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MobileCommunication:From1Gto4G

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MobileCommunication:From1Gto4G

Personalcommunicationsystem
Personalcommunicationsystem(PCS)isanewclassofcellulartelephonesystemsuchasAMPS.PCSsystemsarea
combinationofcellulartelephonenetworkandintelligentnetwork,whichistheentityofsupersimpletransfer(SST)
interofficeprotocolthadistinguishesphysicalcomponentsoftheswitchingnetworksuchassignalservicepoint,signal
controlpointandsignaltransferpointfromtheservicesprovidedbySSTnetwork.
Inessence,PCSistheNorthAmericanimplementationofEuropeanGSMstandard.GSMutiliseditsownTDMAaccess
methodsandprovidedexpandedcapacityanduniqueservicessuchascallerID,callforwardingandshortmessaging.A
criticalfeaturewasseamlessroaming,whichallowedsubscriberstomoveacrossproviderboundaries.Theeffortwas
directedtowardssecondgenerationcellularsystems.
In1990,asecondfrequencybandwasspecified.Thisbandincludedtwodomains17101785MHzand18051880MHz,
i.e.,twice75MHzthreetimesasmuchastheprimary900MHzband.
Digitalenhancedcordlesstelecommunication(DECT).DECTisatypeofPCSsystem.DECTstandardwasdeveloped
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byEuropeanTelecommunicationStandardsInstitute(ETSI)forwirelessPABXdataLANapplicationsthatrepresent
closedenvironmentsrequiringminimalopencordlessaccess,sinceitwasessentialthatproductsfromdifferentvendors
notonlycoexistbutinterworkwitheachother.
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DECTsystemhasaTDMA/TDDframestructurewith24slotsthatareequallyallocatedfordownlinkanduplink
operation.DECTspecifiesbothsimplex(halfslots)andduplex(fullslot)operation.Higherdataratesareachievedby
utilisingmultilevelmodulation.ThebasicmodulationschemeisatwolevelGaussianfilledfrequencyshifkeying
(GFSK),whichissupplementedwith8levelmodulationschemeleadingtoashighas2.88Mbpspercarrier.
GSM
Globalsystemformobilecommunications(GSM)wasdevelopedbytheGroupeSpecialMobile,whichwasaninitiative
oftheConferenceofEuropeanPostandTelecommunications(CEPT)administrations.GSMwasfirsdevisedasacellular
systeminaspecific900MHzbandcalledtheprimaryband.Thisprimarybandincludestwosubbandsof25MHzeach,
890915MHzand935960Mhz.
GSMsystemslikeIridium,GlobalstarandICOuseconstellationsoflowearthorbit(LEO)ormediumearthorbit(MEO)
satellitesandoperateasoverlaynetworksforexistingcellularandPCSnetworks.Usingdualmode,theseextendthe
coveragetoanyandalllocationsontheearthssurface.

GPSareliablenavigationalaidanywhereon
theearth

InternationalMobileTelecommunication2000(IMT2000)isastandarddevelopedbyITUfor3G.Itensuresglobal
mobilityintermsofglobalseamlessroamingandservicedelivery.Anappreciationoftheroleofnumberingand
identitiesinmobilitymanagement,internationalroaming,calldelivery,andbillingandchargingisimportantin
understandingtheoperationofmobileandpersonalcommunicationnetworks.
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Personalcommunicationsatelliteservice(PCSS)usesLEOsatelliterepeatersincorporatingQPSKmodulationandboth
FDMAandTDMA.
ThemainadvantagesofGSMareinternationalroaming(inharmonywithISDNprinciplesassuringinterworking
betweenISDNandGSM)andfeatureslikeprivacyandencryption,frequencyhopping,discontinuoustransmissionand
shortmessageservice.Otherfacilitiesincludecallforwarding,barring,waiting,holdandteleconferencing.
Thebasicarchitecturecomprisesanetworksubsystem,basestationsubsystem,mobilestations,andsystem
interworkingandinterfaces.
Asubscriberidentitymodule(SIM)isrequiredtoactivateandoperateaGSMterminal.TheSIMmaybecontainedwithin
themobilestationoritmaybearemovableunitthatcanbeinsertedbytheuserinhismobileset.
Newdevelopmentsalongtheway
Beforeweproceedtoevolutionfrom1Gto4G,letmetouchuponthenewdevelopmentsthattookplacein1Gto4G.
Globalpositioningsystem(GPS).GPSisareliablenavigationalaidavailableanywhereontheearth,operatinginall
weatherconditions24hoursaday.Itcanbeusedbymarine,airborneandlandusers.GPStechnologywasdevelopedin
1983.
GPSconsistsofthreesegments:
Spacesegment.GPSconsistsof24NAVSTARsatellitesalongwiththreesparesatellitesorbitingat20,200kmabove
theearthssurfaceinsixcircularorbitalplaneswitha12hourorbitalperiodeach.ThesesatellitesoperateatL1band
(1.575GHz)continuouslybroadcastingnavigationalsignalscalledcoarseacquisitioncode.Thesecodescanbereceived
byanyonefordecodingandfindingnavigationalparameterslikelongitude,latitude,velocityandtime.
Controlsegment.Itconsistsofamastercontrolstation(MCS)andanumberofsmallerearthstationscalled
monitoringstationslocatedatdifferentplacesintheworld.Monitoringstationstracksatellitesandpassonthe
measureddatatotheMCS.TheMCScomputessatelliteparameters(calledephemeris)andsendsthembacktothe
satellite,which,inturn,broadcaststoallGPSreceivers.
Usersegment.TheusersegmentconsistsofallmovingandstationaryobjectswithGPSreceivers.AGPSreceiverisa
multichannelsatellitereceiverthatcomputeseveryseconditsownlocationandvelocity.
Bluetooth.ComparedtoWLANtechnologies,Bluetoothtechnologyaimsatsocalledadhocpiconets,whicharelocal
areanetworkswithaverylimitedcoverageandwithouttheneedforaninfrastructure.Thetermpiconetisacollection
ofBluetoothdevicesthataresynchronisedtothesamehoppingsequence.Onedeviceinthepiconetcanactasmaster
andallotherdevicesconnectedtothemasteractasslaves.Themasterdeterminesthehoppingpatternandtheslaves
havetosynchronisetothispattern.ThehoppingpatternisdeterminedbythedeviceIDa48bitworldwideunique
identifier.Thephaseinthehoppingpatternisdeterminedbythemastersclock.Allactivedevicesareassigneda3bit
activememberaddress.
Allparkeddevicesusean8bitparkedmemberaddress.Devicesinstandbymodedonotneedanaddress.Thegoalfor
Bluetoothdevelopmentwastouseasinglechip,lowcost,radiobasedwirelessnetworktechnologyforlaptops,
notebooks,headsets,etc.
Bluetoothoperatesinthe2.4GHzISMband.However,MAC,physicallayerandtheofferedservicesarecompletely
different.BluetoothtransceiversuseGaussianFSKformodulationandareavailableinthreepowerclasses:Class1
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(max.power100mW),class2(max.power2.5mW)andclass3(max.power1mW).
Journeyfrom1Gto4G
1Gsystem.1Gspecificationswerereleasedin1990tobeusedinGSM.1Gsystemsareanaloguesystemssuchas
AMPSthatuseFDMtodividethebandwidthintospecificfrequenciesthatareassignedtoindividualcalls.
2Gsystem.ThesesecondgenerationmobilesystemsaredigitalanduseeitherTDMAorCDMAmethod.Digitalcellular
systemsusedigitalmodulationandhaveseveraladvantagesoveranaloguesystems,includingbetterutilisationof
bandwidth,moreprivacy,andincorporationoferrordetectionandcorrection.
2.5Gsystem.Itwasintroducedmainlytoaddlatestbandwidthtechnologytotheexisting2Ggeneration.Itsupports
higherdataratetransmissionforWebbrowsingandalsosupportsanewbrowsingformatlanguagecalledwireless
applicationprotocol(WAP).Thedifferentupgradepathsincludehighspeedcircuitswitcheddata(HSCSD),GPRSand
EDGE.
HSCSDincreasestheavailableapplicationdatarateto14.4kbpsascomparedto9.6kbpsofGSM.Byusingfour
consecutivetimeslots,HSCSDisabletoprovidearawtransmissionrateofupto57.6kbpstoindividualusers.
GPRSsupportsmultiusernetworksharingofindividualradiochannelsandtimeslots.ThusGPRSsupportsmanymore
usersthanHSCSDbutinaburstymanner.WhenalltheeighttimeslotsofaGSMradiochannelarededicatedtoGPRS,
anindividualcanachieveasmuchas171.2kbps.Butthishasnotbroughtanynewevolution.
EDGEintroducesanewdigitalmodulationformatcalled8PSK(octalphaseshiftkeying).Itallowsninedifferentair
interfaceformats,knownasmultiplemodulationandcodingschemes,withvaryingdegreeoferrorcontroland
protection.Theseformatsareautomaticallyandrapidlyselectable.Ofcourse,thecoveringrangeissmallerinEDGE
thaninHSCSDorGRPS.
3Gsystem.Toovercometheshortcomingsof2Gand2.5G,3Ghasbeendeveloped.Itusesawidebandwireless
networkthatoffersincreasedclarityinconversations.Countriesthroughouttheworldarecurrentlydeterminingnew
radiospectrumbandstoaccommodate3Gnetworks.ITUhasestablished25002690MHz,17001855MHzand806
960MHzbands.Herethetargetdatarateis2Mbps.Thedataissentthroughpacketswitching.Voicecallsare
interpretedthroughcircuitswitching.
3GWCDMA(UMTS).UniversalMobileTelecommunicationSystem(UMTS)orWCDMAassuresbackwardcompatibility
with2Gand2.5GTDMAtechnologies.WCDMA,whichisanairinterfacestandard,hasbeendesignedforalwayson
packetbasedwirelessservice,sothatcomputersandentertainmentdevicesmayallsharethesamewirelessnetwork
andconnecttotheInternetanytime,anywhere.
WCDMAsupportsdataratesofupto2.048Mbpsiftheuserisstationary,therebyallowinghighqualitydata,
multimedia,streamingaudio,streamingvideoandbroadcasttypeservicestoconsumers.WithWCDMA,datarates
fromaslowas8kbpstoashighas2MbpscanbecarriedsimultaneouslyonasingleWCDMA5MHzradiochannel,with
eachchannelsupportingbetween100and350simultaneousvoicecallsatonce,dependingonantennasectoring,
propagationconditions,uservelocityandantennapolarisation.
TimeslotsinWCDMAarenotusedforuserseparationbuttosupportperiodicfunctions.(ThisisincontrasttoGSM
wheretimeslotsareusedtoseparateusers).ThebandwidthperWCDMAchannelis4.4to5MHz.
Sincetheglobalstandardwasdiffiulttoevolve,threeoperatingmodeshavebeenspecified:A3Gdevicewillbea
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personal,mobile,multimediacommunicationdevice(e.g.,TVproviderredirectsaTVchanneldirectlytothesubscribers
phonewhereitcanbewatched).Second,itwillsupportvideoconferencing,i.e.,subscriberscanseeaswellastalkto
eachother.Third,itwillalsosupportlocationbasedservices,whereaserviceprovidersendslocalisedweatheror
trafficconditionstothephoneorthephoneallowsthesubscribertofindnearbybusinessesorfriends.
3.5G.Itsupportsahigherthroughputandspeedatpacketdataratesof14.4Mbps,supportinghigherdataneedsof
consumers.
4Gsystem.ItoffersadditionalfeaturessuchasIPtelephony,ultrabroadbandInternetaccess,gamingservicesand
HDTVstreamedmultimedia.FlashOFDM,the802.16emobileversionofWiMax(alsoknownasWiBroinSouthKorea),
cansupportcellularpeakdataratesofapprox.100Mbpsforhighmobilitycommunicationssuchasmobileaccessand
upto1Gbpsforlowmobilitycommunicationssuchasnomadic/localwirelessaccess,usingscalablebandwidthsofupto
40MHz.Theinfrastructurefor4Gisonlypacketbased(allIP).
Theauthorisdirector(R&D)atGlobalInstituteofTechnology,EPIPSitapura,Jaipur

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