You are on page 1of 23

Sr.

Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

Page No. I
OISD-GDN-161
REVISION - I
FOR RESTRICTED
CIRCULATION

LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS : RESCUE & RELIEF


OPERATIONS

OISD - GDN - 161


Revision - I : March, 2003

Oil Industry Safety Directorate


Government of India
Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas

8th Floor, OIDB Bhavan, Plot No. 2, Sector 73, Noida 201301 (U.P.)
Website: www.oisd.gov.in
Tele: 0120-2593800, Fax: 0120-2593802

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

Page No. II
OISD-GDN-161
Revision I : March, 2003
FOR RESTRICTED CIRCULATION

LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS : RESCUE AND RELIEF


OPERATIONS

Prepared by:

COMMITTEE ON LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS

OIL INDUSTRY SAFETY DIRECTORATE


Government of India,
Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas,
8th Floor, OIDB Bhavan, Plot No. 2, Sector 73, Noida 201301 (U.P.)

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

Page No. III

Preamble
Indian petroleum industry is the energy lifeline of the nation and its continuous performance is
essential for sovereignty and prosperity of the country. As the industry essentially deals with
inherently inflammable substances throughout its value chain upstream, midstream and
downstream Safety is of paramount importance to this industry as only safe performance at all
times can ensure optimum ROI of these national assets and resources including sustainability.
While statutory organizations were in place all along to oversee safety aspects of Indian
petroleum industry, Oil Industry Safety Directorate (OISD) was set up in 1986 Ministry of
Petroleum and Natural Gas, Government of India as a knowledge centre for formulation of
constantly updated world-scale standards for design, layout and operation of various equipment,
facility and activities involved in this industry. Moreover, OISD was also given responsibility of
monitoring implementation status of these standards through safety audits.
In more than 25 years of its existence, OISD has developed a rigorous, multi-layer, iterative and
participative process of development of standards starting with research by in-house experts
and iterating through seeking & validating inputs from all stake-holders operators, designers,
national level knowledge authorities and public at large with a feedback loop of constant
updation based on ground level experience obtained through audits, incident analysis and
environment scanning.
The participative process followed in standard formulation has resulted in excellent level of
compliance by the industry culminating in a safer environment in the industry. OISD except in
the Upstream Petroleum Sector is still a regulatory (and not a statutory) body but that has not
affected implementation of the OISD standards. It also goes to prove the old adage that selfregulation is the best regulation. The quality and relevance of OISD standards had been further
endorsed by their adoption in various statutory rules of the land.
Petroleum industry in India is significantly globalized at present in terms of technology content
requiring its operation to keep pace with the relevant world scale standards & practices. This
matches the OISD philosophy of continuous improvement keeping pace with the global
developments in its target environment. To this end, OISD keeps track of changes through
participation as member in large number of International and national level Knowledge
Organizations both in the field of standard development and implementation & monitoring in
addition to updation of internal knowledge base through continuous research and application
surveillance, thereby ensuring that this OISD Standard, along with all other extant ones,
remains relevant, updated and effective on a real time basis in the applicable areas.
Together we strive to achieve NIL incidents in the entire Hydrocarbon Value Chain. This,
besides other issues, calls for total engagement from all levels of the stake holder organizations,
which we, at OISD, fervently look forward to.

Jai Hind!!!
Executive Director
Oil Industry Safety Directorate

FOREWORD

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

Page No. IV

Oil Industry in India is 100 years old. Over the years a


variety of practices have been in vogue because of various
collaboration / association with different foreign companies and
governments.
Standardisation in design,
operating and
maintenance practices at a national level was hardly in
existence. This lack of uniformity coupled with feed back from
some serious incidents that occurred in the recent past in India
and abroad, emphasized the need for the industry to review the
existing state of art in designing, operating and maintaining oil
and gas installations.
With this in view, the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural
Gas in 1986 constituted a Safety Council assisted by the Oil
Industry Safety Directorate (OISD) staffed from within the
industry in formulating and implementing a series of self
regulatory measures aimed at removing obsolescence,
standardizing and upgrading the existing standards to ensure
safer operations. Accordingly, OISD constituted a number of
functional committees of experts nominated from the industry
to draw up standards and guidelines on various subjects.
The original document on Rescue and relief operation
involving tank truck accident carrying LPG was released in
August, 1993. The present document on LPG Tank Truck
Incidents: Rescue & Relief Operations was prepared by the
Committee on LPG Tank Truck Incidents. This document is
revised based on the accumulated knowledge / experience of
industry members and the various national / international codes
& practices.
Correspondence from industry members may be addressed to:
The Co-ordinator,
Committee on
LPG Tank Truck Incidents
OIL INDUSTRY SAFETY DIRECTORATE,
Government of India,
Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas,
8th Floor, OIDB Bhavan, Plot No. 2, Sector 73, Noida 201301 (U.P.)

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

Page No. V
NOTE
OIL INDUSTRY SAFETY DIRECTORATE publications
are prepared for use in the oil and gas industry under the
Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas. These are the property of
Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas and shall not be
reproduced or copied and loaned or exhibited to others without
written consent from OISD.
Though every effort has been made to assure the
accuracy and reliability of data contained in these documents,
OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for
loss or damage resulting from their use.
These documents are intended only to supplement and
not replace the prevailing statutory requirements.

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

Page No. VI

COMMITTEE ON
LPG TANK TRUCK MODIFICATIONS, DESIGN AND OPERATION
(First Edition: August 1993)
LIST OF MEMBERS
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------NAME
ORGANISATION
STATUS
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------S/Shri
R.K. Singh

Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd.

Leader

V.K. Allawadi

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.

Member

S.V. Sahni

Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd.

Member

S.C. Gupta
Oil Industry Safety Directorate
Member-Co-ordinator
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

COMMITTEE ON
LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS
(Revision I: March 2003)
LIST OF MEMBERS
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------NAME
ORGANISATION
STATUS
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------S/Shri
K. V. Apte

Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd.

Leader

N. Dasgupta

Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd.

Member

M. S. Iyer

Bharat Petroleum Corpn. Ltd. Refinery,

Member

S. S. Lamba

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.

Member

T. Koteeswaran

Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd.

Member

S. Roy Chowdhury

IBP Co. Ltd.

Member

D. J. Phukan

Numaligarh Refineries Ltd.

Member

B. K. Tiwari

Oil Industry Safety Directorate

Member-Co-ordinator

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(In addition to the above, several other experts from industry contributed in the
preparation, review and finalisation of this document).

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

Page No. VII


LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS : RESCUE AND RELIEF OPERATIONS
CONTENTS
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION
DESCRIPTION
PAGE NO.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.0

INTRODUCTION

2.0

SCOPE

3.0

DEFINITIONS

4.0

EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PLAN

4.1

DISTRIBUTION OF EMP

4.2

TREM CARD

4.3

INFORMATION ON INCIDENT

4.4

INITIATION OF ACTION

4.5

SCENARIO AND EMERGENCY HANDLING

4.6

RELIEF / RESCUE OPERATIONS


IN CASE OF UCV / BLEVE

4.7

ROLE OF EXTERNAL AGENCIES

10

4.8

RESOURCE IDENTIFICATION / MOBILISATION

11

ANNEXURE I
13
ANNEXURE II
16
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

OISD GDN 161

Page No. 1

LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS :RESCUE & RELIEF


OPERATIONS

1.0

INTRODUCTION

There is a sustained growth in consumption and consequent transportation of bulk LPG by road
tankers to LPG Installations spread all over India.
In order to have better and clear understanding among the Oil Industry personnel, their roles and
responsibilities along with various other authorities have been defined.
Interaction at field level with local authorities, law enforcing agencies, fire brigade and other oil
companies is must to familiarise all concerned and to ensure their co-operation and willingness to
handle such emergencies.
2.0

SCOPE

This document provides guidelines for handling emergencies arising out of LPG Tank Truck (TT)
incidents. The location incharges, based on these guidelines, should identify necessary
resources so as to handle such incidents promptly. These guidelines can be modified to reflect
local conditions as well as the capabilities of the response team.
Guidelines for Rescue & Relief operations for POL Tank Truck Accident are covered in OISDGDN-165.
3.0

DEFINITIONS

3.1

Bulk LPG Tank Truck: A Tank Truck designed to carry bulk LPG by road.

3.2

Incident: An event involving a bulk LPG Tank Truck with or without bulk load meeting with
an accident with/ without leak with or without fire.

3.3

TRANSPORT EMERGENCY (TREM) CARD: A card issued by an LPG loading location


containing details about the nature of hazards, protective devices, telephone numbers
and actions related to spillage, fire, first aid etc. to be taken in any emergency.

3.4

Unconfined Vapour Cloud Explosion (UVCE): With the release of LPG to atmosphere,
vapour cloud formation takes place. Ignition and burning of vapour cloud as deflagrations
and fireballs may cause lot of damage by radiation starting secondary fires at some
distance. The vapour cloud may ignite and its explosion may cause high over pressures
and very heavy damage, which is termed as unconfined vapour cloud explosion (UVCE).

3.5

Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion (BLEVE): BLEVE is the violent rupture of a
pressure vessel containing saturated liquid / vapour at a temperature well above its
normal (atmospheric pressure) boiling point. The resulting flash evaporation of a large
fraction of the liquid produces a large vapour cloud. If the vapour is flammable and if an
ignition source is present at the time of vessel rupture, the vapour cloud burns in the form
of a large rising fireball. If ignition is delayed a few seconds, such that the vapour has
time to form a large flammable vapour-air mixture, a vapour cloud explosion ensues.

3.6

Emergency Response Vehicle (ERV): Emergency Response Vehicle is a rescue


vehicle with necessary support equipment meant for rescue and relief operations in any
incident involving LPG bulk movement.
OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from the use of OISD Standards/Guidelines.

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

OISD GDN 161

Page No. 2

LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS :RESCUE & RELIEF


OPERATIONS

3.7

LPG Installation: LPG Installation means an LPG facility like LPG Installation, LPG
Recovery Plant, Refinery etc., where LPG handling, i.e., loading / unloading, bottling etc.,
is carried out.

3.8

Flammable (Explosive) Range: In the case of gases or vapours, which form flammable
mixtures with air, there is a minimum concentration of vapour in air, below which the
propagation of flame does not occur on contact with a source of ignition. This is called
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL). Similarly, there is a maximum concentration of vapour,
above which the propagation of flame does not occur on contact with a source of ignition.
This is called Upper Explosive Limit (UEL). This range of minimum to maximum
concentration is termed as Flammable (Explosive) Range. Generally, this range for LPG
is 1.8% to 9.5%.

4.0 EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PLAN (EMP)


In order to handle Emergencies, which may arise due to incident involving LPG Tank Trucks, it is
required that a comprehensive Emergency Management Plan is readily available with the
industry as well as with other related authorities. The Emergency Management Plan should be
clearly understood by its users so that the Emergencies can be handled in a systematic manner
with minimum response time in accordance with the prescribed procedure.
4.1 DISTRIBUTION OF EMP: Copies of the Emergency Management plan shall be made
available by the Industry to:
i.

All the field locations i.e. LPG Installations, POL Depots, Terminals / Installations,
Refineries, Gas Processing Plants, Despatch units of ONGC/GAIL etc.

ii.

The concerned District Administration, Police Stations and Fire Brigades en-route and
within vicinity of specified LPG tank truck routes.

iii.

Others, viz., Sales personnel of concerned area as may be required.


Location specific availability of ERV shall be mentioned in the Emergency Management
Plan.

4.2

TREM CARD
TREM Card as per details shown in Annexure-II and Route Map shall be provided to the
Tank Truck Crew which should be referred in case of emergency.

4.2.1

As a precaution against any incident or emergency that may occur during carriage, the
TT crew should also be supplied with instructions in writing as detailed in safety
Instructions Booklet attached as Annexure-III.

4.3

INFORMATION ON INCIDENT
In the event of an incident, following steps should be taken:

4.3.1

In case the TT crew is in a position to act, they should inform the nearest LPG Installation
first otherwise contact the nearest Depot / Terminal of any oil company. The TT crew
should also inform the nearest Police Post and Fire Brigade.
OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from the use of OISD Standards/Guidelines.

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

OISD GDN 161

Page No. 3

LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS :RESCUE & RELIEF


OPERATIONS

4.3.2

In case, phone facility is not available in the vicinity, TT crew should send the message
through any other means such as any other truck / TT or any volunteer to the nearest
Bottling Plant, Retail Outlet, Oil Installation of any Oil Company, Police Post and Fire
Brigade, (All Retail Outlets, Oil Installations, Fire Brigade & Police Station should be
provided with telephone nos. of the nearest LPG Installation).

4.3.3

In case the message is received first by Police Post or Fire Brigade or Depot / Installation
of any Oil company, they should inform the nearest Bottling Plant of any company.

4.3.4 While conveying the information to LPG Installation by TT Crew, Fire Brigade, Police Post,
Depot / Installation as may be the case, the following information should be collected and
relayed:
a)

Location of incident, milestone no., Highway No., nearest village / town and any other
easily identifiable landmark.

b)

Registration No. of TT, name of the Transporter.

c)

Date and time of incident.

d)

TT empty or full and the quantity.

e)

Proceeding from/ on way to.

f)

Any casualty or injury.

g)

Any leakage or fire and its source.

h)

Position of TT after the incident on road.

i)

Safety Precautions taken.

j)

Help required (tools & tackles, i.e., jacks etc., crane, transfer of product,
vehicle, fire tender, fire fighting equipment, ambulance etc).

towing of

However, to minimize the delay whatever information is readily available should be


quickly relayed followed by detailed information as above.
Documentary proof of such intimation to Police Post / Fire Brigade / Retail Outlets should
be retained.
4.4

INITIATION OF ACTION

4.4.1

IMMEDIATE COMMUNICATION
On receipt of information, the LPG Installation should convey information using quickest
mode of communication such as phone, FAX, E-mail etc., to following agencies /
persons:
a)

Nearest Fire Station.

b)

Nearest Police Station or Police headquarters.


OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from the use of OISD Standards/Guidelines.

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

OISD GDN 161

Page No. 4

LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS :RESCUE & RELIEF


OPERATIONS

c)

District Administration.

d)

The Transporter (as per the directory of the Transporters address)

e)

Zonal / Region and Head Office of the owning Company of the product.

f)

Chief Controller of Explosives / Zonal Controller of Explosives, as applicable.

g)

Oil Industry Safety Directorate.

In case a Depot / Installation is located near to the site of incident, the LPG Installation should
inform such location for rendering immediate assistance, to the extent feasible.
4.4.2

RESCUE PLANNING
Simultaneously, the LPG Installation should organise rescue operations and invoke
Contingency Plan as the situation demands. Following actions should be initiated:

a)

After assessing the situation, a rescue team consisting of requisite no. of officers and
maintenance crew should be rushed to the site along with 2-3 empty depressurized Tank
Trucks.

b)

The rescue team should also carry equipment as identified in Annexure- I.

c)

Wherever Oil Industry has positioned Emergency Responses Vehicle (ERV), the same
should be requisitioned for carrying out rescue operations.

d)

Oil Industry Sales Personnel of the concerned area should also get associated with
rescue team to provide assistance through local agencies on receipt of information.

4.5

SCENARIO AND EMERGENCY HANDLING

4.5.1

SCENARIO
On reaching the site, the rescue team should assess the situation and liaise with the
Plant Manager for any further help required from any agency. The Rescue team should
classify the incident in the following category:

a)

Resulting only in injury / fatality to any other road user.

b)

Resulting in head-on collision, side hit, dashing against any other fixed object, etc.
i)

with no damage to bullet or any fittings.

ii) with damage to bullet or any fittings resulting in LPG leak.


c)

Resulting in tank truck falling off the road with damage to bullet, fittings with or without
leakage and requiring evacuation of product.

d)

Toppling of tank truck, rupture of liquid line and LPG leak


i)

without fire, or
OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from the use of OISD Standards/Guidelines.

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

OISD GDN 161

Page No. 5

LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS :RESCUE & RELIEF


OPERATIONS

ii)
e)

with fire.

Vapour cloud explosion / BLEVE resulting in injuries, fatalities and damages to the
surrounding areas.
The Rescue team should take utmost care in tackling the situation and should not take
undue risk and should guide professional fire fighting people of the Fire Brigade/ Industry.

4.5.2

EMERGENCY HANDLING
The scenarios mentioned in para 4.5.1 call for following emergency actions:
(A) Incident resulting only in injury / fatality
LPG Installation need not depute the Rescue team to the site of incident. However, if
required, the LPG Installation should arrange to inspect the TT and advise whether the
TT can proceed to its destination safely. The Plant will also decide whether any repair
could be undertaken by the Transporter without emptying out the tank truck or whether
tank truck needs to be evacuated / degassed which should be done at the LPG
Installation.
Necessary help should be rendered to injured person/(s).
(B) (i) Incident resulting in head-on collision/ side hit, dashing against any other
fixed object and no damage to bullet or any fitting.
Rescue team should proceed to the incident site and initiate the following action:
a)

Survey the vehicle and list out the damages.

b)

Assess whether tank truck can be towed to the nearest LPG Installation after initial
repairs.

c) List out all precautions and advise the driver / Police for the steps to be taken while
towing the vehicle to the LPG Installation, if it can be towed.
d) Tank truck should be unloaded at the LPG Installation immediately after reaching and
shall be released only after it has been made gas free.
In case the mechanical condition of tank truck is not stable, it should be evacuated in line with the
procedure stipulated in subsequent scenario B (ii).
(B) (ii)

Incident resulting in leakage.


The following steps should be taken:
a) Warn people to stop all open fire, lantern, to ensure no smoking within the
surrounding area. Use of Cello-phones will not be permitted in the hazard area and
also the TT crew will be prohibited to use any cell phone.
OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from the use of OISD Standards/Guidelines.

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

OISD GDN 161

Page No. 6

LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS :RESCUE & RELIEF


OPERATIONS

b) Stop traffic on both sides of the Road. Divert the traffic from all
approaching the site.

the roads

c) Survey the vehicle, bullet, all fittings & assess the extent of damage.
d) Assess whether the anchoring of bullet to the chassis is damaged or intact and
whether the bullet can be lifted with or without chassis.
e) Check possibility of stopping leak by any of the following methods. Such operation
shall be carried out by trained personnel with due care under close supervision of a
competent person and shall be approached from the upwind direction. Also, all tools
and equipment used for controlling the leak shall be spark proof.
i) Tightening of valve manifold end connections through cap / flange / fittings.
.
ii) Wetting the area of leakage with wet cloth or gunny bag etc.
iii) Using wooden plug.
iv) Using M-Seal or a proper epoxy-base cold-welding compound.
v) Plugging of safety-relief valve through a leak-seal plug.
vi) Possibility of stopping / controlling the leakage should also be explored by
pumping water into the TTs. In this case, adequate separation distance of the
pump from the leaky TT shall be maintained. Further, a NRV shall be provided
on water filling line on TT side with proper assessment of LPG vapour space
inside the TT.
f)

Possibility can also be explored for stopping / controlling the leakage through
transhipment of products. Transhipment of the product from affected TT to the depressurised TT can be done through any of the following alternatives with the
procedural details given in para 4.5.2 (C) (e).

i)

Through an ERV by pressure differential method with the help of the LPG
compressor.

ii)

The depressurised 2-3 TTs brought at the site through a simple connection /
flow.

iii)

Connecting the affected TT through a pressurised TT and connecting the


depressurised TT for evacuation of the product.

iv)

Pumping water into the affected TT and connecting to the depressurised TT to


evacuate product through vapour line.

g)

In case leakage is profuse and cannot be stopped, take the following actions:

i)

Take precautionary measures as follows with approach always from upwind side :
- If it is necessary and site condition makes it feasible, depressurise the tank of
remaining vapour through controlled discharge from vapour discharge valve after
OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from the use of OISD Standards/Guidelines.

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

OISD GDN 161

Page No. 7

LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS :RESCUE & RELIEF


OPERATIONS

taking all precautions. If venting is inevitable,


commencing the venting operation:
-

Cordon off the surrounding

take following action before

area.

- Divert vehicular traffic from the highway.


- Use water mist nozzles to disperse vapour cloud
-

Inform Railway authorities if the incident site is in the vicinity of railway tracks,
to suspend all rail movement.

Get the power supply to the area cut off.

Extinguish/ take care of all sources of ignition (viz. smoking, cooking, industrial
furnaces, open fire etc.)

- Closely monitor the level of concentration of LPG vapours with the help of
explosimeter outside the cordoned off area to eliminate any danger to public
life & property.
ii)

No person shall be allowed to stay within the vapour cloud and within the vicinity in
the wind direction.

iii) On arrival of the Fire Brigade, the vapour cloud should be dispersed towards uninhabited area using wide angle spray till the entire product has been vented out, if
possible.
iv) Concentration of vapour shall be checked using explosimeter. Only after all the
vapours have cleared out from the leakage source, the movement of traffic
should be allowed.
h) The other actions, if required, should be taken in consultation with experts in different
fields.
(C) Incident resulting in tank truck falling off the road with damage to bullet, fitting
with or without leakage and requiring evacuation of the product.

WITH NO LEAKAGE.
The following steps should be taken:

a)

Survey the vehicle, bullet, all fittings & assess the extent of damage.

b)

Assess whether the anchoring of bullet to the chassis is damaged or intact and whether
the bullet can be lifted with or without chassis.

c)

In case of filled tank truck, assess whether liquid and vapour nozzles are accessible for
making hose connection.

d)

Assess whether crane(s) capable of lifting the tank truck with load are available for
putting the tank truck on wheels or tank truck can be dragged by monkey wrench to the
road. If cranes of required capacity are not available, no attempt should be made for
OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from the use of OISD Standards/Guidelines.

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

OISD GDN 161

Page No. 8

LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS :RESCUE & RELIEF


OPERATIONS

lifting the filled tank truck and tank truck should be emptied before putting it back on
wheels.
e)

If Tank Truck cannot be towed safely to an LPG Installation, the product should be
transshipped to another tank truck in the following manner and such operation shall be
carried out by trained personnel with due care under close supervision of a competent
person:
i) Make temporary earthing connection with some electric pole or with iron rod driven in
the earth upto sufficient depth. Also, effective bonding between both the leaky and
empty tank trucks need to be ensured.
ii) Connect depressurised tank truck to the liquid line of the damaged TT.
iii) Slowly open the valves of incident affected tank truck and the depressurised
truck ensuring that Excess Flow Check Valves do not close.

tank

iv) If the flow rate is not sufficient which is to be observed by checking rotogauge,
connect depressurised tank truck to the vapour nozzle of the incident affected tank
truck.
v) After the flow rate slows down or stops, connect another depressurised tank truck till
such time the product to the maximum extent is transferred.
vi) Check the level of liquid in the incident affected tank truck by rotogauge,
valve or differential skin temperature.

vapour

vii) All precautionary measures as outlined in B (ii). g) needs to be taken.

WITH LEAKAGE
The procedure as stated under B (ii) is to be followed.
(D) Toppling of tank truck, rupture of liquid line and LPG truck engulfed in fire.
If the Rescue team / Fire Brigade / Police reaches the site of incident after start of fire,
the following action should be taken:

a)

To cool the tank trucks, especially the area in contact with vapour and area around dishend by the Fire tender. Nobody to be allowed to move by the side of either of the dishends of the tank truck(s).

b)

All personnel from the surrounding area to be evacuated to safer places with the help of
local administration.

c)

To advise LPG Installation / District Administration to rush water tanker to the site of
incident.

d)

To use narrow angle spray for cooling the bullet and extinguishing fire if the source of
leakage is small, otherwise, burning may be continued under controlled condition.

e)

If the fire from overturned LPG tank lorry envelopes the bullet and if it is not possible to
arrange water for sustained cooling, the entire surrounding area must be evacuated,
OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from the use of OISD Standards/Guidelines.

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

OISD GDN 161

Page No. 9

LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS :RESCUE & RELIEF


OPERATIONS

much before water gets exhausted. Fire fighters should also be prepared to leave the
site in such an event.
f)

A control room should be set-up at the site with the help of local administration for close
liaison with all agencies.

g)

Local Hospitals / Ambulances should be alerted to be ready to provide medical aid to


affected personnel, as the scenario may lead to an Unconfined Vapour Cloud Explosion
(UVCE) / BLEVE resulting in loss of public life and property necessitating major rescue
operation.

(E) Unconfined vapour cloud explosion / BLEVE resulting in injuries, fatalities and
damages to the surrounding areas.
There could be possibility of a situation when the incident affected tank truck might
have released a large amount of LPG through the damaged fittings and / or liquid /
vapour manifolds. Since there is a large inventory of LPG in the bullet, LPG would
continue to leak through these openings. In case of delayed ignition, the released
LPG would form vapour cloud and disperse along the wind direction. The vapour
cloud will increase in its size and dilution of the cloud will be occurring around the
outer surface of the plume. Therefore, the vapour cloud may either explode when it
comes in contact with the source of ignition or disperse safely. In case vapour cloud
explodes there would be blast wave / shock wave propagation resulting in damage as
a function of distance. Followed by explosion, there will be fire, which would travel
back to the affected tank truck. Depending upon the nature of damage and type of
release, the bullet may be subjected to flame impingement, which may subsequently
lead to BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion)
Based on computer models to analyse the dispersion characteristics for release of
entire LPG from an 18 MT tank truck, it has been found that LPG vapour cloud could
travel long distances depending upon the wind velocity (2-5 m/s) and extent of
leakage and still remain within the flammable limits. In case of failure of 2 liquid
loading line, the LPG vapour cloud could travel as much as 360 m upto which vapour
will still exist within LEL. In contact with a source of ignition, the unconfined vapour
cloud may explode resulting in fatalities and injuries, which could be expected upto a
distance of about 320m. from the point of release.
In case of a BLEVE, involving the bullet, the damages due to incident radiant fluxes
resulting in fatalities and first-degree burn could be expected upto a distance of about
190m. and 290m. respectively.
4.6

RELIEF / RESCUE OPERATIONS


IN CASE OF UVCE / BLEVE
The actions needed in such a situation are as follows:
1.

Arrange to provide first-aid treatment as necessary with the help of local hospitals
and voluntary agencies.

2. Take the injured persons to the nearest Hospital / Nursing Homes with the help of
local administration.
OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from the use of OISD Standards/Guidelines.

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

OISD GDN 161

Page No. 10

LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS :RESCUE & RELIEF


OPERATIONS

3. Extinguish remaining fires, if any, and remove debris from the road to restore normal
vehicular traffic with the help of Fire Brigade / Police personnel.
4. Take up with the local authorities for providing basic amenities, e.g., water, electricity,
food and shelter to the dislodged / affected people.
For tackling emergencies arising out of various scenarios as detailed above, individual
LPG Installation shall formulate specific Disaster Management Plan incorporating all
the available resources with necessary contact numbers.

4.7

ROLE OF EXTERNAL AGENCIES


It is expected that the following roles should be performed by various agencies:

4.7.1

FIRE BRIGADE
On receipt of information from any source on incident of LPG tank truck, Fire Brigade
should contact nearest LPG Installation and Police Station. After assessing the situation,
it should:
-

Rush fire tender to the incident site with all necessary fire fighting equipment.

Prepare a Contingency Plan for removal of tank truck, if not leaking, in consultation
with LPG Installation personnel.

- Dispersal of vapours by water spray away from inhabited area, in case of leakage.
- Extinguish the fire, in case leakage source can be stopped.
- Allow the fire to burn under controlled conditions till the entire quantity is burnt out, in
case the leakage source cannot be stopped.
- Save human lives and salvage material from incident affected truck.
- Liaise with Fire Brigade in the adjoining town for additional help, if necessary.
- Arrange water through Municipal Water tanker or any other source.

4.7.2

ROLE OF POLICE
On receipt of information, Police should take the following actions:
- Stop the traffic from both ends of the road.
- Warn the people living in adjacent area for stopping all fire, smoking, evacuation to
safe places, if necessary.
-

Maintain Law and Order in the area.


OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from the use of OISD Standards/Guidelines.

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

OISD GDN 161

Page No. 11

LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS :RESCUE & RELIEF


OPERATIONS

4.7.3

Contact nearest District Police Headquarters and giving the situation report.

Evacuate personnel from the area, if required.

Extend help in removal of injured personnel to the nearest first-aid centre /


hospital, contacting highway patrol, completing legal formalities in case of any
casualty.

DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION
On receipt of information, following actions should be taken:
-

Rush ambulance to the incident site if casualties are reported.

Direct cranes or any other such equipment to carry out rescue operations.

Issue warning messages to people through public address system, if any


evacuation is required.

4.8

To keep watch on the overall situation.

Arrange emergency vehicles for evacuation purposes.

Give direction to hospitals having burns injury ward for readiness to receive patient
in case of incident involving fire.

Provide basic amenities, e.g., water, electricity, food and shelter to the affected
people as required.

RESOURCE IDENTIFICATION / MOBILISATION


Mobilisation of resources will depend upon the scenario of disaster and all the locations
are required to identify the resources based on the worst disaster.
The Chief Co-ordinator of the disaster would familiarise with all roads, routes, industries,
First-aid agencies and all the available infrastructure in case of an eventuality.

4.8.1

RESOURCES
The following resources should be identified for the disaster management as listed in
Annexure-I:
a)

In-plant resources

b)

External resources

c)

Communication resources

OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from the use of OISD Standards/Guidelines.

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

OISD GDN 161

Page No. 12

LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS :RESCUE & RELIEF


OPERATIONS

REFERENCES :
1.

OISD STD 144 : LPG Bottling Plant Operations.

2.

OISD STD 144 : LPG Bottling Plant Operations.

3.

OISD RP 157 : Recommended Practices for Transportation of Bulk Petroleum


Products

4.

OISD RP 157 : Recommended Practices for Transportation of Bulk Petroleum


Products

5.

OISD STD - 159


:
LPG Tank Trucks Requirements of Safety on
Design / Fabrication and Fittings.

6.

OISD STD 160 :


trucks.

7.

OISD GDN 165 : Guidelines


POL Tank Truck Accident.

8.

The SEPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, NFPA, 1998.

9.

NFPA 58
: Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquified Petroleum
Gases 1983.

Protection to Fittings mounted on existing tank

for

Rescue

&

Relief

Operations

* * *

OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from the use of OISD Standards/Guidelines.

for

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

OISD GDN 161

Page No. 13

LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS :RESCUE & RELIEF


OPERATIONS

ANNEXURE - I
A.

IN-PLANT RESOURCES

Following items should be available at the Plant in adequate quantity / nos.


Mechanical Equipment :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Gaskets (Carbon Asbestos Filled)


Studs & bolts.
Teflon tapes.
/ crowbar (1 m long)
Spade / blind flange
Rope (Manila / Jute)
Spark arrestors.
1 tapered wooden pegs.
Chopper
Spare fan belt for tank lorry with P.T.O. unit
Wind sock
M-Seal / epoxy-base cold-welding compound.
Wooden slippers
Teflon-taped spanners, wrenches
Spark-proof wrenches, hammer and tools.
Barricading masts and ropes / tapes
LPG hoses
Chain pulley blocks and stay pipes
Small valve keys for operating valves in the tank truck

Electrical Equipment :
1.
2.
3.

Gas Explosi-meter
Flame-proof torches
Earthing wires (10 m long) with crocodile clips

Personnel Protective Equipment :


1.

Gloves:
i) Rubber gloves
ii) Low Temperature Gloves
iii) Industrial gloves (with leather lining)
iv) Canvas gloves

2.
3.

Face shields
Ear muff / ear plugs

Other Safety Items :


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

1 roll of gunny / hessian cloth (about 10 mts. long)


First aid box (containing water gel compounds)
Soap
Blanket.
Water Gel Blanket
Breathing Apparatus (With spare filled cylinder and Canister gas masks)
Fire proximity suit
OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from the use of OISD Standards/Guidelines.

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

OISD GDN 161

Page No. 14

LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS :RESCUE & RELIEF


OPERATIONS

Fire Fighting Equipment :


1.
2.
3.

Portable DCP Fire Extinguishers


Fire-water Hoses
Triple Purpose diffuser nozzle for use with fire hoses.

Communication Equipment :
1.
2.
3.

Hand operated sirens


Whistles
Megaphone, Mobile Phones, VHF sets.

Traffic Control Equipment :


1.
2.
3.

Red lights (Battery operated) - for traffic diversion


Area maps
Diversion Boards

B.

EXTERNAL RESOURCES :

Particulars

Name

Address

Ph. No.

Any
Info.

1. Fire Station
2. Ambulance
3. Hospitals

4. Police Station
5. Drug Stores
6.District Administration /
Collector
7. Availability of Cranes
8. Local PWD / CPWD
water
supplies,
sand,
morum, vehicles etc.
9. Local Army, Navy, Air
Force authorities

10. Any major industry


nearby

OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from the use of OISD Standards/Guidelines.

Other

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

OISD GDN 161

Page No. 15

LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS :RESCUE & RELIEF


OPERATIONS

C.

IDENTIFICATION OF COMMUNICATION RESOURCES :

Particulars

Name

Address

Ph. No.

Any
Info.

1. Public Address System


2. Retail Outlets

3. Railway Station
4. Power Houses
5. Civil Authorities
6. Voluntary Agencies
7. Local All India Radio /
Doordarshan

OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from the use of OISD Standards/Guidelines.

Other

Sr.Number:OISD/DOC/2012/083

OISD GDN 161

Page No. 16

LPG TANK TRUCK INCIDENTS :RESCUE & RELIEF


OPERATIONS

ANNEXURE II

TRANSPORT EMERGENCY CARD (ROAD)


CARGO: LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG)
Nature of Hazard :

Highly volatile and Inflammable.


Can cause Cold Burns.
Inhaling vapour can cause nausea, breathlessness & headache.
Air / vapour mixture highly explosive.
Leakage of LPG can cause Vapour Cloud explosion & BLEVE.

Protective Devices :

Hand gloves (Rubber / low temperature)


Safety Goggles
Self-contained Respiratory device to work in vapour-rich area.
Low temperature / fire proximity suit.

EMERGENCY ACTION
Try to move the vehicle to open area.
Stop Engine.
Vehicle should not be left unguarded.
Contact Police, Fire Brigade, Sarpanch, nearest oil company by sending helper /
passer by.
Keep public and traffic away by displaying Danger Boards at sufficient distance.
No Smoking and No Naked Lights within the cordoned off area.
Keep ready for action Fire Extinguishers and Safety Kit.
Stay Upwind.

Spillage

Check the valves and caps for tightness by hand and stop leak if possible

Fire

If minor, try to extinguish by DCP fire extinguishers

First Aid

Pour water in case of cold or hot burn


Seek medical help, if necessary

Emergency Telephone Numbers


IOC

_______________

HPC_______________________

BPC

_____________________

IBP________________________

FIRE 101

_______________

POLICE 100_________________

OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from the use of OISD Standards/Guidelines.