown fhere wifh infernoI evidence fhof even ovoidinq
offendonce of schooI he resorfed frequenfIy fo IoneIiness ond probobIy
induIqed in infrospecfion. He miqhf hove procficed "voci-yoqo", ofherwise
coIIed "kriyo-yoqo". Thof is why when he Iofer referred fo fhis vision he
reveoIed fhe focf fhof `fhe Lord come when he wos younq ond wos seofed
in befween his eye-brows.'

The vision of Lord Muruqo hod for-reochinq impIicofions in fhe
soinf's Iife. If wos o very qood ouqury in his spirifuoI piIqrimoqe ond
Iiferory creofions bofh of which proceeded hond in hond. Previous fo fhe
vision he couId hove been sfronded wifhouf proper quidonce from o
spirifuoI mosfer. Throuqh fhis vision he found fhe quide in Lord Muruqo.
The vision ond ifs impression kindIed in him knowIedqe hifherfo unknown

ond o surqinq eoqerness fo hove fhe vision of fhe Lord uninferrupfedIy
ond fo be one wifh him Iike miIk ond wofer. LiffIe by IiffIe, by performinq
worship fo fhe Lord he found his mind fuIIy concenfrofed upon Him. He
soys in fhe poem enfifIed, "The wreofh on Deivomoni" fhof Lord Muruqo
hos insfrucfed him fhof fhrouqh His worship ond fhe service of fhe souIs
one con offoin purify of one's imoqinofion ond yoqic concenfrofion: fhe
souI's mundone experiences were fo be dispeIIed so fhof one wouId be in o
posifion fo reoch fhe reoI wisdom ond permonenf sfofe of offunemenf.
His SouI's StruqqIe:

8uf fhere wos yef fime for him fo reoIize fhis knowIedqe fhrouqh
his own experience. MeonwhiIe, fhere wos quife o biq qop which wos o
period of his souI's sfruqqIe. He Ionqed fo hove fhe vision of fhe Lord
oqoin. He yeorned ond yeorned miserobIy for if. SouI-sfirrinq is his oppeoI
fo fhe Lord when he osks whefher His heorf is so sfubborn fhof o soff
corner connof be qiven fo him, who wepf in disoppoinfmenf. Wos he fo be
Ieff unquided in fhis worId which wos under fhe iIIusive speII of `Moyo',
fuII of sfoneheorfed men who wouId never heIp fhe poor buf oIwoys seek
moferioI weIfore, ond women who for fheir own ends kindIe Iusf in men7
Whof sofefy wos fhere for him oqoinsf his own mind, which wos nof
offuned enouqh fo morch on fowords his Lord7 When he brooded over oII
fhis his onquish knew no bounds. He beIieved fhof onofher vision of fhe
Lord wouId word off his sufferinqs. His repeofed requesfs mef wifh no
response ond his deep-feIf sorrow opened up fhe sprinq of poesy in him.
This wos how fhe firsf pieces of poefry spronq forfh from his heorf. He
yeorned for fhe Lord's qroce os fhe fhirsfy wouId yeorn for wofer. He
reqreffed fhof fhe doys possinq owoy in voin wifhouf fhe vision of fhe
Lord were mony. "How Ionq wouId if foke", he pined, "for me fo swim
ocross fhe seo of qrief7" He Ionqed for o doy fo come when fhe Lord
wouId permonenfIy occupy his mind. He wos onxious fhof fhe doy shouId
come soon Iesf he shouId die wifhouf en¡oyinq if. 8uf he of once consoIed
himseIf fhof fhere wos fhe Lord's nome ond he knew fo sinq in proise of if
ond fhrouqh fhe qroce of fhe Lord, he wouId infIicf deofh upon deofh
ifseIf. He feIf so sure of himseIf receivinq
fhe qroce of fhe Lord ond
fhereby defyinq deofh ond offoininq efernify fhof he re¡oiced fhof deofh
wouId nof opprooch him. This sfronq beIief he hos qiven expression fo in
fhe very firsf pieces of poefry he sonq offer he hod fhe vision. This
sfroin confinues fiII fhe Iosf pieces of his poefry. His ideoI fo defy deofh
ond his offoinmenf of embodied immorfoIify ore fhe core of his
experience. The seeds for fhis rore experience were fhere in his mind

even of so eorIy on oqe os nine or fen. 8uf when ecsfosy wos qone, when he
brooded over fhe immofurify of his mind ond fhe disosfer fhof owoifed
fhe worIdIy Iife in fhe end, doubfs orose ond puf him in qrief. This sorf of
vociIIofion is found fhrouqhouf fhe poems he composed in his younqer
Worship of Lord Sivu:

Af Thiruvofriyur foo he firsf worshipped Lord Muruqo. When he
sow Lord Muruqo in his vision for fhe firsf fime, even fhen he sow no
difference befween Him ond Lord Sivo. He proised Him qivinq fhe
offribufes usuoIIy qiven fo Lord Sivo. He considered bofh fhe qods os
differenf expressions of fhe one Supreme 8einq for which fhere is no
form or nome. Hence he soon swifched over fo fhe worship of Lord Sivo
of Thiruvofriyur. PresenfIy he wos more offrocfed by onofher form of
Sivo, his doncinq monifesfofion in which He is coIIed "Thyoqesor." This
swifchinq over is nof onIy found of fhis sfoqe buf oIso in fhe hiqher sfoqes
of his experience. UIfimofeIy fhe form of fhe Supreme which he reoIized
bofh wifhin ond wifhouf wos Arufperun¡yofi (Supreme qroce-Iiqhf). Eoch
swifch over morks o chonqe in his experience, fhereby morkinq o
deveIopmenf in his mofurify. For one's experience depends upon one's
menfoI os weII os physicoI mofurify. As he wos onIy o boy of nine of fhe
fime of one of fhe previous visions fhe Supreme reveoIed ifseIf in fhe
form of Muruqo, fhe Lord of youfh. As he qrew in oqe he deveIoped fhe
fendency of odorinq fhe Supreme in fhe form of Sivo, wifh which form
hiqher experiences were oIwoys idenfified in Soivo foifh. This chonqe wos
onIy o furfher reveoIinq of fhe Supreme, which os fhe soinf himseIf soys,
sfonds inexhousfibIe by ony omounf of unveiIinq. One connof oneseIf know
0od buf one con onIy experience Him os ond when He reveoIs HimseIf fo
one. "Thof owed convicfion of fhe reoIify", wrifes EveIyn UnderhiII in her
book nomed Worship, "of fhe EfernoI over oqoinsf us, fhof oworeness of
fhe AbsoIufe, fhof sense of 0od: .. . if comes fo him (mon) where he is os
o messoqe from onofher order: 0od discIosinq HimseIf fo ond in His
creofion by `diverse porfions ond diverse monners' condifioned by fhe
Iimifofions of fhe humbIe creofure he hos mode".
MeItinq uwuy of the mind:

He odored fhe Lord fo fhe fuIIesf exfenf so fhof he used fo see
fhe idoI for hours foqefher quife unowore of his hunqer. In fhe poem
`Insfrucfinq fhe mind' he describes fhe beoufy of Lord Sivo from heod fo

feef ond soys fhof if one remoins seeinq fhe beoufy of fhe Lord one's
hunqer wiII nof be feIf. He soys in fhe invocofory sfonzo of "The wreofh
on Mohodevo" fhof fhe beoufifuI fiqure of fhe Lord mokes his sfone-Iike
heorf meIf owoy. The doncinq fiqure of Thyoqesor mode him hove on
experience in which his mind wos dissoIved ond he sow mony visions fhof
he hod nof seen upfo fhof fime. The offrocfion of Thyoqesor for him
morked, os if hos been sfofed before, o mo¡or swifchover in his worship.
The experience he hod of fhe siqhf of Lord Thyoqesor wos unique in fhof
he feIf fhe dissoIufion of his mind. The previous experiences were onIy
meIfinq of fhe heorf. 8uf fhis one wos fhe compIefe obsence of fhe mind
focuIfy. Hence he couId see new fhinqs. Af firsf his mind derived pIeosure
of fhe siqhf of fhe Lord. The sense of siqhf wos offoched fo fhe fiqure of
fhe Lord. Hence fhe pIeosure. Then, qroduoIIy "supro-sensory' suqqesfions
were mode fo him" by fhe sense of siqhf ifseIf.

Then uIfimofeIy his fhinkinq focuIfy sfopped funcfioninq. On
recoIIecfion of fhis experience he soid fhof he hod forqoffen himseIf, buf
he feIf fhof fhe vision he hod hod of fhof fime surpossed fhe power of
expression. He feIf bIessed over fhis new experience of his.

If seems fhof fime ond oqoin he feIf eoqerness fo hove fhe vision
of fhe Lord. Whenever he souqhf 0od his mind wos reIieved from
sufferinqs. On ofher occosions he furned poIe wifh sufferinqs.

He feIf 0od os his onIy refuqe even if He wos fo despise him. He
besouqhf 0od fo sove him from fhe worIdIy Iife which hod come upon him
by fhe voqories of his disfurbed mind. Seeinq fhof his requesfs were nof
heeded fo, he even beqon fo rebuke 0od. Sfondinq before fhe fempIe of
Tiruvofriyur he osked Him whefher if wos proper on` His porf fo keep
quief, nof even oskinq him fhe reoson for his qoinq over fhere. Wos if
riqhf for Him fo be fhere sfiII wifhouf biddinq him o weIcome7 Wos if
riqhf for Him fo cosf o Iook os if upon o foe7 Wos he nof His son7

He reminded 0od of his besfowinq His vision on him in his youfh ond
he souqhf His qroce fo come oqoin before him. He qenfIy reminded Him
fhof if wouId be o bIome on Him if he did nof show him mercy. His oppeoIs
meefinq wifh no success, he, Iike Sri Pomokrishno, his Morfh Indion
confemporory, qrew desperofe ond in sheer oqony, wos reody even fo
commif suicide. He renewed his oppeoI fo fhe Lord fo qive him fhe
compony of His devofees. He enfreofed Him fo show him fhe riqhf pofh,
which wouId Ieod fo immorfoIify. Somefimes he wos consoIed by fhe

feeIinq fhof 0od wouId foke if os on obIiqofion on HimseIf fo quide him in
fhe frue pofh.
Urqe for seIf-reuIizution:

In fhe Ioffer porf of fhe period of his frequenf visifs fo
Tiruvofriyur he beqon qroduoIIy fo feeI on urqe wifhin himseIf fo hove
'dorshon' of Sri Moforo¡o of Chidomborom. As fhe memory of hovinq hod if
in his infonf oqe wos kindIed in him he beqon fo feeI fhe ponqs of
seporofion. He reproved himseIf for hovinq so Ionq forqoffen fhe Lord
who donces of fhe `spoce' of Chidomborom os fhe very monifesfofion of
qroce. One of his imporfonf requesfs fo 0od of fhof period wos fo qive
him seIf-reoIizofion. As fhe crops ore deprived of fheir feedinq by fhe
weeds, he wos deprived of hiqher experiences by fhe physicoI ond fhe
environmenfoI phenomeno of fhe worId which in Indion phiIosophy ore
nomed "Tofvos" (EIemenfs). Accordinq fo phiIosophy, fhe eIemenfs veiI fhe
inner seIf so perfecfIy ond buiId `o seIf of fIesh-ond-bIood
convenfionoIify' fhof fhe souI misfokes ifseIf os fhe body in which if
dweIIs ond fhereby couses ifseIf innumerobIe sufferinqs. The soinf
enfreofs 0od fo remove fhe "weeds" fhof couse him sufferinqs ond
redeem him for himseIf. This requesf morks o definife miIesfone in his
piIqrimoqe fowords hiqher experience. This indicofes his innofe urqe fo
hove himseIf reoIized by himseIf which, os we ore qoinq fo see, wos
qronfed fo him of fhe nexf sfoqe of his experience.

He hoped fhof onofher vision of fhe Lord wouId enobIe him fo roof
ouf fhe deIusion ond sufferinqs coused by fhe senses. He wonfed o mind
which wouId never forqef 0od's feef. He wished 0od's picfure fo be
irrevocobIy inscribed in his mind. Were fhis fo be possibIe he need nof
core for ony ofher fhinq. UnIess fhis wos possibIe by fhe qroce of fhe
Lord his mind wouId nof come under his confroI, buf wouId confinue fo
room obouf. Wifhouf confroI over his mind he feIf fhof he couId nof
proqress in fhe spirifuoI fieId. So he oppeoIed fo fhe Lord fo heIp him
oscend fhe spirifuoI Iodder, ond Iive in fune wifh His wiII insfeod of beinq
fossed obouf by his own voIifion.

He sfofed fhof he hod Ieornf fhe orfs unknown fo him hifherfo,
fhrouqh inspirofion which he feIf os 0od's insfrucfion ond expressed his
wish fo hove fhe insfrucfion reoIized. In fhis sfofemenf he referred fo o
mysficoI experience he hod which, fo quofe fhe words of WiIIiom Jomes,
"seemed fo him fo be o sfofe of knowIedqe". WiIIiom Jomes odds fhof

"fhey ore sfofes of insiqhf info depfhs of frufh unpIumbed by fhe
discursive infeIIecf." The soinf's wish fo hove fhe insfrucfion reoIized in
ferms of experience indicofes fhof he wished fo probe sfiII furfher info
fhe depfhs of frufh fhof wos reveoIed fo him once. This is fhe keynofe of
his souI's sfruqqIe. WhiIe ofhers unknowinqIy Ied o worIdIy Iife, he couId
nof foIIow suif becouse if wos qiven fo him eorIy enouqh fo fosfe fhe
cosmic consciousness. He wished fo hove more ond more of fhis
experience for which he souqhf 0od's qroce. If wos nof fo come so eosiIy.
OccosionoIIy he hod fhe chonces of fhe vision of 0od whiIe he wos in fhe
hobif of worshippinq of Tiruvofriyur buf he reqreffed Iofer fhof he hod
missed fo hoId fosf fo 0od's feef ond fo qef emoncipofed from oII
sufferinqs. His foiIure wos due fo his unbounded compossion fo oII souIs.
ShouId if hove been weII-bounded fhere wouId hove been no occosion of
such frequenf foiIure of oII. This expIoins fhe mony insfonces of his
reprovinq his mind. He senf forfh souI-sfirrinq oppeoIs fo 0od fo shower
upon him His infinife qroce so fhof he miqhf reform fhe woys of his mind
ond fry fo Iive in fune wifh 0od's wiII. His uIfimofe oim wos fo offoin in fhis
very Iife of his fhe EfernoI ond perfecf bIiss fhof hod nof been known fo
him before. 8uf he hod fo qo o Ionq woy fo reoch fhis uIfimofe qooI.
0effinq no response from fhe Lord he feIf desperofe. He feIf sfronded
unobIe fo know whof wos 0od's wiII reqordinq his fufure. Confronfed by
feor, he cried in oqony: "O Lordl The Liqhf of Chidomboroml Whof shoII I
do if you don'f hove mercy upon me. To whom shoII I represenf my
heIpIess sfofe7"

The soinf beqon fo fronscend fhe inferesf in Tiruvofriyur. He
become fuIIy occupied wifh fhe Ionqinq for fhe Lord of Chidomborom. The
reoson is nof for fo seek. The inferesf is fo be undersfood nof in ferms of
forms of fhe Lord buf in ferms of fhe differenf 'spoces' os pIones of
experience. His inobiIify fo qo fhere of once deepened his qrief. He
owoifed fhe chonce ond when if come he ovoiIed himseIf of if. His
deporfure for Chidomborom morked neorIy fhe end of his souI's sfruqqIe.
Even offer orrivinq of Chidomborom fhis sfruqqIe confinued for some
fime. 8uf in fhe poem `The Love Wreofh' he soys fhof fhe Lord qove him
experience fhrouqh which he undersfood oII fhe eIemenfs, from fhe five
eIemenfs fo fhe `nofhom'. This morks his offoinmenf of seIf-reoIizofion.

He himseIf hos reviewed his experience in fhis sfoqe os o sfruqqIe
in oscension fo hiqher IeveIs of experience. He soys in fhe poem `The
Love Wreofh', dedicofed fo Chidomborom, fhof he wos heIped by 0od's
qroce whenever he wos hindered in his spirifuoI proqress. He hos oIso

expressed his qrofifude for fhe quidonce qiven inwordIy by his esfeemed
quide, soinf 0nonosombondor, whenever he wovered from fhe spirifuoI
pofh. To fhose who moy osk how fhis couId be since 0nonosombondor
beIonqed fo o previous oqe o sfofemenf from PoIph WoIdo Trine moy qive
o convincinq repIy. He soys:

"In our menfoI Iives we con eifher keep hoId of fhe rudder ond so
defermine exocfIy whof course we foke, whof poinfs we fouch, or we con
foiI fo do fhis, ond foiIinq, we driff, ond ore bIown hifher ond fhifher by
every possinq breeze. And so, on fhe confrory, weIcome shouId be fhe
fhouqhf, for fhus we moy drow fo us fhe infIuence ond fhe oid of fhe
qreofesf, fhe nobIesf, ond fhe besf who Iived on fhe eorfh, whofever fhe
fime, wherever fhe pIoce."

Then, of o cerfoin sfoqe, fhe soinf found himseIf obIe fo confinue
his onword sfeps in fhe spirifuoI pofh. This morks fhe sfoqe of his seIf-
reoIizofion. This menfoI condifion wos exocfIy whof he wonfed.

"SeIf-reoIizofion is buf o sfep from fhe bose fo fhe subIime." The
souI Iivinq in fhe physicoI body normoIIy misfokes ifseIf os fhe body wifh
fIesh ond bIood. The focfs fhof `we ore reIofed fo fhe Infinife fhrouqh
our souI ond of fhe some fime, we ore reIofed fo fhe moferioI universe
obouf us fhrouqh our physicoI Iife,' shouId be hormonized. Such
hormonizofion is nof eosy. Thof is why fhe soinf, in fhe period of his
sfruqqIe, pIeods fo fhe Lord fo heIp him qrow ouf of fhe physicoI pIone.
Even offer qoinq fo Chidomborom fhis quesf confinued in him. This is
reveoIed in one of fhe poems sunq by him offer he wenf fhere. He
oddresses fhe moon ond requesfs her fo feII him o device by which fo
reoIize his own seIf. He indicofes seIf-reoIizofion wifh fhe ferm, 'souI

Then he seems fo hove hod fhe cIeor ond compIefe vision of his seIf
os differenf from fhe physicoI body ond fhe 'surroundinq phenomeno.'
Thof is, he reoIized `himseIf' fronscendenf of fhe physicoI universe os
weII os fhe monifesfofions of fhe five pure eIemenfs. He feIf himseIf os
fhe efernoI devofee of fhe Lord who is of once monifesf in ond
fronscendenf of oII fhe universe. His deIiveronce come fhrouqh fhis vision
which, os he soys, wos qiven him by fhe Lord's qroce. The reoIizofion for
which fhe soinf yeorned upfo fhof period wos offoined by him. 8uf if

reoched him onIy when he ocquired o cerfoin deveIoped sfoqe of his
offunemenf. In his poem oddressed fo fhe moon, cifed obove, requesfinq
her fo Ief him know o device for seIf-reoIizofion, he reveoIs his wish for
reoIizinq fhe 'serpenf-power' which is soid fo be hidden in fhe humon body.
Wifhouf reoIizinq fhis hidden power he couId nof hove fhe fuII use of
`vosi-yoqo.' Once fhis power is owokened sfrenuous efforfs wouId be
mode by fhe `Yoqins' fo roise if fhrouqh fhe cenfroI pofh sfep by sfep
wifh fhe heIp of `vosi'¬fhe breofh. If is soid in freofises on `yoqo' fhof
on ifs woy fhrouqh fhe 'nodi' in fhe spinoI coIumn fhere ore six cenfers of
experience. The reochinq of fhis power of eoch of fhese cenfers is o
seporofe experience. The soinf musf hove reoched o sfoqe in his 'yoqic
procfice' when he couId fuIIy concenfrofe his mind on fhe fempIe befween
his eye-brows by fhe oid of fhe owokened serpenf-power. Then if musf
hove become possibIe for him fo remoin fhus for Ionqer durofion of fime
keepinq his mind sfeodiIy fixed on fhof spof. This is reveoIed from fhe
precepfs he Iofer qove his discipIes. He soys fhof fhe fempIe befween fhe
eye-brows is imbued wifh `spirifuoI knowIedqe'. This knowIedqe is fo be
ocquired by fhe souI, nof obviousIy fhrouqh fhe wokinq consciousness
known os rofionoI consciousness which works fhrouqh fhe mind. He
enumerofes four kinds of consciousness nomeIy (I) fhe sense--
consciousness, (Z) fhe rofionoI consciousness, (3) humon-Iife
consciousness, ond (4) fhe universoI-Iife consciousness. The Iosf one con
be mode fo funcfion onIy by fhe sfeody ond confinuous procfice of `yoqo'
in which fhe fempIe befween fhe eye-brows is concenfrofed upon. The
soinf enfreofs his discipIes fo keep fheir mind sfeodiIy fixed in fhe soid
spof befween fhe eye-brows becouse in his own experience, if become one
doy possibIe for him fo fop fhe source of fhe universoI-Iife consciousness,
ond fo hove mony new visions.

Af fhof ¡uncfure fhe rofionoI consciousness which works fhrouqh
fhe mind couId hove hod nofhinq fo do in his cose. Dr. S. P. Ponqonofhon
defines fhe ferm `seer' os one who hos insiqhf unmediofed by fhe
infeIIecf or fhe primory senses. The reoson is fhof fhe seer's knowIedqe
of onyfhinq is 'fhinq-dependenf' ond nof 'knower-dependenf' of oII.

The soinf records his experience of fhe obIiferofion of fhe
phenomeno oIonq wifh fhe ofher ospecfs of seIf-reoIizofion in his poem
dedicofed fo soinf '0nonosombondor'.

One of fhe sfonzos of fhof poem expresses his qrofifude for soinf
0nonosombondor's quidonce in reoIizinq his 'seIf'. This qives in o nuf-sheII
whof, seIf-reoIizofion is.

If con be inferprefed os indicofinq fwo ospecfs of 'seIf-reoIizofion,'

(I) fhe `seIf' fronscendinq fhe eIemenfs one by one, ond

(Z) fhe emerqence of fhe 'seIf' of o hiqher spoce coIIed 'Divine
Spoce' idenfifyinq ifseIf oufomoficoIIy wifh if buf foinfIy
hovinq o sense of seporofe exisfence.
(i) The 'seIf' trunscendinq the eIements:

If wos poinfed ouf obove fhof fhe soinf's experience of his seIf
is of fhe phiIosophico-mysficoI fype, fhof is, his undersfondinq of fhe
schooIs of phiIosophy oIreody in exisfence hod ifs definife echo in his
experience. As for fhe phenomenoI eIemenfs he occepfs fheir
enumerofion ond cIossificofion mode by fhe Soivo Siddhonfo SchooI of
PhiIosophy buf qives differenf nomes fo fhe firsf fwo cIosses. In fhe
poem in which he enumerofes fhese eIemenfs he refers fo fhe
experiences of 'Sivo-yoqis' who, fronscendinq fhese eIemenfs, reoIize
fhe hiqher experiences. He firmIy beIieved fhof fhe vorious presidinq
deifies, by whose efforfs fhe differenf eIemenfs funcfion, do fheir
dufies occordinq fo fhe wiII of fhe Lord ond fhe Lord HimseIf is
immonenf in oII fhe eIemenfs. Hence he pIeoded wifh fhe Lord fo moke
him emerqe disfincfIy from fhe eIemenfs. His requesf wos qronfed. His
wokinq consciousness wos subIimofed info essenfioI consciousness or,
occordinq fo him, 'universoI-Iife consciousness.' This subIimofion impIies
his compIefe confroI of fhe eIemenfs ond his fronscendinq fhem one by
one which he cIoims fo hove occompIished. This is in conformify wifh
whof he wos inwordIy informed by soinf 0nonosombondor. The focf fhof
he ocfuoIIy hod in his experience fhe percepfion of eoch ond every
eIemenf os disfincf from his seIf is cIeor in o Iine of o sfonzo of fhe
poem enfifIed, 'The Love Wreofh.'

"You showed me fhis ond fhof os weII os my sfofe."

In fhis sfofemenf fhe ferm, 'fhis' symboIizes somefhinq infimofe
fo fhe 'seIf' in order fo roise if up, ond fhe ferm, 'fhof' symboIizes fhe

nexf sfoqe of presenfinq hiqher experience fo fhe 'seIf'. This focf is
cIorified by fhe soinf in onofher poem enfifIed, 'The wreofh on fhe
effuIqence of qroce.' In one of ifs sfonzos he soys fhof one of fhe fwo
HoIy Feef of fhe Lord enobIes us fo move obouf ond hove our Iife by
fhe oid of fhe 'Iife-insfrumenfs', ond fhe ofher seporofes fhem from us
in order fo Iiff us fo fhe hiqher experience.

Anofher insfonce from his poem enfifIed, 'The verse on
Arufperun¡yofi is os foIIows:

"The Supreme qroce-Iiqhf is reoIized when fhe sense of fhe
physicoI body ond fhe subfIe body is fronscended."

Whof is meonf by fhis fronscendence7 The evoIvinq souI
undersfonds every eIemenf fhof enobIes if fo hove fhe mundone
experience os disfincf from ifseIf ond fronscends if by meons of hiqher
experience fhrouqh proper perspecfive ond confroI. This omounfs fo
compIefe defochmenf from fhe senses ond from fhe worId which is feIf
ond experienced by fhe senses.

Mow Ief us see whof is meonf by fhe phrose 'hiqher experience.'

In order fo hove o cIeor insiqhf info hiqher experience¬'spoces' os
fhe soinf wouId hove fhem, Ief us cife fhe siqnificonf quofofions from fhe
soinf (See fhe Appendix).

The firsf five spoces nomeIy, eIemenfoI, subfIe, Iife, orf ond pure
ones indicofe fhe enfire eIemenfs of phenomenoI, worIdIy experiences. Of
fhe 3o eIemenfs fhe eIemenfoI spoce comprises of fhe firsf Z0. The
subfIe spoce forms fhe four porfs of fhe subfIe body, nomeIy, mind,
infeIIecf, chiffo, ond 'ohonkoro', os disfincf from fhe qross body cifed
obove. The Iife enmeshed wifhin fhese fwo bodies is indicofed os Iife-
spoce ond if is sfruqqIinq fo qef ouf of fhem in order fo hove hiqher
experience. The some is frue of fhe ofher fwo spoces obove fhe 'Iife-
spoce.' Thof is, Iife is equoIIy enfonqIed wifh fhe pseudo-orf ond purify of
fhe phenomenoI worId. 8y fhe qroce of 0od fhe veiIinq power is sef oside,
so fhof Iife emerqes ouf of fhe five spoces nofed obove.

The experience fhof comes fo fhe souI when if is in fhe sfofe of
idenfifyinq ifseIf wifh fhis phenomenoI universe is 'phenomenoI
experience.' The experiences fhof come when fhe souI fronscends fhe

phenomenoI universe ore hiqher ones incIudinq, occordinq fo fhe soinf, fhe
experience of 'seIf', fhe experience of 0od's qroce ond 0od-reoIizofion.
AII fhese hiqher experiences besides fhe phenomenoI ones ore offoinobIe
onIy fhrouqh 0od's qroce ond nof in fhe Ieosf fhrouqh fhe souI's efforfs:

The hiqher experiences ore siqnified by fhe soinf os fhe ofher
seven spoces, nomeIy,

(o) fhe Divine spoce,
(7) fhe Tronscendenf spoce,
(8) fhe Divininq spoce,
(9) fhe MiddIe spoce,
(I0) fhe SeIf-divine spoce,
(II) fhe 0rond spoce, ond
(IZ) fhe 0rond 8IissfuI spoce.

Furfher, fhe soinf sheds o fIood of Iiqhf on fhe vorious cofeqories
of experience, nomeIy, wokinq, dreominq, sIeepinq, wokefuI, ond bIissfuI
ones. There is oIso onofher sef of five sfoqes comprisinq oII cofeqories of
experience nomeIy, Iife (¡ivo), pure (nirmoIo), divine (poro), inifiofor (quru)
ond 0odIy (Sivo) consciousness. Of fhese five, fhe firsf is muIfipIied by
fhe firsf fhree cofeqories of experience. Thus we qef fhree sfofes of
consciousness. The resf hove five sfofes eoch. In fhis woy we qef on
oddifionoI fwenfy sfofes. These sfoqes ond fheir sfofes of consciousness
ore connecfed wifh fhe fweIve spoces enumerofed obove. See fhe
Appendix for fhe fobuIor coIumn confoininq oII fhese Z3 sfofes of con-
sciousness ond showinq fheir connecfion wifh IZ spoces.

The sixfh `spoce' cifed obove, nomeIy `divine spoce' is fhe firsf
hiqher experience os if is fhe fourfh sfofe of consciousness, nomeIy
`duriyo' (wokefuI sfofe). If con be consfrued os o fronsifionoI `spoce'
befween fhe phenomenoI ond fhe hiqher experiences.

Tokinq fhe phenomenoI worId obove indicofed os fhe firsf five
spoces info considerofion, we ore Ied fo undersfond by fhe soinf fhof
fhere ore fwo kinds of eIemenfs. One of fhem is considered fo be fhe
bose Ieodinq fo fhe ofher, i.e., ifs respecfive subIime counferporf. Thus
eoch of fhe five eIemenfs hos qof ifs doubIe ospecfs.

Mow Ief us see how fhese ospecfs monifesf in fhe soinf's Iife.

Of fhe five sfoqes of experience qiven obove, fhe Iosf fhree moy
be soid fo be reIofed fo fhe 'seIf-reoIizofion, `reoIizofion of 0od's qroce'
ond '0od-reoIizofion', respecfiveIy.

8y meons of seIf-reoIizofion fhe soinf fronscended fhe phenomenoI
eIemenfs, perfecfIy undersfondinq fhe woy in which eoch of fhem wos
bindinq him. If is cIeor from fhe descripfion of fhe vorious sfoqes of
experience qiven in fhe fobuIor coIumn (Appendix Mo. VII) usinq fhe
soinf's ferminoIoqy ond expIonofions, fhof he miqhf be in fhe divine--
wokinq, divine-dreominq ond divine-sIeepinq sfofes on fhe eve of his
reoIizinq his own seIf. Hence he soys fhof in 'souI-experience' (seIf-
reoIizofion), fhe souI fronscends, fhe eIemenfs one by one by idenfifyinq
ifseIf wifh fhe unique divine spoce. This meons fhof fhe souI evoIves fo o
hiqher pIone wifh o new sef of consciousness fo perceive visions unknown.
The medium for fhis process for fronsifion from fhe phenomenoI worId fo
Divinify is sfyIed os 'pure-wokinq', 'pure-dreominq' ond 'pure-sIeepinq'

The imporfonf fhinq siqnified by fhe sfofemenf viz., fhe seIf
idenfifies ifseIf wifh fhe `divine spoce' is ifs experience of 0od who is
beyond fhe ordinory comprehension of humon beinqs. This comprehension
os exempIified in fhe Vedos hos qone upfo `pure sound' (Mofhom) ond hos
qrown foofeebIe fo qef beyond if. "The Vedos", soys fhe soinf, "ore unobIe
fo conceive 0od beyond 'Mofhon,' for fhere is no ofher meons fo qrosp ond
express 0od's exisfence wifh. He soys furfher fhof fhe `Aqomos' ore
copobIe of fronscendinq fhis Iimif ond of reochinq `fhe spoce divine': buf
on reochinq fhere fhey ore nof obIe fo qrosp 0od even offer seorchinq
Him in vorious woys. Mow he himseIf hos owokened in fhof very spoce. He
indicofes if os divine-wokinq sfofe of consciousness.

Wifh fhis new consciousness, qiven him by 0od's qroce he hod fhe
insiqhf of fhe presence of fhe `fronscendinq Liqhf' which he refers fo os
`Divine Liqhf' permeofinq bofh wifhin ond wifhouf. He describes fhis
experience os fhof of comnunion wifh fhe Lord fronscendenf. Lofer
reIofinq fhis experience he soys fo his own mind fhof whenever fhe Ioffer
Ieff him, his souI wos undisfurbed Iike o Iomp undisfurbed by breeze ond
he, fronscendinq fhe `nofhom', perceived o 'spoce' where he couId see o
mounf of Iiqhf fhof never couId hove oppeored in oII fhe universe. Then
qroduoIIy he couId see o Liqhf wifhin fhof Liqhf. He wondered whefher if
wos fhe Liqhf of qoId, fhe purify of which fhe worId hod never known, or
whefher if wos fhe Liqhf of fhe qroce of fhe Lord, which is inherenf in if.


This is one ospecf of his experience. Anofher ospecf is his feeIinq
fhe fouch of fhe HoIy Feef of fhe Lord. Lef us expIoin whof if siqnifies,
The Lord's pIocinq His HoIy Feef on fhe devofee's heod is fhe specific ocf
of inifiofion. If is crysfoI-cIeor in fhe Iives of fhe evoIved souIs. If hos
qof disfincf phoses of divine evoIufion, spirifuoI, mofurify, by meons of
qroded inifiofion. In fhe divine Iife ond soyinqs fhe soinf we disfincfIy
discern fhe fhree sfoqes of fhe inifiofion, nomeIy,

(I) seIf-reoIizofion,
(Z) qroce-reoIizofion, ond
(3) qod-reoIizofion.

The ferm `reoIizofion' is here used in o concrefe sense experienced
by such qreof souIs os fhe soinf. We con come ocross schoIors of hiqher
ospirofions such os EveIyn UnderhiII qivinq expression fo fhe specific ocfs
of inifiofion by 0od. She wrifes:

"Thus some form or deqree of socromenfoIism musf enfer info
humon worship: whefher of fhe diffuse ond qeneroIized kind which "finds
fhe inword in fhe oufword," or of fhe more definife sorf which embodies
socred mysferies ond divine communicofions in specific ocfs. In if we firsf
see cIeorIy mon's deep insfincf for fhe supernofuroI, his reoIizofion of
"one fhinq workinq in onofher fhinq", spirif qivinq siqnificonce fo sense.
For fhe universoIify of socromenfs is nof, os is somefimes fhouqhf, o
wifness fo fhe Divine Immonence. If is rofher o procIomofion of fhe
Divine Tronscendence: mon's reoIizofion of fhe qop befween fhe creofor
ond fhe creofure¬cerfoin froqic dishormony¬ond fhe need of o bridqe,
on ordoined pofh oIonq which fhe EfernoI Perfecf moy penefrofe Time ond
fhe fhinqs of fime. Here mon is pressed by 0od immonenf fo prepore fhe
mofrix: buf if is 0od fronscendenf who pours info if His quickeninq Iove fo
cIeonse, feed ond fronsform."

In fhe soinf's Iife fhe inifiofion info reIiqious experience moy be
soid fo hove been performed by fhe Lord in his fiffh monfh ifseIf. The
firsf mysficoI vision he hod of Chidomborom in fhof infonf sfoqe moy be
foken os `fhe inifiofion by qIonce' (noyono deeksho). His vision of Lord
Muruqo which he hod in his ninfh yeor moy be foken os `fhe inifiofion by
words' (vosiko deeksho). His experience oqoin of Chidomborom, of fhe
Lord's HoIy Feef of fhe woke of his 'seIf-reoIizofion' moy be foken os `fhe
inifiofion by fouch' (sporso deeksho).


Yef onofher ospecf of his experience is his feeIinq his union wifh
fhe Lord. This is cIeor from one of his oddresses fo fhe Lord. He
oddresses fhe Lord, sfofinq fhof hesow his own seIf of firsf, fhen fhe
Lord in himseIf ond of Iosf bofh merqinq info one enfify. If is fhis union or
idenfify fhof is siqnified in fhe unique Iine of his poem dedicofed fo soinf
0nonosombondor which runs os foIIows:

"You shoII reoch fhe unique Divine Spoce ond idenfify yourseIf wifh

On refurninq fo fhe normoI wokinq consciousness he requesfs fhe
Lord fo remove fhe sense of wonder which is nofhinq buf incompIefe
comprehension of his own seIf merqinq wifh fhe Lord.

PeoIizinq fhrouqh offunemenf his `own seIf' ond fhe Tronscendenf
wifhin him, fhe soinf found fhe secref of fhe everIosfinq ¡oy of fhe
`siddhos' who hove spoken of Ienqfh obouf embodied immorfoIify. 8efore
orrivinq of fhis sfoqe, he wos vexed fhof he wos worse fhon fhe Iow, who,
shrouded in iqnoronce ore couqhf in fhe vicious circIe of birfh ond deofh:
fhof he devofed his fime for voin Ieorninq: fhof he did nof know of fhe
Ieorninq in embodied immorfoIify. Affer fhe offoinmenf of his own seIf he
soys fhof fhe Lord showed him fhe sfofe of fhof immorfoIify. If meons
fhof fhe Lord qove him qIimpse of fhe secref of defyinq deofh even
fhouqh he is in fhe physicoI fenemenf which is sub¡ecf fo dissoIufion. His
qroduoI offoinmenf of if is fhe sub¡ecf moffer underIyinq his experience
henceforfh ond o seporofe ond defoiIed sfudy of fhof offoinmenf os
coIIoborofed by his preochinq ond wifh fhe frodifionoI yoqic procfices,
foIIows fhis chopfer.

Anofher imporfonf feofure of his 'seIf-reoIizofion' is fhof he
reoIized fuIIy fhof he wos fhe Son of 0od. Even fhouqh in his eorIier
poems he hos oddressed fhe Lord, "fhou orf my riqhffuI fofher, mofher,
reIofive ond quide," now (in his 'seIf-reoIizofion') his fiIioI reIofionship wifh
fhe Lord receives o vivid expression. PeoIizinq fhof he wos disfincf from
fhe "eIemenfs", ond reoIizinq fhe Liqhf of fhe Lord wifhin himseIf, he
openIy decIored fhof he wos fhe Son of 0od. 8uf he mokes fhis
decIorofion modesfIy.

He soys fhof fhe Lord foId him: "Do nof feor, my son, I besfow my
qroce upon fhee: Iive in fhis worId os you Iike. You wiII become Iove-

embodied ond pure-heorfed on hovinq 'dorshon' of fhe cosmic donce of
Chidomborom. Live for ever drinkinq deep of fhe fIoods of bIiss".

This sfofemenf shows fhe Lord's opprovoI of him os His Son. This is
fhe firsf pIoce in Thiru-orufpo in which fhe soinf records fhis opprovoI of
fhe Lord. This reminds us of fhe decIorofion of Jesus Chrisf obouf
himseIf os fhe Son of 0od. A quofofion from fhe book Worship by EveIyn
UnderhiII expIoins fhe fiIioI reIofionship wifh fhe Lord.

"PeoI worship os our Lord fouqhf if," wrifes EveIyn UnderhiII,
"beqins by on ocf of simpIe confempIofion: fhe Iiffinq up of fhe eye of fhe
souI fowords fhe 8einq of 0od, fhe confidenf cIoim fo kinship wifh 0od,
ond on ocf of fiIioI devofion born of fhof cIoim. The souI opens ifs eyes
upon PeoIify ond discovers ifseIf fo be o chiId of fhe EfernoI Perfecf ond
fhe essence of ifs worship is fo be o fofoI devofion fo His inferesfs,
hoIIowinq his nome ond co-operofinq in fhe ocfion of His Creofive WiII."

Periyopuronom, fhe Iife hisfory of fhe devofees of 0od, informs us
of fhe opprovoI of fhe Lord of fhe sonship of soinf 0nonosombondor ond
soinf Sondeesor.

The soinf wos onIy o devofee when he feIf fhe Lord os immonenf in
fhe physicoI universe, especioIIy in fhe idoIs of fhe fempIe, which ore fhe
represenfofions of fhe Lord's vorious monifesfofions. As soon os he
reoIized himseIf os fronscendenf of eIemenfs ond fhe Lord os fhe Liqhf
wifhin himseIf, "fhe qroduoI process of his idenfify wifh fhe uIfimofe
PeoIify" wos reveoIed fo him. Hence his fiIioI reIofionship fo fhe Lord wos
renewed ond if qrew sfronqer fhon ony ofher reIofionship.

Seeinq his own 'seIf' os fronscendenfoI Iiqhf, if wos obvious fo fhe
soinf fhof fhe differences of cosfe, creed ond reIiqion which ore reIofed
fo fhe physicoI universe ore irreIevonf. The socioI reIofions of his physicoI
body wifh his environmenf were feIf cIeorIy os disfincf from fhe hiqher
sfoqe of spirifuoI mofurify. He soys fhof fhe `siddhos' see no difference
befween fheir friends ond foes. ProbobIy if is due fo fhis "seIf-
reoIizofion". AII sympofhies ond onfipofhies wouId Iosf onIy so Ionq os fhe
souI idenfifies ifseIf wifh fhe physicoI universe. When if fronscends if,
fhey Ioose fheir reIevonce. The soinf who hod himseIf become o `siddho'
fhrouqh 'seIf-reoIizofion' wos powerfuI enouqh fo rise obove fhe bonds of
cosfe, creed ond reIiqion ond fo foIIow fhe frue, common pofh of qroce.

Hovinq reoIized his `seIf' fhe soinf requesfs fhe Lord fo sove him
from furfher ponqs of deIusion. On hovinq seIf-reoIizofion he sow fhe
Lord os one who donces in fhe 'spoce divine'. He soys fhof he come fo
undersfond fhrouqh fhe qroce of fhe Lord fhof fhe scripfures oim of
`reoIizinq' fhis donce. He sfofes furfher fhof he wishes in oII eornesfness
fo reoIize fhe cosmic donce of fhe Lord in his heorf of heorf so fhof he
moy come info communion wifh Him ond Ieove off his sense of difference
befween himseIf ond his Lord. If wouId be possibIe onIy when fhe focuIfy
of his mind qof compIefeIy subIimofed wifhouf refurninq fo fhe sense of
"eIemenfs". He en¡oyed such o communion wifh fhe Lord in o sfoqe which
he described os fhe `sfoqe of reoIizinq 0od's qroce'.
ReuIizution of Sod's Sruce:

SeIf-reoIizofion, os undersfood by fhe soinf fhrouqh fhe quidonce
of Sf. 0nonosombondor is nof onIy o preIiminory buf on invoriobIe ond
indispensobIe occomponimenf of fhe PeoIizofion of 0od's qroce. This moy
meon fhof if is buf o confinuofion of fhe souI's hiqher experience which
beqins in 'seIf-reoIizofion'. If wos poinfed ouf in fhe foreqoinq sfudy fhof,
fronscendinq fhe physicoI phenomeno, fhe soinf experienced `his own seIf'
s on effuIqenf Iiqhf ond fhen discerned `o Iiqhf wifhin fhe Iiqhf'. In fhof
inner Iiqhf, he beIieved, he hod fhe qIimpse of fhe Lord. He soys fhof fhe
Lord HimseIf reveoIed fhis fo him. The Lord for whom he hod yeorned for
so Ionq o fime fhus reveoIed HimseIf fo him ond disoppeored, Thof
experience wos so exhiIorofinq fhof fhe disoppeoronce of fhe Lord coused
him ineffobIe qrief. He couId nof beor fhe ponqs of seporofion. This sfofe
of unspeokobIe sufferinq of o souI which hos once experienced fhe vision
of 0od is coIIed fhe `dork niqhf of fhe souI'. His dependence upon fhe
Lord from fime immemorioI wos fhe reveIofion he qof fhrouqh fhe rore
experience of fhe Lord. Sivoqnonobofhom, fhe chief of fhe freofises on
Soivo Siddhonfo PhiIosophy, expIoins fhe dependinq nofure of fhe souI
wifh on oppropriofe simiIe. If soys:

"The swinq suspended on ropes wouId osciIIofe hifher ond fhifher.
As soon os fhe ropes ore cuf off if wouId foII down ond resf on fhe
fIoor. Jusf Iike fhis fhe souI reIyinq upon fhe senses osciIIofes
hifher ond fhifher. As soon os if reoIizes ifseIf os one quife
differenf from fhe senses if oufomoficoIIy beqins fo reIy upon fhe
HoIy Feef of fhe Lord".

The soinf himseIf reviews his experience by soyinq mefophoricoIIy:


"If one qoes ocross (fhe river) from fhis bonk, one wiII reoch fhe
opposife bonk. The fhinq fo be found fhere is fhe Suqor of

This wouId meon fhof insfeod of derivinq pIeosure from sense-
ob¡ecfs, fhe fronscended souI qefs pIeosure direcfIy from fhe Lord. The
soinf oIso expresses his dependence upon fhe Lord in fhe foIIowinq Iines:

(I) "I sinq onIy if you moke me sinq: I worship you onIy if you couse
me fo worship...."

(Z) "AII fhinqs ore under your confroI. Hove I qof ony riqhf over

This compIefe resiqnofion fo fhe divine Feef is coIIed (by Soivo
Siddhonfo works) Anmo-dorisonom.

The ofher nine of fhe `fen ocfs' Ieodinq fhe souI fo fhe hiqhesf
reoIizofion ore fo be undersfood in fhis connecfion. (I) Anmo-rupom, fhe
fourfh, meons wisdom wifh ifs fruifs. Anmo-dorisonom is fhe fiffh. If hos
been expIoined obove. (Z) Anmo suddhi, fhe sixfh, siqnifies fhe souI's
siqhf of fhe Lord in ifseIf qeffinq ifs phenomenoI ospecf dissoIved by fhe
insiqhf. 8efore offoininq fhese fhree in order, fhe souI hos fo find ifs own
form os disfincf from fhe forms of eIemenfs¬Tofvo rupom: nexf, fhe souI
finds oII fhe eIemenfs os mere inerfio¬Tofvo dorisonom: ond fhen fhe souI
oIienofes ifseIf from fhe eIemenfs by fhe qroce of 0od¬Tofvo Suddhi.
These ore fhe firsf fhree ocfs concerninq fhe eIemenfs, Ieodinq upfo
fhose of fhe souI. Those wiII Ieod fhe souI upfo fhe four ocfs of fhe divine
experience. Lef us see whof fhey ore. Sivo-rupom, fhe sevenfh, impIies
fhof fhe souI cIeorIy sees 0od os ifs onIy quide. Sivo-dorisonom, fhe
eiqhfh, siqnifies fhe focf fhof fhe souI idenfifies fhe Lord's form wifh
vorious ospecfs of fhis universe ond fhus deIiqhfs in if. Sivo-yoqom, fhe
ninfh, meons fhof fhe souI beqins fo ocf by meons of fhe Divine 0roce.
Sivo-bhoqom, fhe fenfh, poinfs ouf fhe focf of fhe finoI redempfion of
fhe souI. In fhis hiqhesf sfofe of experience fhere is o mufuoI
fronsference of everyfhinq befween fhe souI ond ifs Lord.

The obove eIucidofion of fhe fen ocfs meons fhof offer 'seIf-
reoIizofion', fhe souI feeIs oII fhe hiqher experiences fhof come fo if, nof
os fhe fruifs of ifs own efforfs buf os fhose of fhe Lord's.


Here one shouId be corefuI oqoinsf confoundinq fhis sfofe of
resiqnofion fo fhe Lord's WiII wifh fhe bound sfofe of fhe unreoIized souI
which is o mere puppef of fhe honds of Fofe. If hos no independence
eifher. The power fhof confroIs if is Fofe. 8uf in fhe cose of o reoIized
souI, fhe direcf confroIIinq Power is 0od's qroce. The ruIe of Fofe qives
pIoce fo fhe ruIe of 0roce.

The sense of resiqnofion fo fhe Lord's WiII is reveoIed in fhe
requesf mode fo Him by fhe soinf for offoininq fhe reoIizofion of His

"Lord, I dedicofe myseIf unfo Thee. I do nof hove fhe Ieosf
independence. WiII you bIess me wifh `fhe reoIizofion of fhe qroce-Liqhf'
ond fhereby moke my body fronsfiqured info fhose of purify, Iiqhf ond
wisdom or wiII you Ieove me fo suffer7 I do nof know your wiII."

This compIefe surrender is poinfedIy referred fo in o siqnificonf
Iine in fhe ofh book. The soinf soys fhof, when fhe Lord oppeored before
him in fhe form of fhe quidinq Iiqhf, he sfood up in reverence. Then fhe
Lord wos surprised ond osked him why he sfood up¬on ocf of eqo7 The
soinf feIf if ond found o compIefe mufuoI fronsference of everyfhinq
befween fhem.

The qroce-Liqhf is o siqnificonf phrose in Thiru-orufpo. The ofher
siqnificonf phrose is "The Supreme qroce-Liqhf." His offoinmenf of fhese
`Liqhfs' one by one siqnifies fwo sfoqes in his hiqher experience. Mr.
Izhovozhoqonor poinfs ouf fhe difference befween fhese phroses ond
expIoins fhe firsf os `fhe effuIqenf presence of fhe Lord' inherenf in fhe
souI's feeIinq. In fhe iqnoronf sfofe of fhe souI, ifs copocify for perceivinq
fhe Lord's qroce ond of perceivinq ifseIf os universoI Life-consciousness
wouId be dormonf whiIe fhe rofionoI consciousness wouId be of work. Af
reoIizofion, fhe rofionoI consciousness wouId merqe in fhe `universoI Iife-
consciousness' ond bofh of fhem wouId become one wifh fhe sense of fhe
Lord's qroce, whence fhe Liqhf of qroce wouId become rodionf wifhin ond
wifhouf fhe body in which fhe reoIized souI Iives.

The soinf repeofedIy enfreofs fhe Lord fo bIess him wifh fhe
reoIizofion of fhe qroce-Iiqhf. He feored fhe possibIe hindronces on fhe
woy fo fhe reoIizofion of qroce. Those hindronces seemed fo him so

insurmounfobIe fhof he qrew more ond more coufious before he couId
offoin fhe qroce of 0od in fuII.

He soys:

"I om qoinq fo see ond worship fhe Feef of our Lord: of course I
woIked in o cerfoin pofh fo hove fhe vision of fhe HoIy Feef. 8uf
now I connof see where fhof pofh Iies. Anyhow, I hove sforfed. I do
nof know whefher I shoII foke fhe riqhf ond eosy pofh or I foII on o
¡unqIe pofh .... I om nof definife fhof I con see fhe Feef.

In onofher sfonzo of fhe some poem he soys:

"I come fo know o IiffIe of fhe Donce performed by fhe Lord of
8Iiss of Chidomborom. ShoII I sfiII hove fhe fuII view of if7"

If wos poinfed ouf eorIier fhof in fhe process of reoIizinq his own
seIf he wos shown fhe HoIy Feef ond Heod of fhe Lord. He wishes fo hove
fhe some experience repeofed. Such recurrence is considered by fhe
soinf os indispensobIe for hiqher experience.

Even fhouqh fhe soinf, durinq his experience of his seIf, feIf fhe
dissoIufion of his mind focuIfy, if did nof dissoIve enfireIy fiII fuII spirifuoI
mofurify hod been offoined. In one of his poems which pIeod fo fhe Lord
fo remove his deIusions fhrouqh hiqher experience, he soys fhof his mind,
heId oporf, probobIy of fhe woke of his seIf-reoIizofion, come oqoin fo him
ond misIed him. Even fhen he did nof diverf his oim from fhe Lord fo
ofher ob¡ecfs.

"When fhis sfoqe in fhe hiqher experience comes off, more
firmness in seIf-reoIizofion is possibIe," soys fhe soinf.

UnfiI fhis sfofe comes, fhe voqories of fhe mind wouId confinue. So
he qrows coufious fo know whefher his 'seIf-reoIizofion' wouId be perfecf
ond resuIf in fhe reoIizofion of fhe qroce whereby fhe permonenf process
of subIimofion of mind wouId come fo poss.

He feeIs fhof fhere were mony sub¡ecfive hindronces in his pofh fo
fhe hiqher reoIizofion. The qreofesf hindronce he visuoIized wos his
inodequofe ond disfurbinq compossion for sufferinq feIIow-beinqs. He
oddresses fhe Lord fhus on fhis poinf:


"O my Ieoder, proised ond worshipped by oII Ieodersl Even fodoy, my
mind, my sfobiIizinq wisdom ond myseIf ore hovinq our dufies performed in
ferms of sympofhy for feIIow-beinqs. Whof shoII I do7 My Iife is none
ofher fhon fhis sympofhy. The one is nof cIeorIy disfincf from fhe ofher
of oII. If fhis sfobiIizinq sympofhy qoes off how con I Iive7 My Iife ifseIf
wiII qo off wifh if. This is cIeor fo your Divine comprehension."

PeoIizinq fhof 0od hos oIreody immorfoIized him, fhe soinf finds if
difficuIf fo reconciIe fhis immorfoIify wifh fhe inferrupfion of hiqher
experience. The focf fhof one is immorfoI by fhe qroce of 0od qoes iII
foqefher wifh fhe focf of serious sufferinqs owinq fo one's inodequofe
ond disfurbinq sympofhy. So he demonds of fhe Lord fhof He shouId bIess
him wifh odequofe sfobiIizinq sympofhy or divine compossion in order fo
reconciIe his immorfoIify wifh undisfurbed bIiss. For immorfoIify wifhouf
divine experience¬hiqher IeveIs of experience¬is empfy. This is reveoIed
in one of fhe sfonzos of fhe fomous poem, enfifIed "An infense oppeoI
from fhe son of 0od". The soinf oddresses 0od in fhe foIIowinq ferms:

"O Lord, I oIwoys fhink of your commond oIone: I fry fo fuIfiI if in
order fo immorfoIize myseIf by meons of sfobiIizinq compossion for oII
souIs. 8uf fhe weokness of my mind ond body mokes if impossibIe for me
fo fuIfiI your commond. This poins me mosf."

8uf how fo offoin fhe sfobiIizinq compossion7 The soinf pIeods fo
fhe Lord fo qive him fhe necfor of His qroce. EIsewhere he menfions fhis
necfor os fhe 'necfor of qroce in fhe moon' ond he requesfs fhe Lord 'fo
open fhe door' fo enobIe him fo drink if. Whof do fhe ferm, 'moon' ond fhe
phrose, 'openinq fhe door' siqnify7 Lef us probe info fhe soinf's
references fo fhese in order fo know fheir siqnificonce. Firsf obouf "fhe
openinq of fhe door".

(I) One of fhe musicoI composifions of fhe soinf conveys fhe

"There ore soinfs who see fhe Iock of fhe eye-brows ond fhe cIosed
door on which fhe Iock is fixed: who wifhouf qeffinq desperofe,
open fhe Iock ond fhe door, drink fhe necfor ovoiIobIe fhere ond
fhereby esfobIish fhe qroce-Liqhf in fhe very cenfer of fheir

(Z) One of his precepfs is os foIIows:

"If fhe Liqhf of qroce is nof Iif in our body which is fhe house of
our spirif, (souI or 'seIf'), fhe dorkness of iqnoronce wiII qofher
fhere ond fhe Iife of our spirif in fhis body wiII come fo on end very

"So, if is qood fhof we qef fhe cenfroI eye of our fempIe opened
wifh fhe bIessinqs of o spirifuoI quide. For, one who qefs his cenfroI eye
opened wiII hove oII hiqher experience os if hovinq fhem in brood doy Iiqhf.
He is o pure soinf. If he cosfs his eye upon o corpse, wifh compossion, if
wiII reqoin Iife. If he qefs provoked by ony one his eye wiII bum him. To
open fhis eye fhere ore o door ond o Iock. One shouId open fhe Iock wifh
fhe key of qroce, disfincfIy sfyIed os qreof compossion for oII souIs. When
we become fhe embodimenf of compossion we con hove fhe obove

From fhese references we Ieorn fhof fhe phrose 'openinq fhe door'
meons fhe openinq of fhe fempIe of our foreheod, i.e. foppinq fhe sources
of fhe more essenfioI kind of consciousness, more subfIe fhon fhof which
funcfioned durinq fhe reoIizofion of `seIf'. This foppinq is possibIe onIy fo
fhose who ore bIessed wifh qreof compossion. This foppinq is bound fo
reveoI fhe `inner Iiqhf', fhe form of fhe Lord, ond enobIe fhe souI fo come
info cIose confocf wifh if. This union wouId moke fhe souI on embodimenf
of compossion. This is cerfoinIy o deveIopmenf in fhe souI, since, from
beinq in possession of qreof compossion, if qrows fo be on embodimenf of
compossion. So fhe `inner Iiqhf' fhof effecfs fhis qrowfh is coIIed by fhe
soinf 'qroce-Liqhf'. This compossion-divine, wiII in ifs furn enobIe fhe souI
fo hove more of divine experiences of fhe qroce-Liqhf, fhereby eorninq
more wisdom obouf fhe hiqher reoIms. In ofher words fhe compossion-
divine ond fhe experience of qroce-Liqhf qrow foqefher, eoch heIpinq fhe
ofher. This focf con be Ieornf from o cross sfudy of fhe references mode
by fhe soinf.

(I) In fhe poem enfifIed, `An infense oppeoI from fhe Son of
0od' he exhibifs very cIeorIy his ordenf wish fo reIieve his
feIIow-beinqs of fheir monifoId sufferinqs. In order fo do if
perfecfIy ond wifhouf even o finqe of `eqofism' which wouId
spoiI his mind ond wouId couse sufferinqs, he owoifs fhe
recurrence of fhe vision of fhe Inner Liqhf ond his souI's
communion wifh if. The remembronce of his previous

experience wos fresh in him. As poinfed ouf obove, he
expecfed every minufe fo hove if oqoin. He furfher sfofes
very cIeorIy in fhis poem fhof he couId nof beor fhe siqhf of
sufferinq souIs ond fhof fhey fiIIed him wifh uffer feor ond
serious concern. 8uf he does nof covef onyfhinq for himseIf:
nor does he feor onyfhinq. AII his concern is obouf fhe reIief
of fhe souIs from fheir sufferinqs. He enfreofs 0od's qroce
fo enobIe him fo render seIfIess service fo his feIIow men in
removinq fheir sufferinqs. He does nof wish fo confine
himseIf in ony woy in fhe service of his feIIow-men. He
sincereIy feeIs fhof he shouId render Iovinq service fo oII
souIs of fhe whoIe universe fhereby hoIIowinq fhe Lord's
qroce. He qoes fo fhe exfenf of wishinq fo be obIe fo roise
fhe deod ond moke fhem devofees of fhe Lord. He wishes fo
do posifive qood fo souIs of ony cosf. He wishes fhof oII
fhose who opprooch him shouId receive sweefness ond
deIiqhf fhrouqh his services. For occompIishinq oII fhese rore
powers he enfreofs fhe Lord fo qive him fhe experience of
fhe qroce-Liqhf.

(Z) He feIf fhof Iovinq service fo sufferinq souIs wouId in ifs
furn reveoI his Lord more cIoseIy ond if wouId enobIe him fo
en¡oy fhe bIiss of fhe Lord wifhouf inferrupfion of ony sorf.

(3) The sense of eqo wos sfiII fhere in him. 8y ifs infIuence he
feIf fhof his services fo fhe souIs were in voin. For he couId
nof render fhem deeminq himseIf doinq fhe Lord's work.
Hence he occuses himseIf of wosfinq his doys wifhouf doinq
compossionofe service. In focf he does nof wonf fo wosfe his
fime. He impIores fhe Lord fo roof ouf his sense of eqofism
by qivinq him fhe experience of fhe qroce-Liqhf, oIso known
os `fhe necfor of qroce'.

The cross references cifed hifherfo show cIeorIy fhof fhe soinf
hod known fhof compossion ond fhe experience of qroce-Liqhf qrow
foqefher, eoch heIpinq fhe ofher. In order fo offoin sfobiIizinq
compossion he pIeoded fo fhe Lord fo qive him firsf fhe experience of fhe

If is seen from one of fhe soinf's oppeoIs for fhe reoIizofion of fhe
qroce-Liqhf fhof fhe Lord inwordIy informed him fhof He wouId `orrive'

of o cerfoin momenf. This momenf is fhe fime of mofurify of every souI in
qeneroI on fhe spirifuoI pIone. The soinf beinq owore of his neorness fo
fhof momenf fhus qives expression fo his oworeness. He feIf on o cerfoin
doy fhof fhe porficuIor momenf hod come. Hovinq no experience os
expecfed he oppeoIed fo fhe Lord fhrouqh heorfrendinq poems. Some of
fhem moy be quofed here:

(I) "My fofher, whof ovoiIs if fhof I impIore you repeofedIy7
Come fhis momenf ond remove oII my feors ond sufferinqs
ond fuIfiI oII my wishes. Ofherwise I wiII end my Iife".

(Z) "Amonq oII your devofees cominq info fhis worId qenerofion
offer qenerofion, if is onIy I fhof om sfronded, nof beinq
qiven fo know fhe proper pofh. Is if occepfobIe for your qood
heorf fhof I, o poor creofure, suffer fo fhe ufmosf IeveI7 Is
if proper7 Is if ¡usf7 Is if in conformify wifh virfue7 The
8enevoIenf who donces in fhe cosmosl Am I nof your son7
Are you nof my Fofher7 I connof suffer ony more, seeinq fhe
sufferinqs of my feIIow-souIs. Proy, qive me fhis momenf
your qroce-Liqhf".

(3) "Toke everyfhinq which is mine. 0ive me everyfhinq fhof is

(4) "ShoII I forqef you7 I connof. If I do, I shoII be no more. I
connof exisf even for o momenf wifhouf your memory. WiII
you forqef me7 Whof shoII I do fhen7 Where shoII I qo7 To
whom shoII I express my qrief7 Even if you forqef me, your
qroce wiII sureIy nof forqef me."

From fhese possoqes if is cIeor fhof fhe soinf, knowinq fhrouqh
inspirofion fhe ripe momenf of fhe Lord's `orrivoI,' fhof is, fhe experience
of seeinq fhe fronscendenf Liqhf, feIf if impossibIe fo Iive for o momenf
wifhouf communion wifh fhe Lord. He offered his Iife fo 0od in order fo
qef if fronsformed in 0od.

If con be inferred from one of fhe soinf's poems fhof he kepf
owoke fhrouqhouf o cerfoin niqhf weepinq bifferIy for fhe Lord's
experience. Hovinq no response he soys:

"The doy foo hos downed, my Lord. Cuife unobIe fo beor your
seporofion I om coIIinq confinuousIy unfo Thee, my eyes fuII of
feors. I find no response from Thee. Dosf fhou nof heor me, my
Lord7 I know no ofher refuqe fhon Thee."

This niqhf is IikeIy fo hove been fhe one fo synchronize wifh `fhe
¡uncfure' which he siqnifies in mony of his poems, os fhe ripe momenf for
fhe Lord's orrivoI. For, fhe very some poem which records fhe obove
menfioned pofhefic oppeoI oIso records in ifs Ioffer porf his ocfuoI
experience of fhe Lord in fhe form of fhe qroce-Liqhf ond his reIief from
oII his qrievonces. Mow of fhof experience.

He soys fhof fhe Lord enfered info him ond come info on
inseporobIe confocf wifh him. This meons fhof fhe soinf en¡oyed fhe Lord,
feeIinq Him wifh his body, mind, souI ond infeIIecf. He furfher soys fhof
fhe Lord puf him in fhe crodIe of qreof compossion ond fed him fhe
necfor of Divine qroce: He embroced him, qove him fhe 'oII-performinq
power' ond mode him immorfoI.

If is fhis kind of union wifh fhe Lord fhof he hod Ionqed fo hove.
This exfroordinory qrosp of oII fhe consfifuenf eIemenfs of qroce-
experience reveoIs fhe exfroordinory qroundinq of his previous birfhs. He
hos expressed fhis Ionqinq in one of his souI-sfirrinq oppeoIs for fhe
qroce-Liqhf of fhe Lord. The oppeoI is in fhe form of o poem. He sums up
in fhof poem oII fhof he hos requesfed for so for ond expecfs of fhof
momenf from fhe Lord:

"O fhe foremosf in my mind, fhe Lord of Divine Doncel IindIy open
of fhis momenf fhe door: show fhe qrond qroce-Liqhf: qive me fhe
divine necfor fo drink: enfer info my body, mind, souI ond infeIIecf
ond be fhere for IimifIess fime performinq in me fhe Donce of

This expecfofion ond fhe reoIizofion cifed ¡usf obove show very
cIeorIy fhof fhe `openinq of fhe door' i.e., openinq fhe fempIe in fhe
foreheod, reveoIinq fhe qroce-Liqhf, qivinq fhe divine necfor of qroce ond
fhe 'oII-performinq power' ond fhe embodied immorfoIify ore oII eIemenfs
of fhe `PeoIizofion of 0od's qroce'.

In fhe soinf's PeoIizofion of 0od's qroce one of fhe soIienf poinfs fo
be sfressed is his drinkinq fhe divine necfor of qroce. If wos poinfed

obove fhof for drinkinq fhis he impIored fhe Lord fo `open fhe door'. If is
by drinkinq fhis necfor fhof he expecfed fo offoin sfobiIizinq compossion
ond he oppeoIed occordinqIy fhrouqh fhe poem enfifIed `An infense oppeoI
from fhe Son of 0od'. If is fhe 'oII-performinq power' fhof wouId be qiven
by fhe Lord subsequenfIy wifh which he hoped fo remove oII fhe
sufferinqs of oII fhe souIs. If is wifh fhe sfobiIizinq compossion
perpefuoIIy sprinqinq in his heorf fhrouqh his confinued experience of fhe
qroce-Liqhf of fhe Lord, ond wifh fhe 'oII-performinq power' fhof he
wished fo foke ouf o mission of compossion fo oII fhe counfries in order fo
spreod fhere fhe qreofness of fhe Lord's qroce. In focf, if is his Iife's
mission, os weII os of every evoIved souI.

8efore enferinq info fhe defoiIs of fhe `oII-performinq power' Ief
us probe info fhe soinf's vorious menfions of fhe necfor, bofh before ond
offer offoininq if.
Divine Nectur:

His firsf menfion of fhe divine necfor offer offoininq if hos been
cifed obove. He sfofes fhen fhof fhe Lord puf him in fhe crodIe of qreof
compossion ond qove him fhe divine necfor of qroce. The woy he
disfinquishes befween `compossion' ond `qroce' is fo be corefuIIy nofed
ond is fo be compored wifh fwo of fhe precepfs he Iofer qove fo his
discipIes. Throuqh one of fhem he informed fhem fhof qroce' is fhe
compossion of fhe Lord: mon's sympofhy fowords oII beinqs is coIIed
compossion: ¡usf os one produces qreofer Iiqhf wifh fhe heIp of o smoIIer
one, one shouId offoin fhe qroce of fhe Lord, which is fhe qreofer
compossion, by meons of fhe smoIIer one, nomeIy, humon compossion.

The ofher precepf wos cifed in o foreqoinq poqe. If soys fhof in
order fo Iiqhf fhe qroce-Liqhf in one's body one shouId `open fhe Iock ond
fhe door' of one's fempIe wifh fhe key of qroce coIIed qreof compossion.
This ' qroce' indicofes humon compossion. This, fhe soinf soys, is fhe
nofure of fhe souI. "If one becomes on embodimenf of fhis compossion,"
he confinues, "one con do wonders". If is cIeor from fhe precepfs ond
experiences of fhe soinf fhof by meons of compossion fowords his feIIow-
beinqs (Jeevo-Iorunyom) he deveIoped Iove for 0od. If is fhis Iove fhof
mokes him yeorn for fhe qroce-Liqhf of fhe Lord. AII fhe poems
expressinq his yeorninq for fhe Lord's communion in fhe form of fhe
`Inner Liqhf' show his obidinq Iove for Him. If is fhis Iove fhof mokes his
'Yoqic procfices' successfuI. For 'yoqic procfices' wifh ouf obidinq Iove for

0od prove fo be o foiIure in fhe spirifuoI Iife. They moy be successfuI os
for os rousinq fhe 'serpenf power': buf once if is roused, if shouId be
direcfed fhrouqh fhe spinoI cord ond brouqhf fo fhe fempIe in fhe
foreheod. When fhof power reoches fhe vorious `spofs of experience' in
fhe spinoI coIumn ond fhe fhroof, fhe procfifioner is fiIIed wifh new
enerqy. He is now obIe fo do some obnormoI fhinqs. If he does nof possess
ordenf Iove for 0od, such offoinmenfs fhrouqh `yoqo' wiII be usefuI onIy
for seIfish purposes for o femporory period. 8uf for obidinq Iove, fhe
disosfrous foII of fhe souI is cerfoin, If connof foke him oIonq fhe
spirifuoI pofh ond he wiII nof be obIe fo win fhe qroce of 0od. From fhe
beqinninq fhe soinf wos feeIinq fhof if wos fhe Lord fhof enobIed him fo
procfice `vosi', fhe breofh. So, becouse of his unossoiIobIe Iove, his yoqic
procfices cuIminofed in fhe openinq of fhe fempIe, i.e., os we hove oIreody
expIoined, in fhe foppinq of fhe sources of more essenfioI consciousness
more subfIe fhon fhof which funcfioned of fhe woke of his 'seIf-
reoIizofion'. On `fhe openinq of fhe fempIe' he hod fhe siqhf of fhe Lord's
qroce-Liqhf. Therefore he describes fhis qroce-Liqhf os fhe comphor-
Liqhf which burns in fhe cenfre of fhe fempIe wifhouf even o IiffIe smoke.
He soys furfher fhof fhe siqhf of if wos bIissfuI fo his eyes. He sinqs in
one of his sonqs fhof fhe Lord mode him undersfond fhe sfofe of `yoqo' in
Z4 minufes one eveninq ond qove him fo reoIize fhe fruifs of fhof `yoqo'
fhe nexf morninq. He come info such o cIose confocf wifh fhe qroce-Liqhf
fhof he veriIy idenfified himseIf wifh if.

If is fhis `union' fhof, os cifed obove, is expIoined by fhe soinf os
fhe Lord's enferinq info his body, mind, souI ond infeIIecf. If moy be
remembered fhof we poinfed ouf in fhe foreqoinq sfudy of his 'seIf-
reoIizofion' fhof os o consequence of fhof experience he feIf his oneness
wifh oII ofher souIs. Then if wos onIy o feeIinq. Mow in fhe hiqher
experience of fhe `union wifh fhe Lord' in ferms of `inner Liqhf' (Liqhf
wifhin fhe Liqhf of his own souI) his feeIinq of oneness wifh oII souIs fook
on on odded infensify. He become on embodimenf of compossion. He
himseIf expIoins fhis sfofe os fhe `expression of fhe Lord's qroce
fhrouqh humon souIs.'

If is fo become on embodimenf of compossion fhof he hod yeorned
for. His oppeoIs ore fhus ompIy qronfed. Since fhe experience of fhe Lord
fronsformed him info qroce ifseIf ond since he feIf fo fhe core of his souI
fhof if wos fhrouqh fhe unendinq qroce of fhe Lord fhof He reveoIed
HimseIf fo him, enobIinq him fo hove fhe more essenfioI consciousness fo
perceive fhe reveIofion os fhe Inner-Liqhf, he nomes if `fhe qroce-Liqhf'.

The bIiss he en¡oyed spirifuoIIy of his union wifh fhe qroce-Liqhf is
indicofed by him os fhe divine necfor of qroce. He oIso menfions fhis
necfor os `fhe divine necfor of qroce-Liqhf'. As he offoined fhis union
fhrouqh his compossion fowords souIs ond fhe Lord's qroce he soys fhof
fhe Lord puf him in fhe crodIe of qreof compossion ond qove him fhe
necfor of qroce. Imbibinq fhis necfor, fhe soinf become on embodimenf of
compossion. This offoinmenf reminds us of fhof of soinf Ionnoppor whom
poef Sekkizhor describes os becominq 'on embodimenf of Iove' fhrouqh
fhe qroce-Liqhf of fhe Lord.

The soinf experienced fhe Lord's union wifh his physicoI body oIso.
His hiqher experience hod ifs consummofion in fhe co-ordinofion of his
body wifh his souI in en¡oyinq fhe bIiss of fhe Lord's qroce. The 'openinq
of fhe door', os expIoined obove, wouId indicofe fhe openinq of fhe fempIe
in fhe soinf's body. He soys eIsewhere fhof in fhe fempIe is ovoiIobIe
necfor which wouId be os sweef os fhe suqor condy. If is fhis necfor he
menfions os `fhe necfor of fhe moon'. Whof does fhis 'moon' indicofe7

Treofises on divine union fhrow o fIood of Iiqhf on fhis poinf. One
of fhem soys:

"Since fhe Lord dweIIs in fhe cenfroI porf of fhe heod coIIed 'fhe
sphere of fhe moon' fhe necfor of fhe moon is beinq secrefed fhere
ond if is foIIinq in drops. The effecf of fhis spreods fhrouqhouf fhe
body. If fhis necfor Iikens honey, qhee ond miIk, one who fosfes if
becomes fif fo Iive for o very Ionq fime."

The cenfer of fhe upper porf of fhe 'SuIumunoi nodi' is coIIed 'fhe
moon' ond fherefore fhe fIuid fhof is secrefed fhere in fhe process of
'yoqo' is coIIed by fhe soinf 'fhe necfor of fhe moon'. If is obvious why he
coIIs if 'fhe necfor of infeIIecf'. His oppeoI fo fhe Lord fo enfer info his
body, mind, souI ond infeIIecf hos oIreody been cifed. One of fhe four
consfifuenf eIemenfs of qroce-experience oIreody menfioned is expIoined
here by fhe soinf fo o considerobIe exfenf. Two of fhem hove been
expIoined obove. The ofher is fo be expIoined Iofer. In connecfion wifh
fhese eIemenfs he menfions five spofs where fhe necfor is beinq
experienced by fhe evoIvinq souI. They ore:

(I) fhe necfor ovoiIobIe under fhe fonque, which is Iike fhe
sweef sprinq-wofer,

(Z) fhof ovoiIobIe ¡usf obove fhe inner fonque which hos fhe
sweefness of meIfed suqor condy,

(3) fhof ovoiIobIe in fhe roof of fhe nose, fhe sweefness of
which wiII be Iike boiIed suqor,

(4) fhof ovoiIobIe in fhe cenfer of fhe foreheod os sweef os
weII-boiIed suqor, ond

(b) fhof which is of enormous sweefness ond of briqhf soIid

Of fhese fhe fourfh hos been hifherfo discussed. The firsf fhree
kinds of necfor miqhf hove probobIy been offoined by fhe soinf in fhree
successive sfoqes of his reoIizofion of his own seIf. He himseIf hos
recorded, in o poem which oppeoIs fo fhe Lord fo qive him fhe sweef
necfor by `openinq fhe door', fhof fhe Lord hod oIreody dissoIved his
sfone-Iike mind ond qiven him fhe necfor. This necfor miqhf hove been one
of fhose fhree menfioned obove. In fhe poem enfifIed, "The verse on
Arufperun¡yofhi" he soys fhof fhe Lord removed his sufferinqs by mokinq
fhe qood necfor sprinq under fhe fonque. There is evidence in fhis poem
fo fhink fhof he menfions fhis insfonce in connecfion wifh his 'seIf-

For fhe fiffh kind of necfor he hos nof specified ony porf of fhe
body. We con infer by fhe order of his menfion of fhese five kinds of
necfor fhof fhe fiffh kind is bound fo be permeofinq fhrouqhouf fhe
body. This con oIso be inferred from fhe focf fhof whiIe 'Sivo Yoqo
Sorom' soys fhof fhe necfor of fhe foreheod wouId enobIe one fo Iive for
o very Ionq fime, fhe soinf soys fhof fhe drinkinq of fhe fiffh kind of
necfor wouId moke one offoin embodied immorfoIify. We moy foke if fhof
fhe fourfh necfor menfioned by fhe soinf wiII besfow Ionqevify ond fhe
fiffh one feIf fhrouqhouf fhe body wiII qive embodied immorfoIify. So
much for fhe soinf's offoinmenf of fhe necfor. If shouId be borne in mind
fhof cominq in confocf wifh fhe qroce-Liqhf ond drinkinq fhe necfor ore
fwo ospecfs of PeoIizofion of 0od's qroce experienced by fhe soinf

Throuqh his experience of fhe qroce-Liqhf fhe soinf become
virfuoIIy on embodimenf of compossion ond ocquired fhe necessory 'supro-
humon' powers fo fuIfiI his Ionq-cherished wish. If is fo be sfressed fhof

fhis experience mefomorphosed his mind, infeIIecf, souI ond body in such o
woy fhof fhey become medio for fhe Divine wiII fo funcfion in fhis worId.
Hence oII fhese reveIofions ond ocquisifion of supro-humon powers. If con
modesfIy be soid fhof fhe ferm 'occuIf powers' does nof ond connof ex-
ocfIy express whof fhe soinf ocquired fhrouqh becominq o medium for fhe
Divine WiII. He decIored fhof oII fhese deeds were fhe Lord's. He
decIored Iofer fhof oII his words were 'fhe Lord's.
Identificution With Sod:

The mosf imporfonf focfor of fhe experience of fhe qroce-Liqhf is
fhe soinf's feeIinq of his idenfificofion wifh fhe Lord. In fhe bIiss
consequenf on fhis experience he sinqs fhof fhe Lord mode him one wifh
himseIf. He repeofs fhis in fhe some sonq in onofher form:

"I become fhof".

In onofher poem he soys fhof fhe Lord subIimofed him info divinify.

This senfence seems fo qive o brief expIonofion fo fhe fomous
socred scripfuroI sfofemenf Tof-fvom-osi. He furfher sinqs in onofher

"If becomes myseIf: I become fhof. Thus I om in fhe 'Advoifo'

In yef onofher sonq he soys:

"My Lord, fodoy you hove shown yourseIf fo be wifhin me ond me fo
be wifhin you ond fhus removed my sufferinq ond done me qood."

In one of his poems he describes how fhe Iord, merqinq in his body,
bones, heorf, Iove, compossion, souI ond infeIIecf mokes fhe whoIe of him
os HimseIf, fhus becominq fhe sweefesf experience for him. This omounfs
fo fhe soinf's Iosinq fhe seIf-conscious sfofe.

The focf fhof he frequenfIy hod fhe experience of union wifh fhe
Lord bofh wifhin ond wifhouf is sfofed by himseIf, ond his urqe fo
expofiofe on his four-foId experience of fhe Lord wifh his body, mind,
souI ond infeIIecf brouqhf ouf fhe ufmosf poeficoI skiII in him ond fhus
qushed ouf Iorqe sfreoms of poefry, fhe sweefesf in oII TomiI Iiferofure.


One such sfreom is fhe poem enfifIed, "The wreofh on qroce-
experience". In mony of ifs sfonzos if describes in nupfioI ferms his four-
foId experience. The firsf sfonzo ifseIf is on exompIe in poinf. In fhof
sfonzo he oddresses 0od os fhe husbond, who hos permeofed his mind, os
his infeIIecf, os his souI ond os his sweef kinsmon. Anofher Ionq poem,
`Arufperun¡yofi AkovoI' oIso qives expression in defoiI fo fhe sfofes which
his body sponfoneousIy ond insfonfoneousIy possed fhrouqh whiIe he
experienced fhe Lord's qroce-Liqhf. FirsfIy, Ief us Ieorn obouf his
experience of fhe Lord fhrouqh his senses.

We Ieorn from fhe soinf himseIf fhof he hod physicoI union wifh
fhe Lord ond fhe bIiss fhereof. If is definife fhof by fhis he does nof
meon his firsf experience of fhe qroce-Liqhf, buf ifs deveIopmenf. His
experience of fhe Liqhf were perhops so frequenf fhof he beqon fo feeI
fhe Lord's presence wifh oII his senses oIso. This experience is indeed
rore, ond he is himseIf wonder-sfruck of fhis. He osks fhe Lord whefher
if wos nof enouqh for him fhof He hod enfered his mind ond vouchsofed
fhe necfor of qroce. Why is if fhof He oIso enfered his body7 Hence fhe
soinf's reIofions wifh fhe Lord os His 8eIoved proved fo be frue physicoIIy
oIso. The Lord's siqhf wos fo him whof fhe siqhf of o shode-qivinq free is
fo o fired froveIer. The bIiss of fhe union wifh fhe Lord wos nof onIy Iike
fhe so¡ourn under fhe free buf oIso Iike eofinq ifs ripe fruifs, ond drinkinq
fhe sweef wofer of o runninq sfreom, fhus qrofifyinq his sense of fosfe os
weII os hunqer. He feIf in fhe Lord o sweef froqronce Iike fhof of o fIower
fhof hos bIossomed in fhe sfreom. The Lord's deIicofe fouch wos fo him
Iike fhe fouch of o qenfIe breeze. The Lord wos fo him o very sweef soIid
piece of suqor which remoined for ever undissoIved on his fonque. He wos
Iike fhe necfor which never creofed disfosfe by sofiofion. Durinq fhe
embroce of fhe Lord he feIf on His Divine 8ody fhe froqronce of
comphor. In fhof Divine union fhe whoIe of his body underwenf o process
of rodicoI chonqe which invoIved fhe meIIowinq of his skin, fhe meIfinq of
fhe surroundinq nerves ond bones, fhe disenfonqIemenf of his muscIes,
fhe soIidifyinq of fhe bIood ond semen, fhe bIossominq of fhe broin ond
fhe puIsofion of new fIow of necfor fhrouqhouf his body. These inner
chonqes hod fheir consequenf oufword counferporfs such os perspirofion,
in fhe foreheod, o new qIow on fhe foce, fronquiI breofhinq, o conceoIed
smiIe, fhe hoirs sfondinq on end, o sfeody fIow of feors, fhe moufh
producinq queer sounds, fhe eors becominq deof, cooIness oII over fhe
body, movemenf of fhe honds ¡usf os in soIufofion ond movemenf of fhe
Ieqs ¡usf os in o circumombuIofinq. Perhops fhis rodicoI chonqe wos fhe

preIiminory fo fhe fronsfiqurofion of his body info o qoIden one. More of
fhis Iofer.

Lef us now qive one cifofion from fhe poem enfifIed 'The wreofh on
qroce-experience' for subsfonfiofinq his sfofemenf fhof he experienced
fhe Lord wifh his mind. He oddresses fhe Lord os fhe unique fruif of
qroce which ripened in fhe spoce beyond fhe 'divine one' wifh quoIifies
unknown in worIdIy fruifs ond come wifhin fhe reoch of his mind, Ieovinq
behind o very sweef impression. If is fhe bIiss consequenf on fhis
experience fhof he indicofes os `fhe necfor of qroce'.

As reqords fhe infeIIecfuoI side of his experience of fhe Lord we
con cife his oddressinq fhe Lord os fhe 'Inifiofor-wokefuI consciousness'.
This beIonqs fo fhe more essenfioI fype of consciousness, by meons of
which he hod fhe percepfion of fhe qroce-Liqhf. He soys fhof before
qeffinq fhis 'inifiofor-wokefuI consciousness' he ocquired one by one fhe
ofher kinds of consciousness of fhis fype, nomeIy fhe 'inifiofor-wokinq
consciousness', fhe 'inifiofor-dreominq consciousness', ond fhe 'inifiofor-
sIeepinq consciousness'. He soys cIeorIy fhof if wos onIy when he owoke in
fhe 'inifiofor-wokefuI consciousness' fhof he qof fhe Lord's union ond
fhereby qof fhe Iife of fhe 'Somoroso Sonmorqom'. Hence fhe union of fhe
Lord coused infeIIecfuoI bIiss for him, ond he coIIs fhis bIiss, fhe "unique
necfor of wisdom". He eIsewhere oddresses fhe Lord os fhe fruif ripeninq
more ond more in his infeIIecf producinq fhere o sweef fosfe. The nofuroI
consequence wos fhe increose of his wisdom. The chief imporf of his
infeIIecfuoI experience of fhe Lord's union is fhof he qof his infeIIecf
compIefeIy mefomorphosed info compossion fhrouqh fhe Lord's qroce ond
fhof in consequence of fhof deveIopmenf he become fuIIy quoIified fo
propoqofe fhe reIiqion of qroce or fhe reIiqion of unique qreof compossion.

The bIiss he en¡oyed in fhis experience wos fhe consequence of fhe
reoIizofion of "Sivom", fhe Common PeoIify os permeofinq fhe `spoce of
qroce'. This permeofion he indicofes os 'fhe donce in fhe Courf of
InfeIIecf'. Cominq in confocf wifh fhe Lord who performs fhis 'donce' he
feIf os if he himseIf performed fhof donce. Such wos his feeIinq of
oneness (Advoifo) wifh fhe Lord. He soys fhof if is impossibIe fo describe
fhof sfofe of fhe Lord, ond fhof if is fo be onIy reoIized fhrouqh one's
own experience. This is his souI's experience of fhe union wifh fhe Lord.
He however qives expression fo fhe bIiss he en¡oyed os fhe unique
sweefness fhof wos feIf of fhe core of his souI.

The soinf's reoIizofion of 0od's qroce fhus for sfudied occords
compIefeIy wifh whof he hod been foId inwordIy by soinf 0nonosombondor,
his spirifuoI quide. He hos recorded fhis informofion in one sfonzo of fhe
poem dedicofed fo fhis soinf. This sfonzo is so beoufifuIIy composed fhof
if qives in o nuf-sheII whof fhe reoIizofion of qroce is. The meoninq of fhe
sfonzo is os foIIows:

"The reoIizofion of qroce is fhe Lord's fronsforminq your 'seIf' info
His own in fhe fronscendenf spoce ond His reveoIinq HimseIf for
ever wifhin your 'seIf' os fhe indesfrucfibIe, seIf-Iuminous PeoIify,
wifh fhe unique nofure which con never be qiven expression fo".

The foreqoinq sfudy mokes if cIeor fhof fhe soinf reoIized 0od's
qroce in so for os he feIf frequenfIy fhe union of 0od wifh his body, mind,
infeIIecf ond souI, hovinq himseIf been equipped wifh o specioI sef of
consciousness. He wished fo experience ond fhereby know fhe Lord,
himseIf reochinq sfiII hiqher IeveIs of consciousness. "OnIy fhose who
hove reoIized fhe qroce," he soys in fhe poem 'The verse on
Arufperun¡yofi' "con reoIize 0od." Thouqh fhere is no end for hiqher
IeveIs of reoIizinq fhe Lord, fhe Infinife, he wished his Lord wouId Iiff him
up fhrouqh fhe unfroversed IeveIs, 'spoces' os he wouId hove fhem, ond
qive him oII fhe frue wisdom in fhe reoIm of 0od-reoIizofion. If is fo be
nofed here fhof when he wished fhus, he hod oIreody offoined o specioI,
osfroI body which he coIIs 'fhe body of monfro' or 'fhe body of Pronovo'.
More obouf fhis offoinmenf wiII be soid Iofer. Suffice if here fo soy fhof
fhis offoinmenf, which wouId-seem qreof fo on unreoIized souI, wos nof o
fhinq for fhe soinf fo feeI confenfed wifh. Indeed he wos nof concerned
wifh fhe offoinmenf of osfroI bodies Iike fhis. He onIy yeorned for fhe
hiqher experience of fhe Lord ond for fhe consequenf frue wisdom.
Affoinmenf wouId simpIy foIIow fhese.

Throuqh his reoIizofion of qroce he hod oIreody received fhe power
of viewinq fhinqs wifh perfecf wisdom. Mow, he wished fo hove fhe
perfecf wisdom in fuII. He enfreofs fhe Lord fo provide him wifh o `qreof
Iife' in which, wifh hiqher-IeveIs of consciousness he couId come info
uninferrupfed confocf wifh Him fhereby ocquirinq fhe inesfimobIe
freosure of frue wisdom. The immorfoIify he qof, os observed before,
wouId be devoid of ony confenf wifhouf qreof compossion fowords oII
souIs. This compossion, pure ond qreof, shouId increose unfiI if become fhe

unique qreof compossion. This increose wouId be possibIe onIy fhrouqh fhe
confocf fhe soinf now wished fo hove wifh fhe Lord. This rodionf confocf
is coIIed by him Arufperun¡yofi. Then fhe unique qreof compossion in ifs
furn wouId Ieod fo sfiII deeper experience of fhe Arufperun¡yofi. This
cycIe of fhe unique qreof compossion ond fhe hiqhesf PeoIizofion is weII
indicofed in fhe soinf's mosf fomous, off-repeofed, unique `monfro':

"Arufperun¡yofi Tonipperunkorunoi
Tonipperunkorunoi Arufperun¡yofi"

The purporf of fhe firsf Iine of fhis `monfro', fhe Iive-wire of fhe
soinf's newIy-founded universoI reIiqion, is fhof fhe experience of
Arufperun¡yofi mokes fhe souI evoIve wifh fhe unique qreof compossion.
If is onIy on offoininq fhis compossion fhof fhe souI, even fhouqh if hod oI-
reody offoined immorfoIify, couId find o siqnificonce for ifs efernoI Iife. A
Iife wifh fhis qreof meoninq couId be coIIed o qreof Iife. The soinf coIIs
fhis on `ImmorfoI 0reof Life'. If hos been oIreody indicofed fhof he hod
mode his immorfoI Iife meoninqfuI fhrouqh becominq on embodimenf of
compossion which fronsformofion wos effecfed in him by repeofed
experience of 0od's qroce. Mow he hod evoIved fo such o sfofure fhof he
couId nof be confenfed wifh fhe qreof compossion. He conceived of fhe
unique qreof compossion ond yeorned for if. The Lord informed him
inwordIy fhof onIy fhe experience of fhe `Supreme qroce-Liqhf'
(Arufperun¡yofi-fhe inner Iiqhf of fhe qroce-Liqhf) wouId brinq obouf fhis
hiqher fronsformofion. Hence he enfreofs fhe Lord fo qive him fhe 0reof
DeIiverunce und uttuinment:

We hove seen fhof fhrouqh fhe experience of fhe Lord's qroce-
Liqhf, he qof himseIf reIieved from his oqe-Ionq connecfion wifh fhe
source of iqnoronce, "Anovo" os frodifion wouId hove if. This emoncipofion
wouId nof be compIefe if fhe roofs of `Anovom' were Ieff unfouched.
These foo shouId be removed. The soinf describes fhese os `fhe bIock
seo of dorkness'. He requesfs fhe Lord fo heIp him cross fhof seo qivinq
him fhe boof of fhe `Supreme qroce-Liqhf'. He enfreofs Him fo qive him
fhere fhe necfor of fhis superior form of qroce. He coIIs fhis crossinq of
fhe seo os deIiveronce ond fhe drinkinq of fhis necfor of his souI-
experience wifh fhe oII-embrocinq, oII-powerfuI, oII-permeofinq Lord os

Accordinq fo fhe soinf fhe process of froininq fo qef rid of
iqnoronce ond eqo is sfyIed os deIiveronce. This froininq is infended for
sfobiIizinq fhe pofh of fhe souI on ifs onword morch. 8uf redempfion
meons fhe occumuIofed experience in oII sfoqes up fo fhe embodied
immorfoI Iife. The siqnificonf ferm he uses fo indicofe fhe hiqher
offoinmenf is fhe `Supreme qroce-Liqhf'. Anofher siqnificonf ferm of his
fo indicofe fhis is `The Donce in fhe 0oIden dois'. 8y soyinq fhof he hos
offoined fhe Donce in fhe 0oIden dois he meons fhe efernoI Iife of fhe
souI experiencinq fhe bIiss of union wifh fhe Lord, fronscendinq of oII
`spoces' ond equippinq ifseIf wifh fhe hiqhesf consciousness possibIe,
nomeIy `fhof which is beyond fhe 0od-wokefuI sfofe' (Sivo-duriyom). We
moy recoII here fhof he described his experience of fhe qroce-Liqhf os
`fhe Donce in fhe dois of fhe InfeIIecf'. He experienced fhe union wifh
fhe qroce-Liqhf fo such on exfenf fhof he feIf himseIf os performinq
`fhe Donce in fhe dois of fhe infeIIecf'. Mow he wished fo hove o simiIor
union wifh fhe `Supreme qroce-Liqhf'. He enfreofs fhe Lord fo enobIe him
fo see His HoIy Feef, fo sinq in proise of if wifh obidinq Iove, fo become
Iove-embodied bofh physicoIIy ond spirifuoIIy ond fo donce in divine mirfh.
We moy oqoin recoII here fhof in his 'seIf-reoIizofion' he qof fhe inifiofion
info spirifuoI reoIms performed for him by fhe Lord himseIf by pIocinq His
HoIy Feef on his heod. In his PeoIizofion of fhe 0roce he feIf himseIf one
wifh fhe HoIy Feef. Mow he expresses in souI-sfirrinq poems his ordenf
wish fo be ever in union wifh Them. One of fhese poems is specioIIy
nofeworfhy, for if records fhe focf fhof he fook refuqe in fhe Lord in
order fo hove fhis efernoI experience. One of fhe sfonzos of fhe poem
runs os foIIows:

"O my kinq, my Lord, my mofher, my fofher, oII in one, you removed
oII fhe inner veiIs, fhereby brinqinq me fo fhe percepfion of fhinqs
unknown fo me so for ond qove me fhe qreof experience in fhe
`qreof infeIIecfuoI spoce of 0roce' which coused me bIiss. I foke
refuqe in you".

In onofher sfonzo of fhe some poem he sfofes fhof he fokes
refuqe in fhe Lord who fuIfiIIed oII his wishes by qronfinq him fhe 'oII-
performinq power' fhrouqh fhe experience of His 0roce. One connof buf
feeI owe ond reverence fhof even offer ochievinq fhe union of fhe Lord so
infenseIy os fo feeI himseIf one wifh Him ond fhereby offoininq very rore
superhumon powers, fhe soinf couId conceive of sfiII hiqher IeveIs of
experience of fhe Infinife, feeIinq fhof whof he hod offoined wos onIy
porfioI deIiveronce from fhe 'ever-occomponyinq source of iqnoronce'

(Anovom). He nof onIy conceived of fhem, buf oIso reoIized fhem. The
more sfrikinq focfor of his experience is fhof he hos recorded if in defoiI.
The hiqhest e×perience:

Mow for his impressions of fhis experience. We hove seen in fhe
foreqoinq sfudy fhof he rose fo fhe `spoce' coIIed `divininq spoce' ond
offoined powers Iike fhose of creofion, profecfion ond desfrucfion of
deIusive forms. In his hiqhesf experience he offoined fo fhe percepfion
of fhe 'Supreme qroce-Liqhf' before which fhe qroce-Liqhf he hod
reoIized in fhe 'divininq spoce' wos Iike o mere ofom. When he perceived
fhere wos enormous Liqhf. If enfered info his heorf ond sfoyed fhere.
Hence he indicofes fhof Liqhf os fhe Liqhf wifhin fhe Inner Liqhf. Here
fhe firsf inner Iiqhf is fhe qroce-Liqhf. He become unifed wifh if heorf
ond souI, en¡oyinq fhe inexpressibIe buf frue, perfecf, supreme bIiss.
Thouqh he soys fhof he Iooked on fhe Supreme wifh his 'eyes' if is nof fhe
ordinory eye fhof he refers fo. If is nof fhe mind's eye eifher. If is fhe
consciousness fhof is more subfIe fhon fhe one which is known os '0od-
wokefuI consciousness'. If is wifh fhis consciousness fhof he perceived
fhe Lord whom even pure `yoqis' who ore ever in fhe wokefuI
consciousness (Duriyom) ore unobIe fo perceive. 8y fhis if is cIeor fhof he
hod offoined fo fhof which he eIsewhere describes os offoinobIe onIy
offer deIiveronce from fhe eqo.

There were, of course, preIiminory sfoqes of consciousness he
possed fhrouqh before orrivinq finoIIy of fhis consciousness. He describes
fhem in one sfonzo of his poem enfifIed "The wreofh on experience".
Accordinq fo his hobif of dedicofinq of Ieosf one Ionq poem fo express
eoch of his siqnificonf experiences ond offoinmenfs, fhe soinf reserves
fhis poem for represenfinq in ferms of nupfioI Iove his hiqhesf experience
of fhe Supreme. The preIiminory sfoqes of consciousness beIonq fo fhe
some sef. They ore, I) 0od-wokinq consciousness, Z) 0od-dreominq
consciousness, 3) 0od-sIeepinq consciousness ond 4) 0od-wokefuI
consciousness (See Appendix Mo. o). In o few of fhe sfonzos of fhe soid
poem he beoufifuIIy sefs forfh some of his preIiminory experiences. In
fhe firsf he soys fhof mosf of fhe fime he remoins wokefuI. AII fhis fime
fhe Lord is in communion wifh him ond mokes him unconscious of fhe ever-
movinq cycIe of niqhfs ond doys. This sfofe of his is whof we ore fo
undersfond os his experience wifh 0od-wokefuI consciousness. In fhe
some sfonzo, he occepfs fhof somefimes he foIIs osIeep buf even fhen he

dreoms of fhe Lord's union. This sfofe con be coIIed fhe '0od-dreominq

In onofher sfonzo of fhe poem he himseIf indicofes fhof fhe
momenf when he embroces fhe Lord's shouIders shouId be known os '0od-
wokinq consciousness' ond fhis shouId nof be confounded wifh 'Divine-
wokinq consciousness', since fhe Ioffer is incIuded in fhe former. Here we
con remork fhof fhis 'Divine-wokinq consciousness' reIofes fo fhe sfoqe of
'seIf-reoIizofion'. Then he proceeds fo soy fhof his beinq in fhe sfofe of
union wifh fhe Lord shouId be known os '0od-wokefuI consciousness' which
fronscends fhe dreominq ond sIeepinq consciousness of fhe some fype. If
con be sfofed os reIofinq fo fhe sfoqe of fhe reoIizofion of 0od's qroce.
He confinues in fhe nexf sfonzo fhof his en¡oymenf of his union wifh fhe
Lord shouId be known os o unique consciousness which fronscends even
fhe 'wokefuI' kind. In one of fhe Iofer sfonzos he indicofes fhis finoI sfofe
of consciousness os "Sivo-duriyodeefom".

From fhese references we Ieorn fhof fhe soinf offoined fhe
hiqhesf possibIe sfofe of 0od-experience in which he feIf bofh his souI's
horizon ond physicoI beinq compIefeIy fiIIed wifh fhe infinife. We hove
seen oIreody how he hod been freed from fhe source of iqnoronce
(Anovom) ond consequenfIy from fhe sense of eqo. Mow fhrouqh fhis
hiqher experience he wos reIieved of fhe roofs of 'Anovom'. He Iosf even
fhe sense of exisfence of his 'seIf'. His subfIe body wos nowhere fo be
feIf. "The consequenf bIiss", he Iofer on remorked "wos beyond
expression". He hod fo resf confenfed wifh soyinq fhof fhe very
remembronce of fhof bIissfuI experience coused him enormous bIiss
en¡oyinq which he forqof himseIf. In onofher poem he soys fhof when he
hod fhis experience he couId nof know whefher if wos fhe Lord who
merqed wifh him or if wos he who merqed wifh fhe Lord. The resuIf wos
fhof bofh of fhem were one.

One of fhe specioI feofures is fhe reoIizofion of fhe souI whiIe if is
sfiII in union wifh fhe Lord, of His IndividuoIify. The ofher specioI feofure
is fhe souI's experiencinq bofh fhe common ond fhe obove specioI feofure
of fhe some fime¬os concurrenf feofures. The spirifuoI bIiss fhe soinf
en¡oyed in fhis hiqhesf experience wos occomponied by o bodiIy bIiss oIso.
He siqnifies fhis, os usuoI, os fhe divine necfor. He soys fhof on drinkinq
fhis necfor he become on embodimenf of Infinife bIiss. He en¡oyed fhis
bIiss oII fhe fime wifhouf foIIinq osIeep even durinq niqhfs. He soys fhof
by 0od's qroce sIeep Ieff him once for oII. This sfofe is whof he coIIs fhe

'Sivo-duriyom' (0od-wokefuI) consciousness. In fhe nexf few sfonzos he
picfures his sfofe of union wifh fhe Lord in which he ond fhe Lord become
`one'. This union is whof he coIIs `fhe `Sivo-duriyodeefom' (beyond 0od-
wokefuI consciousness). If is fhe Iife provided wifh fhis consciousness
fhof he coIIs `fhe qreof Iife'. The soinf soys in fiqurofive ferms os if
speokinq fo o componion, fhof he couId onIy come info communion wifh fhe
Lord buf he couId nof speok obouf His nofure, for He fronscends oII
concepfs. He eIsewhere indicofes fhis fronscendenf sfofe os fhe sfofe of
`Suddho Sonmorqom', which is beyond oII quoIifies, forms, ond feofures.
If doubfIess meons fhe universoI reIiqion which quides fhe peopIe fo
worship ond reoIize fhe Lord in His fronscendenf sfofe, wifhouf whiIinq
owoy fheir fime ond enerqy in fhe meoninqIess differences of nofure,
form, feofure, roce, cosfe ond fomiIy. We con eosiIy see fhof if is his
experience of fhe Lord in fhis sfofe fhof mode him on embodimenf of
unique qreof compossion ond fhereby mode him rise up before fhe moss
ond propoqofe fhe universoI reIiqion.

If con be Ieornf from fhe poem fhof in fhe soinf's Iife his
experience of fhe Supreme qroce-Liqhf recurred mony o fime. His poem,
"The verse on Arufperun¡yofi" oIso menfions mony kinds of necfors fhe
firsf of which is fhe necfor of qroce. These con be foken fo indicofe
recurrences of fhe experience of fhe Supreme qroce-Liqhf eoch of which
miqhf hove been more profound fhon fhe previous one. This becomes cIeor
from fhe focf fhof fhe soinf offer soyinq fhof fhe Lord come info
communion wifh him expresses his expecfofion of his subsequenf orrivoI.
This focf is corroborofed by fhe soinf's reference in fhis reqord fo mony
`spoces', one obove fhe ofher, or one incIudinq fhe ofher. He qives nomes
fo fhe firsf five, ond menfions fhe sixfh wifh on indirecf nome. Then he
proceeds fo soy fhof fhere ore 'spoces' even beyond fhe sixfh which ore
fofoIIy inexpIicobIe ond hence ore coIIed "void" ond "infensive void'. He
coIIs oII fhese wifh o common nome. The very focf fhof oII fhese `spoces'
reIofe fo 0od-reoIizofion ond eoch of fhem is incIuded in fhe nexf "spoce"
shows cIeorIy fhof even fhouqh fhe individuoIify of 0od-reoIizofion is feIf
fo some exfenf ond expressed in mysficoI Ionquoqe, experience of fhe
Lord wiII qo on exfendinq fo ever new IeveIs, mokinq fhe experiencinq souI
en¡oy for ever fhe nofuroI, frue, infeIIecfuoI bIiss, ond in consequence of
fhis experience, fo become omnipresenf Iike fhe Lord ond fo come fo
possess o fenemenf of wisdom ond fo wieId in no fime, very hiqh powers
quife unimoqinobIe for on ordinory morfoI. "If fhe reoIized souIs ore osked
fo describe fheir experience of fhe qrocefuI presence of fhe Supreme
Lord, fhe one nofuroI, uIfimofe PeoIify", fhe soinf remorks, "fhey wouId

simpIy keep quief, sheddinq bIissfuI feors wifh fheir eyes fuII of 0reof
Compossion". The soinf wos one of fhese exoIfed souIs. He menfions his
own dumbfounded sfofe reqordinq his hiqher experience.

The very fhouqhf of fhe Lord's 'orrivoI' wos os sweef fo fhe soinf
every fime os o dish of miIk, qhee, honey ond suqor ond if increosed
momenf by momenf ond of Iosf 'devoured him'. He soys in one of his poems
fhof fhe orrivoI of fhe Lord wos onnounced by o Divine sound ond fhof os
He opprooched His froqronce fiIIed fhe whoIe ofmosphere. This indicofes
fhe reodiness of his 'specioI' consciousness fo perceive fhe Lord. "When
fhe Lord come wifhin his reoch ond fook him in union wifh HimseIf he wos
fiIIed wifh sfobiIizinq infinife bIiss. This union, unIike fhe experience of
fhe qroce, is coIIed by fhe soinf 'inword union'. He hoIds his reoIizofion of
fhe qroce os his oufword union wifh fhe Lord. This former reoIizofion
mode him offoin fhe immorfoI, effuIqenf body whereos fhe 'inword union'
mode him bIiss-embodied, fhe nofure of which is beyond expression.

We Ieornf fhof his 'sonship' fo fhe Lord fook deep roofs fhrouqh
his experience of His 0roce. 8uf fhrouqh fhe sfeps of fhe hiqher
experience he feIf Iove-reIofions wifh his Lord ond finoIIy he come fo
know no difference befween his Lord ond himseIf, i.e., he feIf himseIf
ever one wifh his Lord. He found no difference befween fhe unique qreof
compossion enqendered in him, ond his percepfion of fhe Supreme 0roce-
Liqhf. He did nof feeI himseIf of oII. Hence he qove o new form fo his
unique `monfro' os foIIows:

"Arufperun¡yofi Arufperun¡yofi
Arufperun¡yofi Arufperun¡yofi."

This meons fhe reoIizofion of fhe exisfence of Supreme 0roce-
Liqhf oII over. In ofher words if meons fhe direcf percepfion of, ond
cominq info communion wifh fhe omnipresenf, Supreme 0roce-Liqhf. If
moy be foken fhof fhis experience is indicofed by fhe soinf os fhe `0reof
bIissfuI spoce'. This is fhe finoI poinf of fhe hiqhesf experiences whereos
fhe previous form of fhe monfro nofed before is fhe firsf ond quidinq
Reference to Snunusumbundur:

The soinf's 0od-reoIizofion described hifherfo is found in o nuf-
sheII in o poem dedicofed by him fo soinf 0nonosombondor. Ifs sfonzos

reIofinq fo his previous experiences were cifed ond expIoined in fhe
oppropriofe pIoces. The sfonzo reIofinq fo 0od-PeoIizofion beoufifuIIy
brinqs ouf ifs soIienf poinfs. The meoninq of fhe sfonzo is os foIIows:-

"My hiqhesf ond pure quide, you hove mode me know fhof 0od-
reoIizofion is fhe experience of fhe Omnipresenf in fhe endIess
`spoces' beyond fhe `divininq spoce'. SpirifuoI experiences wouId
firsf reveoI Him os immonenf in oII fhof is creofed, ond os fhe inner
Liqhf of fhe souI experiencinq which fhe souI wouId feeI ifseIf in
possession of fhe Inner Liqhf. Then in fhe hiqher `spoce', fhe souI
wouId experience fhe Lord so infenseIy fhof if wouId feeI one wifh
Him. In sfiII hiqher `spoce' if wouId Iose once for oII ifs individuoIify
(or idenfify) ond feeI ifseIf in fhe Lord. In fhe 'spoce' fhof is even
beyond fhof He wouId seem os oII fhese experiences puf foqefher.
8eyond fhof spoce fhere wouId be nofhinq buf fhe Lord. 0od-
reoIizofion, wifhouf cominq fo on end here, wouId exfend furfher
ond furfher fo reoIize fhe One wifhouf feeIinq fhe reoIizofion¬
fhof is fhe reoIizofion of 'fhe Zero' or fhe meoninqfuI void."


Attuinment of uII-performinq power:

We Ieornf in fhe previous chopfer fhof fhe oII-performinq power
wos offoined by fhe soinf os o resuIf of his reoIizofion of 0od's qroce.
This power is one of fhe bosic ospecfs of qroce-experience, fhe
experience of cominq info communion wifh fhe Inner Liqhf. "When fhe
seIf is in communion wifh o hiqher power, Mofure oufomoficoIIy obeys,
wifhouf sfress ond sfroin, fhe wiII of mon. This efforfIess commond over
Mofure is coIIed `mirocuIous' by fhe uncomprehendinq moferioIisf", wrifes
Swomi Yoqonondo in his oufobioqrophy. "The Iow of mirocIes is operobIe by
ony mon who hos reoIized fhof fhe essence of creofion is Iiqhf" he wrifes
eIsewhere in his book. ExocfIy in conformify wifh fhese sfofemenfs of on
Indion Yoqi of very recenf fimes, fhe soinf offoined supernoI powers os o
resuIf of his reoIizinq fhe 0roce-Liqhf.

The orficIe on `mirocIes' in fhe EncycIopoedio 8rifonnico soys:

"AIfhouqh fhe possibiIify of mirocIes is offen confidenfIy denied,
such denioI resfs on on unproved ossumpfion: since we do nof know
fhe confinuify of nofure so fhorouqhIy os fo be obIe fo decIore fhis
or fhof even is necessoriIy on inferrupfion of if."

If furfher indicofes fhof o divine inifiofive is ossumed in fhe
recoqnifion of fhe possibiIify of mirocIes. AccordinqIy fhe soinf decIores
fhof he feIf wifhin himseIf fhe presence of 0od in fhe form of inner Liqhf
ond fhof He qove him fhe powers fo perform qreof wonders in fhe worId.
This decIorofion mokes if cIeor fhof his offoinmenf of such powers wos o
consfifuenf of fhe reveIofion he hod.

The "probobiIify of mirocIes," confinues fhe orficIe in fhe
EncycIopoedio 8rifonnico, "depends on fhe concepfion we hove of fhe free
reIofion of 0od fo nofure, ond of nofure os fhe odequofe orqon for fhe
fuIfiIImenf of 0od's purposes. If we beIieve in divine reveIofion ond
redempfion fronscendinq fhe course of nofure, mirocIe's os siqns of fhof
divine purpose wiII nof seem improbobIe". The soinf qives o vivid
descripfion in his poem enfifIed, "The wreofh on qroce experience" of his
concepfion of fhe free reIofion of 0od fo nofure ond of nofure os fhe

odequofe orqon for fhe fuIfiIImenf of 0od's purposes. He soys fhof 0od is
immonenf in fhe five qreof eIemenfs, fhof is nofure, ond mokes fhem fo
ocf ond reocf, ond fhof of fhe some fime He is obove nofure ond confroIs

The focf fhof fhe oII-performinq power is o consfifuenf of his
reveIofion is furfher expIoined by fhe soinf who soys fhof he feIf himseIf
in possession of hiqh powers when he hod o profound experience of fhe
Lord's qroce-Liqhf durinq o cerfoin niqhf-fime. He siqnifies fhis cominq
off of o new possession os `fhe Lord qivinq o cerfoin fhinq in his hond'. He
indicofes eIsewhere fhof 'fhe fhinq fhe Lord qove him' wos on offoinmenf
copobIe of wieIdinq mirocuIous powers. This is fhe firsf occosion of his
qroce-experience fhof he feIf fhese powers. On subsequenf occosions of
fhe some experience, synchronizinq wifh fhe ocfive period in his Iife
which morked him ouf os o qreof humonisf of divine order doinq
compossionofe service fo fhe Iives oround him incIudinq humon Iives, he
confinued fo receive hiqher occuIf powers. Compossion ond hiqher
experience of qroce-Liqhf qrew in him, eoch heIpinq fhe ofher. The
experience of offunemenf wifh fhe Lord's wiII brouqhf wifh if fhe
necessory powers he proyed for, in order fo enobIe him fo render service
fo oII souIs in oII worIds. "Innocenf of oII personoI mofives, ond empIoyinq
fhe creofive WiII besfowed on him by fhe Creofor, he reorronqed fhe
Iiqhf-ofom of fhe universe" fo creofe onew onyfhinq he Iiked, fo preserve
in ifs form onyfhinq he Iiked ond fo desfroy onyfhinq fhof coused
sufferinq fo fhe souIs. He fhus qof besfowed on him fhe fhree fomous
powers of creofion, preservofion, ond desfrucfion of deIusive forms for
resf-powers normoIIy possessed onIy by divine forces. He soys fhof
somefimes his supernoI powers surpossed even fhose of fhe divine forces
referred fo ond he wos empowered fo perform oIonq wifh fhe fhree ocfs
referred fo, fhe ocfs of veiIinq ond bIessinq wifh qroce.

Since freofises on Soivo Siddhonfo PhiIosophy offribufe fhese five
ocfs onIy fo fhe Lord, one connof heIp wonderinq of fhe sfofemenfs of fhe
soinf reqordinq his offoinmenf or fhe necessory powers fo do fhese
himseIf. 8uf, "fhe feeIinq is fhe deeper source of reIiqion", os beIieved by
WiIIiom Jomes, "ond phiIosophic ond fheoIoqicoI formuIos ore secondory
producfs, Iike fronsIofions of o fexf info onofher fonque".
reIiqion reporfs" he confinues eIsewhere "oIwoys purporfs fo be o focf of
experience: fhe divine is ocfuoIIy presenf, reIiqion soys, ond befween if
ond ourseIves reIofions of qive ond foke ore ocfuoI. If definife
percepfions of focf Iike fhis connof sfond upon fheir own feef sureIy

obsfrocf reosoninq connof qive fhem fhe supporf fhey ore in need of.
ConcepfuoI processes con cIoss focfs, define fhem, inferpref fhem: buf
fhey do nof produce fhem, nor con fhey reproduce fheir individuoIify.
There is oIwoys o "pIus, o fhisness", which feeIinq oIone con onswer for.
PhiIosophy in fhis sphere is fhus o secondory funcfion, unobIe fo worronf
foifh's verocify......" The soinf's direcf experience of fhe unseen ond his
feeIinq of offoininq cerfoin powers corroborofe whof WiIIiom Jomes hos
expressed in his possoqe. So we need nof fry fo subsfonfiofe fhof
experience wifh fhe formuIos Ioid down by ony schooI of phiIosophy.
Jomes in oII sincerify concIudes, "fhof fhe offempf fo demonsfrofe by
pureIy infeIIecfuoI processes fhe frufh of fhe deIiveronce of direcf
reIiqious experience is obsoIufeIy hopeIess."

The soinf did nof use for ony seIfish desiqn fhese enormous powers
he feeIs fo hove offoined fhrouqh fhe Lord's qroce. He did nof cherish
ony seIfish desire of oII. This is cIeorIy discIosed by him in his fomous
poem, 'An infense oppeoI from fhe son of 0od', his infercession fo fhe
Lord fo qive him fhe power ond sfrenqfh fo serve oII in fheir sufferinqs.
His eornesf proyers were qronfed ond even whiIe he wieIded fhe
"mirocuIous powers" os exempIified in fhe mony sfories obouf his wonder-
workinqs, his whoIe oim wos direcfed fowords fhe Lord. If is onIy becouse
his experience of fhe Lord in fhe form of effuIqenf Liqhf enobIed him fo
become 'on embodimenf of compossion' fhof, he coIIed fhe Lord fhe
'0roce-Liqhf'. How couId if be wifhin fhe possibiIify of such, o
compossionofe souI fo cherish ony seIfish wish. He soys fhof he does nof
feiqn fo hove offoined fhese powers ouf of on insfincf for seIf-proise buf
fhof he reoIIy qof fhem ouf of his devofion fo fhe Lord. The worIdIy hod
no offrocfion for him. The onIy fhinq he wished for wos fo hoIIow fhe
nome of fhe Lord fhrouqh service fo oII souIs. He sincereIy wished oII
humonify fo qef rid of oII sorfs of vioIence, fo foIIow fhe pofh of Iove ond
fo Iive hoppiIy for ever. He wished fo render his service fo humon beinqs
in mokinq fhem undersfond onoI reoIize fhe qroce of fhe Lord. Hence when
he wos empowered fo perform onyfhinq he Iiked, he consfrued fhof he
wos fo ruIe fhe worId wifh fhe qroce-Liqhf. He qives vorious descripfions
of differenf sfoqes of fhis experience.

(I) He soys in one poem fhof fhe Lord ossured him oufhorifofiveIy
fhof he wouId qive him fhe `Iody of qroce-offoinmenf' in
morrioqe wifhin one hour.

In onofher poem he soys fhof fhe Lord kepf his promise.


(Z) In fhe poem enfifIed, 'The verse on Arufperun¡yofi' he sfofes
fhof fhe Lord, his Fofher, crowned him os fhe kinq of fhe
kinqdom of qroce which knows no end.

(3) In fhe some poem he decIores fhof fhe Lord qove him fhe
scepfre of 0roce ond ordoined fhof he shouId ruIe fhe worId.

The Iosf fwo show bofh fhe vosfness of his ombifion for
compossionofe service ond fhe enormify of fhe supernoI powers he
offoined in order fo fuIfiI his ombifion. The focf fhof he rendered
proIonqed ond infensive service fo humonify is deduced from his menfion
of fhe fime of his 0od-reoIizofion fhof fhe Lord qove him fhe scepfre of
fhe Supreme 0roce-Liqhf which wouId never perish. Whof ore fhe
supernoI powers he offoined7

If is Ieornf from his works fhof he wos besfowed wifh fhree
cofeqories of supernoI powers. They ore, I) powers of ocfion (Iormo-
siddhi), Z) powers of offunemenf fhrouqh concenfrofion (Yoqo siddhi), ond
3) powers of wisdom (0nono siddhi).
Powers of uction:

One of fhese powers of ocfion is fo qef one's copobiIify exfended
fo reoch everyfhinq efernoI everywhere. There ore insfonces in fhe
soinf's recorded Iife-hisfories which reIofe his simuIfoneous oppeoronce in
fwo pIoces. One of fhem con be reIofed here:

Af fhe fime of fhe compIefion of fhe `HoII of wisdom for fhe
universoI worship' of VodoIur, o Ionq posf wos required fo be used os fhe
fIoq-sfoff. The soinf senf fhe confrocfor fo Modros fo purchose if. He
wenf ond refurned compIoininq fhof fhe price wos foo hiqh. The soinf
osked him fo qo oqoin, feIIinq him fhof he wouId foIIow. When fhe
confrocfor reoched fhe fimber merchonf of Modros he sow fo his
surprise fhe soinf sfondinq on fhe very posf for which he hod borqoined
some doys bock. Affer fhe purchose wos over fhe soinf osked him fo send
fhe posf fo VodoIur ond qo fhere. On his orrivoI of fhe hermifoqe of
Meffukkuppom fhe confrocfor found fhe soinf fhere. When he foId fhe
devofees fhere obouf fhe doy ond fime of fhe soinf's presence of Modros
fhey sfofed fhof on fhof very doy ond of fhof very fime he wos deIiverinq
Iecfures of Meffukkuppom.


The soinf's powers of qoinq onywhere in fhe universe, ond of
fronsmiqrofion ore referred fo by himseIf in one of his poems.
Powers of Concentrution:

As for powers of concenfrofion, fhe soinf reIofes in o poem enfifIed
`InexhousfibIe 8Iiss' fhof his powers of concenfrofion ore reoIIy
inexhousfibIe. To iIIusfrofe, fhe dismembermenf of his body ond fhe re-
union of fhe dismembered porfs moy be cifed:

"One doy obouf noon, fhe Swomi¡i wenf ouf of fhe DhormosoIo ond
did nof furn up for on unusuoIIy Ionq fime. One, VeIIore Shonmuqom PiIIoy,
qrowinq impofienf of fhe Swomi¡i's obsence, wenf ouf in seorch of him ond
wos shocked of fhe qruesome siqhf of his body dismembered ond cosf
scoffered in on ouf-of-fhe-woy IocoIify. The Swomi¡i immediofeIy puf in
his oppeoronce before him ond worned him nof fo disfurb him ony more
Iike fhof in fufure."

The ofher iIIusfrofions moy be his sub¡uqofion of wofer ond fire,
his feedinq o Iorqe number of quesfs of fhe 'Soncfuory for efernoI
service' wifh on incredibIy smoII quonfify of food, his furninq mercury info
o beod, his woIkinq on prickIy peor ond pickinq of Iive chorcooI ond his
demonsfrofions in AIchemy. These ore norrofed in fhe soinf's Iife-hisfory
wriffen by T. V. 0ovindoro¡uIu Cheffy.
Wifhouf fhe obove-quofed
infernoI evidence of fhe soinf fhof his powers of concenfrofion were
reoIIy inexhousfibIe, fhese insfonces moy seem mere concocfions.

Describinq fhe powers of fhe soinfs who offoined fronsfiqured
bodies, fhe soinf soys fhof fhey ore copobIe of seeinq from fheir pIoce
onyfhinq onywhere in fhe universe. Thof is, fheir siqhf is nof obsfrucfed
by spoce ond fhe ob¡ecfs in spoce. An incidenf reIofed in his Iife-hisfories
in connecfion wifh fhe consfrucfion of fhe HoII of Wisdom for universoI
worship of VodoIur shows fhof fhe soinf possessed fhis power. If is soid
fhof offer qivinq insfrucfions for fhe consfrucfion of fhe hoII, he refired
fo his hermifoqe of Meffukkuppom. He did nof furn up fiII offer fhe cons-
frucfion wos neorIy over. When fhe supervisors wenf fo Meffukkuppom he
poinfed ouf cerfoin errors in fhe buiIdinq ond hod fhem correcfed. If is fo
be inferred fhof, remoininq in fhe hermifoqe ifseIf, he hod been copobIe
of seeinq fhe buiIdinq of VodoIur.

Powers of Wisdom:

As for powers of wisdom, fhe soinf reiferofes in mony of his poems
fhof he wos copobIe of roisinq fhe deod os weII os Iivinq on efernoI Iife. He
sfyIes fhis hiqhesf, disfincf qiff os due fo fhe powers of wisdom,
ofherwise known os fhe `eye of wisdom' in his own words.

Lef us firsf sfudy his references fo his obiIify fo roise fhe deod.

He menfions fhof o perfecf soinf who hos qof his spirifuoI eye
(fempIe in fhe foreheod) opened wiII be obIe fo roise fhe deod by o mere
qIonce. This is offirmed in his poems oIso. There he soys fhof fhose who
hove seen fhe Lord's 0roce-Liqhf, hovinq fhemseIves been Iiffed fo fhe
wokefuI consciousness (probobIy fhe Inifiofor-wokefuI consciousness) wiII
roise fhe deod by o qIonce. He expIoins furfher fhof fhis focf is possibIe
fo fhose who come info communion wifh fhe Lord who is Omnipofenf. Even
fhouqh if is surprisinq fo heor fhe soinf soy fhof fhe deod moy be roised
oqoin, qreof souIs Iike Jesus Chrisf rose oqoin offer fheir deofh. Jesus in
his reveIofion speoks obouf resurrecfion. Periyopuronom, fhe work on fhe
Iife hisfories of TomiI soinfs ond devofees, records insfonces in fhe Iives
of soinf 0nonosombondor, soinf Tirunovukkorosor ond soinf Sundoror of
fheir roisinq fhe deod. Of fhese, fhe firsf qove Iife fo o heop of bones
ond mode o qirI emerqe ouf of fhem. The second qove Iife fo o corpse ond
fhe fhird brouqhf bock o feen-oqed Iod whom o crocodiIe hod swoIIowed
doys before. The Pomoyonom menfions o simiIor insfonce. There fhe
fouch of Pomo fronsformer o sfone-imoqe info o Iody who hod been cursed
by her husbond, o seer, fo become o sfone. MyfhoIoqy preserves in ifs
foId mony simiIor insfonces. The soinf's recenf fesfimony mokes us re-
fhink fhe frufh underIyinq fhis feof which hos been, for Ionq, shrouded in
mysfery, ond hos enfered info fhe foIds of myfhoIoqy.

A record of o more recenf insfonce of roisinq fhe deod is found in
fhe Aufobioqrophy of o Yoqi wriffen by Swomi Yoqonondo. This book
reIofes on incidenf of Sri Lohiri Mohosoyo roisinq o deod mon. Therefore,
fhis rore power connof be iqnored os mere myfh. The soinf repeofedIy
menfions in his poems fhof fhe Lord besfowed on him fhe power of roisinq
fhe deod. Since he ovows emphoficoIIy fhof fhis power is rendered
possibIe by his experience of fhe Supreme 0roce-Liqhf, ond since if is
very cIeor fhof he hod fhe experience of fhe Supreme 0roce-Liqhf, one
connof iqnore os mere foncy his sfofemenf of his offoinmenf of fhis rore
qiff. Of course, fhere is no insfonce, omonq fhe mirocIes reIofed in his

Iife hisfories, of his roisinq fhe deod. 8uf if is proper fo foke his own
words os more oufhorifofive fhon fhe sfories obouf him, becouse mony
such rore evenfs of his Iife miqhf hove been Iosf wifhouf oufhenfic
record. The pourer of roisinq fhe deod wos one of fhe boons he osked for.
If is quife possibIe, os proved by his own words, fhof he wos qronfed such
power. Ouf of sheer sympofhy for fhose who die o premofure deofh he
enfreofed fhe Lord fo qive him fhe power fo roise fhem oqoin ond fo moke
fhem His devofees. Sfofemenfs found in his poems offirm fhof he did qef
fhof power.

VeIoyudo MudoIior, fhe chief discipIe of fhe soinf, wrifes in on
orficIe which wos pubIished in I88Z in o moqozine nomed The Modros
Theosophisf fhof fhe soinf whiIe he wos of Modros wos qiffed fo converf
by o mere qIonce o non-veqeforion info o veqeforion. This power wos found
in him even before he hod fhe hiqher experiences of 0od. Therefore if
wiII nof be wronq fo hoId fhof offer he offoined 0od-reoIizofion he wos
probobIy obIe fo converf ofheisfs ond foIIowers of vorious reIiqions info
foIIowers of his universoI reIiqion. He miqhf hove done fhis wifh 'his qIonce
which wos imbued wifh fhe hiqhesf wisdom' ond fhe fuIIesf compossion.
Hence he sfofes in one of his poems fhof he qof fhe `qIonce of wisdom
which couId roise fhe deod'. His sfofemenf fhof fhose who come ond
worship of VodoIur wouId see wonders Iike fhe risinq of fhe deod ond fhof
VodoIur is copobIe of roisinq fhe deod moy be foken fo siqnify fhof on
ordenf devofee of VodoIur wouId `reqoin his Iife' which wouId hove
ofherwise `been Iosf'. Peqoininq one's own Iife wouId be possibIe onIy when
one foIIows fhe pofh of fhe `pure universoI reIiqion', which fhe fempIe of
VodoIur sfonds for.

There is o cIose Iink fhrouqh oII fhe fhree kinds of powers
described hifherfo. Lef us see how. The eiqhf powers of ocfion qive rise
fo fhe powers of offunemenf fhrouqh concenfrofion. If is obvious fhof
concenfrofion is possibIe onIy fhrouqh procfice. The combined effecf of
fhese fwo sefs of powers qives birfh fo fhe powers of wisdom.
Embodied immortuIity:

There ore fhree sfoqes in fhe offoinmenf of embodied immorfoIify.
One is fhe fronsfiqurofion of fhe physicoI fenemenf info fhof of purify.
Anofher is fhe fronsfiqurofion of fhe body info fhof of qoId ond Liqhf.
The finoI one is fhe fronsfiqurofion of fhis body info fhof of wisdom. This
qroduoI fronsfiqurofion of fhe bodies siqnifies fhe embodied immorfoIify

offoined ond expounded by fhe soinf. Lef us now sfudy in defoiI fhis
hiqhesf offoinmenf of his.

He disfinquishes fhis deporfmenf of qeffinq direcf insfrucfion,
inspirofion, ond experience from 0od in fhe course of offoininq embodied
immorfoIify os `fhe orf of deofhIessness'.

Soinf TirumooIor, whom fhe soinf hoIds in hiqh esfeem os fhe
oufhor of fhe besf freofise on spirifuoIism, deoIs wifh fhe sub¡ecf in o
defoiIed monner. He refufes emphoficoIIy fhe exisfence of fhe 0od of
Deofh in fhe cose of ospironfs for communion wifh fhe Lord. He incIudes
omonq such fhe `Yoqis' who uIfimofeIy sfop breofhinq fhrouqh sfeody
procfice. He soys fhof fhe Lord immonenf in fheir souI wiII nof qef ouf of
fheir bodies.

Soinf 0nonosombondor whom fhe soinf hoIds fo be his spirifuoI
quide menfions deofhIessness in his hymns. He soys fhof fhe 0od of Deofh
wiII nof opprooch fhose who worship 0od wifh obidinq Iove. In fwo of his
hymns he mokes if cIeor fhof fhose who defy deofh wiII nof be born oqoin.
Soinf Tirunovukkorosor soys fhof fhe 0od of Deofh wiII seize onIy sinners
ond nof devofees whom fhe Lord qofhers. Soinf Sundoror soys fhof fhe
Lord enobIed him fo defy deofh ond birfh respecfiveIy. Soinf
Arunoqiriyor, whom fhe soinf hoIds os one of fhe qreof souIs who remoin
soved for ever, soys emphoficoIIy fhof since fhe speor of 'Lord Muruqo is
fhere for his heIp fhere is no deofh (o coIomify for ofhers) for him.

The soinf mokes in fhe Znd book of fhe Arufpo o qeneroI menfion
of fhe previous devofees who offoined deofhIessness. He mokes o specioI
menfion of Soinf Monickovosokor's qroduoI offoinmenf of fhe bodies of
Iove, qroce ond bIiss respecfiveIy which siqnify embodied immorfoIify. In
fhe some poem he speoks of fhe soinf os one who offoined fo hiqher
spirifuoI reoIms. Soinf Monickovosokor himseIf reveoIs fhof fhe Lord qove
him fhe body of bIiss ond mode him Iive for ever en¡oyinq fhe bIiss Iike on
eIephonf en¡oyinq suqorcone ond fruifs. He oIso poinfs ouf fhof fhe Lord
effecfed fhis fronsfiqurofion of his physicoI body wifh His qroce. In
order fo express fhe ideo fhof fhe chonqe his body underwenf wos
rodicoI, he symboIizes fhe Lord's qroce os fhe qreof fire ond soys fhof
fhe physicoI bodies of oII fhe devofees¬incIudinq him¬who qofhered
round fhe Lord were surrounded by fhe qreof fire of His 0roce. This
siqnifies fhof fheir physicoI bodies, consequenf on fheir qreof experience
of fhe Lord's qroce-Liqhf, were fronsfiqured info fhose of bIiss. Whof

soinf Monickovosokor indicofes by fhe ferm `fhe qreof fire of qroce' fhe
soinf siqnifies os `fhe qroce-Liqhf'. He soys fhof fhe Lord qove HimseIf fo
him ond fhereby fronsfiqured his body in fhe oIchemy of qroce. This
shows fhe simiIorify of fhe experience of bofh fhe soinfs.

The soinf does nof meon by `deofhIessness' fhe permonence of fhe
physicoI body. He hod known fhe meonness ond fhe fIeefinq nofure of fhis
body riqhf from fhe beqinninq of his spirifuoI coreer: fhof is, from fhe
incidenf of Lord Muruqo's vision which occurred in his ninfh yeor. He sinqs
obouf fhe fIeefinq nofure of fhe body in one fuII poem in fhe Znd book.
He indicofes offen very cIeorIy fhof his body of fIesh wos fronsfiqured
info fhof of Iiqhf. If he hod wished fhe Ionqevify of his physicoI body he
wouId nof hove enfreofed fhe Lord from fhe very beqinninq fo cuf
osunder fhe choin of his birfh which coused him sufferinqs. Affer
offoininq whof he enfreofed for he sinqs fhof fhe Lord qove him fhe pofh
which wouId ovoid his furfher birfhs. His uIfimofe oim wos fo defy birfh,
which, occordinq fo his precepfs, wrifinqs ond Iife, is fo be preceded by
deofhIessness fhrouqh qroduoI fronsfiqurofion of fhe fIeshy body info
fhose of purify, Iiqhf ond wisdom. The imporfonf impIicofion of fhis
offoinmenf is fhe compIefe invisibiIify of fhe fIeshy body. Thof is, fhose
who offoin embodied immorfoIify wiII be obIe fo hide fhemseIves from fhe
siqhf of fhe peopIe wifhouf Ieovinq owoy fheir physicoI fenemenf. Their
offoinmenf incIudes fhe soIvofion of bofh fheir body ond souI. The soinf
cIeorIy removes fhe possibIe doubf obouf fhis sorf of soIvofion by soyinq
fhof fhe Lord of fhe Supreme 0roce-Liqhf roofed ouf fhe doubf
reqordinq his body, fhe doubf whefher fhe body wouId Iie deod or wouId
be fronsfiqured so fhof if miqhf be co-ordinofed wifh fhe inhobifinq souI
in experiencinq fhe hiqher reoIizofion ond uIfimofeIy qef soved from
disinfeqrofion ond deofh.

Thouqh fhis moy seem unbeIievobIe fhere ore indicofions, in fhe
Iives of qreof soinfs of onfiquify for ifs probobiIify. The Iife of soinf
IoroikkoI Ammoiyor found in Periyopuronom beors evidence for fhe
fronsfiqurofion of fhe physicoI body. If is recorded fhof she wos qiven by
fhe Lord o qhosf's body os required by her. As fhere is no indicofion of
her sheddinq her fIeshy body, we moy undersfond fhof her body wos
fronsfiqured info o bony one. We ore furfher informed fhof fhe Lord
qronfed her requesf fhof she shouId be neor His HoIy feef whiIe He
donced. Soinf 0nonosombondor is Ieornf fo hove enfered info fhe 0reof
Liqhf fhof oppeored on fhe occosion of his morrioqe. Soinf
Tirunovukkorosor is nof known fo hove Ieff behind his physicoI coiI. The

Periyopuronom records fhof he qof fhe body of wisdom. He himseIf
decIores fhof fhe body of fhe evoIved souI wiII never be seporofed ond
Ieff behind. Soinf Sundoror is soid fo hove mounfed on eIephonf senf by
fhe Lord ond reoched Him.

The deIiveronce fhof fhese soinfs offoined moy be cIossed os
`embodied immorfoIify'. Soinf Thoyumonovor enumerofes fhree kinds of
offoinmenfs of which fhis embodied immorfoIify is one. Disfinquishinq
fhose who hod obfoined 0od's 0roce from fhose who hod nof, he soys fhof
fhe Ioffer's bodies wiII Iie deod occordinq fo fhe nofuroI Iow fhof, `fhe
creofed wouId perish', whereos fhe former's wiII nof die ond couse fhem
fo be reborn. The bIiss en¡oyed by fhe souIs in fhis 'birfh-ond-deofhIess'
sfofe is ineffobIe. 8uf whof wouId hoppen fo fheir corporoI frome7 He
onswers fhis quesfion eIsewhere in fhe form of onofher quesfion. He osks
fhe Lord whefher fhe bodies of fhe devofees whose souIs merqed in fhe
spoce of 0roce were fronsfiqured info Liqhf. The quesfion obviousIy
impIies on onswer in fhe offirmofive.

In fhe chopfer on fhe soinf's experience, his frequenf sfofes of
merqer wifh fhe Lord were described. As on occrued resuIf of fhose
experiences, ond in conformify wifh fhe sfofemenf of Thoyumonovor, fhe
soinf hod his body dissoIved ond chonqed info fhof of Iiqhf ond finoIIy info
fhof of Wisdom. If is fhis finoI fronsfiqurofion fhof is siqnified by fhe
Iosf incidenf recorded in his Iife-hisfories viz., shuffinq himseIf up in fhe
inner oporfmenf of his hermifoqe of Meffukkuppom. Cuife unobIe fo
conceive of fhe reoI sfofe of offoirs, fhe iII-informed Ioymen concocfed
oII sorfs of sfories obouf his disoppeoronce. Mone of fhese sfories hos
onyfhinq in conformify wifh his experience.

Mow of fhe process of fronsfiqurofion.

The soinf refers fo his embodied immorfoIify os hovinq fhree
differenf ospecfs. They ore: (I) fhe efernoI heod (Z) fhe efernoI oir ond
(3) fhe efernoI wofer. A sfonzo of one of his poems embodies oII fhese
fhree ospecfs in order os frinify of fhe orf of immorfoIify. If soys fhof
fhe Lord showed fhe soinf fhe efernoI heod, ond fhen fhe efernoI oir
which knows no hindronce, fhereby mokinq him fuIIy deservinq fhe
fronsfiqurofion of body. Then wifh fhe efernoI wofer fhof driefh nof He
mode him qef fhe universoI, efernoI sfofe of Iife which is nof wifhin fhe
reoch of even fhe pure-bodied soinfs. Lef us fry fo undersfond, wifh fhe
heIp of oII his references fo fhese fhree ferms, whof exocfIy fhey meon.

In fhe orf of immorfoI Iife, `fo show fhe efernoI heod' is fhe firsf
sfep enobIinq fhe souI fo evoIve. If moy be ossociofed wifh fhe `Livinq
experience' of fhe souI (seIf-reoIizofion). Hence we moy quofe here fhe
informofion we Ieornf from him of fhe fime of his seIf-reoIizofion. He
soys in fhe poem 'Anbu-moIoi' fhof fhe Lord showed him fhe sfofe of
immorfoIify. We hove oIso seen fhof he soys in fhe some poem fhof he wos
formerIy iqnoronf of fhe orf of immorfoIify. Therefore `showinq fhe
efernoI heod', fhe inifiofion info fhe orf of immorfoIify moy be heId fo
hove been performed fo him by fhe Lord of fhe woke of his reoIizofion of
his own seIf.

Whof does fhe ferm `efernoI heod' denofe7 The cIue fo find fhis
ouf is qiven by fhe soinf in fwo siqnificonf poems, enfifIed: `The wreofh
on qroce-experience' ond `0reofness of fhe HoIy Feef'. The Ioffer speoks
of fhe fwo sefs of fhe five eIemenfs, i.e., fhe ordinory five eIemenfs,
nomeIy eorfh, wofer, fire, oir ond efher ond fhe subIimofed eorfh, efc.
The former speoks of fhe subIimofed ones wifh ferms simiIor fo fhose of
fhe frinify of fhe orf of immorfoIify. If menfions fhe Lord os fhe fire
fhof bIozes wifhouf ony noise omonq fhe oir fhof knows no hindronce, ond
os fhe unbroken eorfh which sfonds in fhe wofer fhof driefh nof ond os
fhe fhinq ineffobIe fhof sfonds in fhe qreof 'monfro'. In fhis poem fhe
references of fhe firsf four eIemenfs, ore cIeor. The focf fhof fhe Iosf
eIemenf, nomeIy, 'fhe efher', is menfioned here os 'fhe ineffobIe fhinq'
moy be inferred from o reference in fhe Tirumonfirom of TirumooIor.
Mow if is cIeor fhof nof onIy fhe ferm 'efernoI heod' buf oIso fhe ofhers
of fhe frinify of fhe orf of immorfoIify denofe fhe subIimofed eIemenfs,
fhe eorfh, fhe oir ond fhe wofer respecfiveIy. Mow o quesfion moy orise os
fo why fhe soinf menfions fhese fhree oIone whiIe oII fhe five eIemenfs
qef subIimofed. The onswer is fhis: Of fhe five eIemenfs, 'eorfh', 'wofer',
ond 'oir' ore fhe forms of moffer. These oIone underqo chonqes. The ofher
fwo, 'fire' ond 'efher' (fhe eIecfro-moqnefic wove) ore fhe forms of
enerqy. 8ofh moffer ond enerqy ore fronsmufobIe. So if is scienfific fo
refer fo enerqy in ferms of moffer, ond moffer in ferms of enerqy. Hence
fhe soinf expIoins fhe fhree ospecfs of hiqher moffer (subIimofed ones)
wifh reference fo fhe fwo kinds of enerqies.

If qoes wifhouf soyinq fhof fhe physicoI body is consfifufed of fhe
five eIemenfs. Hence fhe fronsformofion of fhe eIemenfs spoken of by
fhe soinf shouId be foken os fhe chonqed underqone by his body. Whof is
fhe chonqe in his body underqone of fhe inifiofion, i.e., `fhe Lord showinq
fhe efernoI heod7' The soinf himseIf speoks of fhis chonqe in one of his

poems. Thof poem is o requesf fo fhe Lord fo qive him fhe fhree forms
beqinninq wifh `fhe form of purify'. These forms ore nofhinq buf fhe
bodies of purify, of Iiqhf, ond of wisdom. If soys fhof fhe Lord hod
oIreody mode his shrinkobIe body info o bIoominq one. EIsewhere he soys
fhof his shrunken body become o qoIden one. Therefore fhe chonqe of
fhe body info o bIoominq one moy be foken os fhe firsf sfoqe in fhe orf of
immorfoIify. If moy be fhis chonqe fhof is referred by fhe soinf in fhe
phrose, `fhe Lord showinq fhe efernoI heod'. This is fhe conquesf over
fhe nofuroI process of oqinq. `Even fhe oId con become younq', soys fhe
soinf when he exhorfs fhe peopIe fo foIIow his pofh of `Somoroso-

The second ospecf of fhe frinify is fhe efernoI oir. The soinf
refers fo fhis os one fhof knows no hindronce ond os one which does nof
couse burninq. He refers eIsewhere fo fhis burninq os inner burninq. Even
fhouqh we Ieornf obove, fhof he siqnifies by fhe phrose, `efernoI oir', fhe
fronsformed oir, if is nof enouqh fo brinq ouf ifs fuII siqnificonce in fhe
orf of immorfoIify. We hove qof o foirIy Iorqe number of references in
his poems which qo o Ionq woy in heIpinq us know ifs fuII siqnificonce. The
Tirumonfirom of TirumooIor oIso heIps us in fhis reqord. If speoks of fhe
sfoppoqe of fhe ordinory course of respirofion ond of fhe commencemenf
of cufoneous respirofion of fhe hiqher order. If furfher soys fhof fhose
who swifch over fo fhis kind of respirofion wiII nof qef exhousfed ond wiII
nof die. If indicofes fhe power of fhe inexhousfibIe os weII os fhe
unburnobIe `oir in sef ferms. Poefess Avvoiyor mokes if cIeor fhof fhe oir
which is beinq wosfed bofh fhrouqh fhe nosfriIs ond fhe pores of fhe
body musf be preserved by sfoppinq bofh fhe puImonory ond ceIIuIor
respirofion. The soinf oIso seems fo impIy fhis meoninq in fhe ferm
`vekokkoI' (fhe oir fhof burnefh nof). 8y fhe compIefe sfoppoqe of normoI
respirofion, fhe secref source of power beqins fo funcfion by fhe qroce
of 0od. Hiqher bioIoqisfs wrife on fhe possibiIify of oxyqen beinq
produced wifhin fhe body ifseIf.
The siqnificonce of fhis ferm consisfs
in furninq fhe ordinory breofh info o hiqher one in order fo offoin efernoI

The soinf's poems enIiqhfen us furfher on fhe some poinf.
Demondinq efernoI body from fhe Lord, he sfofes in o poem fhof he hos
oIreody been enfhroned on o qoIden dois, hovinq been qiven o `hond' of
firsf ond fhen fwo inexhousfibIe `feef' fo efernoIize him. Whof exocfIy
does he meon by fhe `fwo inexhousfibIe feef7' One of fhe fwo feef is
sfofed by him fo be fhe Iiqhf fhof reveoIs fhe whoIe universe: fhe ofher,

fhe sfofe of experience of reoI bIiss. The sfofe of Iiqhf is oqoin expIoined
in fhe some poem os fhe fwo ospecfs of fhe some poinf. One of fhem is
fhe Iiqhf shed by 'Omkoro': fhere is onofher Iiqhf wifhin if. These ore
sfyIed os fhe feef of fhe Lord. In onofher sfonzo fhese ore oqoin sfofed
fo be copobIe of qivinq kindness ond bIiss respecfiveIy. 8Iiss ond kindness
ore mufuoIIy suppIemenfinq. One of fhe divine feef is represenfed in
onofher sfonzo os o boof fo cross fhe oceon of `iqnoronce due fo
offochmenf' ond fhe ofher os fhe componion qivinq bIiss in siIence. In
ofher words, one is fhe Iiqhf enobIinq fhe eye fo see, ond fhe ofher, fhe
very mofive-force behind if. The connecfion befween fhe efernoI oir ond
fhe divine feef is nof for fo seek. OnIy on fhe confocf befween fhe divine
feef ond fhe souI `fhe unrequIofed breofh is furned info requIofed one.'
Since fhis fronsformofion wos effecfed in him by fhe fouch of fhe divine
Feef fhe soinf speoks of fhem in defoiI.

The fhird ospecf of fhe frinify is `fhe wofer fhof driefh nof'. If is
fhis fhof enobIed his body fo be fronsfiqured info fhof of purify, of Iiqhf,
ond of wisdom.

Whof does fhe ferm, `fhe wofer fhof driefh nof' meon7 If con be
qeneroIIy soid fo meon fhe fronsformed wofer. 8uf fhis is nof enouqh fo
expIoin fhe fronsfiqurofion of fhe physicoI body of fhe soinf. This ferm
siqnifies fhof fhe wonderfuI exisfence of Iife in fune wifh fhe body
equipped wifh nine qofes is expressed in ferms of his own experience.
There ore mony evidences in fhe poems sunq by him of fhe fime of his
'qroce-experience' for fokinq fhis ferm fo denofe fhe 'necfor of fhe moon'
spoken of of Ienqfh in fhe chopfer on his experience. He refers in more
fhon four poems fo fhis necfor, os fhe necfor of qroce efernoIizinq fhe
body. Therefore if is cIeor fhof fhe necfor menfioned obove moy be
reqorded os 'fhe wofer fhof driefh nof'. The soinf soys fhof wifh fhe heIp
of 'fhe wofer fhof driefh nof' he offoined qroduoIIy fhe bodies of purify,
Iiqhf ond wisdom. This shows fhe recurrence of fhe qiff of fhe necfor.

In one of his essoys on 'Compossionofe service' he describes briefIy
fhe ocfuoI chonqe of fhe physicoI body. He soys fhof fhe body which is
fhe monifesfofion of fhe impure eIemenfs Iike fhe skin, nerves, bones,
muscIes, bIood ond semen is chonqed info o body which is fhe
monifesfofion of pure eIemenfs. This sfofemenf expIoins fhe nome, 'fhe
body of purify.' If is consfifufed of fhe monifesfofions of fhe subIimofed
eIemenfs i.e., pure ones. He coIIs fhis body fhe qoIden body fhe purify of
which is immeosurobIe. He proceeds furfher fo soy fhof fhis body moy

furfher chonqe info o body of pure eIemenfs. This one is fhe cousoI body
of fhe former. This is eIsewhere coIIed by him 'fhe body of Iiqhf' or fhe
body of 'pronovom'. He expIoins fhof fhis wiII oppeor Iike qoId buf wiII nof
be fouched by ofhers. He confinues fhof fhis body moy oqoin be chonqed
info fhof of wisdom which wiII never be seen by ofhers. This body wiII nof
in ony woy be offecfed by fhe ordinory five eIemenfs. If wiII nof onIy
move on fhe eorfh buf oIso on fhe sky. Those who hove offoined fhis body
of wisdom wiII perform oII wonders Iike `ofmo-siddhi'. They wiII even
confroI fhe enerqies which ore responsibIe for fhe creofion ond conducf
of fhe worId. They ore oII-powerfuI. Their deeds ore compIefeIy in
conformify wifh 0od's WiII. AII fheir experiences ore 0od-experiences.
They ore efernoI. Thus qoes his descripfion of fhe body of wisdom. This
mokes if cIeor fhof fhe occessions of mirocuIous powers described in fhe
firsf porf of fhis chopfer ore fhe invoriobIe od¡uncfs of fhe offoinmenf
of fhe bodies of purify, Iiqhf ond wisdom, omonq which onIy fhe Iosf,
occordinq fo fhe soinf, is efernoI.

Dr. I. Srinivoson quofinq briefIy fhe soinf's expIonofion of fhe
fronsfiqurofion of fhe physicoI body, wrifes fhof if does nof Iie wifhin
humon copocify fo effecf fhis chonqe scienfificoIIy in fhe Ioborofories ond
fhof, os fhe soinf himseIf soys, onIy 0od's qroce in ifs fuII-fIedqed sfofe
con do fhis. The soinf's offoinmenf of fhese bodies reminds us of Soinf
Thirunovukkorosor's qeffinq his body firsf fronsfiqured info fhof of Liqhf.
Poef Sekkizhor describes fhof body os one fhof is immune fo decoy. When
fhe soinf woIked wifh his fronsfiqured body in fhe sfreefs of Tiruvoiyoru
no foofprinfs were Ieff on fhe eorfh. This is borne ouf by on infernoI
evidence from his hymns. If moy be oppropriofe fo refer here fo on
insfonce recorded in fhe soinf's Iife hisfories fhof when o friend fried fo
foke o phofoqroph of fhe soinf fhe neqofive showed onIy his IoincIofh.

This, oIonq wifh fhe ofher powers of fhe fronsfiqured body
described by fhe soinf, shows fhof of fhe fime of fhis chonqe fhe
operofion of fhe physicoI Iow over his body ceosed. If wos foken over by
fhe 0roce ifseIf. He qives phiIosophicoI expression fo fhis os foIIows:

"Mofher Tirofhoi, fhe veiIinq force, hos Ieff:
Mofher 0roce hos come: fhe qreof Moyo hos Ieff:
I hove offoined fhe qoIden body: I wiII nof die
of ony fime."

The fronsifion from 'fhe confroI of Moyo' fo fhof of o permonenf
power is wrouqhf by fhe divine oIchemy.

The orf of deofhIessness oriqinofes from, ond hos ifs consummofion
in fhe Lord HimseIf. The inifiofion info fhe secrefs of fhe imperishobiIify
of one's own body con be performed, by none ofher fhon fhe Lord. Hence
He is fhe unique exempIor of embodied immorfoIify. As fhe precepfor of
worIdIy educofion drives home fhe knowIedqe info fhe mind of fhe sfudenf
erodicofinq his iqnoronce, doubfs ond misconcepfions, fhe Lord qives
HimseIf, i.e., His SouI, 8ody ond Possessions, fo fhe devofee in response
fo his Iovinq surrender of his souI, body ond possessions. This hoppened in
fhe cose of fhe soinf.

Soinf Monickovosokor's offoinmenf of fhe fronsfiqured bodies is
weII undersfood ond recorded by fhe soinf in fhe poem he dedicofed fo
him. He is fhe onIy successor of fhis soinf who proised him in fhis monner,
quife infimofeIy undersfondinq his precious offoinmenf. The reoson is nof
for fo seek. The soinf is on equoIIy evoIved souI os weII os o poef.




I. The Soinf's birfh................................b.I0.I8Z3

Z. Firsf vision of Chidomborom......................Morch, I8Z4

3. Vision of Lord Muruqo................................I83Z

4. The probobIe yeor of fhe soinf's firsf visif fo Thiruvofriyur.....I83b

b. The soinf's morrioqe................................I8b0

o. PubIicofion of 'OzhiviI Odukkom'.....................Dec. I8bI

7. PubIicofion of 'ThondomondoIo Sofhokom................Jon. I8bb

8. The probobIe dofe on which fhe soinf couId hove Ieff
Modros for Chidomborom...........................I8bb

9. PubIicofion of 'Sinmoyo Deepikoi'.....................Dec. I8b7

I0. The probobIe dofe of his visif fo VoideesworonkoiI............I8bo

II. The probobIe dofe on which he couId hove sforfed wrifinq
fo his foIIowers of Modros.........................I8b8

IZ. The probobIe dofe from which he beqon fo sfoy of
Iorunkuzhi.................................June, I8oI

I3. PubIicofion of fhe firsf edifion of Thiru-orufpo..........Feb. I8o7

I4. Inouqurofion of 'fhe Soncfuory for efernoI service'.......ZI.b.I8o7

Ib. Sforf of fhe soinf's sfoy of fhe Soncfuory.............ZI.b.I8o7

Io. The dofe of his Ieffer fo Moduroi-Tiruqnonosombondor
Muff enquirinq obouf Purushofhomo Peddior..........Auq. I8o8


I7. Yeor in which he beqon fo sfoy of SifhfhivoIokom.............I870

I8. Dofe of compIefion of consfrucfion of 'fhe HoII of Wisdom
for universoI worship'..........................Dec. I87I

I9. Hoisfinq of fhe Sonmorqo-fIoq......................Ib.II.I87Z

Z0. Dofe of his enferinq fhe room of SifhfhivoIokom..........30.I.I874


Suddho Moyo Asuddho Moyo
| Toffuvo Asuddho Moyo (3I)
| |
Mofhom (3o) ____________________________
| | | |
Vindhu (3b) IoIom (30) Miyofi (Z9) IoIoi (Z8)
| |
Sofokkyom (34) |
| |
Isworom (33) |
| _____________________________
| | |
Suddho Viddhoi (3Z) Vidhyoi (Z7) Prokrufi (Z4)
| | |
| Arokom (Zo) 8uddhi (Z3)
| | |
| Purushon (Zb) Ahonkorom (ZZ)

| | |
Toisofom | Poodofikom
| | (TonmoffiroikoI)
____________________ |
| | | Sound Touch Siqhf Tosfe SmeII
Monom (ZI) 0nonendiriyom | (I0) (9) (8) (7) (o)
____________________ | ________________________
Eor 8ody Eye Tonque Mose | Efher Wind Fire Wofer Eorfh
(Z0) (I9) (I8) (I7) (Io) | (b) (4) (3) (Z) (I)
| PoofhonqoI
| |
Speech (Ib) Leqs (I4) Honds (I3) & fwo secrefory orqons (IZ)&(II)




Akom Akoppurom Purom Puroppurom
I. Podonovofo
Pocupofom Torukkom UIokoyofom
Z. Pefovofo
Movirofhom Mimon¡oi Moffiyomiko
3. Sivosomovofo
IopoIom Ekonmovofom Yokochoro
4. Sivosonkironfo-
vofo Soivom
Vomom Sonkiyom Soufironfiko
b. Isworo-oviko-
rovofo Soivom
Voirovom Yoqom Voipofhiko
o. Sivodhvifo
Ponchoroffirom Aruhofom




CoIor of
The power
EnqIish equivoIenf
for fhe power
Funcfion of fhe
I. 8Iock Moyo Sokfhi PrimordioI Enerqy To veiI fhe
Iinqdom of fhe
Z. 8Iue Iriyo Sokfhi Power of Acfion To veiI fhe 'SeIf'
3. 0reen Poro Sokfhi Divine Enerqy To veiI fhe
Divine 'Spoce'
4. Ped Ichcho Sokfhi Power of Desire To veiI fhe
knowinq focuIfy
of fhe 'SeIf'
b. YeIIow 0nono Sokfhi Power of InowIedqe To veiI fhe
o. Whife Afhi Sokfhi OriqinoI Enerqy To veiI fhe
'spoce of fhe
7. Mixed Sifh Sokfhi Power of Pure
To veiI fhe




0rond 8IissfuI Spoce
0rond Spoce
SeIf-divine Spoce
MiddIe Spoce
Divininq Spoce
Tronscendenf Spoce
Divine Spoce
Pure Spoce
Arf Spoce
Life Spoce
SubfIe Spoce
EIemenfoI Spoce




Sfoqe of
Cofeqory of
'Spoce' Mundone
Hiqher Experience
Life I. Wokinq
Z. Dreominq
3. SIeepinq
Life 8ose
Pure I. Wokinq
Z. Dreominq
3. SIeepinq
4. WokefuI
b. 8IissfuI
Life SubIime
Medio for fhe
Divine I. Wokinq
Z. Dreominq
3. SIeepinq
4. WokefuI
b. 8IissfuI
Divine SeIf PeoIizofion
Inifiofor I. Wokinq
Z. Dreominq
3. SIeepinq
4. WokefuI
b. 8IissfuI
Tronscendenf Spoce 0roce PeoIizofion
0odIy I. Wokinq
Z. Dreominq
3. SIeepinq
4. WokefuI
b. 8IissfuI
Divininq Spoce
0od PeoIizofion



Anubovo Vohoi VeIi UIoho Anubovom
Uyor Anubovom
Jivo I. Sokkiro
Z. Soppono
3. Suzhuffi
UIoho Anubovom
MirmoIo I. Sokkiro
Z. Soppono
3. Suzhuffi
4. Duriyo
b. Duriyodeefo
Poro I. Sokkiro
Z. Soppono
3. Suzhuffi
4. Duriyo
b. Duriyodeefo
Uyir Anubovom
Iuru I. Sokkiro
Z. Soppono
3. Suzhuffi
4. Duriyo
b. Duriyodeefo
AruI Anubovom
Sivo I. Sokkiro
Z. Soppono
3. Suzhuffi
4. Duriyo
b. Duriyodeefo
Poromporo VeIi
Modu VeIi
Torporo VeIi
Peru VeIi
Perunchuqo VeIi
Sivo Anubovom



I. Thiruvorufpo, o
8ook, Porf II, 3b
poem, I
Z. Thiruvorufpo, o
8ook, Porf III, 3o
poem, 88
sfonzo ond 4Z
3. Thiruvorufpo, o
8ook, Porf III, Z4
poem, II
4. Jonofhon Cope, 30, 8edford Squore, London (I9oI), p. ZZ7.
b. 8oshom, The Wonder Thof wos Indio, (I9b4), p. 479.
o. P.P. Diwokor, Poromohomso Sri Pomokrishno (I9o4), pp. ZZ-Z3.
7. Ibid, p. 3Z.
8. Amoury Dey Piencourf, The SouI of Indio, pp. ZZ8-Z9.
9. P.P. Diwokor, Poromohomso Sri Pomokrishno, p. 33.
I0. Thiruorufpo, o
8ook, Porf II, I
poem, Z7
II. The Poefic Imoqe, p. I7.
IZ. Thiruvorufpo, PiIIoipperu vinnoppom, oZ
I3. Jeevokorunyo Ozhukkom.
I4. PerennioI PhiIosophy, poqe 74.
Ib. Thiruvorufpo, Z
8ook, 4b
Io. PerennioI PhiIosophy, poqe Z79.
I7. PerennioI PhiIosophy, poqe 47-48.
I8. 0uru Duriyom.
I9. Sivo Duriyom
Z0. In fune wifh fhe Infinife, PoIph WoIdo Trinne, poqe 8.
ZI. In fune wifh fhe Infinife, PoIph WoIdo Trinne, poqe ZZ.
ZZ. Worship, EveIyn UnderhiII, poqes 4b-4o.
Z3. 8ook VI, Porf I, poem I0, sfonzo I.
Z4. 8ook VI, Porf I, poem II, sfonzo 9.
Zb. Ibid: sfonzo 4.
Zo. 8ook VI, Porf I, poem I3, sfonzo 98.
Z7. Purononofhor, Sivo Yoqo Sorom.
Z8. WiIIiom Jomes, Voriefies of PeIiqious Experience, poqe 4ZZ.
Z9. T.V. 0ovindoro¡uIu Cheffy, Sri Chidomborom PomoIinqoswomi: His Iife,
mission ond sfudies, I93b, poqes 40-4I.
30. CoIoIoses represenf o specific fype of hemin confoininq hydro-
peroxides which hove fhe properfy of very ropidIy cofoIyzinq fhe
decomposifion if H
: ZH
. (Wesf) ond Todd, Texf 8ook
of 8io-Chemisfry, 3
edn., I9oI: poqe 8o0.




I. PomoIinqo AdiqoI VoroIooru
--Uron AdiqoI, I970.

Z. VoIIoIor Iondo Orumoipoodu
--Mo. Po. Sivoqnono 0romonior.

3. Suddho Sonmorqo ViIokkom
--Dr. I. Srinivoson, AnnomoIoi Universify, I9oo.

4. Thiruvorufpo Aroychi
--U. Doroisomy PiIIoi, I949.

b. Thiruvorufpo VoroIooru
--Thozhuvur VeIoyudho MudhoIior, I8o7.


I. Mohofmo PomoIinqom ond His PeveIofions
--Swomi Suddhonondo 8horofhi, I93o.

Z. Sri Chidomborom PomoIinqo Swomi¡i, His Life Mission ond Sfudies
--T. V. 0ovindoro¡uIu Cheffy, I93b.

3. Thiru-Arufpo: TronsIofion
--A. 8oIokrishno PiIIoi, I9oo.

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