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MATERIALS TESTING

TECHNOLOGY
(ASPHALT TESTING)

I. DEFINITION OF ASPHALT
Asphalt is a dark brown to black cementitious material solid or semi-solid
in consistency in which the predominating constituents are bitumen which are
found in nature or as residue in petroleum refining.
II. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ASPHALT
1. Asphaltenes:
- Provides hardness
- Gives color (Black/Dark Brown)
2. Maltenes:
a. Resin - Provides stickiness (Adhesiveness)
b. Oil - Influences viscosity of asphalt and imparts softness
III. USES OF ASPHALT
1. Binder
2. Water Proofing
3. Joint and Crack Filler
4. Roofing
5. Prime Coat
6. Tack Coat
7. Undersealing (PCCP)
8. Pipe Coating
IV. KINDS OF ASPHALT
1. Natural Asphalt
- Rock Asphalt
- Lake asphalt
2. Manufactured Asphalt
a. Asphalt Cement - Penetration Grade 40 to 300
b. Blown Asphalt - Penetration Grade 0 to 30
c. Liquid Asphalt:
- Cutback Asphalt - blend of solvent and asphalt cement
- Emulsified Asphalt - AC + Water + Emulsifier
** Cutback Asphalt:
Rapid Curing (RC) - Naphtha/Gasoline = Asphalt Cement
Medium Curing (MC) - Kerosene + Asphalt Cement
Slow Curing (SC) - Roads Oils
** Emulsified Asphalt:
Anionic (-)
Cationic (+)
Rapid Setting
RS
CRS
Medium Setting
MS
CMS
Slow Setting
SS-1, SS-1h
CSS-1, CSS-1h
V. CLASSIFCATION OF PAVING ASPHALT
a. Asphalt Cement
b. Cutback Asphalt - Asphalt Cement + Solvent
- Medium Curing - Asphalt Cement + Kerosene
- Rapid Curing - Asphalt Cement + Gasoline
c. Emulsified Asphalt - Asphalt Cement + Water + Emulsifier
- Anionic - Negative Charge
- Cationic - Positive Charge

ASPHALT CEMENT OR HOT ASPHALT


- Penetration Grades:
40-50, 60-70, 85-100, 120-150, 200-300
- Characteristic:
1. Solid to Semi-Solid in consistency
2. Odorless
3. Black in color
- Uses:
Item 303 Bituminous Seal Coat
Item 304 Bituminous Surface Treatment
Item 305 Bituminous Penetration Macadam Pavement
Item 310 Bituminous Concrete Surface Course
- Basic Cementing Materials
- Constituent of all other types.
EMULSIFIED ASPHALT
- Characteristics:
1. Liquid at room temperature (mixture of asphalt cement + water +
emulsifier; usually 60% asphalt, 40% water.
2. Pungent odor
3. Chocolate brown in color
- Uses:
1. Item 301 Bituminous Prime Coat
2. Item 302 Bituminous Tack Coat
3. Item 304 Bituminous Surface Treatment
4. Item 305 Bituminous Penetration Macadam Pavement
5. Item 306 Bituminous Road Mix Surface Course
6. Item 308 Bituminous Plant Mix Surface Course, Cold-Laid
7. Item 309 Bituminous Plant Mix (Stockpile Maintenance Mixture)
- Classification:
1. Anionic Emulsifier Asphalt (AASHTO M-140), Negatively
Charged
a. Rapid Setting RS-1, RS-2
b. Medium Setting MS-1, MS-2
c. Slow Setting SS-1, SS-1h
2. Cationic Emulsified Asphalt (AASHTO M-208), Positively
Charged
a. Rapid Setting CRS-a, CRS-2
b. Medium Setting CMS-1, CMS-2
c. Slow Setting CSS-1, CSS-1h

CUTBACK ASPHALT
-Characteristics:
a. Liquid at room temperature (Blend of asphalt cement + petroleum solvent;
usually 55% of asphalt cement.
b. Characteristics smell of petroleum solvents as gasoline and kerosene.
c. Black in color
- Classification:
1. Slow Curing (SC) Asphalt cement + Non-volatile or slow volatile oils, road
oils.
SC-70

SC-250
SC-800
SC-3000
2. Medium Curing (MC) Asphalt cement + Kerosene
MC- 30
MC-70
MC-250
MC-800
MC-3000
3. Rapid Curing (RC) Asphalt cement + Gasoline
ASPHALT/CONCRETE JOINT SEALER/FILLER
PREFORMED:
SPECIFICATIONS
AASHTO
M-33

AASHTO M153

AASHTO M213

Compression

689-5171
Kpa

0.34-1035
Mpa

689-5171
Kpa

Recovery

90% (min.)

70% (min.)

Density

304 kg/m
(min.)

Water
Absorption

Depends on thickness

2. HOT POURED ELASTIC TYPE:


AASHTO M-173
(Specification)
a. Safe heating temperature
b. Pour Point
c. Flow
5.0 mm (maximum)
d. Penetration
90 (maximum)
AASHTO M-153 Preformed Sponge Rubber and Cork Expansion Joint
Fillers for Concrete Paving and Structural Construction
AASHTO M-213 Preformed Expansion Joint Fillers for Concrete Paving
and Structural Construction (Non extruding and Resilient Bituminous
Type)
AASHTO M-33 Preformed Expansion Joint filler for Concrete
(Bituminous Type)

PROPERTIES OF ASPHALT:

1. CHEMICAL
2. PHYSICAL
a. Consistency ranges from a very thin liquid to a stiff semi-solid
state.
b. Temperature Susceptibility thermoplastic substance
c. Adhesion ability to stick to the aggregates
d. Cohesion ability to hold the aggregate particles firmly.
e. Durability resistance of asphalt to change in properties due to
weathering or aging.
f. Hardening asphalt hardens when heated to higher temperature.

PHYSICAL TEST ON ASPHALT:

1. Consistency Test
a. Viscosity Test measures the resistance to flow of asphalt
b. Penetration Test measures the distance that a standard needle
will penetrate a sample at a given time.
2. Temperature Susceptibility Test
a. Softening Point Test indicates the temperature at which the
harder type asphalt reach an arbitrary degree of softening.
3. Loss on Heating It determines the rate of loss of volatile oil of asphalt
when heated and the change in penetration caused by excessive heating.

4. Ductility Test measures the ability of asphalt to stretch without


breaking.
5. Flash Point indicates the safe heating temperature of asphalt.
6. Specific Gravity indicates the uniformity of product.
7. Spot Test determines if asphalt is overheated during production.
8. Solubility Test determine the bitumen content in asphalt that is soluble
in petroleum solvent.
9. Distillation Test determines the asphalt content of liquid asphalt.
10. Sieve Test determines presence of larger globules of asphalt in the
emulsion.
11. Cement Mixing Test - determines the resistance of the emulsion to
breakdown on the job. It indicates the rate at which the emulsion will
break when mixed with aggregates.
12. Storage Stability Test detects the tendency of the asphalt globules in
the emulsion to settle during storage.

STANDARD PRACTICE FOR SAMPLING BITUMINOUS MATERIALS


(ASTM D-140):

A. Significance and Use:


a. Sampling is as important as testing and precautions shall be taken to obtain
representative samples to show the true nature and condition of the materials.
b. Samples may be taken for the purpose of either to represent as nearly as
possible as sampled or to ascertain the maximum variation in characteristics
which the material possesses.
c. Precautions also include the possibility of contamination because of the
numerous types and grades of bituminous materials.
B. Size of Samples:
a. For routine lab. test:
Bitumen

1L

Emulsion

4L

C. Types of Containers:
a. Bitumen/Cutback wide-mouth can with line screw caps or triple-seal frictiontop cans.
b. Emulsion wide-mounted jars or bottles made of plastic or plastic-lined can.
D. Protection and Preservation of Samples:
a. Sample containers shall be new.
b. Care shall be taken to prevent the sample from becoming contaminated.
c. The filled sample container shall not be submerged in solvent. no shall it be
wipe with a solvent saturated cloth.

d. Samples shall not be transferred from one container to another except where
required by the sampling procedure.
e. Samples of emulsions shall be protected from freezing by correct packaging.
f. Immediately after filling, sealing and cleaning, the sampling containers shall be
properly marked for identification with a suitable marking pencil on the container
itself. Not on the lid.

E. Sampling at Place of Manufacture:


a. Thief Sampler Method sample shall be taken in the top, middle and lower
sections at levels not higher than 1 m from the top; second in the middle third of

the rank; and the third in the bottom third of the tank; but no lower than 1.1 m
from the bottom of the tank by lowering a thief sampler into the material.
b. Sampling Valve Method valves shall be located, with easy and safe access
provided, on the side of the tank with the first in the top third of the tank, but no
higher than 1 m from the top third of the tank, but no higher than 1 m from the
top; second in the middle third of the tank; and the third in the bottom third of
the tank, but no lower than 1.1 m from the bottom. A minimum of 4 liters of the
product shall be drawn from each valve and discarded before taking the sample
for test one to 4 liters shall be drawn from each sample valve for test.
c. Throw-Away Container Method samples shall be taken at top, middle and
lower levels by lowering into the material a container in a suitable weighted
holding device.
d. Bulk Storage Tanks (Liquid Materials or Materials Made by Liquid, by Heating)
Equipped with Mechanical Agitators when the tank is equipped with operating
mechanical agitators which, by observation through the sampling or inspection
hatch, are performing adequate mixing of the tank contents, a single sample
taken will be satisfactory to use for test purposes.

HANDLING OF BITUMEN:
A. Personal Protective Equipment the main hazard from handling hot bitumen is
the burn thus it is essential to wear clothing which provides adequate protection
commensurate with the hazard:

a. heat resistant gloves with close-fitting cuffs.


b. eye and face protection.
c. an all-cotton oversuit with close-fitting cuffs and overlapping at the
boots and gloves.
d. heat resistant, non sparkling boots with reinforced toes, close-fitting at
the top, head covering with neck flap over collar.
B. Personal Hygiene personnel handling bitumen and bituminous materials
should be:
a. provided with and use barrier creams to protect exposed skin,
particularly hands and fingers.
b. Skin should be thoroughly washed after any contamination and always
before going to the toilet, eating or drinking.

STANDARD TERMINOLOGY BITUMINOUS MATERIALS:


A. Bitumen a class of black dark-coloured (solid, semi-solid, or viscous)
cementitious substances, natural or manufactured composed principally of high
molecular weight hydrocarbons, of which asphalts, tars, pitches, and asphaltites
are typical.
B. Asphalt a dark brown to black cementitious material in which the
predominating constituents are bitumens which occur in nature or are obtained
in petroleum processing.
C. Cut-Back-Asphalt Petroleum residuum (asphalt) which has been blended
with petroleum distillates.
D. Anionic Emulsion a type of emulsion such that a particular emulsifying
agent establishes a predominance of negative charges on the discontinuous
phase.
E. Cationic Emulsion a type of emulsion such that a particular emulsifying
agent established a predominance of positive charges on the discontinuous
phase.

F. Bituminous Emulsion a suspension of minute globules of bituminous


material in water or in an aqueous solution, or a suspension of a minute globules
of water or of an aqueous solution in a liquid bituminous material.
G. Flux a bituminous material, generally liquid, used for softening other
bituminous materials.
H. Asphalt Cement a fluxed or unfluxed asphalt specially prepared as to
quality and consistency for direct use in the manufacture of bituminous
pavements, and having a penetration at 25C of between 5 and 300, under a load
of 100 g applied for 5 s.
I. Asphaltenes the high molecular weight hydrocarbon fraction precipitated
from asphalt by a designated paraffinic naphtha solvent at a specified solventasphalt ratio.

BITUMINOUS MIX COMPOSITION:


I. AGGREGATE 92 95%
a. Coarse Ret. on Sieve No. 8
b. Fine Passing No. 8 Ret. No. 200
c. Mineral Filler Passing No. 200
1. Produces density, impermeability and stability
2. Extends the life of the bitumen
- retarding weathering
- resisting action of water
Important Properties of Aggregates:
1. Strength
2. Particle Shape
3. Surface Texture
4. Absorption and Specific Gravity
5. Gradation
6. Cleanliness
7. Affinity for Asphalt
8. Soundness
II. ASPHALT 5.0 8.0%
a. Grade of Asphalt
b. Quantity of Asphalt in the Mix

MIX PROPERTIES:

1. STABILITY ability to resist deformation from imposed load.

Factors Affecting Stability:

- surface texture
- particle shape
- gradation
- density
- quantity and type of asphalt
2. DURABILITY ability to the detrimental effects of air, water, temperature and
traffic.
Factors Affecting Durability:
- asphalt content
- gradation
- density
3. FLEXIBILITY ability to bend slightly without cracking and to conform to
gradual settlements and movements of the base and subgrade.
Factors Affecting Flexibility:
- high asphalt content
- gradation (open graded)
4. FATIGUE RESISTANCE ability to withstand repeated flexing caused by the
passage of wheel loads.
Factors Affecting Fatigue Resistance:
- asphalt content
- gradation
5. SKID RESISTANCE ability to offer resistance to slipping or skidding.
Factors Affecting Skid Resistance:
- texture of aggregate
- proper asphalt content

6. WORKABILITY ease with which paving mixture may be placed and


compacted.
Factors Affecting Workability:
- gradation
- properties of aggregate
- consistency of asphalt
- temperature of the mix
7. IMPERMEABILITY prevents the passage of air and water into or through the
asphalt pavement.
Factor Affecting Impermeability:
- density

TEST ON BITUMINOUS MIXES:

1. EXTRACTION TEST determine the amount of asphalt present in the mix.


2. GRADING TEST determines if the grading of the mix conform with the job mix
formula/specifications.
3. DENSITY OR BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY used in calculating the unit of the
mixture.
4. STABILITY TEST to determine the effect of asphalt to the mix.
a. MARSHALL STABILITY TEST used in the design of mix.
b. IMMERSION COMPRESSION to determine the effect of water to
the mix.

BITUMINOUS MIXTURES

1. SIGNIFICANT PROPERTIES:
The essential properties required of bituminous paving mixtures comprises
stability, durability, flexibility, resistance to skidding and impermeability.
Stability:
It is defined as resistance to displacement under sustained or
repeated loadings. It implies resistance to shoving and rutting by the action of
vehicular traffic and involves resistance to shearing stress. The most important
factors which influence stability are the following:
1. Gradation of the Mineral Aggregates:
Stability of the bituminous mixture is directly related to aggregate density,
which in turn, has a direct relationship on gradation or particle-size distribution.
In designing a mixture, aggregates available in a job shall be combined in the
proportions that result in the maximum density.
2. Shape and Surface Texture of Aggregate Particles:
Aggregates composed of angular and rough-textured particles are
more desirable than round and smooth aggregate particles from the standpoint
of stability. The aggregate component contribute internal friction to the shear
strength and stability of the mixture. From this point of view, the shape and
surface texture of the aggregate particles are of primary importance.
3. Hardness of Aggregate Particles:
If soft and friable aggregate are used, the voids are greatly reduced
by rolling during construction and by subsequent vehicular traffic, that there will
be insufficient space for the bituminous binder, which results in bleeding and loss
of stability.
4. Maximum Size of Coarse Aggregate:
Higher stability is obtained by the use of coarser aggregates.
However, with coarser aggregates, there is a tendency towards increasing
harshness and segregation which results in unattractive surface appearance. The
choice of maximum size of aggregate should depend on the relative importance
of high stability versus workability and surface finish.
5. Quantity and Consistency of Bituminous Binder:
The quantity of binder greatly affects stability of the mixture. Most
mixtures have a critical bitumen content which if exceed will result in overlubrication of aggregates, thus causing instability. The critical bitumen content is
about 5 to percent lower than the quantity of binder required to completely fill
the voids in the compacted mineral aggregate.
6. Degree of Compaction:

Compaction is essential to produce maximum contact between the


bitumen-coated aggregates for the development of stability in the mixture. The
degree of compaction is principally dependent upon the intensity and type of
compactive effort, gradation and particle shape of aggregate and consistency of
binder at the time of compaction.
Tests for Stability:
The following tests have been developed to measure the stability of
a bituminous mixture in the laboratory:
1. Marshall Stability
2. Immersion Compression
Many kilometer of satisfactory bituminous surface have been
designed by use of these test methods. They are very useful design tools
especially when used by engineers experienced in their use.
Durability:
It is defined as resistance of desintegration due to the detrimental
effects of traffic, water, air and temperature changes. To be durable, a
bituminous pavement must satisfactorily resist traffic loads during its lifetime.
The significant factors that affect durability includes the following:
1. Density of the Compacted Mixture:
A high-density pavement is highly resistant to the intrusion of water.
The size of the pores as well as total voids, are important considerations. A sand
mixture with high total percent voids and small pore size may resist the intrusion
of water more readily than some bituminous mixtures having a lower percent of
total voids but with larger pore size.

A high-density pavement has low air voids. Air or water contact with
bituminous films causes oxidation and hardening of the bitumen. The detrimental
effects of the bitumen will therefore be less in pavement of high density than in a
less dense surface.
However, the bituminous pavement should not be voidless, as this
will result in bleeding and instability. It is common practice in designing
bituminous mixtures to limit the percentage of air voids in the pavement as laid,
from 5 to 7 percent.
2.

Properties of Mineral Aggregate:

Aggregates vary in their ability to retain the bituminous coating in


the presence of water. Hydrophylic aggregates have affinity for water and should
be avoided. The film stripping and immersion-compression tests have been

developed to measure the loss of cohesion as a result of water action on the


compacted bituminous mixture.
Absorption of moisture causes the mixture to swell. A durable
pavement should be able to resist this swelling action.
Aggregates vary with respect to hardness and toughness. Soft
aggregates at the exposed surface of toughness. Soft aggregates at the exposed
surface of bituminous pavements may be dislodged under traffic.
3. Properties of Bituminous Binder:
All bituminous road materials harden with age and weathering
action. However, certain materials harden more rapidly than others. The thin-film
oven test had been developed in order to differentiate bituminous materials with
respect to hardening characteristics.
Asphalt also differ in their resistance to stripping from aggregates in
the presence of water.
4. Quantity of Bituminous Binder:
In order to preserve the plastic properties of the pavement, it is a
good practice to use as much bituminous materials in the mixture as possible,
consistent with stability requirements. If the coating in the aggregates is very
thin, the pavement easily becomes brittle and is abraded more readily.
Flexibility:
It is defined as the ability of the pavement to bend repeatedly
without cracking and to conform to variations of the underlying base. Flexibility is
important when the base is flexible or compatible. The principal factors which
affect flexibility are:
1. the quantity of bituminous binder
2. the quantity of mineral filler, and
3. the viscosity and temperature susceptibility of the binder
These factors also affect stability, so that in designing a mixture,
there should be flexibility without sacrifice of stability.
Flexibility is improved by decreasing the mineral filler; this reduces
surface area of particles, thus permitting thicker asphalt films. However, this
should not be overdone as it may result in reducing greatly the stability.

Skid Resistance:

It is resistance offered by the pavement to slipping or skidding of


the vehicle tires.
Skid resistance is directly affected by the following:
1. Excess asphalt at pavement surface immediately after construction or
after densification by traffic or due to change in temperature. To
counteract this, sufficient voids should be provided in the mixture.
2. Surface Roughness of Aggregate Particles. Certain types of rocks, as nonporous and hard limestone and serpentine, tend to become polished under
traffic and cause a slick surface. It is helpful to incorporate angular silica
sand in the mix in such proportions so that the finish is like sandpaper,
instead of having the smooth stones predominate at the surface.
Incorporation of granitic aggregates in the mix will also help in producing a
skid-resistant surface.
Permeability:
It means porosity or perviousness of the mixture. It is principally
dependent on pore size. A dense graded mix prevents water from entering the
base through the surface.
2. SAMPLING:
Plant-mixed bituminous mixtures should be sampled in accordance
with the Standard Method of Sampling Bituminous Mixtures, AASHTO Designation
T 168, except as hereinafter provided. A sample of not less than 10 kg is taken
and placed in sample bags or other suitable container that would insure against
contaminations. It is submitted to the laboratory compaction, gradation test on
the aggregate. These tests may be performed in the field if facilities are
available. The minimum requirement is one sample for every 75 cubic meters or
130 tonnes of mix or fraction thereof.
Sieve analysis of the aggregate remaining after extraction shall be
made by AASHTO Method T-30, Mechanical Analysis of Extracted Aggregate.
At least one, but not more than three samples of bituminous
pavement for density, composition and thickness determination should be taken
for each full days operation. The sample should extend to the full depth of the
pavement and should be not less than 150 mm x 150 mm or 100 mm diameter
full depth. If the sample is to be sent to the Regional/District Laboratory, it should
be carefully wrapped such that it will not be disturbed or broken during transit,
and it should be accompanied by a completely filled up sample card.
The density of bituminous pavements may be determined in the
field by weighing an undisturbed sample of the compacted pavement both in the
air and in water.
The DPWH Standard Specification 1988 specifies the density to be
obtained in the finished bituminous pavement a minimum of 90 mass percent of

the theoretical maximum density or 97 mass percent of the density of a


laboratory compacted specimen. Results of such tests performed in the field
should be reported in a special sheet.
3. TESTS:
Extraction:
Asphalt paving mixtures are usually tested to determine whether
they conform with specification requirements for asphalt content. The process
consists of dissolving the asphalt in the mixture of known weight in suitable
solvent from the aggregate by means of a Rotarex Centrifuge, AASHTO
Designation T-164. A newly developed tests for the same purpose and which is
widely used abroad is the Reflux Extractor. It is said that the latter test gives the
more consistent results. It is takes longer to make the Reflux tests but does not
require constant attention. Both tests remove the asphalt so that a grading test
may be run on the remaining aggregates.
Density of Compacted Mixtures:
The specific gravity or density is an important data in the
determination of the degree of compaction of a newly constructed asphalt
pavement. It is determined by weighing the compacted sample in air and then in
water. The loss in weight is the volume of the compacted mixture. Specific
gravity is computed from the formula:
Bulk Specific

Wt. of Sample in Air

Gravity

Wt. of Sample in Air Wt. of Sample in Water

Voids in the Compacted Mixture:


The percent of voids in a compacted mixture is readily determined
from its specific gravity and percentage by weight of both asphalt and mineral
aggregate are known. Before this can be done, however, it is first necessary to
know the specific gravity of the same mixture if it were free from voids, which
known as the theoretical maximum density. Calculation are as follows:
Theoretical

100

Maximum Specific
Gravity
Percentage
Voids

% Asphalt

S.G. of Asphalt
=

% Aggregate
S.G. of Aggregate

100 (D d)
D

Where:
D = theoretical maximum specific gravity density
d = bulk specific gravity

Under conditions of the standard test, it has been found out that
swell as little as 1.60 mm (1/16 inch) indicates a mediocre mixture; entirely
unsuitable mixture from a service standpoint, swell is as much as 19.0 mm (3/4
inch).
Film Stripping:
The stripping test is used for measuring the relative adhesion of
bituminous film to aggregate particles in the presence of moisture. The test is
made by first preparing a mixture of the aggregate and the bitumen proposed to
be used with it. The mixture is heated for 24 hours, soaked under water for
another 24 hours; then boiled for 5 minutes. An aggregate is considered
satisfactory if at the end of the test, it is seen by visual inspection that there is
no appreciable amount of uncoated particles.
The type of bitumen used with the aggregate has a considerable
effect upon its resistance to stripping. If there is stripping in the test, that
particular combination of aggregate and bitumen may be expected to give
unsatisfactory service. The same bituminous material with a different aggregate
or the same aggregate with a different bituminous material might prove to be
satisfactory. Therefore, if local conditions limit a combination of aggregate and
bituminous material to one type, the stripping test is of great value in predicting
if that particular combination is satisfactory or not.
Stability:
1.

Immersion Compression Test:

At least two samples of the mixture are compacted in 100 mm


diameter molds about 100 mm high, and remove from the mold after an
application of 17,045 kg (37,500 lb) load one specimen is soaked in water for
four hours a day after obtaining the weight, while the order is exposed in the air
for the same length of time. Both specimens are tested in compression
unsupported. The strengths obtained give the wet and dry stability divided by
the dry stability.
The test measures the cohesion or viscous resistance of the
bituminous material in a dry or wet mixture. It shows the effect of water on
bituminous mixtures, in terms of stability values.
2. Marshall Test:
The test is performed by measuring resistance to the application of
load on a circumferential surface of a cylindrical specimen. Besides measuring
resistance to displacement, the flow of the specimen during the test is also
measured. A lateral pressure is applied with zero normal load which makes the
test an opposite of the unconfined compression test.

The stability value obtained in the Marshall Test measure resistance


to displacement of a compacted bituminous mixture. The flow index is obtained
by measuring the diametric distortion required to produce failure.

The recommended Marshall Stability Values at 60C (140F) are as follows:


a. 340 kg (750 lb) for light traffic.
b. 544 kg (1200 lb) for medium traffic.
c. 816 kg (1800 lb) for heavy traffic.
The flow value for all traffic requirements for paving mixtures shall
not exceed 16.0 when measured in 0.25 mm (0.01 inch) gradation.
4. DESIGN:
Design of Bituminous Paving Mixtures:
The design of the mixture should be focused on the selection of
materials with prescribed properties, the stability and durability of the surface
course in particular, the ease of mixing, spreading, compaction and finishing of
the surface. It is especially important that the mixture for the surface course has
enough skid resistance, flexibility and impermeability. Engineers concerned with
the design and construction of bituminous paving mixtures must have an
understanding of the properties and fundamentals in order to design property
the proportions of aggregate and bituminous binder for a paving project.
Essential Steps in Mix Design:
1. Selection of Quality of Aggregate:
Important factors to be considered are shape, surface texture and preferential
wetting characteristics of the aggregate particles.
2. Selection of Gradation of Aggregate:
Important factors to be considered are workability of mix, perviousness and
surface texture of pavement, and overall economy. Generally it is more
economical to include a maximum of coarse particles, without sacrificing
workability.
3. Selection of Type and Grade of Bituminous Binders:
Important factors to be considered are workability, climatic conditions, aging
considerations and gradation of aggregate.
4.
Determination of Correct Amount of Bituminous Binder by
or Immersion Compression Test.

Marshall

5. CONTROL OF BITUMINOUS CONSTRUCTION:


Materials Control:
Common aggregates used for bituminous construction include sand,
gravel, crushed rock or crushed stone and granular dusts, slag, while it is also a
good bituminous paving material aggregate, is not available in the Philippines.
Gradation, resistance to wear and resistance to wearing are the necessary items
of control for the aggregate materials. Gradation requirements assure the
desired mechanical stability of the bituminous mixes. Abrasion loss requirements
of more than 40% by Los Angeles Machine assures resistance to wear due to
traffic. Soundness loss of 12 percent by sodium sulfate method using 5 cycles
assures the resistance of the mixture to weathering.
Bituminous materials in the form of asphalt cement or liquid asphalt
are usually tested in the Laboratory before they are shipped to the job. As such,
the field or project engineer should obtain such data and information regarding
these materials on the basis of laboratory examinations performed for the
proper use of these bituminous materials during the course of construction.
Bituminous materials may be damaged by over-heating or may become a fire
hazard if not handled properly.
Inspection of bituminous materials brought to the job is generally
confined to visual examination or by simple tests acquired from experience to
determine whether materials accepted elsewhere have been contaminated or
changed while enroute, it should be retested by sending representative samples
to the Laboratory for test and acceptance.

Control of Proportioning and Mixing (Plant):


Control items under this heading include quantity of materials either
by weight of volume measurements, temperature of materials before mixing and
at the time mixing. Proper calibration of the measuring system and proper
working of timing devices and temperature indicators are checked before any
mixing operation starts. Stockpiling of the aggregates will be in such a manner
as to prevent or minimize segregation of the aggregates. The mixer box should
also be looked into as to its present working condition with regards to its blades
and its present working condition with regards to its blades and its discharge
gate, so that adjustments may be made to bring it to proper working order
before any mixing is done.
Before any mixing operation begin, the bituminous material and
aggregates should be already properly prepared. Both materials should be at
respective temperature specified for mixing. The bitumen should have the
specified consistency test daily. Sample shall be taken at the discharge valve of
the bitumen weighing bucket and not from the storage tank or reservoir.

Weighing boxes or buckets should be balanced or weighed before


introducing aggregates and bitumen into them. The bitumen bucket especially,
should be balanced at frequent intervals as deposition of bitumen may effect its
weight and consequently that of the mixture.

During the actual mixing process, the following shall be


observed as frequently as possible:
1. Care in weighing the aggregates and the bitumen.
2. Time interval for mixing the aggregate dry.
3. Whether or not the bitumen bucket is well drained.
4. Time of mixing bitumen and aggregate.
5. Uniformly of mixing and tendency towards segregation.
The behavior of the mixtures as it drops from the mixer box is an
indication of its composition, temperature and workability, ability to judge the
exact effect of these characteristics is acquired with actual measurements and
test data.
Field Operation Control:
Field operation in bituminous construction range from the placing of
a carefully designed mixture in a definitely specified manner to the placing of a
single application of bituminous material on an existing bituminous or nonbituminous base or surface. In general, regardless of the type of bituminous
surface construction the following items of control shall be observed, namely:
a. Determination of the suitability of equipment to comply with specified
requirements as to type, size and condition.
b. Examination of all materials and the mixture and performance of such test as
may be required.
c. Observation of all actual operations and making adjustments as may be
necessary and which may be authorized in order to obtain best results.
1. Field Control of Mixture prepared and Laid Hot: (Item 310):
Each load of bituminous mixture upon arrival at the job, should be visually
examined for defects such as segregation, excessive bitumen on the surface,
incomplete or non-uniform mixing and overheating. The temperature of the
mixture as received should be ascertained upon arrival, not only to determine
compliance with specification but also to ascertain if it is at the best temperature
for asphalting and compacting. Adjustments in the mixture to suit the type of
equipment for spreading can be tolerated as long as it does not affect
compliance with either the specifications or any tolerance permitted for the

particular project. Flushing of the bitumen to the surface after belting or


screeding the hot mixture denotes rich mixture in which case a slight decrease in
bitumen is the solution. Tearing of the mixture or a mechanical defect, and
adjustment made respectively on the mixture or machine is the remedy.
Compaction of the mixture is specified in terms of the equipment required, the
amount and type of rolling to be done and the density to be obtained.
Corrections as to waviness, tearing, fine cracking and honeycombing can best be
achieved through experience and should be made while the material is still
warm and easily compressible. The care exercised by the fieldmen reflects the
quality of physical properties in the finished products.
Samples for Density, Composition and Thickness Determinations should be taken
as previously specified.
2. Control of Mix-In-Place Construction Mixture Prepared and Laid Cold:
Mixed-in-place and traveling plant bituminous construction is mixing the
aggregates and bituminous material on the road. Control in the field although
similar in many aspect to that of laying the plant prepared mixtures, require
more experience and judgement on the materialsman. Cold mixtures are
prepared in a mixed-in-place method. These mixtures may not be laid down and
compacted immediately because of the presence of volatile material is kerosene.
Aeration eliminates this volatile material and the amount of manipulation
required to reduce the amount of volatile material to optimum percentage
depends upon the type of the material, the type of mixture, air temperature and
climatic conditions. A ready test to determine approximately the permissible
amount of volatile material is to get a sample on the palm of the hand and apply
the pressure of the fingers by closing the palm. If the mixture upon opening the
hand is molded without wetting the hand, then the amount of volatile material
present is already permissible and compaction of the already laid mixture can
commence. A moisture content of 2% is ideal. In case of rain, before final
operation is completed, additional processing to eliminate excess moisture
content will be necessary. Amount of compaction of the mixture should satisfy
specification requirements. Samples for density, composition and thickness
determinations should be taken as previous described.
3. Control of Bituminous Macadam Construction:
Construction consists of alternately placing course of aggregates and bituminous
material in specified quantities and in a prescribed manner. Stability in
bituminous macadam depends primarily upon the interlocking of the aggregates
which is achieved by using angular or crushed aggregate. Control items includes
placing the necessary quantity of materials, sufficient compaction in the
specified manner, and surface smoothness to comply with specifications. Close
observation of rolling and use of straight edge and template will insure good
results. Each course shall be compacted thoroughly and finished to the required
grade before placing the next course. Rate of distribution and temperature of the
bituminous material shall be as specified pressure distributor equipment used

should be calibrated and tested before using same in order to insure that
quantity placed is a specified at the application is uniform.
Measurement of the aggregate for each layer is usually made by weight per
square meter of area. Uniform loading of trucks simplifies the spreading
operation. Knowing the total weight of the aggregate that is placed in the truck
will be spread over a fixed distance. Check up of the amount of aggregate placed
in this manner is an easy matter.
4. Control of Surface Treatment Construction and Application of Bitumen
Coatings:
Control of surface treatment construction is a combination of measurement of
quantities and visual inspection of construction details.
Control items are:
1. Base preparation.
2. Quantities used per square meter.
3. Placing of the materials.
Application of the measured quantities of the bituminous material is similar to
that used in bituminous macadam construction. The rate of application should
not deviate by more than 0.4 L per square meter. If greater deviations occur
consistently, there is something wrong with the distribution or its operator or
both. The amount of bituminous priming material is a function of the character
and condition of the base, and the required quantity to use should be
approximately the maximum that can be spread without causing excessive runoff
regardless of the prescribed limits of application. The prime coat should be
cured as prescribed, before paving operations commence.
Measurement of the aggregate and transporting it by truck to the job is done as
was described for penetration macadam or with the use of aggregate spreaders.
Spreading of the aggregate cover in surface treatment should be done carefully
and uniformly. The spreading is efficiently accomplished by using an end dump
truck with a 2 truck. Experienced back-up driver and spreader operators are
required in this kind of work to insure good workmanship.
Rolling operations as prescribed in the specifications should be observed for each
layer of aggregate until satisfactorily compacted and binded before the next
operation will follow.
In rolling the cover, a light steel tandem roller, usually the 5tonne weight, or a
rubber-tired roller is used to avoid crushing the cover aggregate. Correction of
areas deficient in cover as well as area with excess cover shall be made by the
use of broom drag during the rolling operation.

ITEM 301 BITUMINOUS PRIME COAT:


Description:
Preparing and treating an aggregate base course.
Materials:
Bituminous Materials:
a. Rapid Curing (RC) or
b. Medium Curing (MC) Cutback Asphalt
Equipment:
1. Pressure distributor to spray liquid bituminous materials of not less than 1,000
liters capacity with load tire not to exceed 1 kN/cm of width of tire.
2. Heating tank able to heat a bituminous liquid to 180C.
3. Drop in temperature shall not be less than 2C per hour when not heated at
temperature of 180C.
4. Deviation from the prescribed rate of application does not exceed 10%.
Application:
1. Rate of application of bituminous material shall be within the range of 1 to 2
liters/m.
2. Prime coat shall be left undisturbed for 24 hours.
3. Excess amount applied shall be blotted with sand or removed as directed by
the Engineer.
Basis of Payment:
tonne

ITEM 302 BITUMINOUS TACK COAT:


Description:
Preparing and treating an existing bituminous or cement concrete surface with
bituminous material in the accordance with the plans and specifications,
preparatory to the construction of bituminous surface course.
Materials:
1. Rapid Curing (RC) Cutback or
2. Emulsified Asphalt
Equipment:
Same as in Item 301

Application:
1. Rate of application shall be 0.2 to 0.7 liter/m.
Basis of Payment:
tonne
ITEM 303 BITUMINOUS SEAL COAT:
Description:
Application of bituminous material with or without an application of aggregate on
an existing bituminous surface course in accordance with the plans and
specifications.
Materials:
Quantities of Materials for Seal Coats
Type 1

Type 2

Type 3

Bituminous material, L/m

0.20 0.50

0.50 1.00

0.85 1.50

Cover Aggregate, kg/m

none

5.00 10.00

8.00 14.00

1. Asphalt Cement, Penetration Grade 120 150


2. Rapid Curing (RC) or
3. Medium Curing (MC) Cutback Asphalt
4. Cover Aggregates for Type 2 consist of sand
5. Aggregate for Type 3 Seal coat shall be crushed stone, crushed slag or crushed
gravel

6. Grading Requirements:
Sieve Designation

Standard
mm

Mass Percent Passing

Alternate
U.S.
Standard

Type 3
Type 2
Grading A

Grading B

12.50

in.

100

9.50

in.

100

100

85 100

4.75

No. 4

85 100

85 100

10 30

2.36

No. 8

60 100

10 40

0 10

1.18

No. 16

0 10

05

0.300

No. 50

0 -5

0.150

No. 100

0 - 10

7. Aggregate shall have a mass percent of wear not exceeding 40.


8. Crushed slag shall have a density of not less than 960 kg/m (60 lb/ft).
Application:
1. Apply by means of a pressure distributor at the rate of 0.90 1.80 liters for
asphalt cement and 1.5 to 3.0 liters for cutback asphalt per square meter.
2. Excess of bituminous material from the surface shall be removed by a
squeegee.
3. A strip of 1 meter shall be used at the beginning and end of each speed to
obtain proper junction of spreads.
4. Immediately after the application of asphalt, the cover aggregate shall at
the rate of approximately 0.004 to 0.007 m/m by use of aggregate spreader.
5. As soon as the cover aggregate been spread, the surface shall be broomed
lightly with approved push or drag broom to insure even distribution and then
rolled with an approved power roller weighing not less than 5 nor more than 6
tonnes to a uniform surface.

Method of Measurement:
Quantities of bituminous material and cover aggregates shall be measured by
the tonne (t).

ITEM 304 BITUMINOUS SURFACE TREATMENT:


Description:
Consists of either a single application of bituminous material followed by a
single spreading of aggregate (single surface treatment) or two applications of
bituminous material each followed by a spreading of aggregate (double surface
treatment).
Materials:
1. Specific gravity of aggregates shall be 2.65.
Quantities of Materials and Sequence of Operations Using Cut-Back
Asphalt or Asphalt Cement
Aggregate Grading and

Single S.T.

Double S.T.

First Course:

0.7 1.1 AC

1.6 2.0 AC

Apply bituminous material, L/m

0.9 1.5 MC

1.8 2.3 MC

Spread Aggregate:

11.0 14.0

22.0 27.0

Sequence of Operations

Grading A, Kg/m

2.3 2.7 AC

Grading B, kg/m

2.8 3.5 MC

Second Course:

11.0 14.0

Apply bituminous material, K/m


Spread Aggregate:
Grading C, kg/m

Quantities of Materials and Sequence of Operations Using


Emulsified Asphalt
Aggregate Grading and

Single S.T.

Double S.T.

First Course:

0.9 1.6

1.4 2.0

Apply bituminous material, L/m

11.0 14.0

14.0 19.0

Sequence of Operations

Spread Aggregate:

2.1 3.0

Grading A, Kg/m

5.0 8.0

Grading B, kg/m
Second Course:
Apply bituminous material, K/m
Spread Aggregate:
Grading C, kg/m

2. Bituminous Materials either:


1. CRS-1 (Cationic Rapid Setting)
2. CRS-2 (Cationic Rapid Setting)
3. RS-1 (Rapid Setting)
4. RS-2 (Rapid Setting)
5. AC 120 150 (Asphalt Cement)
6. MC 250 800 (Medium Curing)
3. Aggregates
Aggregate Grading Requirements
Sieve Designation
Standard

Alternate

mm

U.S.

Mass Percent Passing

Grading A

Grading B

Grading C

Standard
25.0

1 in.

100

19.0

in.

90 100

12.5

in.

20 - 55

100

9.5

in.

0 15

85 100

100

4.75

No. 4

0-5

10 30

85 100

2.36

No. 8

0 10

10 40

1.18

No. 16

0 -5

0 10

0.300

No. 50

05

4. Aggregate shall have a mass percent of wear not exceeding 40.


5. If crushed gravel is used, not less than 50 mass percent of the particles
retained in 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve shall have
at least one fractured face.
6. When crushed slag is used, density shall be not less than
960 kg/m (60 lb/ft).
Equipment:
1. Mechanical Spreader for spreading the aggregates.
2. Equipment required in Item 301.

Application:
1. Asphaltic material shall be applied to the surface at least twenty for (24) hours
after it has been prime coated.
2. Spraying shall not be done unless the road temperature
has been above 20C for at least one hour prior to the commencement of
spraying operations and the temperature shall be less than 20C during the
spraying.

3. Immediately after applying the asphalt material, dry aggregate shall be


uniformly and evenly distributed over the treated surface from an approved
aggregate spreader.
4. No portion of the sprayed surface shall remain uncovered for a period in
excess of 2 minutes. Immediately after spreading the aggregate, treated surface
shall be rolled with an approved pneumatic tire roller.
Method of Measurement:
Bituminous Surface Treatment will be measured by the tonne (t).

ITEM 305 BITUMINOUS PENETRATION MACADAM PAVEMENT:


Description:
Consist of furnishing and placing one or more course of graded aggregate and
one ore more application of bituminous material followed by a seal coat with
cover aggregate constructed on a prepared base in accordance with this
specifications and in conformity with the lines, grades and typical cross sections
shown on plans.
Quantities of Materials and Sequence of Operations
Type of Bituminous Material
Type of Aggregate and Sequence of
Operations

Asphalt Cement or
Rapid Curing (RC)

Emulsified Asphalt

First Layer:

90

90

Spread Aggregates:

10

Coarse Aggregate, kg/m

4.0

5.5

Choker Aggregate, Kg/m

13

10

Apply bituminous material, L/m

1.8

3.5

Second Layer:

11

Spread Aggregate:

1.4

Key Aggregate, kg/m

Apply bituminous material, L/m

7.2

11

Third Layer:

122

126

Spread Aggregate:

Key Aggregate, kg/m


Apply bituminous material, L/m
Fourth Layer:
Spread Aggregate:
Cover Aggregate, kg/m
Total Quantities:
Bituminous Material, L/m
Aggregate, kg/m
Materials:
Bituminous Material Either:
1. Asphalt Cement
2. Rapid Curing (RC)
3. Cutback Asphalt or Emulsified Asphalt
Aggregates:
Aggregate Grading Requirements
Sieve Designation
Standard
mm

Alternate U.S.

Mass Percent Passing

Standard

Coarse
Aggregate

Choker
Aggregate

Key Aggregate

Cover
Aggregate

63

2 - in.

100

50

2 in.

90 100

37.5

1 - in.

35 70

25

1 in.

0 15

100

19

in.

100

90 100

12.5

in.

05

90 100

20 55

100

9.5

in.

40 70

0 15

85 100

4.75

No. 4

0 15

05

10 30

2.36

No. 8

05

0 10

1.18

No. 16

05

1. The aggregate shall have a mass percent of wear not exceeding 40.

2. When crushed gravel is used must be subjected to five cycles of the sodium
sulfate soundness test, the weighted loss shall not exceed 12 mass percent.
3. When crushed slag is used, the uniform density should not be less than 1120
kg/m (70 lb/ft).
Equipment:
Hard or power operated brooms, shovels, rakes self powered bituminous material
distributors or hard or power operated spray pumps, brooms dragging equipment
and self powered rollers.
Conditioning Existing Base:
1. Prime Coat shall be applied to the untreated base in accordance with Item
301.
2. Bituminous Prime Coat in case of previous constructed asphalt or cement
surface tack coat.
Spreading and Compacting of Aggregate Layers:
1.

In accordance with table shown.

2. Rolling shall progress gradually from the sides to the center, parallel with
center line of the road and overlapping uniformly each preceding rear wheel
track by one half the width of such track and shall continue until the aggregate
does not creep or displace ahead of the rollers.
3. Dry rolling shall be stopped when the surface of the aggregate will support
the distributor and before the voids are closed sufficiently to prevent the
free uniform penetration of the bituminous material.
4. Mass tamper (along curbs, headers, walls and places not accessible to the
roller) of not less than 25 kg and a face of not more than 250 mm by 250 mm.
5. The variation of the aggregate surface layer from the testing edge
between any two contacts with the surface shall not exceed 10 mm (prior to the
application of the bituminous material).
Method of Measurement/Payment:
Measured by tonne (t).

ITEM 306 BITUMINOUS ROAD MIX SURFACE COURSE:


Description:
Consist of constructing a bituminous road mix surface course on a prepared base
in accordance with specifications and conformity with the line, grades and typical
cross sections shown on plans, or on as established by the Engineer.
Bituminous Materials Either:

1. Rapid Curing (RC) Cutback


2. Medium Curing (MC)Cutback
3. Emulsified Asphalt
Aggregate:
1.

New Aggregate shall conform with Item 703, Aggregate.

2.

Salvage Aggregate did not pass 37.5 mm (1 in) sieve.


Proportioning Mixture:

Preparation of bituminous material on the basis of dry aggregate.


A. 4.5 to 7.0 mass percent when cutback asphalt is used.
B. 6.0 to 10.0 mass percent when emulsified asphalt is used.
C. During the mixing operation one half to one (0.5 to 1.0) mass percent of
hydrated lime, dry aggregate basis shall be added to the mixture.
Equipment:
1. Scarifying and mixing equipment
2.

Finishing and compacting equipment

3. Bituminous distributor
4. Equipment for heating bituminous material
Bituminous Distributor may apply uniformly on variable widths of surface up to
4.5 m with a controlled rate of 0.2 to 10 liters/m with allowable variation not to
exceed 0.1 liters/m.
Roller shall be self propelled steel wheel tandem or 3 wheel rollers weighing not
less than 8 tonnes each and pneumatic rollers having a compacting width of not
less than 1,520 mm (60 in) and the gross mass adjustable with the range of
3,640 to 6,360 kilometers per meter (200 to 350 pounds per inch) of compaction
width.

Base Preparation:
1. Case I New Aggregate
When new aggregate is to be used for the road mix surface course, existing base
shall be scarified lightly and bladed to uniform grade and cross section based on
plans and then be rolled or watered and rolled as directed by the Engineer.
2. Case 2 Salvage Aggregate

When material in the existing road surface is to be used for mixing, the surface
shall be scarified lightly and bladed to uniform grade and to the cross section
shown on plans.
3. If the surface moisture of the aggregate is more than 2 percent of the dry
weight of the aggregate, except when bituminous material is emulsified asphalt,
the aggregate shall be turned by blades or disc harrows or otherwise aerated
until moisture content is reduced to 2 percent or less.
4. In lieu of aerating and drying aggregate, the contractor may use an approved
additive except where emulsified asphalt is used which shall satisfactorily
blended with bituminous material. The additive shall permit suitable coating of
the wet aggregate and shall present the bituminous coating from stripping in the
presence of water.
Mixing Bituminous Material:
After the last application of bituminous material and partial mixing, the
entire mass of bituminous material and aggregate shall be windrowed on the
road surface and then mixed, by blading the mixture from side to side of the
road, or by manipulation producing equivalent results, until all aggregate
particles are coated with bituminous material and the whole mass has a uniform
color and the mixture is free from fat or lean spots, or balls of uncoated particles.
During the mixing operations, care shall be taken to avoid cutting into the
underlying course or contaminating the mixture with earth or other extraneous
matter. When directed, the mixing process shall be confined to part of the width
or area of the road so as to allow to pass.
Should the mixture show an excess, deficiency or uneven distribution of
bituminous material, the condition shall be corrected by the addition of
aggregate or bituminous material as required and remixing. If the mixture
contains excessive amounts of moisture or volatile matter, it shall be bladed,
aerated or otherwise manipulated until the moisture and volatile content are
satisfactory. The spreading of the mix shall not be done when the surface to be
covered is in an unsatisfactory condition. At the end of each days work, or when
the work is interrupted by weather conditions or otherwise, all loose materials
shall be bladed into a windrow, whether mixing is complete or not, and shall be
retained in a windrow until operations are resumed.
When the mixing operations have been satisfactorily complete, the
mixture shall be formed into a windrow of uniform cross-section.
Spreading, Compacting and Finishing:
1. Material shall be spread by a self propelled pneumatic-tire blade graders
or a mechanical spreader of approved type.
2. After spreading, the materials shall be rolled.

3. Rolling shall be parallel to the road centerline and shall commence at the
outer edges of the road, overlapping the shoulders and progressing
towards the center, overlapping on successive passes by at least one half
the width of the roller, except superelevated curves, rolling shall progress
from the lower to the upper edge.
4. Each pass shall terminate at least 910 mm (3 ft) in advance or to the rear
of the end of the preceding pass.
5. Rolling shall be discontinued whenever it begins to produce excessive
pulverizing of the aggregates or displacement of the mixture.
6. When the compacted thickness of the road mix surface is to be more than
50 mm (2 inches), the mixture shall be spread from the windrow and
compacted in two layer to be bladed and rolled before the second layer is
spread.
Permissible Surface Variance:
10 mm in 3 m (3.80 inches in 10 ft.)
Method of Measurement/Payment:
Measured in tonne (t).
Payment shall be made under:
Pay Item Number Description

Unit of Measurement

306

Tonne

306 (1)
306 (2)

Bituminous Road Mix Surface


Course

Tonne

Aggregate for Bituminous Road


Mix Surface Course
Bituminous Material for
Bituminous Road Mix Surface
Course

ITEM 307 BITUMINOUS PLANT MIX SURFACE


COURSE GENERAL:
Description:

Includes general requirements that are applicable to al types of


bituminous plant mix surface course irrespective of gradation of aggregate or
kind and amount of bituminous material.
Materials:
A. Composition and Quality of Bituminous Mixture:
1. Job Mix Formula bituminous mixture shall be composed of aggregate,
mineral filler, hydrated lime and bituminous material.
2. At least three weeks prior to production, the contrator shall submit in
writing a job mix formula for each mixture supported by laboratory test
data along with test samples and viscosity-temperature relationships.
Each job mix formula shall propose definite single values:
1. The percentage of aggregate passing each specified sieve size.
2. The percentage of bituminous material to be added.
3. The temperature of the mixture delivered on the road.
4. The kind and percentage of additive to be used.
5. The kind and percentage of mineral filler to be used.
After the job mix is established, all mixture furnished for the project shall
conform thereto within the following range of tolerances:
Passing No. 4 and larger sieves

7 percent

Passing No. 8 to No. 100 sieves (inclusive)

4 percent

Passing No. 200 sieve


2 percent Bituminous Material
0.4 percent Temperature of Mixture

10C
The mixture shall have a mass percent air voids with the range of 3 to 5.
The mixture shall have a minimum compressive strength of 1.4 Mpa (200 psi).
The mixture shall have an index of retained strength of not less than 70.
Bituminous Materials:
Specified in the Bill of Materials and Special Provisions.
Aggregates:
Shall conform with Item 703.
Proportion of Mixture:

Proportion of bituminous material based on total dry aggregate shall be 5.0 to


8.0 mass percent.
Hydrated lime shall be added to the mixture operation of one half to one (0.5 to
1.0) mass percent dry aggregate basis 0.57% is for aggregates which are
calcareous.
Construction Equipment:
I. Bituminous Mixing Plant
A. Requirements for all Plants:
1. Plant Scales Accurate to 0.5 percent of the maximum load.
Use for measuring the weights material delivered.
2. Equipment for preparation of Bituminous material.
Tanks for storage of bituminous materials shall be equipped with the proper
devices to heat and hold the material at the required temperature.
3. Feeder for Drier a mechanical means to ensure uniformly aggregate feeding
into the drier so that uniform production and temperature will obtained.
4. Drier to continuous agitate during heating and drying process for cold type
bituminous mix, equipment for mechanical cooling of the prescribed for cold
mixtures shall be provided.
5. Screens capable of screening all aggregates to specified sizes and
proportions and having normal capacities in excess of the full capacity of the
mixer.
6. Bins storage bin of sufficient capacity to supply the mixer when it is
operating at full capacity.
7. Bituminous Control Gate to obtain proper amount of bituminous material in
the mix within specified tolerance.
8. Thermometric Equipment for temperature reading of heated aggregates.
9. Dust Collector to waste or return uniformly all or any part of the material to
the hot elevator collected as directed.
10 Truck Scales to weigh bituminous mixture.
11. Safety Requirements adequate and safe stairway to the mixer platform and
sampling points.
B. Requirements for Batching Plants:
1. Weigh box or hopper to weigh accurately each size of aggregate, suspended
on scales of ample size to hold a full batch.

2. Bituminous Control used to measure the bituminous material with an


accuracy of 0.5 percent.
3. Mixer to produce a uniform mixture with the job mix tolerance.
4. Control Mixing Time to control the operation of a complete mixing cycle the
dry mixing period is defined as the interval of the time between the opening of
the weigh box gate and the start of introduction of bituminous materials. The wet
mixing period is the interval of the time between the start of introduction of
bituminous material and the opening of the mixer gate. The control of timing
shall be flexible and capable of being set at intervals of 5 seconds or less
throughout a total cycle up to 3 minutes.
C. Requirements for Continuous Mixing Plants:
1. Aggregate Proportioning accuracy proportion each size of aggregate.
2. Weight Calibration of Aggregate Feed.
3. Synchronization of Aggregates Feed and Bituminous Feed.
4. Mixer chart shall be provided showing the rate of feed or aggregate per
minute for the aggregate being used.
II. Hauling Equipment for having bituminous mixtures which must be delivered
on the road at the specified temperature.
III. Bituminous Pavers spreading and finishing bituminous plat mix material.
IV. Rollers steel and/or pneumatic tire type for compaction of the mixtures to
the required density while stil in workable condition.
Preparation of Bituminous Material:
Shall be heated to avoid local overheating and provide a continuous supply of
bituminous material to the mixer at uniform temperature. Asphalt cement
kinematic viscosity in the range of 150 300 mm/s. Asphalt cement shall not be
heated above 159C (320F) at any time after delivery in the project.
Preparation of Aggregate:
- Aggregate shall be heated, fried and delivered to the mixing unit at a
temperature within the range 17C ( 30F) of the bitumen.
- Moisture content when introduce to mixing unit must not exceed one mass
percent.
- Moisture content of the mixture from drum dryer plants shall not exceed three
(3) percent of the output.
Mixing:

Dried aggregates and bituminous material shall be measured or gauged and


introduced into the mixer in the amount specified by the job mix formula.
Spreading and Finishing:
- The mixture shall be placed at a temperature not less than 107C (225F) as
measured in the truck just prior to dumping into the spreader.
- When tar is used, the mixture shall be placed between 66C and 107C (150F
and 225F).

- The longitudinal joint in one layer shall offset that in the layer immediately
below approximately 15 cm (6 inches); however, the joint in the top layer shall
be at the centerline of the pavement if the roadway comprises two (2)lanes or at
lane lines if the roadway is more than two (2) lanes, unless otherwise, directed.
Compaction:
- Rolling shall begin at the sides and proceeds longitudinally parallel toward the
road centerline, each trip overlapping the roller width, gradually progressing to
the crown of the road.
- Rolling shall continue until a mass density of 97 percent has been reached.
- To prevent adhesion of the mixtures to the rollers, the wheel shall be kept
properly moistened with water mixed with very small quantities of detergent or
other approved material.
Sampling:
1. Samples shall be neatly cut by saw or core drill. Size: 150 mm x 150 mm
or 100 mm diameter in full depth.
2. Not more than three (3) samples shall betaken for each of full days
operation.
3. If no core samples were taken during the days operation, core samples
shall be taken from the compacted pavement for every 100 L.M. per lane.
4. Barangay Roads no core test for thickness.
5. 5. Compacted pavement shall have a density not less than 97 mass
percent. The asphalt pavement represented by the cores shall not be
accepted if the deficiency in density is more than 2%.
The compacted thickness shall have a thickness tolerances of 5mm.
The asphalt pavement represented by the individual core does not be
accepted if the deficiency in the core thickness obtained is more 5 mm.

If the deficiency in the core thickness is more than 5 mm, additional layer
may be permitted in order to meet the designed thickness, however, the
minimum additional asphalt overlay thickness should be dependent on the
minimum thickness capacity of the asphalt paver but it should not be less
than 50 mm (2 inches) and that proper construction procedures are
followed.
Surface Tolerance:
The variation of the surface from the testing edge of the straight edge
between any two contacts will the surface shall not exceed 6 mm.
Method of Measurement:
Paid in terms of area (m)

ITEM 308 COLD ASPHALT PLANT MIX:


Description:
Consist of constructing Bituminous Surface Course (asphalt Cold Mix) prepared in
central mixing plant, laid cold, on the prepared base in accordance with the lines,
grades and typical cross section shown on the plans.
Composition and Quality of Asphalt cold Mix (Job Mix Formula):
1. Shall be composed of course mineral aggregates, mineral fillers and
chemically bonding bitumen.
2. Each job mix formula shall composed the following:
a. The percentage of course mineral aggregates passing each specified sieve
size.
b. The percentage of fine mineral aggregates passing each specified sieve size.
c. The percentage of chemically bonding bitumen material to be added.
d. The temperature of the mixture delivered on the prepared base on the road.
e. The kind and percentage of chemical additive to be used.
f. The kind and percentage of mineral filer to be incorporated.

Stability Requirements:
The mixture shall conform the following:

Test Property

Minimum

Maximum

Stability N (lb) at 22.2C (72F)

2224 (500) or 17.7 psi -

Percentage Stability after Vacuum Saturation


and Immersion

50

50

Aggregate Coating (Percent)

Bituminous Material Either:


1. Liquid Cutback Asphalt
2. Emulsified Asphalt
Coarse Aggregates:
Coarse aggregate shall conform to the applicable requirements of Item 703 or
AASHTO Specifications M 79.
Fine Aggregates:
Fine aggregates shall conform to the applicable requirements of Item 703.
Mineral Filers:
It shall conform to the requirements of Item 703, Mineral Filler or ASTM
Designation D 242.
Proportioning of Mixture:
Proportioning of Bituminous material on the basis of total dry aggregate shall be
from 4.5 to 7.0 mass percent when cutback asphalt is used and from 6.0 to 10.0
mass percent when emulsified asphalt is used.
Weather limitations:
Shall be placed only when the specified density can be obtained the mixture
shall not be placed on any wet surface or when weather condition will prevent its
proper handling or finishing asphalt surface mixture shall not be placed when the
surface temperature of the base course is below 10C (50F).
Preparing Are to be Paved:
When the compacted subgrade on which the asphalt base is to be placed
loosely bonded, it shall be primed with 0.5 to 1.40 liter/m or 0.1 to 0.3 gal/yd of
the type and grade priming material.

Immediately prior to application of the asphalt tack coat all loose and
foreign material shall be removed by sweeping or by blowing, or both.
Compacting the Mixture:
1. Initial rolling with a steel-wheeled tandem or three wheeled roller, vibratory
roller, or a pneumatic tired roller.
2.An application of choker aggregate may be necessary to prevent mix pick by
the pneumatic tired roller.
Acceptance Requirements:
1. Divide asphalt mixture production into lots, each lot equal to the mix produced
during one day. Determine the target density for each lot by measuring the
average density of six laboratory prepared specimens representing two randomly
chosen subsamples from trucks delivering mixture to the jobsite. The target
density should be reported as dry density.
2. Determine compacted density in the field from five randomly located positions
in each lot of the compacted mixture.
3. Density samples after a period curing maybe determined by suitable core
drilling technique.
4. It is recommended that the average of five field density determinations made
in each lot shall not be less than 97 percent at the average density of the six
laboratory prepared specimens, and that no individual determination be lower
than 95 percent.
5. The surface of the compacted pavement will be checked longitudinally and
transversely for smoothness with a 3 m (10 ft) straightedge. The surface shall
not vary more than 5 mm (0.2 in) in a 3 m (10 ft) parallel to the centerline and
not more than 8 mm (0.3 in) in a 3 m (10 ft) at right angle to the centerline.
Construction Equipment:
1. Asphalt mixing plant designed to produce a uniform mix within the job-mix
tolerance.
2. Self powered pavers that are capable of spreading the mix to the thickness
and width specified, true to the line, grad and crown.
3. Smooth metal haul trucks.
4. Pressure distributor.
5. Steel wheeled, pneumatic-tired, vibratory rollers.
6. Power broom or power blower.
7. Hand tools.

Method of Measurement:
Bituminous mixture will be measured by square meter (m). Constant unit price
for bituminous plant mix surface course, cold laid.

ITEM 309 BITUMINOUS PLANT MIX (STOCKPILE


MAINTENANCE MIXTURE):
Description:
Consist of a bituminous stockpile maintenance mixture composed of aggregate,
mineral filler, hydrated lime and bituminous material mixed in a central plant.
Bituminous Material:
MC 250 for use within short time after stockpiling.
MC 800 for immediate use under hot weather or moderate weather conditions
or for use within a short time after stockpiling.
CMS 2/2S mix can be designed for use within a short time after or for long
storage period.
CMS cationic emulsified asphalt.
Aggregate:
The course aggregate shall have a mass percent of wear not exceeding 40.
Slag shall weigh not less than 1120 kg/m (70 lb/ft).
Grading Requirement
Sieve Designation

Mass Percent Passing

Standard, mm

Alternate U.S. Standard

100

19.0

in.

80 100

12.5

in.

70 90

9.5

in.

50 70

4.75

No.4

35 50

2.36

No. 8

18 30

0.60

No. 30

15 25

0.30

No. 50

8 15

0.15

No. 100

4 10

0.075

No. 200

Proportioning of Mixture:
1. The amount of bituminous material to be added will be from 4 to 10 mass
percent of total mix.
2. During the mixing operation, one-half to one (0.5 to 1.0) mass percent of
hydrated lime, dry aggregate basis shall be added to the mixture.
Measurement/Payment:
Pay Item Number

Description

Unit of Measurement

309

Bituminous Plant-Mix

Square Meter

(Stockpile Maintenance
Mixture)

ITEM 310 BITUMINOUS CONCRETE SURFACE


COURSE, HOT LAID:
Description:
Consists of constructing a bituminous concrete surface course composed of
aggregates, mineral filers and bituminous material mixed in a central plant,
constructed and laid hot on the prepared base in accordance with this
specifications and in conformity with lines, grades, thickness and typical cross
section shown on the plans.
Materials:
Composition and Quality of Bituminous Mixture
(Job Mix Formula)
Same as Subsection 307.2.1
Bituminous Materials, Either:
1. Medium Curing (MC) Cutback Asphalt
2. Asphalt Cement
Aggregates:
Shall conform to the requirements of Item 307.

Mineral Filler:
Conform to the requirements of Item 307, Bituminous Plant Mix Surface Course
General.
Hydrated Lime:
Conform to the requirements of Item 307.
Proportioning Mixtures:
1. The proportion of bituminous material on the basis of total dry aggregate
shall be from 5.0 to 8.0 mass percent.
2. One half to one (0.5 to 1.0) mass percent of hydrated lime, dry basis shall
be added to the mixture.
Method of Measurement/Payment:
Pay Item Number

Description

Unit of Measurement

310

Bituminous Concrete
Surface Course,

Square Meter

Hot - Laid

ITEM 702 BITUMINOUS MATERIALS:


1. Asphalt Cements
2. Liquid Asphalts
2.1 Rapid Curing Liquid Asphalts
2.2 Medium Curing Liquid Asphalts
3. Emulsified Asphalts
Emulsified Asphalt (Anionic)
Emulsified Asphalt (Cationic)
Acceptance Samples of Bituminous Materials:
a. Bituminous materials used in direct application on the road. Acceptance
samples shall be obtained under the supervision of the Engineer from the
conveyance containing the bituminous material at the point of delivery.
Single samples shall be taken of each separate tank load of bituminous

material delivered, at the time of discharged, into distributors or other


conveyances on the project.
b. Bituminous materials initially discharged into storage tanks on the project.
Acceptance samples shall be obtained from the line between the storage
tank and the distributors of the bituminous mixing plant after each
delivery. A single acceptance sample shall be taken after sufficient period
of circulation of such bituminous material has taken place to insure
samples representative of the total materials then in the storage tank.
Bituminous Material Containing Anti-stripping Additives:
1. One (1) liter (1 quart) sealed sample of the bituminous material taken at
the time of loading at the refinery and prior to introduction of the additive,
along with a separate 0.5 liter (1 pint) sample of the anti-stripping additive
involved.

Application Temperatures

Application Spray

Temperature Range (C) Mix

(Min./Max.)

(Min./Max.)

RT 1-2-2

15.5 54

15.5 54

RT 4-5-6

29 65.5

29 65.5

Type and Grade of Material

RT 7-8-9

65.5 107

RT 10-11-12

65.5 107

79 121

79 121

15.5 48.9

15.5 48.9

21 62.8

15.5 40.5

40.5 85

32 - 68

RC-MC .. 250

60 107

51.7 93

RC-MC .. 800

79 129

71 107

RC-MC .. 3000

106 .7 143

93 126.7

All Emulsions

10 71

10 71

Asphalt Cement

204 Max.

As required to achieve viscosit


of 75 150 seconds to achieve
Kinematic Viscosity of 150 30
mm/s (150 300) centistrokes.

RTBC 5-6 .
MC ..
RC-MC ..

(All Grades)

30
30
70