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Parts of our Hair

-formed by cross-links between cystine residues of the

main polypeptide chains.
-responsible for the hairs toughness or abrasion
Sugar Bond- formed between the side chain of an amino acid
having an OH group and an acidic amino group.
-gives the hair toughness but little strength (5%).
Three phases in the hair life cycle:

Haircomposed primarily of proteins (88%), these proteins are of a

hard fibrous type known as keratin.
-has an average lifetime of 2-6 years
Hair is structured in three basic layers: first layer is the
cuticle. A second, thicker layer is called the cortex and
sometimes a third, inner layer, called the medulla.
Cuticle- the outer layer of protective scales
Cortex- provides strength to the hair shaft, and determines the
color and texture of hair.
Medulla- present only in thick, large hairs.
The original configuration of the hair is held in place by the
bonding found in the cortex layers of the hair.
4 types of hair bond:
Hydrogen Bond- located between the coils of the alpha helix
-responsible for the ability of the hair to be stretched
elasticity and return back to its original shape.
Salt Bond- is also an ionic bond formed by the electron transfer
from the side chain of a basic amino group to the side chain of
an acidic amino acid.
Cystine Bond- also known as the disulfide bond, sulfur bond, or
just S bond

Active growth phase, or anagen phase: the hair root produces

the cells that form the living part of the hair. This pushes the
cells that already exist up and out from the follicle.
Transition phase, or catagen phase: New cells are not created
at this stage. Instead, the hair follicle actually shrinks about
Resting phase, or telogen phase: The protein hair strand
remains connected to the hair follicle, but it doesnt grow. After
five or six weeks, the dermal papilla reconnects to the base of
the hair follicle and the bloodstream. The hair reenters the
active growth phase.
Sebum- excess oil, dirt and skin debris from the hair
Desirable qualities for a shampoo are:

Lathering in hard or soft water

Easily and completely removable lather, without leaving a
Safe for repeated use
Chemically and physically stable
Not damaging to the eyes

Functions of Shampoo
Cleaning agents: these shampoos should be mild and
effective, without causing irritation and should be used daily or
on alternate days as needed. They remove dust and excess oil
from the hair.

Antidandruff agents: these treat dandruff due to fungi like

pityriasis versicolor. Rapidly relieves scaling and pruritis which
are associated with fungal infections.
Antiseborrhoeic agents: they have cytostatic effect on cells of
the epidermis and follicular epithelium, thus reducing
corneocyte production.
Keratolytic agents: they remove ointment, pastes, which are
used in the treatment of psoriasis. They also remove hard scales
from the scalp.
Type of

Key Features
Contain heavy duty surfactants. Used to
deep clean hair and remove the gunky
buildup of conditioners, sprays, and gels.
Add body to limp hair. Contain proteins that
bond to hair and pump it up
Best choice for dry, flyaway hair, make split
ends look better, pull moisture onto hair to
keep it from getting too dry.
Made for color treated, permed, and
damaged hair. Use as a gentler cleanser,
protect color from fading.
Contain medication that loosens and rinses
away those annoying flakes.
With conditioner, save time.
Remove chlorine and other minerals.

2-in 1 Shampoo
Cleaning the hair is the primary purpose of any shampoo
Building foam is also important to the consumer
Thickness of the shampoo solution is an important
consumer design feature.
Shampoo is expected by the consumer to have a long
shelf life.
Sequesterants- often used in the medical field to treat metal
General Composition of Shampoo

Cleaning agents: the prime ingredients in all shampoos
are substances called surfactants. Responsible for cleaning
action and laterring properties, they largely determine the hairs
condition after shampooing.
Modifying agents: Shampoos contain far more
components other than surfactants. There are thickeners
(xanthan gum), preservatives (parabens), emulsifiers
(glycol distearate), color additives and foam boosters
(cocamide monoethanolamine). Some shampoos also
include panthenol, which can diffuse into the hair shaft and
bind to proteins, strengthening their structure. Humectants,
which help to retain moisture, also are added. Ethyl alcohol,
isopropyl alcohol and sodium xylene sulfonate can be used
to maintain clarity in shampoo.
PH adjuster: Ideally, a shampoo should smooth down the
cuticle and cover it with a clean coating of a sebum-like
material. The smoothing effect is readily achieved by controlling
the shampoo's acidity. All shampoos, whether they make the
claim or not, are pH balanced. The proper pH range is
maintained by addition of buffering agents, such as citric acid.
Fragrance: Fragrance oils are added so that hair is left
smelling fresh, which attracts consumers.
Typical Surfactants for Common Shampoo
Anionic Surfactants: carry a negative charge when ionized. It
provides a lot of the lather and detergency in the shampoo.
Because of their excellent cleanings, foaming, and solubility
properties. The most commonly used anionic are sodium
laureth sulphate and sodium lauryl sulphate. Usually using
a primary fatty alcohol and treating it with oleum,
chlorosulfonic acid or sulfuric acid make them. Sodium,
ammonium, and triethanolammonium (TEA) lauryl
sulfates are often found in shampoos. A major disadvantage
is that they can be harsh and irritating to the scalp. Frequently,
other surfactants and ingredients are added to reduce skin

Cationic surfactants: carry positive charge when ionized.

Cationic molecules have the ability to cling to wet surfaces by
static attraction.

non-irritant to skin and eyes. It is these requirements that have

made ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) and sodium laureth
sulfate (SLES) the dominant primary surfactants for so long.

They are used less frequently due to their dangerous threat

to eyes if used in large quantities. The gentleness of your
shampoo depends on the surfactant found in its ingredients.
Consequently they are not easily removed during the
rinsing process and form the basis of conditioning.
Polyquarternium-10 is one of the most common cationic

Foam- is also a function of the primary surfactant and few

materials can compete with ALS or SLES for quick flash foam.
Dialkanolamides were the firm favorite for three decades but
are increasingly being replaced by amphoteric surfactants.

Nonionic surfactants: has no charge to the molecule. Often

used in combination with the primary cleanser to change or
modify its actions, they aid in solubility, modifying foam, and in
some instances conditioning.
They can strip the hair and lead to scalp irritation due to
excessive defatting. These include laureth-3 or 4,
cocamide DEA or coco glucosides.
Amphoteric surfactants: carries both positive and negative
charges when ionized. They are very useful for decreasing the
irritancy of a formulation while increasing the active contents
level of the product and quality of the lather produced.
Each amphoteric surfactant has cationic and anionic charge
groups, positive and negative. Most amphoteric shampoo
surfactants are used in baby shampoos, because they are gentle
and wont burn the eyes. By far the most used is cocamido
propyl betaine, or occasionally cocamido betaine.
Function of Different Surfactants in Shampoo:
Surfactants will influence six essential attributes of shampoo:
cleansing, foam, condition, viscosity and aesthetic appeal
combined with safety and mildness in use.
Cleansing- a function of the primary surfactant. To be an
effective cleansing agent the surfactant system must work
quickly at a relatively low temperature. It must be effective in
hard and soft water, be able to remove lipids and other soils and
residues left after previous hair treatments and it must not leave
any residues of its own. It must be non-toxic and reasonably

Conditioning- There are many ways of improving hair conditions.

SLES and other anionic surfactants leave the hair feeling dry
and difficult to manage. The introduction of a suitable secondary
surfactant greatly reduces this.
Viscosity- Products must have sufficient viscosity to stay on the
palm of the hand prior to application but must not come out of
the bottles as a globular lump. Anionic systems may be
thickened by the addition of electrolytes or non ionic
compounds or by betaines. Sodium chloride and
cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) are the materials of
common choice.
Aesthetic appeal- It must be either opaque or clear. Clarity
requires complete solubilisation of all ingredients,
something that can be surprisingly difficult despite the high
level of surfactants present. Traditionally polysorbate-20 and
PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil have been used but several
new materials have proved successful. PEG-6 caprylic/capric
glycerides in combination with PEG-60 almond glycerides, is
useful for solubilising essential oils and vitamin oils. PEG-18
Glyceryl Oleate/Cocoate is a good solubiliser and also adds
Safety and mildness- These are essential attributes of a product
that may be used every day and which can come into contact
with skin and eyes. Alkyl Sulfates and alky ether sulfates are
aggressive surfactants that can irritate eyes and scalp and
cause skin dryness. The effects are usually modified by the
addition of amphoteric or non-ionic materials.
Drug Classification

Pure organic compounds are the chief source of agents for

the cure

Natural compounds: materials obtained from both

plant and animal

Nonprescription (over-the-counter, or OTC) drugs are

available on request and do not require approval by a health
-viewed by public as minimally effective and safe

Synthesis compounds: either pure synthesis or

synthesis naturally occurring compounds

-3 out of 4 people routinely self-medicate with these drug


Semi-synthesis compounds: Some compounds either

cannot be purely synthesized or cannot be isolated from
natural sources in low cost. Therefore, the natural
intermediate of such drugs could be used for the
synthesis of a desired product

-generally have a greater margin of safety than their

prescription counterparts

Drugs can be classified according to their medicinal uses into

two main classes:

Abuse of OTC products

Nonprescription products that can be severely habitforming: decongestants, laxatives, antihistamines,

sleep aids, antacids and ephedrine.

However, as recently as 1992, the FDA has banned over

400 ingredients from 7 categories of OTC products.

I-Pharmacodynamic agents: Drugs that act on the various

physiological functions of the body.
II-Chemotherapeutic agents: Those drugs which are used to
fight pathogenic.
Drugs can treat different types of diseases:
1-Infectious diseases: Born (transmitted) from person to
person by outside agents, bacteria (pneumonia, salmonella),
viruses (common cold, AIDS), fungi (thrush, athletes foot),
parasites (malaria)

The classifications were established by the DurhamHumphrey Amendment of 1951.

Required label information includes:

Approved uses of the product

Detailed instructions on safe and effective use


2-Non-infectious diseases: disorders of the human body

caused by genetic malfunction, environmental factors, stress,
old age etc. (e.g. diabetes, heart disease, cancer. Haemophilia,
asthma, mental illness, stomach ulcers, arthritis).
3-Non-diseases: alleviation of pain (analgesic), prevention of
pregnancy (contraception), anesthesia.
Prescription drugs are available only by recommendation of an
authorized health professional, such as a physician.
-viewed by public as more potent and frequently dangerous

warnings to those at greatest risk


when taking the

Long duration of effect makes naproxen effect for relief of

menstrual cramps
Rules for proper OTC drug use

Always know what you are taking.

NSAIDs may reduce the effectiveness of antidepressants.

Hazards include:
Aspirin: gastrointestinal irritation, bleeding

Know the effects.

Read and heed the warnings and cautions.

Acetaminophen: bleeding, liver and kidney damage especially

troublesome with alcohol consumption potentially lethal

Dont use anything for more than 1 to 2 weeks.

Ibuprofen: kidney damage or failure

Be particularly cautious if also taking prescription drugs.

Naproxen: gastrointestinal irritation

If you have questions, ask a pharmacist.

Types of OTC drugs

If you dont need it, dont use it!

Types of OTC drugs

Internal analgesics

Analgesics-acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen,

ibuprofen, naproxen

Cold, allergy and cough remedies

Decongestants, Antitussives, Expectorants,
Vitamin C

Sleep aids- Melatonin

Stimulants- Look-alike and act-alike drugs

Gastrointestinal medication

Therapeutic considerations

Analgesic actions

Anti-inflammatory effects

Skin products- acne medications, sun products

Antipyretic effects

Skin first-aid products

Side effects

OTC herbal products

Major OTC Analgesic Drugs

Aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen are anti-inflammatory (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; NSAIDs)
Acetaminophen is not anti-inflammatory
Aspirin and acetaminophen are both anti-pyretic (feverreducing)

Antacids and anti-heartburn medication

Diet aids

Seep aids with an active ingredient of either

diphenhydramine (e.g. Benadryl) or doxylamine succinate
(e.g. Unisom) are depressants that are typically
components of P.M. versions of cold medications
20 to 50 new medications approved each year by the FDA

Prescription drugs

According to the Durham-Humphrey Amendment of 1951,

drugs are controlled with prescription if they are:


Not safe for self-medication

Intended to treat ailments that require the

supervisions of a health professional

What are the possible side effects of the drug?

How should the drug be taken to minimize problems and
maximize benefits?


When a physician prescribes a drug, a patient should

insist on answers to the following questions:
What is the desired outcome?

Proprietary a brand or trademark name that is

registered with the U.S. Patent Office. Proprietary
denoted medications marketed under specific brand

Common categories of prescription drugs

New and without an established safe track record

Low-potency (Darvon)

Moderate potency (Percodan)

High-potency (Demerol)

drugs Antiepileptic drugs
Antiulcer drugs

Cardiovascular drugs

Antihypertensive agents

Antianginal agents

-1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA)

Drugs to treat congestive heart failure

Manufacturers need to register with the FDA pursuant to the

Bioterrorism Act

Cholesterol and lipid-lowering drugs

Dietary Supplement- a product taken by mouth that contains

a dietary ingredient intended to supplement the diet.

Dietary supplements are considered foods, not drugs.

What must appear on a label of a dietary supplement?

a descriptive name of the product stating that it is a

the name and place of business of the manufacturer,
packer, or distributor
a complete list of ingredients (active and inactive)
the net contents of the product

Generic and proprietary drug

Generic is the official, nonpatented, nonproprietary

name of a drug. The term generic is used by the public to
refer to the common name of a drug that is not subject to
trademark rights.

Hormone-related drugs

Sedative-hypnotic agents

Drugs to treat HIV