Early Development Embryology plays an important role in the study of comparative anatomy.

Provides opportunities and constraints on the evolution or morphology Ontogeny – development from egg to adult

Ernst Haeckel Some have argued that “ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny” (Biogenesis) Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) *the drawings were fake* they made the drawings.. so he modified them. Embryonic structure in the adult form (see some feature in the embryonic feature) Ex) no adult mammals require gills for respiration but all mammals of embryotes have arches and pouches (in which the gills are associated)

Early Development Other patterns include: o Embryos often have structures that are not present in the adult, nor in an ancestral form o A structure present in both adult and embryo may become vestigial or lost o Structures that were only present in the larvae or embryo may be repainted by the adult form of a descendent o The embryo of the descendant may repeat early but not late developmental stages of the ancestor o The developmental sequence of the ancestor may be altered by the descendent.

Gametes and fertilization Gametes – mature sex cells (sperm, ovum). Each cell is haploid Acrosome, midpiece, and flagellum Each spermatozoa has a head which is call the acrosome. Midpiece – size and shape can change between sperm Flaggelum is constan Ova (eggs) can be classified as o Microlecithal (little Yolk)  Found in pascital mammals  They are still micro o Mesolecithal (medium Yolk)  In amphiabians o Macrolecithal  Los of Yolk  Found in birds and reptiles

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York tends to be on one side of the egg – the vegetal pole, whereas the opposite side (the animals pore) contains clearer cytoplasm and nucleus Telecithal o When the egg is asymmetrical (distribution of Yolk) o This is where the DNA is The egg is surrounded by vitelline membrane, o Surrounded by other membranes (in all mammals) Zona pellucid and corona radiate. o Fish, reptile have other structure around the egg Penetration of the egg membrane o Enzymes from the acrosome and the egg cortex When a spermatozoa enters the egg, the egg can no longer be penetrated by another sperm. o Each of them have half of the chromosomes (diploid cell) everything is complete o As soon as that happens, the egg cannot be continued or the sperm

Cleavage Zygote – o Fertizalized egg Cleavage – o The process Blastula o Multicellular embryo (one of the stage) Blastomeres o Individual daughter cells process by the division Patterns of cleavage are dependent to the amount of yolk associated with the egg Micro, macro…. In amphioxus, the eggs undergo holoblastic cleavage. o It’s the full division Cleavage is equal because blastomeres are the same size o Divide into two daughter cells The blastula is hollow – blastocoels. o The cavity is call the blastocel Mesolecithal eggs – Yolk retards cell division Cleavage is unequal. o Process is slower The blastocoels tends to lie within the animal hemisphere. o On the vegetal pore, there is the yolk In macrolecithal eggs, cleavage furrows cannot penetrate the yolk, and therefore cleavage is partial (merblastic) The blastoderm becomes separated by a narrow gap. In the chicken, cleavage produces a disk of cells riding over the yolk

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Subgerminal space

Mammalian cleavage Mammals have microlecithal eggs, and cleavage is total and equal. Cleavage furrows are less regular than amphioxus. The blastula has a trophoblast – The blastocoels tends toward the vegetal pore. o Trophoblast is only found in mammals o Superficial layer of cells that surrounds an inner layer of cell mass

Gastrulation in Amphioxus (microlecithal egg) Gastrulation is the process by which an embryo (gastrula) is formed Involution results from inward folding of the blastula at the vegetal hemisphere forming a double-walled cup Blastopore, gastrocoel o blastopore is the opening (the entire opening) o The cavity inside is call the gastrocoel (the empty space) o Archenteron is all the cells that are lied in a line. The outer layer is called the ectoderm The adult gut tube forms from the inner tissue layer of the gastrula (endoderm), and is called the archenteron (the primiative gut) The notochord forms from the dorsal wall of the archenteron. Mesoderm forms from the archenteron o Or dorsal like pockets (in pink) o They will form the mesoderm o These cavities will form the cilum (where all the intestines and stuff are) “enterocoely” – does not occur in vertebrates

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Gastrulation in mesolecithal eggs In vertebrates in mesolecithal eggs cleavage is complete but unequal Cells roll inward from the future blastopore and extend into the blastocoels as a second tissue layer. The site of involution (the beginning of the archenteron) is the dorsal lip of the blastopore. o The surface cell keep migrating inward The blastocoels disappears as the gastrocoel forms. Yolk plug. o In gastrocoel is filled with yolk o Making a plug that is call a yolk plug(?) The roof of the archenteron (chordamesoderm) forms o Notochord  At the midline (in green) o A series of paired somites (mesoderm)

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The coelom forms by splitting of the somites (mesoderm) in a process called schizocoely o Somites are the mesoderm (they will split and the cavity that is formed inside and the process is schizocoely The innermost tissue layer becomes endoderm

Gastrulationg in macrolecithal eggs The blastula forms from the lower the lower surface of the blastoderm to form the hypoblast (primitive gut). o Series of cells that shred from that layer (above the yolk) and form a hypoblast (will be the primitive gut) Delamination o The process of shredding of the layer o The space between hypoblast and superefficient(?) layer is call the blastocoele Mesoderm is produced by delamination – the primitive streak. Surface cells migrate to the primitive streak where they turn inward ventrally (ingression) and spread out between the two tissue layers and form mesoderm o Cells migrating and moving inward ventrally ; when inside, the form the mesoderm Cells that involute and move forward from the primitive streak form the notochord Coelom formation occurs via schizoecoely. o Same process

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Gastrulation in mammalian eggs The embryo is called a blastocyst Endoderm forms via delamination from the inner cell mass and lines the trophoblast The inner cell mass is now a blastoderm and forms a primitive streak to produce the notochord for fetal membranes and trunk of the embryo The coelom also forms via schizoecoely.

Mesoderm formation Mesoderm forms by: o Separation from the roof of the primitive gut (archeteron) – (micro and mesolecithal eggs) o Via delamination o Formation of the primitive streak An alternative method (mesenchyme)

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Neurulation Neurulation converts the gastrula to a neurula Neurulation establishes the central nervous system Chordamesoderm (the roof of the archenteron) induces the ectoderm to form a neural plate

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o Chorodamesoderm is the roof o In the ectoderm there is a thickening Longitudinal neural folds form and arch inward to fuse at the midline This neural tube encloses the neurocoel. Forms the dorsal hollow nerve cord

Placodes Ecotodermal placeodes are a series of thickened regions on the dorsolateral ecotoderm of the head

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