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The connecting rod is a structural component cyclic loaded during the Internal
Combustion Engines (ICE) operation, it means that fatigue phenomena should
be taken into account during the development, in order to guarantee the
connecting rod required lifetime. Numerical tools have been extremely used
during the connecting rod development phase, therefore, the complete
understand of the mechanisms involved as well as the reliability of the
numerical methodology are extremely important to take technological
advantages, such as to reduce project lead time and prototypes cost reduction.
The present work shows the complete connecting rod finite element analysis
(FEA) methodology. It was also performed a fatigue study based on stress
life(SxN) theory, considering the modified Goodman diagram. The fatigue life
prediction and fatigue life enhancement of connecting rods of car engine. The
fatigue life prediction was simulated by analyzing the stress occur in the
connecting rod and then simulate the fatigue life prediction. The stress
analysis was done by using finite element method. The results obtained from
stress analysis is used as the input to simulate the fatigue life using stress-life
method. The modified model is the existing model with increased thickness in
the highest stress region.

Key words: Fatigue, Numerical, Life, Dynamic, FEM, Stress, Deformation

Automobile internal combustion engine connecting rod is a high volume
production critical component. It connects reciprocating piston to rotating
crank shaft, transmitting the thrust of piston to crankshaft, and is subjected to
complex loading. It undergoes high cyclic loads of the order of 108-109 cycles,
which range from high tensile loads because of inertia. Therefore, durability of
this component is of critical importance. Use maximum inertia load as one
extreme load corresponding to the tensile load and compressive gas load
producing maximum torque as the other extreme design load corresponding
to the compressive load. During the ICE operation, the connecting rod is cyclic
loaded due to the engine physics behavior. Basically, the tensile and
compressive forces are applied on the connecting rod during the engine cycle.
The tensile force is applied during the exhaust stroke, while the compression
occurs at the power stroke. Depending on these loads magnitudes and its
combination, localized cracks can be nucleated. Adding the fact of the high
cycle presented on the ICE, premature and catastrophic failures can occur.
Fatigue life prediction of the existing model of the connecting road of car
engine. Fatigue life prediction was also carried out for design with increased
thickness in the highest stress region. The thickness was increased to improve
the fatigue life. Simulations were done in two steps.

First, stress analysis of the connecting rod and then the results from stress
analysis is used as the input to simulate the fatigue life stress-life method.
The stress analysis was done using finite element method by employing
commercial software package ANSYS/ABAQUS, whereas the fatigue life
prediction was done by using fe-safe software package. The connecting rod is a
major link inside a combustion engine. It connects the piston to the crank
shaft and is responsible for transferring power from the piston to the crank
shaft and sending it to the transmission. There are different types of materials
and production methods used in the creation of connecting rods.
The most common types of connecting rods are steel and aluminum. The
most common types of manufacturing processes are casting, forging and
powered metallurgy. Connecting rods are widely used in variety of engines
such as, in-line engines, opposed-piston engines. A connecting rod consists of
a pin-end, a shank section, and a crank-end. Pin end and crank-end pinholes
at the upper and lower ends are machined to permit accurate fitting of
bearings. These holes must be parallel. The upper end of the connecting rod is
connected to be piston by the piston pin. If the piston pin is locked in the
piston pin bosses or if it floats in the piston and the connecting rod, the upper
hole of the connecting rod will have a sold bearing of bronze or a similar
material. As the lower end of the connecting rod revolves with the crank shaft,
the upper end is forced to turn back forth on the piston pin. Although this

movement is slight hence the bushing is necessary because of the high

pressure and temperatures. The lower holes in the connecting rod is split to
permit it to be clamped around the crank shaft. The bottom part, or cap, is
made of the same material as the rod and is attached by two bolts. The surface
that bears on the crankshaft is generally a bearing material in the form of a
separate split shell. The two parts of the bearing are positioned in the rod and
cap by dowel pins projections, or short brass screws.
Split bearings may be of the precision or semi precision type. From the
viewpoint of functionality, connecting rods must have the highest possible
rigidity at the lowest weight. The function of connecting rod is to transmit the
thrust of the piston to the crankshaft. The role of connecting rod in the
conversion of reciprocating motion into rotary motion. A four strokes are
intake, compression, power, and exhaust. Each stroke requires approximately
180 degrees of crankshaft rotation, so the complete cycle would take 720
degrees. Each stroke plays a very important role in the combustion
process. Problem Statement Fatigue numerical analysis and life prediction of
connecting rod made of Aluminum LM25 alloy Reinforced with Boron
Silicide. Steel and aluminum materials are used to fatigue life prediction the
connecting rod. In this project the material (carbon steel) of connecting rod
replaced with Aluminum Reinforced with Boron carbide. Connecting rod was
created in SOLIDWORK/CATIA. Model is imported in ANSYS Workbench

/ABAQUS for analysis. After analysis a comparison is made between existing

carbon steel and aluminum connecting rod viz., Aluminum Reinforced with
Boron carbide in terms of weight, factor of safety, stiffness, deformation and
stress. Project Objectives General Objective Fatigue numerical analysis and
life prediction of connecting rod made of Aluminum LM25 alloy Reinforced
with Boron Silicide. Specific Objectives:

To determine the lifespan of

connecting rod due to cyclic loading. The results were carried out under fully
reversed loading.

To reduce weight of the existing connecting rod with

desired strength.

To determine the Von Misses stresses, Shear stresses,

Equivalent Alternating stress, Total Deformation and Fatigue Analysis of

connecting rod by FEM. To calculate stresses in critical areas and to identify
the spots in connecting rod where there are more chances of failure. Literature
Review. Prof. Vivek C. Pathade [1] proposed the major stress induced in the
connecting rod was a combination of axial and bending stresses in
operation. The axial stresses were produced due to cylinder gas pressure
(compressive only) and the inertia force arising in account of reciprocating
action (both tensile as well as compressive), whereas bending stresses were
caused due to the centrifugal effects. The result of which was, the maximum
stresses were developed at the fillet section of the big and the small end. The
comparison and verification of the results obtained in FEA was done
experimentally by the method of Photo elasticity (Optical Method). The

method of Photo elasticity includes the casting of Photo elastic sheet using
Resin AY103 and Hardener HY951, preparation of the model from Photo
elastic sheet calibration of the sheet to determine material fringe value. Kul
deep B et. AL proposed the material of connecting rod was replaced by
aluminum based composite material reinforced with silicon carbide and fly
ash. And they also performed the modelling and analysis of connecting rod.
FEA analysis was carried out by considering two materials. The parameters
like von misses, stress, von misses strain and displacement were obtained
from FEA software. Compared to the former material the new material found
to have less weight and better stiffness. It resulted in reduction of 43.48% of
weight, with 75% reduction in displacement [2]. Zheng Bin Liu Yongqi
analyzed stress distribution, safety factor and fatigue life cycle of connecting
rod by using 3D finite element method. The results show that the exposed
destructive position was the transition location of small end and connecting
rod shank at maximum compression condition. Maximum stress was 303MPa.
Safety factor was 1.24. At maximum stretch condition, the exposed destructive
position was I-shaped cross-section at big end. Maximum stress was 118MPa.
Safety factor was 3.19. And structure of connecting rod was improved. Safety
factor and fatigue life cycle of connecting rod increases. After structural
improvement, maximum stress decreases and both safety factor and fatigue
life cycle increases [3]. Om found the existing design performs by

modelling and evaluates critical regions in the connecting rod under fatigue
loading. The main objective of their work was to re-optimize the existing
design of connecting rod of universal tractor (U650) by changing some of the
design variables. Optimization of connecting rod was done under same
boundary and loading conditions for variation in the few stress and fatigue
parameters i.e. stresses, weight, life, damage and safety factor. The allowable
numbers of cycles under fully reversed fatigue loading were increased and
assumed up to a maximum limit. Stress concentration coefficient was varied to
obtain the maximum cycles condition. The critical regions under both static
and fatigue analysis were identified and improved. The connecting rod was
then modelled and optimized for the reduction in weight [4]. Zhou Qinghai they obtain the vibration characteristics and vibration frequency
distributions, structural characteristics of the connecting rod mechanism
using modal analysis. Then they prepare a physical model of connecting rod
mechanism using CAD software. Then finite element analysis and simulation
of the model is taken by MSC. Nastran softwares. Then its flexible multi-body
dynamic model was established by ADAMS/View and the fatigue stress of
connecting rod under the max combustion pressure and Inertia force
condition was calculated using the durability Module. The stress was mainly
produced on the joint of connecting rod shell and the bottom end or the top
end. The simulation result showed that the stability of the mechanism was

well. The simulation analysis was really an economical and efficient method to
study [5]. Dr. K. B. Roy analyzed various designs of connecting rod and finally
he selects an optimal design for Finite Element Analysis. He used ANSYS-12.0
Workbench and CATIA V5R19 and got various results and then he compared
with the existing results. In existing design parameters, he done slight and
careful variation. That result in good design which can be made feasible by a
number of analysis using CAE tools and Softwares. He also studied and
analyzed the Stress, Strain, Deformation, Life, and Damage, Biaxiality
Indication etc.parameters to get the good design parameters with taking into
account the safe permissible stresses and factors which would have affect the
design if not taken into account [5].Methodology 1.Static loads The static
analysis of connecting rod models was conducted for different materials to
identify the fatigue locations on it. The tern static implies that the forces do
not change with time. Results of the static analysis output are stress, strain
and deformation under the applied load. 2.Dynamic Loads The connecting rod
dynamic load calculation is determined based on the cylinder gas pressure
versus crank angle curve and the inertia forces generated due to the
reciprocating masses and the engine speed. The combination of the gas force,
generated due to the cylinder gas pressure, and the inertia force, provide the
resultant force applied on the connecting rod. The conventional connecting
rod structural analysis has been performed considering the over load and over

speed operational conditions. These regimes are the responsible for the







respectively. However, a combination of cylinder gas pressure and engine

speed for the intermediate operational conditions may provide critical loads
for the connecting rod.

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