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3 1111

History of

00236 6969






H. U^

JAN SON General Editor



This volume in the Z,!feranio/.4rr//«;orv brings together
the architecture, sculpture,

— 1300



and painting of three cenNo com-

— throughout Europe.

parable book has treated this span in
the whole of Renaissance



entirety; here

art, set in

the context

of the religion, society,

and economics of the time.
The Renaissance period has m-" facets, and seen
through this wide lens we
uiuatLhed view
as our focus shifts between north and south, east and


from Leonardo

to Diirer;

from Titian


Bruegel; from Masaccio and Donatello to Claus Sluter
and Jan van Evck.

The author, Creighton

Gilbert, has de\





that sidesteps the usual

broad chapters fili^^
sweeping developments, in whose overlapping trei. '«
an artist's individuality may become lost. Instead he
gives us shorter sections that provide close looks at
the talents, schools, and generations of artists from


scintillating creativity


came what we now


This presentation keeps continuous
the history and local traditions of each area, vet follows
the paths of artists and patrons back and forth across




of Europe.

see the

or one period in a long-lived

work of one




great artist

and 527 gravure illustrations
Other unusual features include sup-

plementary notes identifying all works mentioned but
not illustrated and a four-page foldout chronological
chart in two colors bringing together all the artists
in the book. An extraordinarily useful bibliography,
citing over

500 writings

in English,

ranges from

studies of wide scope to important books


specific subjects.

and articles
Complete with three endpaper
this is a book of unprecedented

maps and a full index,
range and caliber.

The Library of An
editorship of

Western an





>6 ^s**^*







paired, con-


Sixty colorplates


^ ^..^^gS"kfijrtam Man

Wevden, Gior-

of art in Antwerp.

enrich the


£ »


trasted, or grouped; a bird's-eye view of portraiture;
single important events in Florence, or the high



career; the role

of a great patron; the influence of

— Michelangelo, Rogier van der
gione— on


HiMory, prepared under the general
H.W. Janson, presents the history of

in five volumes, devoted respectively to
the .Ancient world, ihe Middle Ages, the Renaissance,
the Baioque, and v ^ Modern world.












5t rionarr^^.,'—'—

Wener tj

4 f^Ji



Civic Center
709.(2)24 Gilbert
Gilbert, Creighton
History of Renaissance
art: painting, sculpture,
architecture throughout

709.024 Gilbert, Creighton
History of Renaissance art, painting,
sculpture, architecture throughout Europe.
H. N. Abrams [n.d.]
illus. (part col.), chart (fold.),
(The Library of art history)



1. Art, Renais
r.W 2/73








^i Mir





Civic Center
709.024 Gilbert
Gilbert, Creighton
History of Renaissance
art: painting, sculpture,
architecture throughout

709.024 Gilbert, Creighton
History of Renaissance art, painting,
sculpture, architecture throughout Europe.
H. N. Abrams [n.d.]
illus. (part col.), chart (fold.),
(The Library of art history)

1. Art, Renais
LW 2/73


















History of






crei(;hton gilbert
Professor of Art and Chairman of the Department of Art,

Queens College of the City University of New York

All . architecture throughout Europe. History of Renaissance art: painting . Creighton. Incorporated. 72-4791 Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number: 72-4791 rights reserved. Florence. a period of time without other obligations or distractions. Abrams. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Gilbert.2 — History. to Silvia Menchi.G45 1973 ISBN 81(I9-Ill(i9. sculpture . and by Harvard University Kress Fellowship for use at at Villa I its Tatti.\rt. L . New York Printed and bound in Japan . was provided to me by Brandeis University in the form of a sabbatical year. Renaissance N6370. No part of the contents of this book may be reproduced without the written permission of the publishers Harry N.02'4 L Title. (The Library of art history) Bibliography: p.ACKNOWLEDGMENT The essential precondition for writing a book of this sort. It record here and equally my is Center for in the form of a Renaissance Studies satisfying to be able to thanks to these institutions. 709'.

Editor's Preface The present book is one of a series. Ihe Library Cxjiuinental universities long before it did in Eng- of Art History comprises a history of Western art in five volumes. the Baroque and Rococo. however. the Renaissance. was arrested by the Second VV'orld War and its aftermath. and Italy thirty years ago. That this imbalance has now been righted due World. Style in the visual arts thus becomes an instrument of dif- unmatched subtlety and precithe problem of meaning in the visual arts. ent. from religion to economics. and the Modern World. and scholars to fits in other fields who do lay- not need be introduced to the history of art but are looking for an authoritative guide to the present knowledge in the state of major areas of the discipline.iuf. especially in the English-speaking world. and it became a formal subject of study at modern roam so widely none conveys as us to through historic time and space. Its wide appeal is hardly sur- prising in an age characterized by the ever greater specialization and ft-agmentation of knowledge. In view of the vast chronological and geo- scientious is from Germany.5 were first published in 1550) to Winck- celmann and WolfBin. devoted respectively to the Ancient land and America. can hope migration" of scholars and the special appeal of the history of art for author. as a rule deals only The special- with his particu- of competence and addresses himself to other specialists. The Library of Art History was conceived sponse to this growing demand. every touch records the uniqueness of the maker. for instance.fansou . cultural history. W. A visual work of art cannot tell its own story unaided. in the a growth that began 1930s.More- painting more respwnsive vessels of individuality. as far . educated men. if they are to be books rather than collections of essays. must be —and usually are — work of a the single institutes No other every phase of ist. written by leading in scholars. The Library of Art History between these two extremes. finally. which challenges our sense of the ambiguous. for literature written histories of art. we must be aware of Kandinsky's and Mondrian's profound interest in theosophy. in re- H. Their numbers reflect In recent years. One-volume professionals. strong a sense of continuity between past and pres- graphic span of the subject. every stroke. It yields up its message only to persistent inquiry that draws upwn all the resources of ferentiation that has sion. and has been gathering ever greater momentum since the 1950s. lar field with equal assurance. this is no less And true of the remote past than of the twentieth century — if we are to understand the origins of nonobjective art. the conventions he may have no matter how strict to observe. such readers have large and significant the extraordinary growth of the history. There is.of art in our system of higher education. and hard-working. or of kinship within the family of and sculpture strike us on chief reason. will help to bridge a gap of long set. Austria. more than righted — compared man. it is pan and the minds. is body of specialized to the "cultural research standing: that between one-volume histories of art large —indeed. it by contrast. The in hoped. took place on the Continent. to literature or music. from Vasari (whose famous /. the Middle Ages. become a group. however conto write The field invites over. Its early development. no one. the history of art is still something of a newcomer. Among humanistic disciplines. it is designed for students. The work of the art historian thus becomes a synthesis illuminating every aspect of human experience.

memoriae Katharinae Gilbert artis historiam SCRIBENDI MAG I S TRAE .

and dent. . to say the same thing in a slightly more sophisticated way. preferably in such new unpub- one original part of the indebted to many courteous real circumstances main parts ha. On characteristically avoided the one hand. It is be used (perhaps in objected that most people do not readily grasp in cases) by students in courses. consideration. and a good reason to give physical Readers. rational basis for such dis- crimination. certain effort. normally does. with in the usual course its an analytical table of contents.Author's Preface book such as this is predeterThere is an assemblage of objects. For those not using the book in a course. apparently the only occurrence of such in the intervening centuries. . or building There seems no heights. in feet or inches. to offer comprehension of the interesting circumstance that the history of art itly than anywhere is else. in this to get very satisfying. as lec- on additional related works and session. but ings not of frescoes. There is the recording of eleNearly everything mined by in a the topic. more explicthings and our feel- The review textbook. toward of a slide projection. either a information will be most welcome from readers.sed on opinion that in textbooks chapters are inappropriate. will not hold their as This book also contains a few aspects that are not predetermined and are novel. this all —there is the constant attempt to answer the reader's challenge: "Why is this supposed be g{X)d?" to or. seem customarily to tell the sizes of movable paint- and sculpture and the plans of buildings.A half dozen appear here unmeasured on purpose. for which I correspondents. which without measurements. The missing wrong measurements. It as the basis for is hoped that they may such meetings. or quesand arguments about what the students now know. this is ba.s a means to obtain. my this pioneer . and are an empty structure taken over from the mind's eye a visual equivalent for figures like chapters. mav be due to such variations as ture will the correction of tions to be present in errors. They may induce complaints. given by the size sizes. If the figures are at hand. they are when a teacher asks stu- dents to read certain parts of several chapters. do not want. In this way niiuh more lari lie learned than to be inherently or two evaded all efforts. perhaps the book is meant to fit the am of classes. classes students constantly ask their teachers big is that?" (and get vague answers). The record of the size of each work illustrated. is another departure from precethose that do Some books provide none. such as details of frescoes and project drawings of buildings never built or since torn down. The records of sizes can help to draw the reader back from that sensuous experience to the original. architectural sculpture. the questioner can be drawn out a grasp of such equivalency. even if they have seen many only a minority have. they actually do the writer invents coii'ept-S because he in "how sizes remote resources were tracked down as eighteenth-century engravings.s he 62" X 48". and are mentioned here so that it shall at least not be supposed that they were done without curately in visual memory. ings of their value interlock. Each of book. and being used as a One point of departure for further enquiry. and the rest one hopes chosen well. small parts also permit people to skip what they sizes ac- The really does. . on the other hand. a. no one result in classes that sizes tend to gravitate The most obvious is the abolition of a is median. by being read beforehand by each student (since seem they are indeed very short). There is the exploitation of the sequence of objects to offer And —the how reading of a reason for doing the history went. Other these smaller parts has approximately the degree concern of complexity and amount of material that seem illustrations normal be used for a cla. mentary information about them.Some has to pull the various things in a chapter together. and is subdivided into about the same number of smaller parts as a course has meetings.Since the book will most my other kinds of books. and this is But on the other hand true. which one hopes is accurate. the small parts may be convenient in the manner of a point where. (Some apparent however. all of the works. Each of the three theme corresponding to a usual course. which is The tradition of not giving sizes in books harm when that some have been quite hard printed here (notably for frescoes) are The arrangement lished figures. most of them inevitable choices.

have also been concerned to show their case in let mutual stimuli more most general books. this artists flourishing at time" are listed because they are not members of a standard school. I and hence somewhat analogous a disprofxDrtionate distraction. medium or geography. and omitted. making the connection between the reader's eyes and the work of art. historical hy- The published in the literature. but not in "London is shown larger than but not a hundred times as large. which I have labeled as such in most cases. which is wel- wish to come. as Vitale cursors in their yet we da Bologna.) has been conducted by a separate tradition of schol- To present the author's fxjtheses. not previouslv own new arship. since something must be own localities. . of larger I doing be in no position to make an approach to an new theories of the stylistic origins of these and a number of other artists. I —novel at least though no doubt the mentioned in rela- one study or an- think this will also help to take these artists out of an "other" category of catchalls and evoke their intimate situations. book of this kind. I As those examples suggest. here printed final figures a side effect of include various beautiful as Pisanello's medals. and cannot usually without either talent or historical interest. I place) to but would choose to give a word to the latter despite its inferiority. It ent. I many benefited unduly fi-om some accidents in the history that the author has indeed not tested means I the fact that more attention than they may seem artists deserve. say Amico Aspertini jection be of help to the reader. ing.\ntonello da Messina. This like have made a point to try to evoke the specialness of be stimulated by the in other circumstances. or Griinewald. good Renaissance Florentine fashion. After the twelve Raphaels. bewould defeat the use of the map in read- true proportion. even to the point (and here ob- and is to even rather small personalities. they are shunted into a short cities are map The arrangement in is which the names printed in larger type. in C. But the reader.Aspertini. without the supporting arguments. mistakes startlingly larger than one has allowed for affected by the accident of in anticipation. and indeed is in general a mistake.G. lem of the backgrounds of the art of those artists who do not obviously belong to an ongoing tradi- I begin) that they steal space from some may greater the prob- be or Johannes Junge. My justification is that the book is to assist the reader to become his own guide. who seem to me to have — of scholarship say Cosimo Rosselli or the Master many them —and the arguments and they of the Holy Blood. lish architecture. "Stratford to a " " I hope that in other ways what follows will serve. departure from the obligatory that justifs' is Thus I may. artists its job in the first to the thirteenth. say. them Niccolo dell' great innovators. or Moroni with Leoni in the standard literature. ex- cept for one category of lieve new hypothesis which be- I unlike the others. omit the thirteenth in order to mention one by . more unhappily. final book of this kind. are not ready to call artists as differ- Sassetta. the necessity in many cases for On have been concerned the other hand. with tion. after discussing a dozen works by Raphael. Besides origins. This objection does not apply to novel critical analysis. which artists often is certainly not expected in a often minor have given I to have preferred to omit many other minor given notice. mediate calculations in arithmetic between the existing resources to —such because of the superficial producing some actual fact that the study of them. or anywhere else. that they have no obvious pre- would regard the thirteenth Raphael as more beautiful and interesting than the best Aspertini. But novel history can be presented only very briefly. making several accomplishments inter- may well have and the Eng- — and Spanish sculpture which are often neglected in general books on the Renaissance. In this book I have proposed still his cause that —such as Francesco Laurana with . And the various freely in the than media is the same way. as a helpful broker.inclusion or exclusion of bases. even though everyone Area. except when it seemed to involve have also made novel groupings of contemp>orary is own approach Their backgrounds are then either left in silence. especially suitable to a is. They also be recognized as new proposals by have nearly always avoided novelty. or. tionships have been other. likely to writing of likely to it more than artists. (if the book make chapter-end in which "other Aspertini. he will be able happens quite often. I may be wrong.

18. 3. 39 41 16. Domenico Veneziano. Giotto's Pupils 8. THE EARLY RENAISSANCE Introduction 15 The Liberation of the Painting Nicola Pisano 18 21 5. Sculptors oi the Earlv Fourteenth Century 4. Masaccio 21. The 20. Luca 24. and Other Painters 6. PoUaiuolo 26. 32 37 10. Trends in Florentine 29. Pisanello and Jacopo Ikllini 32. 25 29 Simone Martini 14. 2. Castagno. 1 1 The 12. Mantegna 104 102 92 94 98 64 . Duccio g. 43 Lorenzetti Brothers 46 48 49 The Eourteenth Century outside Tuscany The Competition for the Doors of the Florence Baptistery Painters in Florence 5 57 Late Gothic 17. Trends in 27. 22 Giovanni Pisano and Arnolfo Cimabue. Cavallini. Orcagna and His Contemporaries 13. Fra Filippo 23. Barna and Traini 15. Uccello 22. Alberti 82 25. Fra Angelico. The Later Donatello. 60 Jacopo della Quercia Nanni di Banco and the Young Donatello 19.ippi 78 Robbia 79 89 Florentine Painting at Sculpture Mid-century at Mid-century 97 Michelozzo and Florentine Architecture Century Fifteenth Sienese Painting in the Early 100 30. 28.Contents Editor's Preface Author's Preface PART ONE 1. Giotto 7. ITALY IN 62 Later Brunelleschi and Architectural Tradition: the Later Ghiberti 74 76 della I. Piero della Francesca 31.

20.Ferrara 1 I 1 Pollaiuolo. 123 1465-1500 126 Painters in North Italy. Contemporaries 15. Filippino Lippi and Piero di Cosiino 3. Michelangelo: the Medici Years 24. 16 122 Melozzo da Forli Architecture in Central 1 18 Romanino 194 196 202 23. Giorgione 14. Ferrara and Bologna 173 Rome 177 180 Dosso and His Successors \'oung Fitian 22. \'errocchi() 1 1. 182 of Gi(jrgioue 18. Fra Bariolomineo 9. Bramante 5. Leonardo 2. Andrea I del Sarto he Sistine Ceiling 166 Raphael's Last Years 12.1500 Giovanni Bellini Supplementary Notes to 1500 to Fail Italy. Palma. 185 188 ig. Riccio 16. 164 165 11. Architecture in 13. Sebastiano del Piombo 17. 137 One 141 PARTTWo IHF HIGH RFXAISSANCF 1.1 Antonello da Messina. 1450-1500 129 Sculptors and Architects in North 1465. Painting in Milan alter Leonardo 4. Italy. IN IIAIA' 147 Young Michelangelo 159 Young Raphael 161 6. Savoldo. Leonardo's Last Years to 1500 152 156 7.aurana Botticelli and Ghirlandaio 1 Perugino and Pinturicchio Signorelli. 21. Andrea Sanso\ino. 149 150 8. Francesco I. Giulio Campagnola. C'orreggio 187 190 192 Pordenone Lotto. 10. Sculptors in Michelangelo's Orbit 203 205 131 .

Rosso 208 210 Beccafumi. Sieian lex liner Rogicr \ an der Weyden 288 2!)0 .'!' 2!l(i 278 . Barocci Supplementary Notes PARI THREE 229 Jacopo Sansovino Amnianati. ate Giambologna 251 254 and Fibaldi Painters in 247 Years Leone Leoni. Florentine Decoratixe Sculpture Bronzino and His Contemporaries 214 221 Moretto and Venetian Painters of His (leneration Mannerist Painters in North 226 Titian's Later \ ears P'alconetto.S3 Palladio Tintoretto 241 Veronese 244 Bassano. Painiigianino Mannerism 212 Architecture in Ferine del \'aga.Pontormo. 1340-1880 268 Accomplishments aroimd Ring Charles Claus Slutcr \' 270 272 Broederlam and Bellechose 275 The Duke of Berry and ihe Limbourg Brothers 276 The Boucicaut Hours and the Roluui Hours: Some Cf)nclusions Prague and its Following 285 Jan van Fvck: the Chent Altarpiece Jan \an Fyck: the Other Ihe Master of Flcmalle Fhc Works 2W and FU'iii.dle Si\k' in (ieiin.! I. Vittoria Michelangelo's 24.iin Master Francke. Sanmicheli. \'ignola Alessi 223 224 lialv 258 260 to Part Two 262 FHF RFNAISSAXflF OLFSIDF LIMA' Jean Pucclle 266 French Painting. 2'^2 2. Moroni Rome and 256 Florence after 1550 Cambiaso.'0 I f Isewlure 2'.

and England The Move from Antwerp El 328 342 Diirer The 322 325 437 41 398 362 .Rogier's Contemporaries 305 Dirk Bouts 306 Joos van Gent. Germany. 315 317 Avignon and King Rene The Growing Role 319 ot Sculpture: Hans Multscher Nicolaus Gerhaert and Other Sculptors German Painting and Prints in The Wood Sculptors 33 Nuremberg and Its Sculptors the Wake of Rogier Griinewald 334 346 Cranach and Altdorfer 348 Diirer Pupils and Other Painters Holbein 352 356 Last and Remotest Extensions of Early Renaissance Flemish Painting Bosch 367 Antwerp and the High Renaissance Haarlem and Levden Lucas \ an Leyden 369 373 375 The Beginning of Italianate Architecture and The Scorel Generation 385 The Hegemony of Antwerp 389 Palaces and Other Buildings in Spain Palaces and Their Sculptors in France Architecture in the The Portrait Bruegel Low Sculpture Phenomenon 394 401 405 to Haarlem 409 Painting and Sculpture in Spain before El Greco Greco 4 1 Supplementary Notes Bibliographv to Part Three 419 423 Chronological Chart of Artists and Architects Index Ltit 445 of Photographic Credits 381 392 Countries. Hugo van Geertgen tot Sint jean Fouquet der Goes 308 Memling Jans.

I'AC.K\IK\ I \KN \() 1 IS.PART ONE The Early Renaissance in Italy SI 1-1M.KS 1 1 l-IKi .

Sisiine Chapel. X'atican.iy>H 12. height precedes width. *NOTE ON THE PICTURE CAPTIONS Unless otherwise indicated. g'z" ' i8'8". Ceiling. Dates of black-and-white illustrations are included only when fixed hv documents or other means Rome .Thr Creation of Adam. width precedes length or depth. Fresco.

And such a contrast can be seen most clearly and indisputably we choose if to others. at most. are typical Renais- negative. .Introduction 1.\i may ob\ iously affected cast on ligiit will it be defined? sance art vast is The all the works number of How should only true definition of Renais- made in the period. is different from states the more important than the claim that The Ren- eating statements.Ages. an is if typical that theft they present an invisible subject. anywhere after ca\e painting.Althougli is i theme to standards of visual then shown just as actors. they are required to find a be VV'hen the very Either the artists must report just! when problem. its works. h\ noticing sance images. is when it is Sometimes human beings individualism. or. cally at of image is of a small group afTecting each other psNchologi- an instant of time. encv for all " (ai j | . so that the cjualiiies of the things in the world aissance. The chief sort shown of people. produced In all societies works of art are in can be freely altered to help in expounding rapid human example. even see.\ges the concept believed plays a strongei role. The book is the definition.\ corollar% status of music is that. the sculptures of Chartres or the mosaics of Monreale (colorplate to state in the 1). parallel to the Gothic architecture and again visual arts. But in the Middle . the examples given were again basic to the Renaissance. . but always secondary in the period easiest in the Renaissance and . by but even that environment and. nearly always echoing older ones. Later. the rare mutation or rebellion interest us most. a on uses a convention agreed it being true to . in portraits.\11 something believed by refening four wish to tilings world that have been seen before. fact that we name a period implies an opinion that a large mutation occuiTed. accurate approach to this the contrast between art earlier and later.Middle -\ges practicallv excluded portraits). the concern of the Renaissance with overstated. human. acceptable that Leonardo's Moiia Lisa 197) and Michelangelo's Creulion of Adam are not like typical works of the preceding Middle Ages. The omitted from this lesser instances book w'ould modify the whole effect but otdy to small extent. it. the keep looking back one more step is based on the reasonable suspicion thai other. by existing so absurdly hard to begin a history of art temptation to is dominant in controlling other modeni tend- parallel to the the arts to "aspire to the condition of Walter Pater said aissance written at in an essay on the Ren- the time of Impressionism). labeled and most Individual people. in which both fidelity to the visible merely as a guide The is as/ a have the definition given an formidation. This why is it is less is the . Skills and on the ways of making things and communi it. The in the Middle event is means might perform . like a tableau of a climac- moment This kindof paniting received works from the middle of the Renaissance rather tic than seek traces of new qualities the label "storj" at the very begiiming of the Ren- at birth. 1) is the time of its its death. (fig. a in a pla). even ^ ' f God sionism. tlie principle is it in a pageaiit. 15 \ . say). reality. aissance does not permit such violations of outside opposite pole. succession. But desire remains explicit to through the series of works. Quantitatively most of the results one are simple copies of approved older objects. types of themes were codi- fied and ranked. what they ob\ iously. agreements forni other in very different persist our experience but effectively sizes. and that The emphasis on is in obvious contrast with the succeeding mutation to modern people art (from the time of Impres- a world and the human being lose value. creating man. or of sterile ones at the lime of It (see fig. For beings can be shown near each which are taught. and "stories" were given first place. and wa. attitudes evolve. fidelity to the visible world.s defined as the most important that painter could do. as in f)ortraits (it that assimilates the we speak of the art ol tlie Renaissance. sucii as truth.

the most successful might be own painters but neither rank- social position instrumental musicians today. and. a side social networks yet often a celebrity. — in nature X'inci). There sometimes by default assimilated a is to one of the oth- between. ethics (Erasmus). for their art- dominance of the city. genuinely is ends by articulating often the is more famous idiosyncrasies. halfway is more advantageous aspects of both. is praise someone mind Today "Renaissance man. decline in the nor. is and the Renaissance artcommitted to his society.we may think of the arts of the Renaissance affected by the conditions natural to the drama. career of the Renaissance artist shows a changed relation this celebrity (unlike Chartres). Western and modern. medieval. and indeed motivation in Renaissance else. but one pre- the international monop>oly of the Latin language tions of the kind so out- The posiknown and not of a shift no Renaissance equivalent is familiar bohemian tion of the Renaissance artist. when we we have in medieval classification along with the rejection of the part of such a tendency. or we may turn more modest. Renais- sance-Baroque. contemporary history (Guicciardini) either not at purposes. usually. social behavior (Castiglione). combines the distinct. Today there is wide- spread understanding of the status of medieval 16 around and artist who is and works more himself. He is a celebrity within society. and the nation-state. that even the rejection of the of people by sizes. exploration of the non- — European world. But before that hapalso notice that. %'ery human pens the dramatic imagery of situations is and sculpture. in the way that anthropology has taught us not to apply our attitudes to other civilizations of the present. Western history ience is usually divided for conven- into ancient. all Coming back to images. standpoint would not have occurred to likewise was entirely ist Renaissance work such mirror of a its as the Sistine sented by a powerful personality (like Picasso). second corollary might be that in the Ren- architecture. aissance the lead in the visual arts changes from skilled craftsmen ists. less well more he has value given to all-embracing svstems and organiza- Summa We are also artist. We might much unlike the Middle Ages and the nineteenth century. and of an outsider's A him. but art history into ancient. begins along with the beginning of social patterns that are still quite ordinary and taken for granted. banking and accounting typically failed to produce matching theoretical formula- common soon after in the seven- teenth century. politics (Machiavelli). of the universal Catholic Church. the it compared to dentists or with the nineteenth-century and sculptors commissions. have to locate istic that it in if had certainly been before. a professional sought out by usually rich clients to serve their He personality. but there breakup of the Holy Roman Empire. Today we would not expect the lawyer to "express himself' in a case. for the Theological (or the Encyclopaedia Brilan- nica). modem which today is history. literature in the High Renaissance and the Baroque in Europe makes the drama its greatest vehicle. and is comparable to the trial lawyer or architect today. where. the architect. capitalist economics. but his imagination used tohelp the client. feudal system." as a his versatile or knowledge. where painting. and modern. the great age for philosophical and scientific systems in The problems of observation and experience (Leonardo da greatest in- Renaissance are excited about of the tellectuals our culture. just as the device of perspective sets up a stagelike environment for human events in painting first and central to the greatest painting in the drama A later. Thus Renais- superseded. seems character- in the later age. to any single place. him a suspicious for his patron's interest than for raise such a question would say he did anything if we do not with the lawyer. and imply that The we might surmise command it is of skills to his public. medieval. but we this resent We committed it is the statement made by may be to his social structure are inconsistent in this. and not the re- may be better to think from one medium to another but of a verse. It it who might command mastery of the specialty. art is To accept easier if we avoid an unhistorical uni\ersalizingofourown habits for other ages. —which they organize or into small schemes for immediate Ceiling time (like Chartres). we would receive architectural But tions. limited-application tools. Conversely new Renaissance concerns national states of a shared ideology (unlike Picasso's) matching language of an into — areas. his many Renaissance respect ing high nor expected to express their personalities. with an estab- and secure lished ers. This apparently trivial difference allows us to deduce that Renaissance art coincides with early sance art. such as the not unified. This correlation between a past art and a surviving culture is confirmed bv the well- .

the climax of absolutism symbolized by Louis medieval Italian art has special powers. In such a case. it in was built by the awkward position of the Ba- up through strange explosions and obscure modula- comments have im- tions even while artists accepted older postulates. in Byzantium and and Byzantine the other hand. its roque painting. of the preceding may collide plied that the important mutations occurred at the Where end of the . the key role of small social groups. true that It some of the Renaissance innovations seemed to define in the Baroque a art his- though deoeasingly by recent ones. begin sooner in one art than in another. it age.known dissociation between society. as an impwrt. narrow made famous that best live on. It happen it now thin. and discordantly with local ways or reach compromise this approach has sometimes been used by torians. among Romanesque sculpture. and their adornment. such qualities as relatively smooth or sketchy brushwork.\ges and then at the beginning of modern art."^ges ful same time.Middle . the schools of 17 . in Italy. roque. but it Renaissance begins at quite different times in various places. French continued to feel were no improvement. is in The modifications occur on devices of style. only in Italy are the chief monuments usually signed by their artists and rarely anonymous. and in the same place tually over in Italy Where England. scarcely modified. accommodations may be that a in a place strongest. we may some- XIV and Versailles and the climax of philosophic and scientific theory already mentioned. would gests the nature of the when it It it was may vir- became established was born. art human emphasis. .\nd in the odd ways in which place. at the is in France. And on social a broader changes take creators. the Renaissance either never came or came and Ba- tion. If we relate these great changes in peoples lives and ideas with times with hindsight see that irregularities were sance. and their difficulty is illustrated Some certainly be challenged.\ges were greatest.Mid- were provincial . To look at the Romanesque in Lombardy and then in Burgundy is to accept this. and however many talented individuals were at work. resolved or continuing ac- rich Wolfflin's principles of Renaissance that mutation in culture it in Italy. surface or would puzzle where the old culture had never been at Where the . we might giving the arts of life less infer that the Baroque age was of a role in articulating its sense than the Renaissance had done. major its likely to and remained late artists naturally that the different ways dle level. however meaning- to a local public.An easy instance of this the relatively slight changes in the character of the all visual arts. Baroque would be reduced to a subdivision of the Renaissance. and Such general connections are in part stimulating but in part quite arbitrary. The modern art and our surviving social arrangements can be pothesis The helpfully correlated with qualities in Renaissance such as visual realism. This takes us to the Italian towns. On has to be admitted that the . it sug- problem. like those since 1890 by the art historian Hein- it arrives mature. Such a hv- involved that were helpful in nurturing the Renaisis the fact that. level.Middle . . then and depth emphasis.

for the become the Nu time. It is either archi- is on ivory book covers. . this was an emphasis neutral. vehicle. These a context where it is — works if par- plausible to early paintings are not actually Renais- are its still own executed on a carpentered structure with character. but coincide in cifixes. paintings new- a possible choice). but impor- tant for the future Renaissance. a hundred or so in to formulas for everything. But such objects played a very small role painting.The 2. often as small over-lifesize painted cruci- sance works. Now before. Some in central Italy. The purpose is not to render a body. eyes. like mosaic or en- amel.o. in the thirteenth of these same towns later places where. the first ings are not rectangular. hair. 9'9" . century. size: now carpentry and painting the most frequent objects are cru- These of course existed bronze sculptures. becomes free. The same true of sculpture. which is tectural or. they enhance the Byzantine tendelicy work The many upon what rived from Byzantium. the first to use paintings as its Within this context. as symbolic of the feudal hierarchy or of other medieval wholes. and one or two —minor for all medieval purposes. rib cage. Separate paintings become a significant vehicle of painting at a specific place and time: in some towns of Tuscany. artists can be dis- first S. (colorplate in medieval few can be found. Panel. the shape most nearly avoiding any significance). the fact that these paintings are only one step away objects. . A seem tine pattern that But cult objects. the point seems to us too obvious to mention. which seems to fit in with had long been The from being painted on larger or toes. if to have been treated we think the exainples as rare of medieval painting we turn out cite often to be in other "pictorial" media. cas- the Renaissance that detaches painting and sculpture. but an odd mutation within the Middle fixes Ages survive from the thirteenth centui7. covered styles. with biographies and And still later Florence. Of course it is attractive to think of medieval painting and sculpture. integial parts of and larger wholes. we seem to have here a true tial — beginning. that. and walls of buildings. Martino. and the personalities are P'lorentine first of art are too. like things in history. and almost always are on surfaces larger than themselves: pages of books. paintings are in a style provincially de- As copies. kets. creates the self-conscious theory of the Renaissance. Since the works of these first artist separate paintings. A painting Liberation of the Painting nearly always a portable rectangular is object. start. like The detached painting may now become the ex-serf who a capitalist. small icons of Byzan- i).. but. small valuable objects such as the utensils of rituals. Their out- appear in Tuscan churches. as paintings later (apparently because this shape is paint- became lines at first from the twelfth (suggesting are complex. and works with paintings sculptures. in small scale. the great p)ower to the East. one of these towns. and the like. Pisa who are personalities.

its and that may be evoked in this altarpiece. 2) Cross communicate by vai7ing the to classify degiees of importance sizes — a of the parts device that to we have it in other visual connewspaper headlines.commonly orthe interest of heretical groups. seems to wood. most commonplace of symbols. Pescia 19 . 3).}). like and it communicates without the words. In nearby Lucca. . while forms central figure speaks through its stylized the of tense asceticism. his The life. 60" x 46'. . but on parchment. 3. The saint (1182.Murpiccc 1235. to of symbols cessful learned by an apprentice is when he — who A is set texts such as suc- repeats his master (like an appren- tice electrician today). BoNAVt. Panel. 20 (fig. though like other religious icons. The body eleinents bent head and closed eyes. the drama of Christ's life.\n image was the readiest way altar it of meeting this need. with zigzag patterns in large as well as small folds. the standard surhis fit face for illustrations in books. . as The anonymous painter's unusual finesse having painted not directly on the usual. This stimulated the a and placing of an object of reverence on the altar. whose father had also been a painter. The der he founded felt continuous stress between his image and its growing institutionalization. in contrast to the upright head and open eyes of most painted crucifixes of the period. Francesco. executed in and 1235 the remarkable altarpiece of Saint Francis scenes from his life (fig. as the us seems odd. with ascetic relative medieval hierarchy of parts expressing the yet importance of areas within the totality. Both the Saint Krancis altarpiece and the Pisa Lamentation. where we. encouraged by come more common than change in the rules of the Mass. Priests earlier but had faced congregations from behind the altar. resembling induce worship. now everyone faced the altar.N rcRA Berlinghieri. 2). A series of crosses painted in Pisa in the early thirteenth century includes one of the most beautiful (fig. from Cross No. This prepares us for and curved the expressive strength in the sw^eeps silhouettes of the small mourning figures (fig. suggest that the connection between rhythmic pattern and hu man pathos is purposeful.226) had 1 accomplished an exceptional infusion into the established Church of an evangelical poverty. 5. smaller parts are scenes of on crucifixes are of as those Painted altarpieces were soon to becrucifixes. > Si. that each in the next century church law required cany an identification of the saint to whom was consecrated. but not perhaps for the similar power in the large Christ. Bonaventura Berlinghieri. more 4. Francis.

use design to transmit social in- formation. and sometimes a second work with the same signature. The eyes are on the expressive line pat- tern in the face. abolishing elements whose relationship is man who might be artist in history. persons suitably Physical existence seems to be asserted in both his present at the Crucifixion and both painted on a life scale closer to Christ's. 1229-1255). of expressiveness in the physical body. whose crucifixes do away with the small called the naiTative compartments. Cross. Domcnico. 5. Panel. The can see several of the same. specifically that he negative suppression of systematic divisions of the Assisi.Middle Ages did. with the exaggerated lids. Therefore in realistic images of the Renaissance the range of information while within the A tell-tale nanower span is much reduced. io'4" S. in that we All this seems suitable in a (docs. modification appears in an artist of Pisa in the next generation. painting coincides with the positive enhancement Francis' death. g's". Giunta Pisano. 1250. inter- through meaning. and the area thing of his biography as well. . the accuracy rises.) other people are Mary and John. Thus Giunta insists in several ways that we must be shown only what we could see at one time. The only closed and the focus is traveled in known his works and that we know some- away from Pisa which was north name first Italy. 5). but the crucifixes are still variations within the Byzantine formulas of style. The panel shape remains now free is given to the sideways writhing motion of Christ's body (fig. Giunta Pisano vention (and by the necessities of carpentry) at the ends of the crossbars. perhaps with a date. to work elsewhere — to a place of pilgrimage after Saint and to Bologna over the mountains (Earlier we have no more than a signed to a work. Bologna 20 though they remain by con- and his paintings.

Siena had traditionally been among the ob- on which sculpture was applied. Cathedral. the large city fountain for Perugia (finished 1278). He absorbed the ancient technique and their control of organic But cause in Pisa in folds sculptors' at most. fig. interest- created and the ulptois of the next generation were trained in his shop.... among each for the The more inarked in figures are smaller and weave other like snakes. The first of his complex projects is the marble pulpit for the Baptistery 259. 7). 33 \. torsos against a shallow wall. in active shifts of direction His peo- and surface angles. held inside small reliefs. 1258- came from southeastern Italy.|. creating incidents The stocky figures. In Nicolas work the energy of the figures and the decreased weight of the frames make his scenes no longer sub- jects ordinate elements rigidly enclosed. but of equal importance with the entire object. approachable be- spicuously the ancient mobile forms of the body. evoking the pressures of the Biblical epic of the swarming is Cathedral of nearby Siena life we life of Christ. W5y. much artist who further. Maible." a parallel to the other contemporary variations on France found in Germany. much closer interaction.„l st for sculpture in central He Italy.Baptisiery. Pisa 21 . as in Reims. dense in volume. 1 Marble. especially resembles the recent sculpture on Reims Cathedral. be- commanded remarkably varied vehicles The sculptor Nicola Pisano (docs. Yet his relationship to Reims seems lel ple inventive move to be not that of a copyist. 7. but it is only we know him. intense in expression.. ^44'.. fig.'nrl.'-. but. that Italy has only that Nicola is mainly ing as a trailblazer of (he Renaissance.ate Gothic. Both in Tuscany and south 1278) after his arrival in Pisa that ( Italy pulpits Nicola Pisano. 6). a standard major r X-. been literally copied in some earlier medieval sculpture (especially in south Italy)... His own him to understand High Gothic in time. 265-68. He was stimulat- ed by the figure carving of other traditions. which until then had. His standing his in the international art of age has been obscured by the traditional con- cepts that classicism a "I. Nicola his last is most literally affected by France in work. ed the relations of the He also adopt- figures in space typical of work France./.'.3- A Nicola Pisano generation later Pisa welcomed an could develop these potentials cause he of style. his curiosity also led the greatest art of his it too had borrowed Roman ways of carving and other devices. are with these tombs.^ In general his style might best be labeled "Italian High Gothic. but a paral- jump from the Roman Pulpit 1265-68. con- Roman tomb reliefs visible some quantity.|'. All this his ( 1 second pulpit." is and mi-Gothic. resulting in a dense packing of active of drama. In their are no longer conscious of the slab sides of the pulpit. height 15'.

0. (1302-10. partly in assistants' copying of the master's external own traits. GiovA. tendons are thinned 1^^ — —but though Gio- vanni enriches the cathedral front with statues like tonic. tiiough inheriting his art ftom his artist we know upbringing may that such be a real advantage to professionals such as architects (e. Small on each other. Museo dell'Opera Ounmr. as he does again in his Siena Cathedral. height 6'3". Giovanni was given Sienese citizenship. caiTies these qualities to a shrill extreme. but the ruined huge statues at Siena magnificently illustrate his expression of tension on a scale of monumental grandeur. with none of Nicola's classicism. Sibyl. every way. in 11). or a return to his fa- methods. The firmer and milder carving may show a magnetism toward the (fig. second pulpit. his surface is statues are method is it not very architec- frosted with carved hooked on like hats ornament. in the Siena pulpit. on he headed a still larger had From then shop. greatest Italian Gothic sculpture.129" Marble. on a rack. like the nurse's to the water basin and Herod's in comforceful figures act mand. like the Virgin's as she Cathedral Pisa sits in A bed.. Giovanni's small figures and pulpits are better known. . the down single lines. from facade of squarer in outline. But the variation may also be related to the complaints of abuse and misunderstanding that Giovan- dramas ni carved onto the Pisa pulpit he shared the nervous itself. 10). Typical carriers of drama are stretched arms.\ndrea in Pistoia (finished 1301. using Nicola's old Siena scheme. 29). Yet in the large supporting figures to below the reliefs. Heads press forward to learn answers. 12) younger ther's for the artist's achievement. or an intended distinction between in relief and full round columnar statues. tiie the advantage of training in his busy workshop. (from 1297). artist's. a fundamental inheritance for Donatello and Michelangelo. Giotto (see p.Giovanni Pisano and Arnolfo 4- Nicola Pisano's son Giovanni produced so may perhaps be and known Gothic called the greatest He had sculptor. Eero Saarinen^). an unexpected rhythm. figs. when he was about seventeen. but also in his work. all shaped like lengths of thick rope. but end with a stress that their faces siiow.Sant'. 1265-1314) (docs. They US take their feelings seriously. swerving and intertwining. was the overseer of The was sculptor-architect combination a matter of cutting stones all is common none other The and the in in Italy. twisted figures make their points by sccxjped-out shadows. fig- 8) P'*3 Baptistery 3™^ 'h^ damaged by Since these are badly we have Renaissance the problem artists) that (as with many other we know some kinds of his work much better than other kinds. producing two rich series of lifesize statues for the outside of Siena Ca- thedral (1287-95. Siena del made Madonna Arena Chapel frescoed by a young artist. The dynamic punctua- tion is not structurally ordered. whose relationship still environment to their social sance is similar to tlie Renais- Only about at thirty-five. but the excitement here is all in the carved scenes. 9. when his father died. pulled from end to Gothic qualities in the Siena pulpit been interpreted as the tion. and all the work on the Cathedral. Today it seems strange to father's think of a major father. where his personal style is thought to have emerged. suggesting that stress of his works. fig.'' weather.g. did Giovanni leave the workshop. but also blockily cut. with a weightiness that makes are Gothic in it have therefore young Giovanni's contribu- seems more likely that the father pio- neered the exploration of French inethods. Bodies are elongated and sway like ques- tion marks. more It is so in the pulpit for .. In all sizes they are elastic. Giovanni abruptly offers upright people i^i 8.NNi Pisano.

13&!. 33'. Marble. Pistoia II. San:T'_y. height 63". 12. Pistoia. panel of pulpit. Arena Chapel. Marble. Andrea. Pisa . height n'2': width of each panel 43" Cathedral.o IjtOVANNI PiSANO. Giovanni Pisano. Marble. 40 S. Marble. 33" X40' S. 1302-11. Madomu md Child. panel of pulpit. Andrea. Giovanni PiSANO. Padua .Giovanni Ph '. 1301. Pulpit.

and perhaps earlier) the Galleria Nazionale dell'Umbria. (docs. 32" S. from facade of Florence Cathedral. Arnolfo Effigy and Angels. Orvieto for- to Florentine from tomb of Cardinal de Braye Death of the Virgin. Cambio. di Marble. Berlin -^ 95". 14" X 21" x 1". Marble. he lived most of his more often first as Rome. length 67" (destroyed Formerly Kaiser Friedrich Museum. 15).serving. where two angels pull curtains aside and let the ends sweep around their bodies like lassos. . Arnolfo's figures are architectonic. Thirsting Woman. 1300-1302. see his sculpture clearly in dinary figures about 1280 from in life (fig. and meaning to younger this alternative artists. but not wirily. Arnolfo di Cambio. Angels the sculpture. Domenico. Some fragments a fountain in Perugia (apparently a small one near Nicola's big one) include people on their knees crouching and pushing to drink. like the marginal anecdotes in Gothic man- uscripts. stretching their necks like turtles out of their cubic bodies. low-class images honored by Florence by being its recently begun new CaWhat definitely survives of his work there from much debate as to how far the later the overseer for thedral. Perugia elderly Arnolfo was made Arnolfo di Cambio other brilliant assistant. ginal gioup of Arnolfo's is tomb of Cardinal de Braye had great Another haunting marcomplexly built in his fig. acts intelligence 1282. 1 In 1300 (for certain. 14. 13Marble. Nicola's left the shop soon after the Siena pulpit was done. 1265-1300). Action initiated by human it Arnolfo di Cambio. while the two are clearly distinguished by texture. We two small. (apart building of the Cathedral retains his plans) is and a and holy figures with the same hulking volume again lean forward in eager dramatic contact. again much of it done under his supervision few figures by his own hand (fig. working an architect than Giovanni did. as small vivid labels for the structure. 15. (d. extraor- 13). a mulation that became fundamental artists that despite the obsolescent remain ties to architecture in all Arnolfo's carving. interlocked with the material is upon. 14). They are unforgettable images of thirst. or stonemason's people. They express yearning as intensely as Giovanni does. Although a citizen of Florence.

about iB'g" x 23'. Guido huge altarpiece of the and other works Fresco. not at all classical more or Gothic like the sculptors. affected than that most Byzantine of media. Assisi a Francesco. Siena . da Siena. Coppo di Martovaldo Giunta Pisano before him. 1274). master there. that survive. S. Crucifixion. Madonna. all richness appears in at the assertions of bulk. x 49". 1)' Upper Church. wide dark contours. S. Maria 1261 dei Seni. which tends to thick po's personal color in bright units. Coppo Panel. the masters of the Bardi Saint Francis altarpiece^ and of the piece. like and Other Painters com- is still pletely Byzantine in his stylistic allegiance. 87 di Marcovaldo. 1260- personality in Florentine painting in 1260. is '' The leading local known from (127 Cimabue. derlined shadows. Madonna 17. ifi). It also reinforces Cophandwriting. He even is Giunta had been by mosaic. 5- The at first work Cavallini. anonymous painters in Florence same time. in the now very 16. and replaces highlights on cloth show of folds by gold lines rich materials (fig. Siena. is found (docs.^ and un- Such heavy Coppo was taken Magdalene altar- prisoner by the Sienese in and then painted an altarpiece in one of the two almost identical ones by him a battle in 1261.Cimabue. This stylized reminds us of craftsmanship and of the high rank of the Virgin who wears them thus medieval on two levels.

This is possible where the provincial environment of his place and time makes his publit expect a traditional language. but was its own now about to acquire virtues. though. but they have been erased from The greatest personality of Florentine Byzan- tine painting cifix that is is Cimabue (docs. appropriately majestic. the rhyth- about their relative importance: he was basically a mic accents of their tight pressure refer to the human tragedy of death with a p>ower parallel to Giovanni Pisano's. distinct from mosaic cubes. Fresco paint- ing in the Middle Ages had generally been a cheap substitute for mosaics. This fresco has lost leaving only the underpaint resembling all its color. 73). the drawn forms overstate the violent feelings with an autonomous rhythmic order. with parts of build- plifies the the great artist works what seemed a used-up mine. like filigree or cobwebs. even in the incised gold background. 19). haps Museo deirOpera di S. While Giovanni. developed real- ism and expressiveness together. which seems natural or even inevitable to us. a (fig. and the body is modeled with gentle modulations of Standard forms of the Tuscan Bvzantine painters. Florence before flood damage of 1966) marks the giowing urbanity of an this artist in Florence within the old-fashioned methods of drawing.Madonna and altarpiece of the folds. Byzantine jxjse still reflect a modeled tiie real body. from Giunta's expressive movement.\ssisi. 26 ings constructed like sentry boxes to contain the on visible exam- —actually Early action. Peri8. con- undulating Christ. in his youth. In the surviving fragments of his LaU Jiidgmetil fresco (fig. shadow. the bodies are organ- isms whose fleshy forms keep turning. fresco painter. supported by a blend of light and shade with no depends on the quality of the brush lines. CiMABUE. Cimabue's style twelve-foot-high is better preserved in Child enthroned with angels and prophets plate 2). he exem- phenomenon of who fresco.Although the mosaic and lines in the face are self-assured fomiulas. a Cnicifix in Cimabue's which line almost vanish- translucent clotii becomes a gossamer veil. It is upper part of the in the . In all this Cavallini leaned ples of ancient Roman painting .Cimabues vehicle passionate power within most vividly shown is fresco in Assisi torted (fig. 17). its (color- amend- pattern of Its including gold ones. Like Bach. but It is ment of Coppo sharp is more remarkable. A Coppo but servative. rection by being aware of painting in where he had been lini (docs. not involved with the avant garde but successfully that of the spatial environinent. mourners than more in the this archaic in his Crucifixion in the shocked. omitting the small scenes is less is con- and developing and we have Cimabue was cru- probably his earliest surviving work" painted rather in the style of surface painting. This stroke. everywhere. But Cavallini's mosaics reveal is a further range of his interest in physical reality. on the big throne and the cloth producing his . a very refined surface. but reversed the medieval view who sometimes made mosaics that look like frescoes. latest paint- ing es. 1272-1303). layout systems. creates tiny units lines. Croce. Cimabue unrealistic Byzantine vocabulary retains the old and yet gives us a fine-tuned statement of agony. a city There Pietro Caval1273-1308) was working in two media. certainly stimulated in this di- Rome. Features and given a bright and massive celebration. Panel. . I4'8"x i2'io" Crois. huge cycle (1280s) part of a two-story double church of Saint Francis at a major pilgrimage center (see fig. (as is always said) a photographic negative. It is transitional to 18).

to judge from a re- meaning and vice versa. a little tinnier rg. Cecilia. tion between stvle and . Francesco. lo' v lo'. About 1260-80. Rome and conspicuous location to receive more admiration would warrant. who had actually supervised much work in the lower story of the double church. two centuemerged that it was by Giotto.societv in The correla- both cases is not 20. then. His in the work his to imitative assistants. natural forms without human But Cavallinis many lost works may have shown more. ret altarpiece ing for the who (fig. and more complex in figures respond each to other with grave. PlFTRO t:AVALLISl- ApOilltl. glowing pigment dignified figure. fifth not see in Cavallini is centuries anything beyond the physical truth of form and space. 10'. with a somewhat more brittle handwriting but the same organic turning similar buildings even a structure. (fig.Christian painting of the fourth and What we do A. painted a little later in the same church a huge of frescoes of Saint Francis' ries cycle has benefited from its se- This life (fig. Isaac Blfssing Jacob. Upper Church. established the merchant towns of Tuscany and nearby. that youth and that talents Master of Saint Cecilia. makes first left for 22). a A and to team of painters with generally similar methods.Saint In the Marga- he underlines Cavallini's feel- and for lively drama rich. the . portion of Last Judgment. but ifications. Fresco. one is tempted to think of him and Cimabue as the two halves of a whole. is clearest work is a independent is the only important artist is also anonymous. It and tangible truth of the and its theme is the human sitthe old vehicle oi diagrammatic the visible us. artist who painted the story of upper chunh of Saint Francis Isaac. attractive subject height of preserved frieze about S. and other centers. rejects layout and the old themes of hierarchical and su- pernatural ideas which had held the emphasis in France. This view is still often than its quality ries later the idea now stated. Inside little them the effect. by a his energetic little people in their thin move fluidly in a shifting air. most beautiful work. Assisi . he then and in Florence. markable anonymous Assisi He 20). there after 1300 Master's last. Indeed.D. again in the "Roman" way follows this at of painting figures. slowly moving gestures that seem to mark evoke rhythmic off the space in stresses poignant psychological moment. in front of little rooms. Byzantium. soft. 21). that usually with two (conflicting) qualit was a work of he assigned large parts of Cavallini's effect it on younger part of this large cycle. but with texture still and with jerkier gestures. S. a new art drapery itself in Its vehicle is world around uation. Fresco.

this period a valuable study for students of social problems. man error on The medieval lord. bardy. These ma- fashion. or vice versa. Francis. the largest international aTid the Florentines for economic activity of the period. and Tuscany. and Siena. calling the latter a more sophisticated patron. from cycle of the Life of St. who may be born The status society has yielded to the contract society. otherwise they will suffer. Fresco. feudal to capitalist economics. whether clever or honest or the opposite. S. but that order does not interest the merchant. I2"x 16". and soon medieval art will yield to the Renaissance. vassal. ing The Sienese at first. Master of St. and there might be an analogy from the manufacturer to the banker. 9' x 7'i". in Pisa and in terials required. did the appear in Tuscany only? Perhaps realized. Martyrdom of Si. Upper Church. scene on St. certainly Vision of the Fiery Chariot. However that may be. or church- was not anxious about such questions. Nicola Pisano Pietro Cavallini. would not change grandfather his s his life. Siena (around 1300) and Florence (in the early Francesco. 2 1 The . Assisi fourteeiuh century and then in the fifteenth) led the world simultaneously in just two activities. Siena reaped ad- vantages from her silver mines. and some realism in Gothic but both role. which were not available elsewhere. much longer. the suggestion of ancient was important in fact first ther and the and Rome.) now move from The mutual ism in this a marginal help of materialism and human- time contrasts with our frequent con- cept of their miuual antagonism. when the physical truths of materials and weight they buy and ities arts. fKJor and die rich. It is common to speak of "three generations to culture. Panel. why the in Florence new art If we ask fur- soon found different centers. life for an depended and he was anx- ious about the order of such slots. Merchant towns appeared Lomnew art in Flanders. Margaret. to be to the first sculptor new painter in the it Roman art. With knowledge of this kind they and their town will prosper. Margaret Altarpiece. (Of course there were some merchants before. Florence in 1252 issued a gold coin which created the gold standard basic to international trade for the next seven centuries. near Florence) Margherita a Montici . Cecilia. S. banking and the visual hard to find. we should notice a striking concidence: these cities were also the banking centers. did the bank- work of the papacy. His slot in scKiety. to a central and might make 22." from the business pioneer to his grandson the rich dilettante. Merchants must be concerned about sell goods. then. why. and about the human qual- of salesman and customer. 28 art.

Giotto 6. who had greatest artist Giotto began all it is done yet that he was the so. Arena Chapel. besides their other areas of leader- dominated the early writing of art history. x 6'. Giotto. The 23. Giotto works on the sense plain cloak folds but of weight more simply and any other artist: figure. who Joachim. a childless man. 6'6" the Shepherds. one turns one's eyes effectively than almost after looking at such a to a real person. Florentines. or. more modestly. if. the Florentine poet Dante. may pious has been excluded from the temple because. in a family tree of as against a feudal interest noble lineage. indeed. whose will H- Giotto. he where he The to be cursed at a pasture greeted by shepherds. saying had displaced Cimabue that he tion. a irovel choice. Joachim's body seems massive because his is pulled about him. to leave But the larger reason reality. G'G" x 6'. near Venice. That is Byzantine formulas for as the first painter. 1300-d. Giotto's reputation led him to do work in many preserved other and we can cities. suggests the bourgeois sense of a familygroup with the grandparents. Padua 29 . see it There he painted for Enrico Scrovegni. is He 23). but vivid human sentiment. far as the Arena Chapel. a semiprivate chapel (consecrated known best from home. This in art. with a few taut no subdivisions. one reason why Giotto (docs. 1337) has been viewed as the first artist. arrives in the second scene (fig. Lamentation. Padua latter. The moment has no theological importance. Arena Chapel. The ship. His mother Mary. his employees walks in from the left (many of the movement scenes exploit the left-right of our eyes). The shepherds. alludes to him in the Divine Comedy. (The idea that has also supported the view that he painted the Assisi frescoes of Saint Francis. where the new makes one of style earliest appearances. son of a rich banker. in Padua. Joachim and Fresco. is the first in public reputa- record of the concept of fashion and the remark the fame of itself assisted Giotto further. and her parents Joachim and Anna. Fresco. 1305) Its ftescoes are a nar- rative of the lives of Christ. Giotto's seem weightier because the usual distractions of details are wiped out. is thought by God. Detailed observation of a few scenes suggest Giotto's remarkable qualities. and the shepherds are surprised.) its Giotto's close contemporary.

our word "weighty" means "important. 9). AJaamna ana Angels. It 24) show disturbs us. marked is less so strong a The Joachim and a means in the landscape double standard in this respect. 2). The two extraordinary boidder-like figures seen from the back tell us of their despair by the degree of sag in their simple contours. of the same type as Cimabue's (see colorplate This Child. more subdivided. and Giovanni Pisano's similar control of tense emotions.forms are more cut up. Of tant is Giotto's panel paintings the most impor- a large altarpiece of the Madonna (fig. but he is the pro- tagonist in the scene. shepherds. and the three larger trees clearly relate to the three large it foregound forms (Joachim. reaching along make stretched folds from the massive cloak. along 30 . As their two faces are the focus. (fig. a tableau a stage." Joachim's weight is built up through his body and seems to be >i Hi less. in nonmaterial to a the Lainenlatioii a sol- which instant very graphic. ings. Panel. io'8" Florence '- Lniia tnihioned wt!h 6'8".Mary and Christ. but to convey emotion. In the Lamentalion.1^ Thus the use of size in the Middle Ages. the figures as they are farther from them are less less weighted. or from. the diagonal outline of the hill points to. Weight is not shown for its own sake (it is herds). Joachim's rocky wall on 25. and important and solemn. yet we do not maintain convention in the theater. example The two among two figures scene shows something of is the Kiss oJJiuUls (col- colliding faces and the empha- sized gesture of the enfolding arm. a device to signify importance. is such a backdrop. where his feelings are shown. Giotto. where we see real this actors against a stylized backdrop. Giotto absorbed Cima- bue's sensitivity to heroic passion. so that his sadness appeals to us as significant and the material facts of weight and human feeling have a particularly tight interrelationship. is 25). hut). Uffizi Gallery. seem to weigh weight & w1 ^. slight in the shep- Joachim does not necessarily have the higher rank. Materialism. the central gioup of . though. emn the figures is end. backgrounds. but the center of the work is in the interrelationship or gioups. This why is of one as often in Giotto there is not one chief figure. orplate The Joachim a classic g). This is moment on a scene in a drama. not a symbolic giver of bless- but must stretch his arm out like Giovanni Pisano's Herod (see fig. and this. since our eyes expect equal realism or abstraction throughout a visual field. replacing is released in his bent head. Indeed.

move. though he worked mainly in Rome. '. All other artists. Ihis potential variations. very diffeiem expenness in paim predecessor is Aring modelcci forms. their specific point with the most basic telling us at once what it is and that it is worth no- other advantages tice. Me..'" Florence. to gain a more upon them. with Giotto's orchestrations of groups and si permanent But their common concern foretells the legally was essence of Florentine art. rather than his and few statements. is Giotto's bequest to his successors. Yet this applies mainly to the was unArena Chapel.4-9". seem elaborate beside Picasso is plest figure by Caravaggio or a cul)ist much more elaborate. born in a village undeT rule." x . or The vehicles in which they express their permitted drama. where lelaxed people are the only forces. whatever him. Fresco. In adds complexity. But his truest woman (fig. restricted by the modest capacity become the by the enclosed space and the softening art of many early strong air.) state Giotto's people are classics because they simplicity. Like all great artists. (And Arnolfo Florentine a Florentine. in the Franciscan church of doors and Giotto puslies his people through the windows and screens of firmly bolted spaces They (fig. The Mnaculous Appearance oj Si.i) nolfo di Cambio. the simthey may have. whose thirsting with Cavalliiii comes form. Francu Giotto. man at . Arnolfo has a stonecutters clum- siness in interrelating figures if we compare him cues. Giotto and his later work satisfied with what he had done. huclosest to Giotto's sense for the essential circumstance To made meaningful by weighty be sure. lose the intense finality of a universe 26). especially in the environment.. Bardi Chapel.6. 31 . i. Florence S. Croce. interplay with the force of the world turn directions in which people look. io the Monk. two frescoed chapels (for great banking families) in Santa Croce.

activ- artist of also apparent in is who all imitated him. Florence Giotto's general procedures. but the suave grace involves an emphasis on curving line that departs tradition. 1332-38. In small scale his figures who (starting with judgments of their painters. is well cushioned and head bent toward the Child up with built His type of Mary pleasant. His Ma- donna images range from large church altarpieces to small panels for citizens' prayers. the overseers of Flor- ence Cathedral put him in charge of building ity. Taddeo Gaddi. with a smile (fig. No doubt some of the finer Stefano.Giotto's Pupils 7- In Giotto's old age. Collection. Madonna and Goldfinch. Bernardo Daddi. in 1334. This work. Croce. simply because he was the most famous enormous the city. later The it rated Daddi of Giotto. Berenson I Tatti. 28. lost. 7'5" each developed a small specialty within X 4'8". Florence reproduced by permission of the President and Fellows of Har\ard College} to the . since relatively 1328-1348) many of his works survive and have been long studied. 27). Panel. Baroncelli Chapel. to us. highly than three other disciples The works of one of these. are anonymous all paint- 27. His his effect but on younger who prestige painters. as we from Giotto and have a sharp bright presence tapestried thrones. is stiffens into a critical less as they another turn before most true of his earlier dry routine. Villa Child with a 32 1/4" x 21 1/4". The Annunciation Shepherds. S. Fresco. Of is these Bernardo most accessible Daddi (docs. the softened weight The and a forms are we would expect. Dante) made reflects shall see. Florentine public.

height of the three figurative mosaics.<"f ru. Cathedral. . I 180 90. ^ .. (n/iw / (i>.. 47'6". and Aposllii. Monrcale .. Mosaic. 56'. width following around the cur\ed apse wall. on the vertical.coi DRIM \i f 1. Aiigeh.

urith Angrlt mil Pmpheli. CiMABirp. Uffei G*(lcry. nnnrnr* c. i aii . ti '7" ' Enthrmril 7'4'. M/ftiomt/i an/l CInlil Panel.(M'1.I>RI»[AT«. a..

I . I'.nlll .n. I ImihI.i ..m . I \i.. C./ii>.1/ Ju./'„ /..

COLORPLATE 4 M\-'' Fresco. Florence . 8'3" x 14 3 - "^ "^ ' A'- ' ' ' :. S. / I . Bardi di \ ernio Chapel. Croce.

\riiolfo di future tastes in imagery (see figs. centers of painting in the Western world were Floi- including commissions for ence and Siena. in theory sup- of a diagram. . The pupil who us the most brilliant lias left and their imf)osing Maso thinks only of the same problems some additional answers. damaged nearer veniently it This goes beyond one can ones. like all were as if pressures this justifies great adhered to the Ghibelline party. safe refuge in times its early growth to it is being a of wars fought before there was many other hill towns. this point 1334-d. while enese painting. In the earh (he two greatest louneeiith teiiiiu\ duct intimate exchanges of resources with Horence. great of Si- seen in an altarpiece painted fig. This grand Madonna of the same type as Cimabue's (see colorplate and both take ByMntine shapes to 2). 1278-1311). half yellow. feudal structure of the Holy supporting the Roman Empire. with while Florence's. 28). departs from them more The throne in Cimabue's is something Duccio. 29). losing out in the rivalry 15). But he is more fasci- works was Maso (docs. night scenes with sudden people. neighbors and rivals in the same Thus Duccio (docs. to con- its is at a fairly plausible object of simple-minded receding diago- nals. being held in.Maso's time. (fig. is first for Florence (1285. and city of ruins. Duccio's ture by Giovanni Pisano alludes to Gothic France. His masterpiece is though they are a scene in a fresco cycle painted in another family chapel in the Franciscan 4). The 37 . the figure who determined the special character more medieval: region. vision. Siena had long artillen'. own account his of complex narrative have a wooden. . Maso's people remain thick and cubic. Giotto's exploration of environment. sets in a number of frescoes and panels. and then porting the pope. like modern cities. Tuscany. Florence had always been Guelph. as it walls appears like color looked in . golden flow hem is a line that runs folds are now and the Madonna's down in a twining with calculated inegularity. and had been deprived of business even before in 1309. Duccio's angels cling to the throne with both hands. foretells Siena was and adopting Guelits papal banking phism. strict lines seem glowing ground bursts out of darkness and models like a the figures half black. evoking three- dimensional projection and recession too. while in Giotto's scenes buildings always supernatural light effects derive their form from the people they contain. but in practice the local autononn the bottom reworking itself into a frame for the of town commerce. as Giotto. but in the 1330s he was also active on These and blocky and his liinbs. by now Cambio. Stimulated by but their creamy planes of faces and Giotto's exploration of later years. 1366).ings in existence fVom this stylistic context are his. is artists. 8. Santa Croce (colorplate Saint Sylvester. Yet it was its still greatest financial firm fiiiled energetic remarkable painting and.Madonnas tend with effect. breadth.Mary's rank. 1341-1346). few. positively. signifying . but arrives at Duccio 8. to hinged angular features stiffly suggesting his devotion to Giotto's prin- ciples with limited fluency. The abstract gold restricted to tiie Christ Child. Egg-yolk -colored mold. (docs. Florence. and several theories The on Taddeo Gaddi second. carpentry. is on water. Siena seems on a and owed hilltop. flat Roman Rome as a A series of the represents screens in broad high-keyed the farther ones visible behind the con- fields. this environment and air in his Taddeo's original controlled is to enclose a smoldering gleam. enough to produce as rivals often do. It is a legend of church. But who was younger. assisted Giotto faithfully for years. the jxipe who converted emperor Constantine. only adding orna- mental details to enliven them. be the norm. have been offered. since conceive of these buildings as being there without nating in another no\eliy. He some of his lifts large compositions from his master's. Siena's great Cathedral sculp- prophets. their bodies are not exclusively crystallized rhythms ot homage.

from the Maesta. from the Maesta. 1308-11.C. National Gallery of Art. There the gold down of a Madonna with is hem winds monks.^^ tiny to the passionate prostrated flat "Late most obvious an enamel reliquary.s. but here they become more beautifidlv ornamental and less classically volumetric. Washington. Madonna and Child Enthroned Angels. Florence elegant rhyilims of line. This in the like the Three Franciscati. 17" 18". Panel. made to be plated on . 1285. 18" x 20" Museo dellOpera 29. so that they suggest the Gothic" of northern Europe. del Duomo.#^4r- Judoi Reeemng Ike Thirty Puces of Silver. Duccio's Duccio. Panel. are Duccio's most famous specialty and show the stimulus of Giovanni Pisano. Kress Collection uscTipt illumination. 31. The Calling of Peler and Andrew. D. Dl'ccio. Panel. important in these borders and in the angels. Siena with i4'9"xg'6". 1308-11. in front patterned wall that resembles French man- Macila — the Madonna — was the widest (1308-11) suiToiuided by a court of saints panel painting until then. Uffizi Gallerv. 38 • Samuel H.

a coinposition just slightly revised from an old Bv/antine formula. or bodies of the Calling oj Feter and as Three in three varia- in the swiveling Andrew (fig. In tlie generations after the formidable pioneers. Most fantastically. and even of decorative version of the classical Gothic of \otre-Dame in Paris and even Reims. as in his Florence more are surpris- ing than the linear rhythms that are in tension with When them. It 32. yet.A connected with two mysterious Sienese sculptor named Ramodi Paganello from 1281) was working there from 1298 about 1310. Cathedral. on a umental religious function in the extra range of depth. closer up. restates terms of aristocratic pageantiy. in the at the Tomh.adc relief. 1302-d.and Christ forty. is a . quite unoccupied by the ac- back surface and and the disciples come 10 the Emmaus. first 32) is is a late "Lorenzo Maitani. to the heart of Duccio's drama. there drastic decline shortly after mused by in the role of sculptors. portion of Last Judgmtnl ra<. Sculptors of the Early Fourteenth Century 9. Nicola and Giovanni Pisano and Arnolfo. are names. (figs. 31). Marys tions method as the purely linear We see its choreography when. no certain works of to his are preserved anywhere. The bronze statues and marble reliefs on the front of the Cathedral of Orvieto. Duccio's spatial pursuits Madonna. of the lives of Man. These explore the powers of space as drama with a succession of inventions 30. Marble. 1330) was in charge of work on the Cathedral.^^ the maid who both sides of the baseboard underneath (the pre- casually asks Peter the dreaded question rests her scale. making the rough strength of Giovanni and .^* the hands lift on the theme of shock. VV'hen Christ gate of up which she will walk These scoopings into depth are unprecedented." Damiud Souls. the hand over the money lines. (docs. more overwhelming because The work its were covered by an immense della) more than is moneven series of panels. they swing ninety degrees from their fishnets to Christ. full of soft textures of flesh leaves. 30). a small tow n southeast of Siena. even though they are probably not as close hand on the rail of a stair the next minute. here. Judas receives the thirty pieces of point where the hands meet to silver (fig. The sculpture on the flat in France. the path which their next steps will take is marked for us like a tunnel. and he may have traveled Then in 1310-30 the Sienese architect Lorenzo Maitani (docs. but he was described as an equal rival of Giovanni Pisano in Siena. a porch which establishes an tion. panels of the fagade ed. Orii extremely sophisticat- a dancing calligraphy.'\nd 1300 the finest ones seem to be be- the influence of Duccio or of Giotto. is marked by their cupping but also by stone arches that shoot up like a and cover fountain. a vehicle of that outdistance Giotto.ihe altar of Siena Cathedral. about 36" x 54". in the Denial of Fete r. suggesting at (fig. and always work to accentuate the drama. 31). .'- liigli Linear refine- ment of folded loops and twisting figures.Arnolfo 39 .

TiNO become Tino's hallmark.\nother fragment. A (docs. 1321 Marble. reliefs of the Last Judgwhere the cutting line stretches the bodies like a Giovanni Pisano transfer! ed to a deco- rative surface. a cubic but heavily active allegory of Charity with two children. Pisa to a Maesta ing is much admired by Dan- of the main part.Arnolfo's. is equally pow- finding in Giotto an ex- titing reinforcement for his previous love of massi\ e plainness. Tomb of Emperor Henry Campo (1315. '^ elaborations of Arnolfo's type. 1312-1337) has a Sieiiese apprentice of Gio- vanni Pisano's. he succeeded to some of his master's Pisan honors. con- centrated in bulk like a bear. Back dinal the insistent antigraceful- in Siena (1317-18) first he carved for a car- of a long series of many-storied tombs. which Camaino. he reached iiieiu during a brief stay figure of the powerful shown his few months in a peak of achieve- in Florence. height of central figure 71". Ghibelline hope and the last te. . Florence ness. Moving on. emperor between standing counselors. and perhaps he or a collaborating sculptor worked in a style that Ramo had established. . as if fig. now the most reputed living sculptor.Cathedral." It is most remarkable in the drawn int'iit. enthroned (or vice versa). Bishop Orso of Floremt. which he produced with astonishing speed each. enlivened by wrapped folds. Tino Camaino di clearer personality. others about 60". tight. but a specialized craftsman did the casting. but the carving was evidently done during Maitani's time. less like emperor is tomb 33). relying technically on the prototype of the inedie\al biotue doors of Pisa Cathedral. a trunk. his big head flopped o\er. 1348/49). and the counselors are the tough cubes. height 52". the work is now usually labeled "Maitani. is first known aiTives there to execute the gieat bronze doors for the eleventh-century Baptistery. he settled in Naples. The arrangement fig. Tino was obviously erful."" He modeled and chased them. up own to his death. but chiefly on a series of tower-like tombs for the prolific royal family. In 1 324. tailed in Florence when he Andrea Pisano. in an original motif. from 34. Pisa's guest. and so produced the elaborate of 33- TiNO Di Camaino. 1330-d. 34) is sitting asleep. V'll. of an DI his tomb. All this suggests di Pagaiiello. articulated with diagonal incisions to mark their gestures.\iidrea da Pontedera (docs. The tomb Bishop Orso (1321. Emperor Henr\ VII analogous is but surprisingly the carv- The Giovanni's than like .Ramo look ungainly. Sanlo. 1315- Marble. where he worked as an architect. The panels of stories ol John the Baptist copy older compositions with a cool expertness of mod- .

An o/Sfamanihip. C:athedral. two crowns are incised into the gold background.^NDRFA PlSANO. The declare Louis a saint.35).i()ltesquc in its seri- graceful ous sense of the body but diliued with Gothic line. Robert was a vounger son whose its his spatial wiry ever but to the tinone depended on the renunciation of an who had joined the Church. of King Robei . it is also typireliefs should be tlie most important such cal that sdilpture at tlie time. Thf ." and some recently have reactfar back again.S*"')' less surprising since Byzantine turns of phrase. with long-and-short rhythms. The context seems typical of painting at the strongly political quality of Sienese it also symthis time and of Simone in particular.Typically. older brother. fig.eled tbim that is toiiiplcteh (. (Wiien noticed the Renaissance withdrawal first a churchly culture.) Simone worked much of the time far froin (Tino di Siena. Louis. enthroned. its but most strikingly in the marquee above. Duccio was older than Giotto. Mary is sepGothic arated off from her courtiers by delicate Late line and tracery. Marble. and for King Robert of Naples Camainos patron) he produced a political masterclaim piece (fig. receiving a heavenlv handing an earthly one to the kneeling Robert. Sienese painting now seems and depth in terms of winding thioiigii space.i344) first appears with his sMaesIa (1315. height 40" Bell Tnvver. Andrea then succeeded Giotto as head of the Cathedral works. it is carved a designs set left by Giotto for the purpose.A cardinal who was a friend 1 left 41 . 35. heavy rhythms and covered with sliields. Florence Simone Martini 10. The churchman's embroidered cloak. I3i5-d. bolizes a tendency for themes to be as religious as less historians from connected with the Church. 37). they pagan ed too overdrew the idea of a Renaissance. debatable whether he used (fig. and their sharp preciousness recurs in the main fig falling in ure. Duccio's lovely thin meanders of ing out probing appear in the crowds of saints. and did not exliaiist generation his own new methods. Hence the next Florof painters in Siena had more leeway than in ence. It a* la'"ge ^s it is frescoed on a criticizes Duccio's very recent work by wip- Duccio's but wall. Humble withdrawal and rich rank are considered congiiient. This assembly Maesta is not in a church but in the room of the city hall. Robert successfully urged the pope to Simone painted him in an alcrown and tarpiece. ities. and its inscription says does a that Mary loves Heaven no more than she possible to define by line structures man of good counsel. and was far more varied in strong personalSimone Martini (docs. when he died. indusgraphically individuated tries. and for its Bell Tower of panels symbolizing the arts. and other allegories. reveals rope belt diophis monk's robe underneath and tlie ping in long curves.

the new style can now be taken for granted and manipulated. and being knighted and getting his spurs (fig. with his cloak in a quick flounce of ending flight. and he designed its windows and pavement. beggar. and the more extraordinary Mary.painted a legacy for a chapel at the Franciscan shrine in As- Annunciation and Simone frescoed this with the legend of Saint Martin. The painting reality. Simone belongs to the second generation of strong personalities concerned with the material artist and the where his funeral is held in a church full of tracery windows and deep shadow. swinging in folds from shoulder to steadying hand. and the town culture can safely offer an alliance to feudal kings. has no space. Much is made of Saint Martin bewe see the scene of his ing a knight of chivalry. saint's legend. is when he cut off half his cloak for a celebrated in the central motif of the grand swath of cloth. else- (1333. her reality ensured by gold scalloped lines in the hem of her dress. 38). and his simplest masterpiece shows it serving a more dramatic psychological statement. true when a personal style like Simone's. Simone's linear expressiveness is never mere human. but he is is naturally aristocratic nonetheless an individual . This is particularly ornament. but only the relation- sisi. The most famous incident in this Siena Cathedral. who is startled and presses backward to hide. too. The chapel utilizes the artist's whole range. colorplate 5). for ship of the two people: the angel pressing forward.

yet Pietro's late masterpiece (1342. It is more fig. the figures standing to take the limp body are Giottesque sacklike masses. the form Madonna between is commonly used for painting a Saints. a are modern ties. the work of the its political place in the context two Lorenzetti has itself.. Museo Nazionale di SiMONE Martin L The Knighting of Si. SiMONL Martini- ir. 8'8"x6'6". But below. in three panels. soft. building rooms back fiom the picture system and plane and from the four wooden uprights. spent good deal of time working in Florence. pulling out the the bodv shoulder bones.Panel. Francesco. only modified by a pattern of thin folds around the edges. way so much set is his Dclmsilion (fig. 1317. S.37. again. Equally physical Sienese. The in being distinct individual personali older. Pietro (docs. 40). in the chuicli of Saint Francis at Assisi. . the altarpiece of the Bn(/) oflhel'irgiu. yet they of the Sienese republic ested in Giotto. is and unaristocratic. In that vein Pietro's masterpiece 39). One large room asymmetrically fills the center and right- 43 . how to coat who had one of a but taught the . j:.Sienese Gothic line with sculptural weight. The cross itself is ornament- •illv marked with the giain of its wood. Ambrogio. a triptych. of frescoes. 1306-1342). The Lorenzetti Brothers Less thinly elegant than Simone's. and from it falls in a waving collapse. Both were also interand one of ihem. like a cross section of a Gothic < hurch. '^ Both figures are heavy and are related to each other not in Giotto's as in Giovanni Pisanos. Pietro treats the carpentry its frames as the architecture of his painted space. first ap- ears (1320) in a large altarpiece whose Madonna turns gently to the Child with a grace accented by a linear curve. Capodimontc. Fresco. so that sliarp drawing serves the exposition of pain. Lower Church.\-ssisi Naples 11. Toulouse Crowning King Roberl of 78"X54". Marlin. Loins nj Maples.

PlETRO LORENZETTI.39- PlETRO LORENZETTI. Birth of the Virgin. Fresco. Deposition from the Cross. Francesco. 12'4" x G'g". 73"^ 71". 1342. 40. Assisi . Siena 44 del Duo S. Lower Clhureh. Museo deirOpera Panel.

His brother . The city is Bad before its people walking. .Nothing Good ami Bad Governmcnt survives anywhere. Good Government will ^ti^lulate the artist rhythmic motion. the mother . In his \ate Ainiimcialioti ('. and receives a bedroom where visitors. 1338-40. and others make a medieval s( hema. 42. Panel. With (among surviving works) allegory of Safety in the sky blesses unique articulateness Siena was honoring the concrete results of urban hand panels. are a green panorama matching the checkerboard of the town roofs. in Ihe Covntn. resulting conviction of a shared world. with roads and travelers. C^oncord. in his I'rrserilnlioti in thr Hut his fame depends on a the room in the city hall set depth fig. doing and dancing. total wall length Citv Hall. Jewellike lozenge patterns reinforce architectural Temple (1342. squirming and bouncing. Uffizi Gallery. concern the airy space. a tone that later. some figures seems to the side wall which solidity in We are more drawn offers specific instances of the £//i?r^< o/Goof/ Goj/f 7 «- meiil (colorplate Government . 41). This is Pietro's most mon- morality. Ambrogio Lorenzetti. though similar to this Allegory of Roman the almost modern. Fresco. S's'Vj'e". material quality of holy events. Presettlalion in ili. Florence The all. of frescoes around where the executive com- mittee of nine counselors met (1337-39). In his is many Madonnas. and distract our attention from a Sienese the fact that depth is measured more systematically here than in any other painting of the time. umental assertion of the everyday bourgeois and ish 42. fig. business. the other side wall. the ideal goal of capitalist energy.'il-O'" '°'' the city hall. Temple. 1342.\mbrogio LoRtNztrn. trates Renaissance. 1319-1347) even more insistent on physicality. the allegorical images of Justice. the Child is fat and active. poorly preserved).-Ambrogio perhaps concenmost intensely on their interplay and the to the period. mon through indirect (hannels.Ambrogio (docs. On the end wall opposite the windows. is 6. 41. Siena Flem- brought his sense 4fi To this of weight and live forms suspended in broad These concerns and techniques are com- but . and beyond the walls the farms. the figures are assertively by plump as if Rubens. us in a bird's-eye view. sits up in the left panel the father waits in the hall outside.

His figure modeling. holding his sword horizontally 43. In now. is softlv yielding in texture It reappears in dramatic. a little 44.\quinas with the other. Nardo 's LasI Judgment huge where saints appear row on row without In the frescoes are again diagrammatic. craning their necks and pulling ropes. Badia. The themes are reinforced in the scenes of the predella underneath. Thus both Cione brothers make vivid statements tension uses about physical humanity. notably the I'aradise. and Nardo (docs. the Nardo di Cione. Saint Peter. scenes the presentation is a vaster space than any up far to from diagiammatic. and giacefuUv curving. Orcagna's altarpiece plate 7) is ( 1 354-57 color.Orcagna and His Contemporaries 12. Maria Novella. Thus the picture makes its points about the relations of God. but a soldier in between prevents their meeting. the strict frontality of one figure and the profile of another further organize the statement into a kind of dia- gram. Christ Carrying the Cross. nondiagrammatic guise in his other most impwrtant work. About 1350 the most highly regarded young painters in Florence were the Clone brothers. fixedly frontal. Florence figures of the boat scene exert themselves. and theology through ceremonial public gestures. i344?-d. Fresco. original. symbol of the Church. Both upper and lower figures are modeled with manding a rocklike densitv that connotes com- strength. . alluding to his importance in formulat- ing the doctrine of the sacrament. I3'4"x8'2". 44). and where Christ during a storm rescues the disciples' boat traditional (fig. Mary tries to approach Christ and he swings around to see her.Mj. the Badia (fig.A. keen movement and space as its vehicle. 7"x 25". But in these 43). 1354-57. known by the nickname Orcagna. Okc. Panel.ij( Risiuing ihe DiicipU from predella oi Christ Enthroned among Saints (see colorplate 7). Florence in the empty central space. S. where Saint Thomas cele- brates Mass. Santa Maria Novella. the damaged fresco of Christ Carrying the Cross in another Florentine church. Both their most impressive works are in the family Strozzi chapel in the church of the Dominican order. 1344?-I365). with one hand and the book to the fa- mous Dominican theologian Saint Thomas . any space. same chapel. Andrea (docs. developing the Florentine concern with such dramas. C. 1368). unlike Orcagna's. omitting the internal frames between the three parts so that Christ enthroned. can give the keys to his successor. the

Triumph 38'. Such aristocratic manners of Milan suggest a background in the feudal courts and north is ni Italy generallv.\nd it is even less visible in for the FranOrcagna's great Last Judgment fresco Triumph of Death ciscans of Santa Croce. S. the Dominican convent next to -Santa painting in quality but a major docu- minor It is ment of its epoch. This modeling through Orcagna's may have developed we see on his marble canopy Madonna bv Daddi. it has been ferred that this was the typical new style of their confirmation generation. are their Since their "diagrammatic" works sometimes inmost conspicuous ones. Orcagna's predella and the crucified in spa. Thomas Andrea da Firenze. indeed did in and (docs. Croce. Begun 1366. to that ex even in works for is a change of mood. at Or .\ndrea da from the Triumph of the Church by cycle in Firenze (docs.45). . and again dominated by flat sche- concepts. with churning fighters. Florence left edge 32'. problematic extent as an architect. all having and biting monsters his Strozzi altarenergetic solidity as the predella of piece. Orcagna. fragment of Triumph of Death. 4''). crippled the same (fig. case. seem to slide away from the thematic concern. which a style relief sculpture. Its tall figures shadowed faces. of lesser interest than to the a verv was the Liltle Flowers of Sainl Fraiiiis. swaying and leaning forward with naturally graceful reserve. width of wall Florence -nanish Chapel.San Michele. . a view that seems to gain . Fresco.\ndrea da Firenze's Crucifixion. Yet thieves them. a fresco Maria Novella. But matically arranged figures clarifsing paintings may reflect these all of qualities special the Dominicans in every the interests of their patrons. writhing tent there of tial formal depth. of painted in Florence the most beautiful cycle period for a Franciscan church (colorplate 8). the finest of its enclosing Its articu- 46. Brggan. time. whose greatest literar>' marble hardness suggests that he found Tino di Camaino. Fresco. where the is filled beggars. a visitor from north Italy narrative tonic depth also s probably its is extant there source. the "courtly" art of Martini. in product Franciscans. gaze gently and as if tired out of thin. Since Saint Thomas' Sumrtia Theologica this expounding of order had had a great role in the contrast philosophical concepts in scholasticism.of St. \. The Dominicans crease their patronage at this time. entire height at S. the most sculptural far-ranging influof recent carvers and one who had Orcagna also designed the canopy and worked lation of inspiration in ence. and GiovanSimone But what own as well. i343->377: fig.^^ and elaboration of architecdominate the art of Giovanni da 1346-1369). Maria Novella. to a Human Milano who this human narrative.jmms.

or Judas Receiving His Bribe. His exaggeratedly tall people -. where in robes what seems lent to This pattern of drawing. not bending them. tours. a assists striking figures are in themes like the where foreshortened faces between crude and comic are painted with undulating con- Siena.13. The Triumph oj Death. Barxa DA l-RANCLsco Train!.. C^ampii Sanio. as The most (. clashes oddly with have been a naturally hard and vio- temperament. The word "Barna" may church of the finished little hill best be regarded as a convenient label for these frescoes. 47. or Peter cutting off the servant's ear 49'. They show that he learned most from Simone Martini. Pisa . When faces are distort- of unrealistic caricature. almost their only works. ugly with sprawling legs. effect. was by other artists. i8'6" . f)oint Fresco.wing out their stiff arms like poles. of an inarticulate provincial.nuifixioti. with elementary strength. Barna da Siena's big cycle of the life of Christ. in the main town of San Gimignano. seen every- and curly hair. San Gimignano 4!'. The Ktss of Juda\ Fresco. ed by pain to the rough it. 8'3"x f^". Barna and Traini Two the 1340s are famous for one huge artists of fresco cycle eacli. especial- ly the enriching value of sharp undulating line and its lacy patterns. Chiesa Collegiata. since notliing is known about him.

with Cavallini. full of expressive mobile crowds. Yet extraordinary talents appear in Bologna and Padua. but endowed witii a dashing getic in a exaggeration of acrobatics that can be comic or agonizing (fig. fig. but special impact incidents of hermits' lives in the desert of the baid. 1334. Traini's Saint (1344-45)^" and From this sotirce. inspired a prolific but routine school in Rimini. or Barria's of exaggerating The (fig. in Goi/rriimnil (see color- theme through wide panoramic space. late Saint and Margaret wildly gesttning soft figures (see its 22). i \'iiALL UA Bologna. The on later ol)ser\ers. Bologna 49 .\rnolfo.59). The- on a book by a contemporary Pisan monk. when the papacy moves &3 to . suggesting a similar like trast The effect of spontaneity makes Giotto and Sinione seem embedded in a system. stop pre- is activities Rome. had close is remarkable is to the now Triumph (fig. the one notable artist in his time.oren/etti's Good plaic the spread of an encyclopedic t). away cem fresco iiu ludes the standard scenes of Christ's tieaih. His Madonnas smile straight desire to enliven. unforget- table graphic characterization. for tiny scenes uj Dcutli in the Pisa Cathedral Campo Santo etery. 1 he of late thirteenth-century . le's at us bJtWhH^^B archaic Greek kouroi.13. 1 of Saint Cecilia.Avignon in 1305. as the three cavaliers Dominic links to Siena. 31" v 15". Am- brogio I.^^ They may attract us more than works of Ihe Fourteenth Century outside Tuscany 14. the groups of lovers. inc has had it huling Shelley Modern painting in the fourteenth leiuurv dominantly Florentine and Sienese. Pinacoicca Nazionalc. greater pictorial quality. on the Adriatic coast. and others. making up-to-date sense of ptiysical events reinforce ical aim. himself a wan- derer and the chief developer of Cavallini's approach. 48). people in Boccaccio's Dt'camcroit. (2). elsewhere as Vitale da Bologna. In Vitale dei Cavalli (dots. new mas- where 136.^^ and the like with com- usual deduction that he rare additional images. Legend of St. Lorenzetti were the inspiration of Fran- cescoTraini (docs. i32i-i347?or he 47).$). so tlie choice was between them ext itedly. merrymakers. Anthony Abbot. this painted the most remarkable parts of the huge of the through altarpiece plicated spaces.Martini by con4vf.with suing a giaiul in the A'(\\ nf /iiiliis Siena was not for generations to produce own ters witli tlieir maimer the usual styles. a brilliant young painter emerges in Bolo- This has led I. besides. But even must be regarded set beside if we ignore as the its the oidy work prototype. which ha\e been en their due only in recent The Master giv- years. repeating the old foiiiiulas of straight. Panel. especially from the Master's altarpiece and fig. Pisa. tiie known centrifugal ener- :^ l^^^vfl busyness of crowds and monks is again steeped softening shadow. 49). such confronted by three corpses. Some forceful gestures its its eth- of the incidents in their roughly and forms have. art in X'ita- . the its naiTatives. based of the time that can be Irest and musicians.

heavy is Romanesque. casual in gesture. in the town of Treviso. Museo CiNico. frescoes of the life of Saint Ursula ly (fig. Tommaso da north to paint Venice area. It carvto formula that tomb of Can Grande equal- types of graceful.h _lor. 50 The one ture of active This della Scala who was a .oren/etti.creatinga profuse but con trolled world. 50).^'^ For the meeting room of the Dominican convent row of portraits of DoWTitingat desks. Ursula cycle. Padua cycle. emerges from ing that work of north power bright in color. all varied gestures avoid and lively freshness. in this case to Giotto's organic modeling. 51). height of frieze 38". In grays and other pale colors. Gl'arie. 7' when he paints buildings. The Fiery Furnaie. monotony with comic vigor His other surviving large work."TO. is isolated monument imitate is in a either Lorenzetti for and its but leans much on . he empha- networks of line with rich Late Gothic sizes fine architecture.1329. Tre\'iso major work. . Thm Children in the from Old Testameni Fresco. a is fig. painted two fresco cycles about 380 1 in collaboration with . His contemfwrary in Padua. turns to the same mine. and persuasive in physical reality. the Lombard in a standard tomb far away as Catalonia. frescoes in the V'i tale's him who went is successors. or endless narrative scenes." particularly a long series of white-robed angels^'' which led 10 his being labeled a traditional Byzantinist.In Padua . 53). His x Y^". Fresco. filling the inside dome of the Padua Baptistery seems indeed . coming closer to still Tuscan dense figure ideas. 13381368). isolated and immobilized.Ambrogio women for its linear patterns. Giusto's art consistently adopts repetition. or even. whose constantly there he painted an endless minican saints. the ruler of \"erona. Italian sculp- period quantity of routine Tino di Camaino exception this that has a striking parallel to V'itale. 1379-1 389?). or begins still even spread to tombs as (d.And the most talented native painter of the area. near the end of He commands the century. with infinite rows of identical holv figures like Indian temple sculptures. But Tuscan resources The most attract talented painter after . a Florentine immigrant. "mechanical" phase of the Guariento. endless rows of columns and steps. Amboisadors. to want of the to revert to the mosaic schemes usual in such locations in the . Some of his finest works are smallscale panels.Middle Ages. but when on his own he makes Gothic patterns of wonderfully refined line.\Iodena (1325/6-1379). crowds in not too vast orderly processions. a secondary assist- painter in Italy in this generation. Guariento (docs. 1369-1384). . and until recently he has suffered from being best known for big "machines. JO.Accademia Pataxina. In externals he copies Giotto's nearbv work. meandering over three-dimensional human forms and often adding lyrical pressure to dramas (fig. from St.Avanzo (docs. an unclear figure who was perhaps ant Altichiero was probably the finest 52). 51. Giusto de' stems instead Menabuoi from (docs. T'lMMA-iJ D'l MoDf--»A Ml In- oJ. (fig. 1363-1387). In so doing he is not above lifting whole figures from Pietro l.\ltichiero (docs. from nearby \erona.

and Giotto. . Stefano and Orcagna often— comment at the end of the century.After Dante's time many other including Boccaccio and Petrarch. and the patron of Dante in exile. may be Among tines. opened a 51 . the Padua head of the Ghibelliiie league. fly The local sculptor. was reached. Stone. foreign Gothic art. Lucy c. contemporary artists are omitted from the choices. fierce soldier. Florence Baptistery other new things.!38o. Oratory." Naturally the And indeed. Verona chivalrv. used to archi- was no doubt stimulated by the superb location to produce this unforgettable image tectural contexts.Altichiero and Avanzo. Fresco. fourteenth-century Florence gave birth to the expression of artistic tastes by Florenthe public.\gnolo Gaddi. height S'j". 1 The Competition for the Doors of the 5. found saying "l like (or •people like") this anisi same artists are often selected but m Giotto always. Taddeos son the death ( 1 a nadir the least muscle-bound painter at the time. i2'6''X9'io". after about 1370 Florentine painting and sculpture slipped into a mechanical repetition With of the forms of Taddeo Gaddi and Orcagna. and 396) of . The renewal around 1400 rejected this whole tradition in favor of other stimuli: ancient Roman sculpture. for the first time.of St. the Baptisten. the knight sits on his blanketed horse and pulls it back. in which we instantly recognize zation just a moment of civili- before feudal rule was diluted into 53. base 2 Castelvecchio. In 1401 the Florentine sponsor of expenditures Wool at the Finishers Guild. grinning while the horse leans ahead and the horse cloths like sails. Miracle of Si. The monument is sil- houetted steeply over the door of a church. best. Can Grande della Sea . George. The shift focuses on one point of excitement.

as 57). we see for Two example in the Ayi- figures curve reciprocally. and craftsmanly. Florence of Isaac. decorative. Renaissance. and dramatic. while relief more sophisticated is The committee Isaac is a beautifully Roman sculpture. Lorenzo Ghiberti (docs. weight built pressive faces. Both. as of a polished tween them became a fascinating public debate. 1401-2.FiLiPPO Brunelleschi. 21 "x 17". partly to design human fig. of Isaac. 56). but more details by to cast. and with up its to and drama between be released in ex- lighter secondary figures. Horizontal folds in . the servants even more and even Abraham and Isaac measure offthe dis- art in the city (fig. Florence Bargello. Abraham grasp- same parenthesis-curve. Sacrifice Sacrifice Bargello. 54). They relate as parallel curves. masses. while Ghiberti is Gothic. Bronze. and the choice be- suggestive of fine workmanship. i4oi-d. perhaps for To us Brunelleschi. The two finalists were both young Florentine goldsmiths. the jewel. physical. Museo Nazionale. presumably following instructions. 55. Abraham sacrificing with the same Isaac. The spatially. probably realized quotation of ancient twenty-three and twenty-four. gel apart more abstract in line system than Sienese so. twenty-eight and mostly to chisel hand. competition for a 1 set of bronze doors to match the admired ones by Andrea Pisano. 21" x 17". and modern. 54- Lorenzo Ghiberti. Isaac fitting inside the curve of . yet Ghiberti's work may have seemed more original just because it was less in the ing his son's neck while the angel seizes his other Florentine tradition. Certainly the resulting doors hand. The power of Giotto's simplicity is plainly understood. represent this reason. 23). may seem more Florentine. . and yet creating tance between them (fig.'iaac. sample panels subinitted were luckily saved.\brahains swing. and far inore chose Ghiberti. For this tableau the servants waiting with were the donkey below form a pedestal (fig. Other panels again explore classical allusions or spatial capaiiiies. iiKiuialiou (fig. Museo Nazionale. The direct reversion to the early Giotto oi Joachim work of the Shephfids (see panels took twenty years (1403-24). and model.i455) kept the anfrom the main pair. actors.Abrahams robe echo 52 tlie a no less solid si rhythms ulptural form. wliich would twine around the body. They maintain the style of the Sacrifice of I. It is a with younger artists and the and they became probably the most familiar a gieat success public. 55). Filippo Brunelleschi one dense group of set (1377-1446) built up to climactic action. 40 1 -2 Bronze. human.


Fresco. loial wall length 46'. GooJ Government in the City.\mbrogio Lorenzetti. City Hall. Siena . . 1338-40.COLORPLATE 6.


V Ml 4 '1 ft \ 1 l< jlurplate 8. Flurence K t- i . Bir:li '4 of the Virgin. Rimiccini Chapel. 1365. Croce. S. 6'6"x8'9". Fresco. Giovanni da Milano.

But the real revolution comes with Lorenzo Monaco (docs. 48). bronze) Late Gothic Painters in Florence 16. perhaps taking Orcagna's friend Traini model (see fig.57- Lorenzo Ghiberti. whose probable work is marked by its spar- kling and witty jumpiness of small forms in space (fig. constructing thin folds. which discarded the lumpy heaviness of figure that had come to mark the Orcagna tradition. and again pleasurable in the polish of its technique as in the cylin- drical three-dimensionality of the figures. Florence (above doors: Gianfrancesco Rusnci. 1403-24. 58). It is again a Late Gothic decoration. 12'. with Ghiberti's goldsmith training. the only painting then usually done by monks. 13871409). Florence Lorenzo Ghiberti. When he broke into larger forms he brought along his training in . of the same age as Ghiberti. a minor became available to replace a major one had run down. 2i"x Baprister>'. blues and pinks. was a monk and Lorenzo started by illustrating manuscripts. 1391-1422). Annunciation. A fresh style that is closely parallel to Ghibeiti's appeared in painting. fig. 1506-11. North Doors. in its unFIorentine pale figures arch in Ghibenian parentheses and reinforces the patterns with cutting curves in repetition. i8'6"x Baptisterv-. 56. Gilded bronze. His great Coronation of as a the Virgin (1413. Lorenzo's art develops until in his last works he abandons sculptural suggestions and gives his figures a butterfly life of intense gem colors and 57 . John the Baptist Preaching. panel of North Doors. Gilded bronze. Transitional refonn is perhaps seen in the shadowy figure of Stamina (docs. makes 59). 17".\s tradition that enamel surfaces and elegant precision.

too. 1427). peacock feathers. o] longs to pages and horses. flowers. and of the two maids behind Mary who daintily inspect Starnina. half the surface be- IB. an elegant object that evokes aristocratic with him a genuinely feudal and courtly an. In the former. greyhounds. pageant of the kings' retinue and horses Such a mode prepares for the fills visit to and the rest. 4 1 its social suggestion does not have to be stylized. 1408-d. Here. a in 1421-23 of Gentile da Fabriano (dcKS. along with pet monkeys.intricately lac\ line the Magi presented to the richest bourgeois merchant of Flor- Hi^ ilunies are elegain. him up only half the surface. jar. sucli as the Adoration ot ence. Florence 58 her cosmetic Gallcn. turning their heads with models' . (colorplate 9) or the Coronation of the ceremony of vassalage. rAfioiW. emphasizing those thuithU subjects that have a feudal or courtly potential. i6'3" < 14'7". 30" X82" Corotialion it true of the rosebush French roval famih. Florence of thi Virgin Panel. Panel. 58. the Intemational Gothic from north Italy. the X'irgin. This style. and in its The same is and the leopard's pelt. a chief actors take who ordered an Adoration (colorplate 10). he 59. There is a sort of realism: a greyhound is in daintiness both in jects Magi from tlie leopards. too. Florence reality shape. previously most developed in ob- He brought of luxur> and But elegance does not come through abstract curves of line. Uffizi for tlie LoKtNZO MONA Uffizi Gallery.

By choosing enough such images. Xfasolino Up (docs. 1440). Masolino.siiglione d'Olona I^uvrr. 1423-d. little preserved. greater pressures. . 1423. Panel.6o. Adam and With slight and yielding. which he worked at with naive elaboration (fig. Hence grace that Gentiles faces are not stylized masks. ij'S" the Baptist ' I2'5". Temple in Although Gentile iii fertile career earlier in \'en- later in Siena of his work elsewhere is the and Rome. one can make a real world con vey the same mood as Lorenzo's artificial one. riic and making Man' a high lady. But Masolino was subject and. . 61 ). artist. Fresco. to even from a younger revolutionary first finally. to 1423 he was imitating Lorenzo Monaco. Paris talented painter of slightly younger age. he frescoes plate 1 1). 60). The Martyrdom of John 1435. from the enticing new device of perspective. Prisentmion in the Temple. Baptister\. like Mary's maids. 10 1/4" X 24'. Ca. Gentile da Fabriaxo. When Eve eating the apple (color- transition his figures turn soft they have a well-mannered conversation. when he paints the I'lesenltitimt the predella below little was a wanderer. French artists and hence he also can include (as the do) the crippled beggar in the square. predrlla of Adoration oj the Magi ^ce colorplaic lo). His impact on Florence appears in the most 61. but it is are soft flesh.Vlasaccio. with handsomely stylized hairpin curves of spreading robes on the floor. with a ice and Brescia and (fig.

complex work. d. I9'x84'6". base 8' a'lo". Fonte Gaia (before dismantling). in the it. complexity. life He for passed away from Siena. 1414-19. Lucca The same renewal touched Siena. 62). a surface in relation to heights and its return to depths like a road through mountains.1438). Jacopo was helped to become more than Late Gothic gem obvious from his first 60 cutter by being Sienese. Here observers have Jacopo della Quercia. Cathedral. The figures clutching their children in their 64). an almost forgotten factor of Siena's sculpture this makes sharp folds twist with great Lorenzo Monaco's. ornament is repeated on the sides of the coffin. a creator of glowing people like gentle fireflies. taut and sure. 62. As in brogio Lorenzetti and. shows the lady lying on 1405). 1372-1410). too. The construction of linear and own fountain includes seminude female Campo. Jacopo della Quercia. always related to the body's volutions. patterns but models form. a fine It is a fountain for arms ear accenting of the intricate turning actions. who have something in common with the main that he city square of Siena (begun 1412. Siena lin- . (d. height x I'l". The coffin of Ilaria del Carretto style. painters of the early fourteenth century. that particularly no smoother than the beautifully flowing folds of her robe. by Jacopo della Quercia (docs. 63. them was Paolo churches with Perhaps the most Giovanni Fei di (docs. consistent with their feeling for handsome polished forms.Jacopo della Querela 17. 55) troubled by the mixture of classical influences. his line does not moving over less make 63). Tomb of Ilaria del Carretto. good heavy-handed craftsmen had standard altarpieces for attractive of filled fifty years. had been attentive fig. where classical Roman infants hold garlands. to the great Sienese obviously. but in both works the artists' attitude toward the classical is to admire and quote literally an isolated refined object of Roman workmanship. There. But the shift involved a 1401- great days. In stone stone sculpture. all Am- the others. and appears first with mature work when he carves a tomb for the young wife of the tyrant of Lucca (fig. Marble. at the breast. Piazza del in- (fig. Marble. one child feeding evoke the warmth of the live creature through French her beautiful face in the case of Ghiberti's Isaac figure (see Gothic and felt fig. who at about Florence the much of his twenty-five also competed Baptistery commission.

Begun 1435 Marble. Begun 1425. Marble. S. make in Bologna (from 1425. height 67".iA. 33"x27". The focus ma. Rhfa from Fome -- nnf Jacopo DELLA 65. small in size but having such power that they strongly affected the young Michelangelo generations later. Petronio. was being 66. Jacopo della Qlercia. City Hall. and the interplay between the curved outline and the swelling and dipping forms to obtain the most concentrated meaning for the events. This new cathedral that the Bolognese were building gave the sculptor great opportunities. Marble. Bologna Gaia. so often the most favorable vehicle on dra- for early Renaissance statements. factors of environment. and Adam and Eve Working exploit the imitation of Roman modeling. (^L fckt. The Expul- sion. Jacopo was a slow worker and only finished a number of panels. facjade. Adam and Evt Workings panel on facade. Tht Expulsion from Paradise. the clearest use of beautiful line to mark strong human forces. Siena Jacopo's masterpieces. the isolation of the figures on a nearly blank surface.s and here is a sculptor to a carv- reinforced by minimize the The famous Expulsion from Paradise. S. becomes available to er when he works in relief. Jacopo's tendency a. 1414-19. the climax of the familiar tragedy. 66). panel on Silvia. figs. Jacopo della Qlercia. Creation of Eve. the panels around the door of San Petronio 65. 33"^ 27'. Bologna 61 . Petronio. thought about by younger at the same time with different means artists in Florence.' 64.

working in the round. since he is pointing the main future direction of the Renaissance. but cal Nanni. for the one of four over-lifesize Cathedral by several of broad characterizing gestures artists. Nanni's Saint Luke is accompanied by the with Nanni them projects. the most classical of of invasion by the pwwerful duke of Milan. this command ies at his (1423- eye goes through a series of rooms game. fig.i42i) first pro- awkward Isaiah (1408) for Cathedral. . ordered city by merchant committees. but instead of reducing patronage. the is 408- control and cleaner cal forms. the youth turns his head and 71). making few and duced he had both vocabular- for special purposes. 72). a new achievement mon- in umental Renaissance sculpture. i405-d. reverted at the end 10 Gothic. standing thin-textured toga Eligius. an Assum/jlio)! relief over door of the Cathedral (1414-21. Like Ghiberti's and Jacopo della Quercia's works. 54). with big scallops of folds. 70) by Donatello (1386 1466). Florence was fighting orders ceased. fig. ulate civic pride. realistic textures in face pose oi Saint cal monumake dignified mass. Rigid in annor. A variant interplay between the the geometric plex relief. in the memorative Nanni's last (fig.All its are part of another series. also for Saitit Or San Michele (fig. series.-' a his Or San Michele. but this (1 Evangelists classical classi- Roman obviously a means to end of massive dignity. Donatello thus confirms the direction of his friend Brunelleschi's competition relief (see fig. same 68). less the Banco (docs. These ity first major works of Donatello evoke the basic Florentine mood of Giotto. the dramatic focus is the head of . done 67). a still younger sculptor's small works for indoor locations. and. Surface lines pull toward focal p>oints. evoking taut alertness as of a each guild was represented by sentinel. and Donatello. carves a harder and denser form into which the folds do not dig tunnels. commissioned by of them of famous than masterpiece. ence for large outdoor sculptural schemes between is and 1401 when such 1434. fig. two rivals in these in the head and body blend into a single unit. The classi- Or San Michele series provides the saint with autonomy 1)2^ as a freestanding figure. a ver% original if all. and the sober power of detail of surface adds to the conviction of real- its without lessening the weight. Ghiberti Most of it was executed by three superb artists. The sculpture. the simple mass that emerges with the head and implied everywhere else inside the wrappings. first it mixes an undigested classi- quotation with a pleasure in linear sweep. who gave it most of their attention. such patron saint. in a spatial Our com- Dance of of the people and have led to the view that Nanni 62 seat- all these. using the beard to its Mark for the it is rich and hands. Donatello celebrates the establishment of this approach in his famous George. He is soon mature in the graphic Saint Luke fig. for public places seems to express a similar civic self-consciousness. 69). They eyebrows and the knot of the illustrate one of Donatello's favorite between surface and telling schemes. In 1401-2 a losing war and danger in made him The seemed to stim- regarded itself as a free republic fighting off a military tyrant. its inter- the wninkled as cloak. and suggest and classical borrowings of Ghiberti that the Gothic and others had been useful temporary expedients when a reform was needed. to a His next works imitate work most literally. Banco and the Young Donatello di The commission for the Baptistery doors by the Wool Finishers Guild is the first of many in Flor- like his contemporaries. heavy. sense Brunelleschi won in this the coinpetition. and dramatic. the guilds for the shrine church stands with feet apart. the contrast and core: the former latter a is is active and complicated. to a classical Saiut Matthew (1419-22). Their active poses and light-and-shade arrangements remove any danger of dead copying. 14. It is more likelv thai. statues big work it of the is seriously in a Like Nanni's Saint recalls ancient com- Demosthenes type. is emphatic human and in Donatello's the bronze plaque of the first twining ropes of drapery follow the twisting actions Salome for the font of the Siena Baptistery 27. Ghiberti also produced three of ranging from a Gothic Jolni the Baptist (1412-15). human. Completely un-Gothic and first mental (begun 141 di though he His early death has ed Saint John the Evangelist (1408-15.Nanni i8.

height 8'io".NATtLLO. Or San Michele. height 6'i 1". Nanni di 70. Florence 71. center portion of tympanum. Removed from Or San Michele Nazionalc. Museo deirOpera Do. 6' it'. Lukt. 1414-21. 1419-22. 1408-14. Marble. Matthew. Florence 69. 5/. Marble.67. height of vertical axis I3'3" Cathedral. Banxo. Marble. Assumption oflht Virgin. Porta della Mandorla. height e'g". Nanni di del Duomo. Florence 10 Museo . height 5/. Florence Banco. Bronze. St. Marble. 1408-15. Grorgr. Florence 68. Lorenzo Ghiberti. DoNATELLO. del Museo dcll'Opera Duomo. Si. Bargcllo. John iht Evangtlisl.

fig. to us treat the world modern scientific seetned the height of realism. But in a few the lessening of Gothic structural virtuosity and demonstrativeness may match a positive growth in a different direction. 73) are all . The church is in two stories. almost incidentally. but as the educated son of a lawyer. any distinction in rank. Taking French Gothic tional to see it is entirely medi- as a standard. allowing them to project their drawing measurable objects (such proportion as they are to as buildings) smaller in appear farther off. Dance of Salome. as well as in staging miracle plays with angels flying (a we more kind of pageant common at the time. 24" square. It e. Do:iAT£. Gilded bronze. it is tradi- as a technically inferior variant. Its technical vehicle perspective. as design. 64 thedral Soon after his traumatic loss of the competition he went to work in the Ca- construction and made himself into an architect. Siena The 19. which often connect with the Baroque).the murdered saint. it seems part of a tendency to and an early phase of the method of quantifying nature. especially im- proved hoists useful in his work of building at a height. but to provide use.^ssisi (be- perhaps explicable by an assimilation to the qualities of secular or domestic architecture. 1423-27. The famous oddities of the original shrine church at gun 1228. Both lack aisles. 72. Brunelleschi also invented machines. while drawings in Rome of ancient buildings. but thev replace the hierarchic . which is not with for heavy- strange in large churches of the time. also stretch trying to measures the force of choreographed in is feelings. where skills background may tend to —not be accepted. panel on baptismal font. offered by the executioner to From master. in the process inventing Renaissance style in architecture. His in- ventiveness in a craft may be related to his shop. It a basic tool. three-dimensional scenes onto two-dimen- sional surfaces by and for the Baptistery doors.LLO. lines of centrifugal force away along the arms and bodies of people move off from the shock. Thus a muscular motion through space. measured by geometry. Earlier architecture in Italy eval. his this head. Later Brunelleschi and Architectural Tradition: the Later Ghiberti Brunelleschi seems to have in\ ented perspectix its precise form. Human drama is a strict beat. almost an amateur. Baptistery. in making turned out to be useful for painters. there are indeed many and Italian churches that reflect French Gothic more or less competently. The great Franciscan churches seem to show this best.

Hantl. Uffizi Gallcn. 4 8" j'g". c. A'iniannn ojihi Magi.OKIM \n u- I-' McN \.JI. Florcii .

K DA Fahriano.I . Adoration uj !hi M .1 \rii.

anil Eir 81"^ ^^" Brancacci Chapel. MaSOUNO. Church of the Carmine. Fresco. The Temptation of Adam C. .I 427. Hum.COLORPLATE 1 I .

1427. . Florence ". 8'4" 12. The Tribute Money. c. Brancacci Chapel.COLORPLATE Fresco. Church of the Carmine. x ig 7 Masaccio.

separated sense of of a room.\ssisi it in the an annex to a palace.main and setondary spaces with the sense Lower Church soon acquired chapels. Lower Church.b Heit. Interior. Assisi. since crypts are regularly meant and are smaller and width of transept 92' c ry pis under them. again. . A 73- Section of ditfrrent explanation for the iiuiovaiion at Assisi.Nothing ambitious as . but as belongs wholeheartedly to the Middle Ages in its typically feudal social distinction between the stories (the lower for servants. also with two stories of equal floor area. that Upper and Lower Churches. height 61'. S. nearest analogy to this approach The the Sainie-Cha- is pelle in Paris (1246-48). Be^uii 1 2c. as in a house. height 34'9". which are not secondary pans of the nave space but. contain tombs possesses just level. Croce. Florence. I'he . with steps and passages. the upper for the king). and of course in its pure Gothic look.\ssisi such a cTypt as a third and lowest else in ItaK in this century 74.hi 10 is is less to as attractive.Assisi.Sainte-Chapelle directly betrays a dejjendence fact that unlike it on secular arrangements was built . in area. The rooms. Upper Church. as in a dwelling or city hall. . it develops out of the ordinary tradition Basilica of S. of churches with Begun 1228. Francesco. .

fig. was instantly recognized when Alberti in 1436 it could hold all the Tuscan told Brunelleschi that people in its shadow. its tiieir technical suggested in the extreme width of the roofs (between narrow aisles) and the related dome was lonieived. 77). Sullivan's contributions to the pre-existing skyscrap- in architecture. Florence. Benci di Cione and Simone Talenti. when tlie of building it in 1419.Interior. as tlie biggest in the world. cup nated by its an interior 74). making it Gothic cathedrals. he is most original in replacing the earlier builders' freehand secondary in sculpture and painting. springy like dome is banel for the as attention staves (fig. Cathedral. 1357). such as the Baptistery and San Miniato.\nd on it he set the and ineasure its white ribs which their shape. has fig. lias a centripetal force no tower could match. Santa Cioce the Cathedral (begun 1296. similar To high as that of . (begun 1357. notably in Glouces- at this date in ter Cathedral. that this signifies humility furnished).-^ In doing so. 1376-80. he lie took charge added height. again like Santa Croce. it in terms of period at all. he evidently felt a need for qual- structure ities of stylish emphasis that such plain construc- tions did not offer. Loggia dei Lanzi. ceiling of wooden beams. a pavilion off the tions that has main won lift city square. noticeably pointed instead of almost hemispherical. Again following a partial sug- . Florence. While Brunellest hi inherited tliis attitude to and space. 6g'io"x I34'6"x46' but the Fiaiinbtan churth in Horeiite. Piazza della Signoina. sense of broad spaciousness. with their splendid colored marble designed walls in neat square Thus patterns. sparse spacing of the nave columns. 76). ly through the simple growth of functions.\miens. Still more brilliant is the to Loggia dei Lanzi (1376-80. The fourteenth century in Florence. or (the effect It is church domi- unlikely is richly incompetence (the Do- technical minicans of Florence had just begun vaulting large church. a ceremonial one of those crea- such popular acceptance that we tend not to think of Here the fig. and the may be likeness to secular spaces paralleled northern Europe. 75- Begun 1296 (vaulting begun Height width 135' 145'. but Florence does not seem so because it is so much wider. as since proved by the imitations from \'ery tall call and the tension of eight sides and people also round. height among the classic to innovation of precise his perspective. 75) which is famous for is its as The is unexpected- Cathedral vault treatment of arithmetical ratios with exact meas- urements. connected by Brunelleschi brings self-aware and expressive artic- The all-over result is a The "barnlike" breadth ulation to tendencies that had gradually developed huge stretching arches. Such the best possible focus for a city. with the sense of expansiveness accentuated by the fewness of the supports. Santa meaning nave it is Maria Novella). Romanesque These he found in the local buildings. 70 And at the same time . who see it it that Rome to Washington. 7b. of the columns and their round arches articulate the qualities of a swelling enclosed space already achieved in structure. so late triumphant much like er in the nineteeth century. Cathedral dome.

to a person inside them. medieval ones. . total is therefore irregular. of 78) front wall the side of a square covered by a its tle fig. FiLIPPO Brunelleschi. Height of porch to (including steps I 31'. Florence. but not of solid struc- ture. and spaces. planes. the Old lit- or- first . ematics. Height from ground 351' is assembled without allowing for the thickness of walls or col- umns. and even the floor plan is drawn similarly under us. Florence.Annunziaia. Hospital of the Innocents. and the the 78. first cornice width fincluding 9 arches and flanking pilasters) 180' It is . a is on by color accents. 1419-36. new Foundling makes each arched unit Brunelleschi's porch for the Hospital (1419-26. 79. dome. 80) parish church of San Lorenzo. This insisted Renaissance experience. figs. In Brunelleschi's earlier works the experience is of lines. It for lines of columns is and arches are darker than the curtain wall areas. coated inside with mosaics. the it is being seen from outside. we are inside a complete comprewe relate to it rationally. by math- In tnese buildings hensible world. have a height humanly pro- portionate to the square dimensions around him.gestioii fiom the Romanesque local dome completely geared first to in Pi&a. since the series of rational parts 77.Sacristy (1420- added by the . Dome of Cathedral. FiLiPPO Brlnelleschi. The same shape iginal work to is seen also in his be finished.Medici family to their These square spaces. 1419-26. Piazza SS. were meant to awe the worshiper underneath with an idea of Heaven. 29.

4 7i ^ nm n f >: B< nn /! u Ba. Pazzi Chapel. FiLippo Brunelleschi. ot 'k'l'V?''^ ^ A FiLippo Brunelleschi. Florence. Projected plan Spirito. Florence. Florence. < < < < < > Height to cornice 31' > > c > s ?M ->^..S.' 81. c. Interior dimensions as built 316' x 182' 83. Croce. 31'. Florence. 1430-46. length {including choir) 262'. 79S. Width of nave S. Main area 35'8"X59'9" . Florence. Old Sacristy. Plan. FiLippo Brunelleschi. 35' square :- CYYS fs _. . S.FiLiPPO Brunelleschi. Lorenzo. 80. Begun 1436. 1420-29. Plan. Croce. S. Pazzi Chapel. Lorenzo. Interior. FiLiPPO Brunelleschi.

Lines and wall reflect these three units above. 31" square. room with base is a flanked 82. but suctess. not of a mason. a dome on a square by broad supporting arches (figs. group becomes the most prominent. bonowed. Brunelleschi's old rival Ghiberti. and superimposed on spective traditional habits. and one scene skill in is represented. is paalso typi( ally by scoop- and marking The plan 81) is a wide nave. He discarded the Gothic fi-amesof the and used only ten large neutral rectangles for his scenes of the Old Testament. Lorenzo Ghiberti. 85. and alive calmness often noticed as the visitor's resjx)nse. width. 1425-47. fig. The aisles and left the exterior niches would also have continued around the ends of the church.drawn on architecture of a geometric diagram per. giving its space. we These took another quarter century. ing niches into the thickness of walls with the rational comprehensibility of our environ- ment and with the result each half that width. the Pazzi Chapel was built as a rectangular three-part ceiling. "Doors of Paradise" (East Doors). i8'6"x Baptister\'. But complexity later this absorbed and indeed celebrated. His conversion to the Renaissance is late. The first rectangles contain many incidents each. 84). Ghiberti modeling to make now finally only uses his great spaces. But formula was too extreme building it for those logical this who finished after Brunelleschi's death. Florence 12'. after the suc- their proportion to the other spatial units. 73 . Florence 84. exploiting per- and very small gradations of relief to design marvelous airy halls where his graceful Gothic people freely dance (fig. so that the room becomes a square with side rectangles and the measured cube of space seems it- drawn on the self the floor support of the roof. so that the two doors filled his life. VVe are thus satisfied harmony of is safe. Gilded bronze. 0/ Jarob. and is may have had a personal all the and authoritative Lorenzo Ghiberti. 83). but then one scenes. 85). Ston more variant.S6. of Santo Spirito (begun a sense that the structure the is Baptisterv' doors. which would have //(«/ as a scalloped w^all. panel of "Doors of Paradise. and chapel niches each aisles half 14. Baptistery. cess of his identical now commission in was given a second 1425 and produced what "Doors of Paradise" call the (fig." Gilded bronze. standard cross shape the effect of a centralized one in which the person inside relates to the circumference surrounding him. Earlier.

87.\dam strides and Eve yells. In the famous Expulsion from Paradise .Kities woi k on a single surface. lo's". with shifting light areas and almost no these were rough all on line. without notice no others that there are The Chapel frescoes like it.Santa Maria Novella nelleschi. 46). insists athletes pausing. color- plates 11. at the court of Rome.Masaccio 20.Masaccio its most as its greatest painter. observe that the new style has perspective as obvious hallmark and has . and Masolino became the leading painter demand in later in there. Trinity. The . as are then set in a limited space. 88. 290). because people rightly iconic strictness. are filled with Donatellian people. image of the three persons of the Trinity with the narrative of the Crucifixion. probably. wliicli is like a Donatello relief. It is bounded by mountains or buildings and never recedes to infinity. its once laid out. Gentile da Fabriano departed from Florence. but also throbbingly warm. S. Masaccios in the 74 who first to major work. Thus we see powerful Donatellian people in a precise Brunelleschian location. Masaccio had already been encouraged by the two friends Brunelleschi and Donatello. and is also like them in that Masaccios other works have no such painting in the Indeed. spective. the Trhiily fresco Dominican chun h of . Lorenzo Monaco died. and Hungary and so in 1427 he shared one of'his Florentine jobs with a bright young man. Florence pasty color application.1428). shared with Masolino.isuring (ap. He was also much elsewhere. Fresco. a physical glow. ourselves inside a Brunelleschi building. 21'10'x 86. The spective knowledge artist uses his "realistic" per- to subdivide the space in ways that assist this scholastic symbolizing. the contained comprehensible world of Bru- In 1424. Nardo. with sweeping robes. 12). with their bodily presence. and in that way double nature of Christ illustrating the idea of the as God and man. Masaccio ( 1 401. Masaccio. in each group. rightly saw in translate their him someone talented enough new methods into painting. 86). They are serious and heavy. the figure of Christ functioning twice. measured against the gate through which thev have been extruded. in parallel to Jan van Eyck's use oi bis favorite realistic motif. so that the space echoes the vigorous human tone. The is as diagrammatic as the earlier ones same Dominican church by Orcagna. is or like The per- always covered up and technique not emphasized. and Andrea da Firenze (see p. this painting of perspective by Masaccio has often been taken to typify the period. (fig. to present symbols (see p. is so dominated bv the perspective architec- him by Brunelleschi that The theme combines the ture probably designed for the figures seem small. the ordinary object. by Masaccio in the Brancacci Carmelite church in the (figs. They Thev tend if also to be no other glamour than lower-class types. Our passions and our mp. The Maria Novella.

its house* and we read them in terms of the time sequence of walking. and the theme coincide absolutelv. and this theme of the and shade must have delighted the hus the mens acts. too).MASACcro. rent event. front to back as lameness changes Where backward-moving the forward-moving series pass shadow falling value of light painter I is and each other on their parallel tracks. Church of the Carmine. and them instead from into wholeness. vivid at < 75 . The famous Tribute Money (colorplate 12). Miratir Fresco. 81 " Paradise.Sainl Peter's on the beggars. But he less is simple: he elaborates not only spatial mathematics but light. aa. using his intensity of weight and drama. The Expulsion from Fresco. from back to front. Florence the perspetlive. oj Ihr bhadou . is in Florence of assessing He makes human anatomy and the Florentine Renaissance more and more organized. Brancacci Chapel. 5'3".87. Saints walk fonvard along a street parallel to . and when he died iweiitv-seven. Church of the Carmine. the miracle happens. Florence Miracle of the Shadow carries the same conjunction further. In pays homage affected by a cur- all this Masaccio also to Giotto. -'6" < 35' Brancacci Chapel. we read three crippled beggars are being cured. is a quieter cluster.\ collector." The healing caused by moment . a semicircle of figures before mountains. he had hanged painting forever. the It certainlv new system taxes (on the clergv. with pro- f)ortionate spaces. Masaccio. at the of "now. where Christ orders Peter to get money for the ta.

1 Panel. and then 89) the exact perspective floor runs back Measured completely controlled in the great Descent fro ni the Cross altarpiece (colorplate 13). an einpirical which have street space like Masaccio's. Uccello ation.^* in 1433 the grand altarpiece for the (for which a very high price Linen Drapers Guild was paid)-* established him as a leader of his gener- 90. He 1 4 7-d. where figure action. so that this early by unrecorded period does not exist (the works are by his imitators). 1436. Fra Angelico. learning his bright enamel coloring. 455) 1 1 has long been re- an inspired monk. Paolo Uccello. Paris The iiumbei of gieat painters in Florence in Masac- tio's age group 1 870. painting sugary devo- tional images. cross The and ladders are a yardstick of density of the smoothly modeled people seems guaranteed by the cohesion of the enamel-like piginent. Loronalwn 7' < 6'i ". and were thought have been painted in his early unrecorded years. But recent study has moved his birthdate later about twelve years. Sir John Hawkwood.2 1. but in 1429 he emerged with an altarpiece in Masolino's style. Cathedral. and their location on the rmi-§MM-^^^ B9. Florence 76 . . He was trained as a painter before Dominican order. But there is no such ambiguity in the little stories of the predella below. Scilid figures starry sky. I. as they and sit or stand before an abstract sometimes do in relief sculpture. doting legend.ouvre. 27' \ 17'. transferred to canvas. and walled depth is first (fig. is a victim of garded as equaled only by the Paris group of Fra Angelico (docs. similarly in his Coronation of the Virgin bends up to Heaven. Fresco.-^fter that he he joined the no doubt illustrated manuscripts. i The oj the \ irgiri. RA Angelico. to is Among them Such works exist.

youth. this frescoed Sir But. which he kept trying out in difficult special cases in his drawings. things pleased him for their Noah's Flood (colorplate 14) 91 Paolo Uccello. center of three panels. In his early tomb monument of a The figures. the other gieat many works convert to the Renaissance. Later. is an acute mix of himian and carpen- so that there tered extremism. 90) the meditation on the meaty stride of the horse is more conspicuous cious-seeming bright toy horses. The is fresco of part of a set of stories Battle of San in a rigid perspective net. Romanp. fig. recognized as the lunribered the surfaces. armor and spears than the perspective understructure of the tomb. "Doors of matter of special notice). itself and the whom we now see exit in from damaged swim and clutch with Donatellian vibrancy. These unluckily museums three (fig.Masaccio's imagery of human crisis in geometric sonal handwriting of one clarity. and shows two events in one spate (like columnar polish with Ghiberti. and the hill walling in world. The it is clear that these own sake. and about animals. which gave him his nick- name.chessboard by its liiniinousuess. which he practiced in curiosity: his Italian for bird. as in Ghiberti's greatest living painter in Italy. His most famous curiosity was about perspective. apparatus of architectural settings with symmetry. he developed a fuller Paradise". London 77 . of this time whenever the stories out- Uccello's battle scene for the Medici family mansion was in three are now that we do not split among huge sections. the was not it The two here are the flood the ark. gi). He shares their of Genesis. 6' x lo'S". who but has the per- loves seeing how it is put together. state. National Gallery. phase. Uccello shares . but only the details of capri- John Hawkwood (1436. in contrast with Masaccio.'"' see the driving clash of the so two cavalry the soldier of fortune charges froin the ends. but he was most influential lier classical in this ear- Paolo Uccello (1397-1475) was full of technical about mosaic.

Florenre in . He in grayish whole paintings being almost neutral in color. His masterpiece.^^ with falcons. 1461) not unnaturally evolved a median blend of it. As soon as he became a full-fledged painter. a last the convent. But a close probably the youngest. 1452. while today he less is appreciated than his contemporaries. He may have brought from X'enice the ideas of Gentile da Fabriano which show up in his Adnration of the Magi. translucent cool tones suggest that the people are not only steeped in air but in the particular weather of a sininy spring day. an enormous peacock. 92. His slow ing the contours to catch gestures and movements. sharpen- the hedged fields are rearranged to set up a contained Florentine world. often tones. and also like him in the broad lit in place. Domenico Veneziano (docs.Angelico's later aharpieces. at first a flat and always fourteenth-century formulas of rocky landscape. Fra Fii wiih Birth ippo Lippi. and he peacock robes for the courtiers. alone comes close to justifving the tag that the Florentine school likes form but not color. But even here the painting was alsosuperbly sure in drawing. in the nineteenth century for their pleasant realism. the Saint Lucy aharpiece (colorplate 15). gz) were. Fra Filippo Lippi 22. r W' Pitti Palace. Madormn and Child (if Panel.Al- though he also records obvious symbolic references to an unusual extent. This refinement was to Fra Filippo Lippi (1406-1469) belongs with but is three painters.\ngelico's recession that to shifts backdrop. and later perhaps be fascinating to younger painters. His Madonna and Child groups as a result. into halls. the Masaccio generation like the left His concern with the three-dimensional body makes Carmelite monk at fifteen. As an immigrant from Venice who saw as an adult the start. is a modern rectangular panel like Fra . It surpasses The surfaces that hold the people him in unified equilibrium. paint in his convent church and reflects him from modeling for a finely tuned sense of human life process. a healthy life his figure groups communicate without intensity of feeling or of paint. him invent plump articulate people. later on symmetrical it. and also finds the new look at a moving figure in one of his agreeably con- \n orphan boy who became gested crowd scenes will reveal the invention of he watched Masaccio nonconventional stances which exploit line and style already in being.Domenico Veneziano. new Florentine art when it had reached its full form. much admired (fig. 1438-d. diamet. left the order to marry. . the Virgin:. His space accepts the patterns offered Fra .

After the is George and other Or San produced one more set prophets for the Bell They StiinI Donatello. 62). 79). face oi Jeremiah^- seems to The over the carved sur- reproduce a clay sketch that the artist has pulled at with rapid pressures. Donatello. fig. and 79 . an angle. as I. in ings. 93). A set 1416. The leading sculptor continued to be Donatello. perhaps following to remains. Prophti l"Lo Zuccone''^. most successful in mid-career do not methods alter their artists greatly. For the . though the earliest (partial) example. Donatello was also exploring a new kind of depth that more it is relief.The 23- We Later Donatello. 94). Marble. . height 6'5".o Zuccoiie because it is such a graphically characterized individual. who succeeded to a generation born around 13S0 that was dominated by sculptors (Ghiberti. The 1400 gioup proone sculptor. Museo dell'Opera del Duonr Florence of Florence Cathedral. but the great ones keep changing even into old age. so slight in incised than carved.Medici he probably also made the bronze David tlingly a trip (fig. Rome where With Donatello saw classical the DavitI Donatello seems to break continuity and revert to his earliest work. the Tower 93. from Bell Tower. Darid. Florence with illusionary spaces and worms-eye views as vi- brant as his stone masses. These works are typical of the 1430S as small private commissions for reliefs or single moderate-sized statues. a lifesize boy.\Iichele sculptures he of big outdoor figures. plays games Bargcllo.''* precedes any comparable paint- of round stucco reliefs ordered bv the Medici for the spandrels of their Old Sacristy fig. ("Old Pumpkin Head". contrasts the naked skull with the thick soft robe. Donatello). Bronze. Donatello the earliest example. Brunelleschi. these would seem to imply the stimulus of painting. producing willful rivers of twisted stone. Luca della Robbia have just looked at five remarkable painters born around 1400 (from 1397 to 1406). Luca della Robbia (1400whose behavior will only serve to confirm the duced just 1482). located overhead at 94. the public ones for sets of over-lifesize statues having stopped. Nanni di Banco. height 62". yet creat- ing airy distances. In our modern dominance of painting in his time. flung shoulder like a too-bulky blanket. . take the contrast between surface and core The one famous further (see p. Its face is star- smooth and symmetrical. context of artist-personalities. (see Museo Nazionale.

Music Gallery. indeed the second half of his career. It is an expert presentation of the ideal order constructed from human materials. making the whole a neat ornament.A matching organ gallery (1431-38. (see colorplate 1 3). "Robbia ware" —glazed potterv in high relief panels on a big scale (color- . human columns. active and affects the more and more nervous complexity of surface. after is del analogous to his evolution in the quiet massive forms to first half. Vet after this major start Luca was also affected by the end of big 96) was sculpture commissions in Florence. the frieze of dancing chil- smoothly turned David only dren in in that the relief. measures the tossing mass of bodies .-. Stress from to have been the voung Brunelleschi. rhythms. Florence this point. In another of each a semicircle making a niche space of gleaming. heavy round forms made for a music gallery dral (1433-39. 95 Marble. Museo deirOpera 96. fig. classic a Its artist most favored by smooth rounded forms and bland equilibrium share and perhaps inaugurate mood of this moment. Florence 1431- 17'. seen also in Donatello's top and David and Fra Angelico's Descent from the Cross bottom clamp the pneumatic body between them. Ll'ca della Marble. clear and self-contained. fig- 95). probably to at in the Cathe- hold an organ. The figures stand in ten groups. these smaller-scale works. major work of Luca della Robbia (14001482). 1433-39. the sculptor who after Masaccio's death seems the 80 first to his famous invention. and soon turned not singers. Duomo. length Robbu. frieze 3'2" X i8'8". Organ Gallen.DoNATELLO. in the simplest of traditional against the strict meter of columns in front of them. Museo deirOpera del Duomo.

Antonio. Dependent less on depth than on color and surface. panel on the High Ahar. S. (fig. 22 i/a' x 49". where a big commission awaited him: the equestrian statue of the general Gattamelata to (1447-53. It is cheap and indestructible. Padua 97. Bronze. equally sharp incision marks the rider's rich armor and expressive. stiff as in a starched (fig. 98). Tht Miracli oj the Angry Son. Padua 81 . so that ioda> examples can be found even in modest museums. worked Back in Donatello pursued an art as thickly as Florence at now entirely personal. gleaming with undimmed blue and white. unrelated to trends of the time.97). Bronze. 98. from his equestrian monument. Piazza del Santo. Head oi Gatlamtlata.Anthony. It calls for undetailed forms and provides the clean lumi- nousness that Luca already liked. humanly worn Padua (1447-50) reliefs 1* face. 1447. the medium is more like painting than any other sculpture in history. Donatello. 1447-53. fig. height of entire work i7'io". Donatello left Florence for ten years and went Padua. Thus Lucas career confirms the domination of painting in his generation. and later was called painting by Leonardo da Vinci. . where the in- cised perspective buildings are rough-woven cloth seventy.plate 16). The 99^ presents rough blanket. bronze Judith Killing Holofernes two figures. on Donatello.\ large altar also in f"o*t notable for four big bronze of miracles of Saint .O" 'he massive horse.

Bernardo Rossellino. Leon Battista was born far away. The a (1404most surprising career building until he was about Battista . Pienza. but alludes to the tradition of images for worship. Leon 1472). In a book on painting. 99. Most incredible are the pulpits for San Lorenzo. and entered a political defeat (as the papal civil service.Alberti a Alberti were the richest merchant family of Florence in the late fourteenth century. Judtth Killing Holo/erm Bronze. . no The wooden Magda- lene^* with gilded hair has a similar stiff surface and torn face. Albert! The Masaccio generation of painters also includes one great architect. DoNATELLO. a sketchiness and asymmetry used by previous artist are its vehicles.Piazza della Signon Florence 24. 82 Width of church facjade 66'6" Civic Center. and confusion of bodies create a world slic- where tensions are not allowed to be resolved. however. Designed odd triangular base from which one leg loosely dangles. the Renaissance art and one of the few books on an art 100. spatial ing. In 1434. also developing interests in philosophy and Roman literature. he went to Florence with the pope.^* dedicated to Brunelleschi. but had the not unusual experience of being exiled after Dante had been). took a law degree. he expressed his sense that a newfirst writing about kind of art had been invented. the most private works of Renaissance art.^* reliefs whose loose drawing. after the exile had been repealed. had and did not design forty-five. height y'g". and became a friend of Brunelleschi and Donatello. who. patrons of the largest chapel in Santa Croce.

Mbertian cathedral and palace. This mood 1446 31. intellectual approach. it is remarkable conscious provision for distant About 1446 for its self- designer and technician. with monumental isolated buildings on wide lo^'. A design and the expression of later book by Alberti on architecture ancient Roman one by Vitruvius^s as ^' uses its an starting point but moves to a concept of an ideal city plan. He for vistas. Florence. 100) from Bernardo Rossellino. fig. S Francesco. to for faulty execu- and established the modern split between designed the exterior of the family burial church. Rimini.101. Its perspective.\lberii squares. beautiful in their balanced proportions. today But the new art is to a more really "ex- plained" more intimately in the second and third sections. better known by the dynastic name Fcmpio Malatestiano (executed 1450. handbook on a is often treated as the most important. interior. was thus protected from blame tion. leaving the construction others. and tating in the surviving small city of Pienza ordered by Pope Pius 11 (from 1458. Exicrior. Designed 1450. Alberti placed on the front the first Renais- 83 . ric which involve the relation between geomethuman drama. which emphasize techniques of paint mixing. Palazzo Ruccllai.n Battista Alberti. Even there shows a typical shift ftoin it medieval books. Besides an . For the lord of Rimini he Alberti began to design buildings admiring princes. San Francesco. Width of facade 96' movement in section first any age by a leading participant. I. whom he often instructed by correspondence. Wrapping a modern screen around a Gothic of the 101).65' / 85'. fig. Leo.FON Battista . is reflected in papal plans for rehabili- Rome.

Mantua. were a very thick in texture. cut into fiont and on the sides the thickness of the wall is Soon he designed Palazzo Rucellai one of the 102). 235-36). 103. There are no interior space is The down aisles. length 380' Plan. On the side walls a row of ment.•Vlberti. adopting the triumphal arch design of a central arch and two smaller ones. Designed 1470. Here the and the wall is distinction between the curtain a front porch is treated as if it by a colossal three-story arch contrast- ing with smaller openings at the sides. Because the big outer and inner arches is the essential motif of the design. his richest also is Mantua ordered by the local and most influential state- match. a constant in Alberti's work. where the big arch reap- pears repeatedly on the side walls of the nave as entrances to the chapels. The sidered the only logical support for them. Indeed. the roof heiglns cannot shown only by difference street the whole is actually executed as if in two dimensions. Alberti's last work.Leon Battista Albert:. which Alberti con- strongly articulated. narrow a of large dramatic units. Mantua. separated by columns. Height to top of pediment 75' S. . Width of nave 61'. (fig. Andrea. articulated with a post-and-lintel skeleton. but on the are identical in height.Andrea in 103. Both in wall. Andrea. Thus realization is the incomplete blend of idea and traceable. Roman sancechurch facade. is 104. the sense of a skeleton construction strong. drawing (figs. Since the "curtain" areas between pilasters are largely made upof framed in windows. the only Renais- sance architect before Palladio who works primarily with exteriors (see pp. thus centralized again. S. marquis. shows in his constant emphasis on wall thickness his awareness of the task of articulating the construction. 104. The curtain it is wall in Florence Renaissance town post-and-lintel construction of pilasters and cornices but earliest command favorite object of quotation in the arches rests on heavy piers. 84 it domed choir. driven the nave tunnel along the rhythmic arcade to the conceived of as on a farther plane. Facade. Yet . Sant'. houses. 105). Leon Battista Alberti. its emphatically pulled toward the center. made Baroque period. a problem not resolved in the design or execution. contrast is again all The scale repeated inside.

Florrncc . 1. 1 3. The Descent from the Cross. Panel. Musco di San Mario.COLORPLATF. Fra Angki.ico. 1432 40. 9' ^ 94".

Maria Novella. y'l" x i6'9". Green Cloister. Fresco. S.COLORPLAiF 14. Flo . Paolo UccELLO / /' . 1 130.

Panel. Si. DoMENico Veneziaxo.1445. 6'io" x 7'. Lucv Aliarpicce.coi. L'flizi Gallery. Florence .oRPi.ATE ij. c.

I 10. In 440-50. Lt UA UtLLA RuBBlA.UULORPLATE C. Glazed terracotta. Florence . diameter 71" t'atron oj Or San i/ie i>oc(o Michele.

Clastagno ^l42l-l4-. drops all down behind for them or stand on a to a tiny distant pano- relationships avoided bv the preceding generation.-*^ illus- figures here are three F'loren- of the recent past. making a contrast of generations tect. Thev differ in tone —the 89 . to that is emphasis on the hgure. and Petrarch). in the next generation. but not dominating them. easy (just as with the sculptors born The around 1380). the cosmos is seen walling the people about.\lberti. There a 92' Castagno. Figures stand wall. 106).sothat they cannot defeat his essential nature either. and three famous women. pictorial sculptor as well as and one late-blooming archi- By chance.7) and his close successors I lessen the role of the before either a fortune but can use his mind to fate and bad understand and discountihem. tine This formula of geometric balance between flat is the open sky. form and space yields. three Florentine writers (Dante. PoUaiuolo 25. painters oi the decade i. I'he set of coed in a nine famous country men and women villa (fig. a modern on the "nine worthies" of medieval trates this vividly. emploved to en\ironment. or a from niches not big enough hill that blank paint surface or rama. no other im[>ortant painters were born until 1421. as \vc have seen. and they often eltiow out toward us the Stoic philosophy expressed by man cannot change make man dominant over heir learned skill in perspective The soldier-statesmei\ fres- variation halls. Through perspective. to an space. Boccaccio.}97-i4o6 presented man's activity and his environment in equipoise. h\e re- markable Florentine painters were born.\. Between i^yy and 140O. Height of na\e parallel . one Mantua.:idrea.

to fashioned to him.. color men figures over a does illustrate minor environment. so not strange that he has a quite similar approach painted figures. including designs for embroidery (fiom 1466) and a silver panel to be inserted in a fourteenth-century altar. and may thus suggest that it seemed old- is under the ceiling. Cenacolo di S. This new space. as marble slabs —but are hard as the behind them and influenced by Dona- niche statues. the room measure- all the more statuesquely sance. again before a shallow. Pollaiuolo accept the one asserted by the figures. close the figure but leaves But in fact it embodies an unresolved contradiction between two systems of space. 107. Castagno's later painted tomb tello's del Pollaiuolo (1431-1498). and the backdrop. are sculptures. his onlv engraving. and so. his own They are not stony but suggest favored medium in sculpture. eliminating the perspective construction and in- tian. each section 8' x 5'3". emerge. space Andrea del Castagno. and he probably his Battle an aid to ments have a much greater depth. '' Only in these "minor art" contexts does he design perspective spaces in the geometric manner of his predecessors.\ntonio yiru Famoiu Men and Women . Pollaiuolo's anatomical skill graved was much admired. with room perhaps for a second. Apollonia. and thus is very wide and shallow. 108) fights and wins in shining anatomical precision of troducing two muscular pages. high above exact landscapes that rush back in low perspective. which does not en- the approach of the previous generation of painters. flat is (fig. The next brilliant painter 106. line. Hercules (figs. utilizing Flemish procedures. tough like Masaccio exuding impact through their density of and stoniness. so that this worked in a great variety of media. appears to retain and especially Hercules. His greatest work. earliest in Italy It by molding that runs we any distinguished painter or sculptor. fresco. The figural space sets just one man at each end of the table. wraps the statuesque room. it is to is an actual sculptor. but emerges for this purpose only about 1460. and ten behind the table. one for the figures isolated and one for the architecture. seems typically Renais- artists. exactly half the width. Florence ilia C^arduici. frieze troni \ Fresco. metal. figures in a perspective unlike the others.*^ the Last Supper for a convent refectory (colorplate 17). domination by And the figures.portion. the Florentine 90) by symbol of resistance. of a general in the Cathedral (i456)'"' typically Athletic heroes are recurrent: David. as proved by the cloth hangings and the The it above the world. painted for the Medici town house (1460). Legn . like Castagno's other most of the elbowing fonvard soldiers chiefly single sculptural presences.'" the martyred Saint Sebas- modifies Uccello's earlier fresco (see fig. of Ten Xaked Men en- log) as showing ten variations on the body in action. .

.\aked Men. Panel. Antonio del Pollaiuolo._. Enera\-ine.-^ -.-. 1 =. Florence Uffizi Gallerv-.i:. Antonio del Pollaiuolo. 108." 4 Florence / 23".. Hercules and Antaeus. . 7" x 5".„u p... NewYorl: p.loy.|„ . The Metropolitan Museum of Art.. Antonio DEL Pollaiuolo Hercidfs and the Hydra. Panel. Bailie of Ten 109. p 1. 6" Uffizi Gallcrv'..

pirical to the concept of religion as irrational world supports can also be linked to faith the fact that the pioneers of the Renaissance in thoroughly illustrated by the reaction of the Florence produce mainly religious works. shared by medieval scholastics and modern agnostics alike. Besozzo Gozzoli. while remarkable archbishop . 1 452). in Florentine Painting at Mid-century old-fashioned paiiueib biir\i\ed alongside the mod- matched ern movement. central^ to a familiar the close relations of humanism and is first theorist of mercantile capitalisin. its critical comment and This modern art environment by . *• But the in his was favored b\ the most important patrons.Antonino. the and Gothic. as in ( 1 "realism" of perspective. Palazzo Medici. . 1416- was opposed persists more and super sensuous. a 1 10. The modern of Gentile da Fabriano as a fiivolous distraction secular works in from the holy events depicted. who was the onl\ secular w^ork of the time tends to be old-fashioned saint of Renaissance Florence.\Ia." the ancestor of Deism. Fresco.Trends 26. Florence '>-<> ^mk .saccio.At Magi. and a close adviser to the Medici. with connected with Antoninos idea of what was The late fourteenth-century tradition persists in such painters d. width about mid-century 25'. East wall the most impressive old- of chapel. He attacked the International Gothic style sance. 1459. set for natural- of qualities best Procession of the formula about tiie Renais- masters of Florence produce more than minute amounts onlv about 1450. as Bicci di Lorenzo and Lorenzo Monaco's Gothic richly. This is later called "natural religion. and asked after ism and simplicitv in painting. he (docs. His view that the em- outdoor frescoes in the Cathedral square 445-46).

was but at the end of his repairer of mosaics. He is also happy to copy a king's horse at the of styles. Pesellino (1422-1457) derives from Filippo Lippi. " In .? . but it won it a tourist was evidently not a success with patrons since Benozzo never got another order in the city. spatial life fades into becoming a Pesellino retains the older equipoise.inserting portraiLsat the edges of big frescoed scenes. but in Castagno's there are halfway imitators of the two modern generations. The early work of . 9. two ends many fxir suggesting more interest in the traits are for real parti<ulars than in the metrical order of . Fresco. III. 111). Ofierates more old-fashioned end of the available range work for Florence's greatest secular patron. in small. Domen- but puts them in the new- spaces of Pollaiuolo.At its tucked modem Flemish preference in. loo. Florence ico \'eneziano's figures. and also Domenico \'eneziano.\lasaccio and C". vers beautifully the translucent voluines of SS. Adoration of the Sh/pherds. fashioned painting is the Procession of the Magi Benozzo Gozzoli (14201497) on the walls of the private chapel of the Medici mansion. luminous action. with Thus Benozzo. He spent the rest of his long life in Pisa and even smaller provincial towns.Messo Baldovinetti (i 423-1 499) reflects reflects Alesso Baldovixetti. in a literally like from Gentile. he is not an exception to the trend of his generation by which equipoise gives way to the dominant figure. and todav the work's Gentile- luxury and anecdote have [xjpularity. building up forms against the sky above superb sweeps of low landscape (fig. is 1 10) frescoed by treated once again as a delightful cavalcade with golden ornament. where he carefullv signed himself "Benozzo of Florence. Annunziaia. Gothic fig. This favorite theme of International (1459. Later he explores the shallow space patterns too. beautifully drawn scenes of clear. but since he has always t>een understood as an artist of second rank. true that his work has helped to keep alive It is a general impression that perspective space interested Florentine paiiuers throughout the fifteenth centurs.\ngelico. rather than a partij ular generation.Masaccio's revolutionary generation everv modem painter was either a innovator or old- fashioned. dimensions wiihin border I3'4"x 14'. and the two fashioned keeping old- artists are also alike in landscape conventions. But at the same date Fra Filippo Lippi. 1460-62.astagno. who had worked cliffs. scoof»ed for years as an assistant to Ghiberti and Fra . .

it is not a modern Flor- entine. It 1 more is that date. Tower. apparently reflecting the patron's schol112- MlCHU C'7 7n Mll. yet that work unfinished and turned to his ceramic pro- flat style. the Bell and the Cathedral. but Pisanello. in almost entirely from sculpture to architecture. created a strange years at work. the preponderance of nonsecular from tomb of Bartolommeo Aragazzi. and decorating the church in Rimini for designed the exterior was meant imitation. Style has a parallel change. emigrated. in the airless juxtaposition of It also makes its subject archae- cylindrical people. the but often polished ornamenta- most brilliant work of the time.Agostino di Duccio (141 8-1481). Bernardo Ciuffagni. Pollaiuolo's bronzes. and its first the most promising youth. instead of scanning one sculptor's whole career and then another's.Agostino di text Duccio. after thirty with the other's chief concerns. 30" X 29" (withoul restored side frames).\t once no desire was felt for outdoor monu- ments. consistent His Family. and a greater role for tombs. but neither group was much involved If. ing. Luca della Robbia churches in Rimini and Perugia. all in drop as is usual.Trends in Florentine Sculpture at Mid-century 2 7- the type of Ghiberti's two Baptistery doors and the sets Or San Michele. . . reflecting the . was a revival. will be considered separately (see p. Michelozzo (1396-1472) worked for years as contem- assistant or junior partner to various of his He made poraries. of statues for Ji. tomb. especially Donatello. 113). BaTtolommeo Aragazzi Bidding Farewell to It may be noted that. humanists and modern Cathedral. which lines. a and both groups shared a curiosity about Roman sculpture. in reliefs for not bring commissions to others. in Montepulciano (finished 1438. ological. did . there records. sophisticated collect- and celebration of the individual: the portrait bust. diluted by a pleasure in 1 ic h.. tion. When young sculptors again emerge in Florvehement ence. Even a faithful hack. in the 1450s. Donatello. Montepulciano tact. of 94 with drapery swirling around hard bodies curved parallel duction. mark his with the tomb of the papal secretary Aragazzi. like those in Castagno's paintings. constantly busy earlier.^lpfe^i new see were projects Then about finished off. A artists work had rather slight con- humanist might order successful with at the time. we looked we would at them notice a in sculpture in Florence. but without any of the large-scale projects typical of 1401-34. indoor location. This seems to be related to the greatest political change in a century. suddenly vanishes Thus almost no sculpture was from all done in Florence. expressive of community consciousness. literally classical than other work of 12). It appearance 1 13). Marble. the small bronze. . others stopped. the shift of power in 1434 from the guild committees to Cosimo de' Medici. 1438.HH n//l arly interests. when humanists praise an It seems typical that artist in their writings (showing that they could). Michelozzo (soon to be noticed) turned (fig. went left away for a decade.-\lberti suggests that it not a Gothic line. as a variant type of 101). thev seem interested in isolated figures. fig. even Luca della Robbia's.\ttic vases is in a learned archaeological con- (see fig. . Some of the older 1450 we sculptural types which emphasize private ownership. the decade of the 1440s. Roman ornament we know on neo- and Anetine pottery.

Marble. Bfrnardo Leonardo Bruni S. Bernardo architect sculpture S. fig. Marble. S. A(JOSTINO DI Dl cclo. (d.i. also active as under the wing of Alberti.Inff: In the Tabernacle of the Sacrament. conceived as a wall tabernacle with delicate ornamental figures but focusing on (lie sensitive portrait. 1453-d. Chapel of the Planets. 1464) chief works are still another tabernacle for the sac- 95 . Effi^v. the chancellor of the Florentine republic. Rimini 115. but 1 14." His shapes for doors (d. Croce. 1444. Francesco. Florence Rosselliiio (1409-1464). 1461. 54 1/2" >" 36 1/2". Salurri. . seems to be in refined moldings and frames. by is an inspired in His greatest pleasure Michelozzo. DeSIDERIO DA SeTTIGNANO. it would be the most ambitious work of the decade. 14441. like most tombs. of the kind now generally regarded as "typical Renais- and especially for tabernacles to hold the sacrament were very influential. If it was produced soon after the deatii of Bruni. Lorenzo.I 13. ii.j). His chief work was the tomb of Leonardo Bruni sance.iNO. height 36". Florence on toml) Marble width io'4 it mav well ha\e been delaved. Desiderio da Settignano's (docs. RossEi.

J27-1479). Antonio Rossellino. Marble. tors. Fin . a men that allude His Castagno-like Saint in expressive spiral motion. height 18". 1 types. Empoli rament various striking in with rocky jaws and ''^^Sttar.irgrlln. Sehns/ian. who fig. seems surprising after the delicate Madonnas. pini. 1 15). now an established institution. who tive surprising that his most less it died in Florence. 1 who is cherubs and for tombs of almost two- dimensional delicacy but first mon- Portuguese cardinal-prince for a dr' Mrtiiei. he and the tomb of Carlo Marsup- accepting the formulas of Bernardo. Mino da A splits visuallv into its similar doubleness Fiesole (1429-1484). so much figure. is examples of the portrait bust. swings between suave reliefs. The 117). hard body 16). the next chancellor of the republic."*" lacks his brother's decora- boxed unity and forceful statues. B. . for smiling brutal realism. but makes umental tomb. 1453. many and tough to ancient Sebastian Madonna times repeated in low relief by imitaportrait busts of old Roman (fig. In his time he was labeled "lovely and sweet. both most famous produced the Pino as the Piero among all these us that the Florentine Renaissance was carvers Galleria della Collegiata. height c. 16. Museo Xazinnale. thin immensely refined and smiles but his giace is women and Under civilized. such de' Mi'dici (1453. Sl altar dossal. and with fresh extitement 96 " in decoration as in the treatment of the his nngcls lift iheir lieads also unity of tone tells 56".'*' (fig. and alabaster glow of not his the heads of diildren there are tougher skulls than photogiaphs suggest.Bernardo's youngest brother.\ntonio Rossellino (1. Marble.

Michelozzo and Florentine Architecture 28. Michelozzo Michelozzi. He hg- ma joi work ' '9) .o. Renaissance visual type for dwellings is first seen in 1440s. the corner of the used for a public port ground floor h. latei filled in. 1 the cm squares in tliemiddle. often with shops on the Palazzo Medici eliminates the shops wider. Palazzo Medici. 1 he three pioneer examples are . and is and narrow. based ancient Roman cal for the easily. the fig. constructing his country retreats and the churches he endowed. Height 80 '6" and at upward journey by the grand defining the building as a unit and prevent the far end of the eye's cornice.'): empirical quality. the three stories. These spatiallv on concepts about self-tonscious innovations. fig. yet it as too pretentious. and thus can create a squarish balance We of width and height. in other contexts. Its sudden appearance. Exterior. just or. Michelozzo's complete structure in remodeling that generally occupied him. the pala//. which seems though its later 102). Michelozzo was Cosiino de' Medici's favorite builder. the architect whom 97 . a quarter-century later than churches the and public buildings. a ( ircular choir at the other end (executed later with changes). as of a Sanlissiina shows none ol this lemodeleil the interior. a contrast to the annexes and finished version. seems ironic that the ments were provided by tiecessary practical adjust. which was tall street floor. It all was seemed using essential Renaissance a classic forinulation. may also suggest that it is simply the natural way to transform the older Florentine house. and some other aimexes. are invited to read the qualities of each story through changes in texture the rough stone blocks at the bottom. . may be reflected in the one masterpiece. 1450 adorn a mansion. A project by Brunelleschi for the town house was rejected by Cosimo according to a report. The small sculpiures and ilic setulai paintings ol new kind of building.-Mberii.ilei (1444-"). 118). Begun 1444.Mthough the analogies between Vet Miclielozzo's l. ing it from floating against the removal of the shops assists the sky. Florence. The word need not mean palate.^Ibertis Palazzo Rucellai (see Palazzo Pitti (145H). mature in the first example of the building type. axioms . the completely smooth — top a lightening that suggests lessened weight receding perspective.\nnunziata added the li building. 233) perhaps encouraged a tradition that Brunel- had designed leschi it —and Medici by Palazzo Michelozzo (probably begun 1444. A building. The whole is then ftamed 18. less inventive enlargement and royal use (see p. and loloiniaded a s(|iiaie domed com t in front. but town house. were attacked as impracti- church services because the opening from main nave into the round choir was too naiTOW.

34''X2r. The most talented. 1450). St. After Michelozzo left Florence in 1455 under attacks on his the trends of the following years there are skill. to repeat tradition. But his simplv modeled doll-like smiling people. Sassetta learned to place with precise 120. ig. less clear. From him lar bodies. in well-constructed Mus*e Conde.we think of as a theorist in contrast to the builder Michelozzo. width of nave 26' Sienese Painting in the Early Fifteenth Century 29. from 1423-d. moving on errands of goodings related to imitators. Panel. medieval enough to suggest high-minded purity but modern enough comfortablv realistic (fig. emerge. Francis Meeting Poverty and Obedience. with Ghiberti (who visited Siena in Sassettas youth). was rediscovered in the late nineteenth cen- tury and much liked an "available primitive" as of the Fra . Total length 314'. which may thus be regarded as dominant in the mood of the time. from an altarpiece. In fact the two architects shared the same classicism and excitement about centrally planned spaces. SS. Remodeling begun 1444. though interested in suggestions from Florence. but the absence of anv immediate ancestry has disturbed of him. Sassetta. Annunziala. Chantilh . are better associ- ated with a slightly earlier moment in Florence. Florence. Siena was by Its own now painters a backwater with a glorious seemed pleased past.\ngelico type. Sassetta (docs. especially Fra Angelico. and only about 1475 does another strong personal style I Michelozzo Michelozzi. he was tied closely ness through wide bright spaces. Plan. When some deep spaces iden- critical treatments of the more poster-like paint- him were recognized as the work of to modern Florence. Chastity. 120). to be His suavely incised line and his pleasure in elaborate tify him readily as Sienese. 98 smoothly tubu- folds.





a natural

attachment, since

Ghiberti admired the great Sienese of the past. Sassetta only loses a little of Ghiberti's bodily flexibility,

and adds

a sensitive color

harmony implying

fresh air.


truly Gothic

di Paolo (docs.

and primitive, Giovanni

1423-1482) adapts Sassetta's patterns

with a repetitive stylization





of folk-art schemas

thin people, with incised con-

and incised renderings of the veins


in their

hands, walk through perspective fields where the
parallel hedges are incised.


of a sophisticated source



peasant reduction



iconic ab-

straction has a special appeal to part of twentieth-



Two other painters looked at newer Florentine
devices than did Sassetta. though with



of instinct. Domenicodi Bartolo's (docs. 1428-1444)
realism of facial details and anecdotes of costumed

crowds seem

a response to Gentile

visit to Siena,

da Fabriano's

and show the younger generation's

capacity to modernize Gentile with organized space

and cool harmonies of color much as Domeiiico
Veneziano does. The boldest, even desperate, effort


into the Renaissance


(docs. 1428-d. 1480),


made by






eled figures steeped in changing light to the point of
strained caricature. Unlike any of the rest, he did

much work away from


and eventually solved

the problem by turning to sculpture. Indeed Nfichelozzo,

was in

who was

his teens,


work nearby when


seems to have been the stimulus

his painting style, to

judge from the



but ex-

aggeratedly active figure types. \'ecchietta's abortive
revolution in painting and his very handsome Donatellian bronzes of later years usher into the city


art that



Renaissance but

er Sienese in the traditional sense in



of a



which the term




U'ildenuis. Panel,
.Art Institute.





in iht

• 14".


Mr. and Mrs. Martin


Ryerson Collfciion


Piero della Francesca


tomb, and


was already


or no interest in perspective. Piero


local citizen,

and soon was

receiving job offers from lords and churches of that
area and even beyond. His most famous work, the
fresco cycle of the

was begun in


Legend of the Wood of he Cross,
same energetic vein for the main

chapel of the P'ranciscan church
colorplate 18).

The theme was

cal of these provincial




stories that

wood from






old-fashioned, typi-

commissions, based on the

had grown up around the


the cross in the churches of Eu-



with Adam's death, and

shows us striding and mourning people, anatomical1\


and passionately dramatic, strung

out on the shallow stage.

at this

have the smooth

in the air that



been inteiTupted by


Domenico V'eneziano.
point Piero's work seems

been so important


and exact placing


a visit to




(1458-59) and

ideas about city planning,

to .\lberti's

with their sense for clear geometric space measurements. This
that has




Florence as an assistant to



V'eneziano, the

young painter Piero


1492) evidently participated in the


invention of the


style of the

della Francesca

muscular figure

along with Castagno, the inost talented Florentine
of his




at least


one of


(onstructing his beginniTigs, after which,

ways of


we know,

he returned to his small native town of .Sansepolcro,

the hills between ,\rezzo and Perugia.

view his


major work

local city hall








the Resiirreclion for the

which indeed Castagno

have echoed in a work of about 1447.^"

Piero's fresco



masterpiece of this


with the

bony and drooping flesh of the large-eyed figun
rigidly looming over ilie flat marble slal)s ot ilu



may have

triggered in Piero something

precedent, and


Piero della Francesca. Death of Adam.

at right. Fresco, entire


Franrpsrn, .\rfzzo




ol ReiiaissaiKC p.iinimjj. In itu- lest of the frescoes

of the Arezito

with the famous (hirrii

series, starting

of Sheba scene, and then in the liaplism aharpiece

and the small Flagcllalion



124, 125), the trans-


remote, expressioidess


counters in a pure geometric world.

with the

They stand

of coluinns, alive only in the inten-


of their forin and light. Perspective became so


important that

same modern

wrote a book about


after .Alberli's.'"*





appealed to the

art has

developed in coiniection

taste that

with Cezanne and Seurat.
In later years Piero relaxes to


point of be

ing interested in particular things, portraits, and
textures, especially shining ones like jewels

water; the double portrait of the count


and count

of Urbino^^ shows all these concerns. Hisreseardi

attitude toward light also led


to a nottunial

fresco in the .Arezzo series, the Dini/n af (.onsldiitine,




drama of optical

abstraction. Pieros

elegant control of the adjustments of proportion


areas, in scale







and is what makes

the Renaissance, but his temporary



him most




effective today. His intense cultivation of

pure forms may be connected with





his retiring

Florentine training to his remote



of great talent with a similar experi-

example. El Greco, Georges de



and Cezanne) have tended to rely less and less on a
link to nature and more and more on reworking


stylistic patterns,

from obscurity




of these einerged

fame dminj) the carlv twentieth





Flagellation. Panel,


23" ^32".

Galleria Nazionale (idle Marili.

Ducal Palace, Urbino



Piero della Francesca. Baptism.

Panel, 66"

X 45". National Gallery, London






and Jacopo

version of International Gotliic that Gentile

da Fabriano took from Venice to Florence in 1423
was assimilated as part of a recent Gothic revival in
Florence, but in Venice


was a subtle amendment

of the established Gothic past; very



books survive from Florence
evidently kept





the AiniHiic

(Milan, Verona,

"Lorenzo Monaco

vocabulary, generally in the vein of Simone Martini; their

masterpiece was the tomb of Can Grande

della Scala (see


As in Florence, Gothic seems


have taken two visual forms.



an art of

piece in painting


1425-1438) in Verona

like Gentile

line but

The other,

da Fabriano's, makes patterns not from

from beautiful

ly decorative

in this context

made common



at this


on parchment,

the fresco oi Saint George Res(fig.


Tales of chivalry are



d' Arthur,^-

be seen here and

dreams of feudalism

had never been imagined

actual feudal age.


be during the


princess in her

the knight in his chased armor are


ermine and

notable than

the horses in their trappings, which provide an-

notebooks of drawings,

by Giovannino de' Grassi


whose sweaty gravity seems the more imposing.

drawings (many now assembled



notebook^S) are also keener than Giovannino de'
Grassi's in being

quick sketches, not standard motifs


be traced. Their success has hidden their quality,

book, 5" one sculpture, and some manuscript




illuminations. Like others, his sketchbcxjk


has only left

(docs. 1389-d. 1398), a

in the

other example of the real decorative object, but one

date because parchment was



vein, but soon the influence of

both are equal-

giving way to cheaper paper. Theearliest of interest,


notable new vehicle

real objects;

and luxurious.


His earliest work, a fresco of

Verona (1423-24),^'

typical pleasures of this culture, to

and Stefano da Zevio




elling the Princess

in Malory's

the most polished painter in this style.


Gentile da Fabriano transforms him. His master-

ornamental rhythmic line like Lorenzo Monaco's,



emerges one great master, Pisanello

(docs. 1422-d. 1455).

other north Italian towns with their feudal courts
Ferrara) also favored a Gothic


not as


at this time; they

treated as mines for repeating


done there

earlier could be related to the Renaissance.



costumes and animals, including exotic ones

monkeys, greyhounds, and leopards.


such note-

duller imitations were soon

his originals.





in with

a typical early


ing (though sometimes thought to be by another


the Allegory of Lust, ^* a



.\ntonio Pisanello.

George Rescuing the Princea.

Fresco, ig'G"


.\Iusco Civico,



girl in


Antonio Pisanf.llo.
127Medal of V'ittorino da Feltre

Antonio Pisasello.
Medal of King Alfonso of Naples,

Bronze, diameter

Bronze, diameter 4 1/4".


2 5/8".


National Gallen.' of Art, Washington, D.C.

National Gallery of Art. Washington, D.C.

Samuel H. Kress Collection

elaborate peacock-like hairdo, spiavvling on boii\

reform of the courtly formula by the un-

hips; the

conventional direct vision






typical of Pisanello.


He works

within existing formulas but sharpens

them; he

one of the gieat noinevolutionaiy



but a reforming one.
His most surprising novelty




the reinvention

of the bronze medal, of which he remains to this

day the one complete master. His medals are not

and stamped


(like coins)

they are small sculptures

repeatable portraits, at





cast, so that

127, 128).



luxurious favors that


lords could

out, like autogiaphed photographs

today, yet soon including the poor



but respect-

ed teacher Vittorino da Feltre, and other scholars.


backs show pictorial mottoes, chosen by the

worked out by

subjects but freely
for the




king of Naples, with a nude leaping on a

boar and a greyhound beside it, shows how in the
new medium courtly motifs could still be made to
come alive. As these medals mark the individualism
of the



proportion of the
other works


mark the artist's; the usual
must take a larger
surface than signatures on anv

they also








the touneenth centui)

pan of

the Balkans

had been

more than of


Jacopo Bellini.

The Beheading of John

and had produced Byzantine painters while

the Baptist.

right hair Pencil, 16" x 13".

Museum, London


ing visiting Gothic ones from north Italy. Late in
the century



painters were Gothic, too, but



1420, as the city turned


interests to the

control of the nearby mainland, Venetian painting

entered the Renaissance.


Fabriano went from there


to Florence,

Venetian assistant Jacopo Bellini





Gentile da

he took along

(docs. 1424-d.

a notable analogy in the works of

structures .Mtichiero

him, again, mainly from notebooks of drawings,^^
point of reshaping subject matter

draw the

figures of

magnifying the

Bartolo: all depend on Gentile
shadowed modeling, but throw away
the accompanying courtly apparatus and replace it
with excitement about perspective. In all of them

\isual innovation

Domenico di

for their soft






to the



ent small and at one side,

scale of the building

and making

the flow of space the heart of the effect, a genuine



tion going.


sets a great X'enetian tradi-

appears in landscape,

independent flowing of





have been explicit in his paintings,

perspective tends to be

from the


more luxuriant than systemproducing colonnades to infinity and nests ol

nas, ^^

spiderweb arches. Jacopo's \ersion leans on the

tonal ism.


Padua (see fig.
and we know



which stretch the perspective experiments

Jacopo Bellini, Masolino (the Florentine whose
work changed under Gentile's impact), and the

had painted

His paintings are largely





This may

we may infer

of several surviving small


which replaces contours with gently subdued




literal sense,



painting in the

his family.


manicd .Andrea Mantegna (1431-1506),
phenomenon who at eighteen was beginning to






He had

masterpiece, the Ovetari Chapel
in his native

naturallv been





whose emphasis on
and space construction was easily

translatable into painting.

sharp contours


attracted to Donatel-

reliefs (see fig. g8),

incised drawing


Padua (begun

of the


renders not only the

keyed-up people, but an equal-

network of gauzy threads

in their blueprinted

environment, neatly factual and detailed. His future
tather-in-law stimulated .Mantegna


hobby of the

archaeological recording of ruins (as did his local

eacher), but

more important, he affected .Mantegna


sense of space. In the later parts of the Ovetari Chapel.


Mantegna adjusts the perspective to the viewposition on the floor below and makes people

project forward fiom the picture plane, erasing the

between the picture space and our space


tulate that perspective sets

Andrea Mantegna.


Execution. Fresco (destroyed




James Led



X 10' 10". including borders.

Ovetari Chapel, Church of the Eremiiani,



contrary to the usual Florentine pos-


a balanced, self-con-

tained cosmos in the picture, a packaged totality.

sources are


slighter but suggestive experi-

ments by Donatelloand Jacopo

Bellini withaconiin-








ApoUuiua. FL



Fresco, lo'i



PiERO DELLA Francesca.

Stoty oj iht Queeti of Sheba (detail of

x 2^'^" (entire scenei. S. Francesco, Arezzo


at left), c.1460.

CuLoRi'i-Ait iy.



dcgli Sposi.


tt^iSA. Jxeiutii iu


Ducal Palace. Mantua


LuiuiHai (jVlt^U^U. 1474.


rc»LU, Wlljlll

Spring.I 478.COLORPLATE 20. 6'8" io'4". Panel. Flurence . C. Sandro Botticelli. Uffiizi GalliT>.

San Zeno Triptych. Andrea Mantegna.131. S. Brera.Andrea Ma. 131). When Mantegna opens up the sky behind the stage too. experiments 132). In another experiment. which thus push in front of the picture plane and are also reciprocal with the far piers that take us into the open blue. Dtad Chnst. EnlhroTud Madonna with Saints. long ago. Paris. San (fig. 40). is The most famous of these the foreshortened where the rationally Dead Christ 132. Its front columns are the carved frame of the altarpiece (as. Mantegna. They look into the becoming an equivalent for ourselves. uum of space in which people are minor incidents. . the effect is that of a line of vision becoming intense in the reverting to lower intensity as The finity. Beau. who is experimenter. such scene. and The Louvre. yet violently distorted luy . Caavas. develops nothing this if not a constant idiom in his great Zeno triptych of the . it continues to it is basic to \'enetian Renais- evolves in Giorgione and Titian. Verona originak of predella panek in Mus^e des Tour.Madonna and Saints The in- and single continuity of space inside outside the painting sance art as from our eye segment of drama and then figures are inside a roofless porch.\rts. in Pietro Lorenzetti. Each panel 86" x 45". the ground drops down toward figures far see us at the front. predella panels are naturally a critical point for contact with the obser\er. 1457-59. in one of the predella scenes originally beneath. 27" x 32". Milan (fig. see fig.x-.stegxa. marked by foreground rest so that we only enough below the them from the waist up. Zeno.

Again people with massively realistic faces step in front of the picture plane established by the framing pilasters. the ceiling: with people (some mythological cupids. 1 34).Fresco. . his marquis' palace ceremonial activities (finished room was 133. entire wall ig'S" Camera ^jj-'^sait^'^ <. own learned design. showing the inarquis his family in 1474. Mantua Court. Camera dcgli 134. Ducal Palace. diameter 60" Ducal Palace. the uniform flow of reality from viewer into picture is evoked in a further and startling way.^^DREA Manteg. Mantua another logical but spectacular extension of 133- .Mantegna artist (reflecting personality to be his used to build a mansion to His masterpiece cycle all and for the fig. who needed his court not merely with art to adorn but with a celebrated the emerging role of the artist as and entrepreneur).image is used to assert the shock of tragedy. 1474. and the projectile effect of the feet involves us. 1474. But the most famous spatial Mantegna opened up a trick view of the is sky. The marquis of Mantua. induced Mantegna painter with a large salary which .*4iiii M ^^*:^^. is a fresco around one room. Fresco. colorplate 19). Since the no doubt used for the same sorts of ceremonies. Andrea Mantegna. Ceiling. . some the marquis' Negro servants) looking It is down at us as we look up (fig. The Duke of Mantua and His degli Sposi.

. Cosimo Tura (docs. characteristi- does not vary them during a forty-year career. eye continue on a straight line to infinity. Here and well as his mastery of incisive drawing in engrav- in his work Mantegna damped which were the his linear ings. is sophisticated indeed of a shining filigree of twining glittering forms. sometimes a court allegory but often reality comes from his brilliant ed meul.g. London circulated tur>' art his finest his compositions as by any artist in Italy. it is contorted makes the tension a per- Giovanni di Paolo. The and line and. rigidifies such pulling forces into decorative pattern cally. and tortured 135). ultimate more effect. 94" x 40" National Galler\-. in the They kept Parnassus.\lberti. 99). robes but in gesturing arms and turning heads (fig. far than Giovanni di Paolo's. 1430-d.. with urban whom Tura shares a fashion today). (e. in 1450 Rogier van der Weyden. letting the motion. the fact that metal which is manent condition. The dukes of Ferrara were great importers of artists: in the 1440s they had . fame alive when most fifteenth<en- had become ignored by Rembrandt). and thus an Tura. 1495) is chiefly a painter of single figures. 1497. Pisanello. irretrievable fate. the connection was eased no doubt by . But then by luck emerged.''" for the study of the young mar- later chioness Isabella). bent in fanciful a saint. producing a ers who work a local school series of three brilliant paint- again begin by responding 10 Donatellos in Padua nearby. like other provincial imitators of subtle creations (e.g.\iccol6 Baroncelli. 135. with gentler landscape and easier Ferrara 33.g. and Piero della Francesca. Tht Cosimo TuR. Jacopo Bellini. in a utilization .* Virgin and Child Enthroned. Their imiution of burnishnot only in intricacy'. center panel of aliarpiecc. a bronze sculptor and pupil of Donatello's who lived in Ferrara from 1443 until his death in 1453. implying psychological stress in the figure. Donatello literally strained the metal in his \2tie Judith (see fig.. constructions with broader modeling (e.He some of the spate through the stage segment.

Ferrara Francesco del Cossa (docs. crew frescoing fig. Cossa's modern modeling clashes with the theme of the frescoes tants present us with a a set of the signs of the zodiac. 1496) began De' ROBERTI. And the anonymous execu- gioup style. so the isolated standing figures symbolizing the astrological system are his most brilliant images. Month 0/ March. was rejected. 1478) pro- duced his masterpiece as part of a pleasure villa for the duke (1470. smooth faces. and clear prey. again. 1470-d. 136). Walker Art Gallery. Li\ erpool one talented fresco project. In Cossa's panel paintings the protagonist is the columnar figure. and assistant to Cossa in the later His figures. Francesco DEL CossA. weight than Cossa's. Yet he retains from fields a Ferrarese tliat Tura what seems idiom of taut yet ornamental poses. Pictd. sometimes seen from below and sometimes gaining heroic dignity from the austere restraint of the artist's tight drawing and single round mass. vibrate with only slightly tinny textures. 3'3" x Astrological Figures for the 1' 1 Palazzo Schifanoia. 13 "x 12". in a context that suggests that here the medieval role of the artist as a feudally dependent craftsman re- mained almost intact. 1479-d. ErCOLE Ercole de' Roberti (docs.136. incised against the sky. the of space. reflecting Donatello less than Mantegna. as the Panel. 1470. indeed his application to be paid more than the rest of the crew. Cossa's figures. 137. because of his professioTial reputation. stand very tall and with his narrative less same helped him in other work. He a did not have Mantegna's status. Fresco. scenes of the influ- ences of the planets on men. and typical activities of the months (the duke watches a falcon catch its — duke gives his court fool a coin) local variants on a medieval image. But in pictures the opening up of Tura's .

figs. substituting a sculptural are now muscular athletes (see some of them PoUaiuolos paintings of 108) 107. smiling and giving us a blessing. style. giowing role of the popes as ten itoi and the seated 138. falling and beating each other. than the north line. Yet the brilliant complexities in it still Andrea keep an effect of all-over ornament. 109). Even more than the portrait busts of the same generation. marks the end of this tradition.Michelangelo's early l)v (. All is contained within the tight incised Ferrarese visible today in a small I'iela move (lav figures most impressivelv more direct 201) has an echo in sculpture in the local groups of It that is 37).'* Pollaiuolo. now becoming the first pure aesthetic objects. Altogether he is a nonmoruimental artist. In this case ture has it tells us that the sculp- no front view. hrighi 18 Mu^eo Nazionalr. Verrocchio 34. in stiff collisions expressing passionate grief or excess of violence. reflecting the lords. a European sculptures sometimes cited. . though he abandoned Florence for the monumental commission of the tomb of Pope Sixtus in Rome.Antonio DEL PoLL.Mi 01 Hercules and Antaeus.twisted tensions to a more humati moderiiitv results people running and shout- in a forceful discharge. also sculptors. Ercole. It small object for a table. who died prematurely one year after the elderly Tura. (fig. source for . modified by Ercole to stylized lozenge patterns This 1 I'irta (see fig. for Pope Innocent V'lII (finished 1498. marks the new dominance of it small-scale indoor private sculpture. Bar^fllo. is the through the modulafirst true ancestor of Bernini's papal tombs. who made only one engraving (see fig. Other young Florentine talents soon follovs'ed Cas- tagno (and the young Piero della Francesca) in los- ing interest in perspective organization. 139). Typically. These small bronzes. ''8 followed at I\' (from 1484) once by another tomb. del Verrocchio (1435-1488) worked II. which one picks up is a to ex- amine. Bronze. dominating their roundings may be only duplications of his favorite mediutn. perhaps evolving from lamps or inkwells. 138) has a three-cornered base like Do- xtateWo'sJiitliili. and that we must approaches to follow the interlocked try all three forces. tiny bronze of Hercules holding Antaeus away from the ground by pure muscle (fig. are Pollaiuolo.uido Mazzoni. Florrnrr ial figuie of Innocent. ing.S . is also only known to have made one of these. alive tion of curves and lights. fig. The sur- his bronzes. Thev are more elaborate than any previous papal tombs. teeteringly.

X'errocchio commission of the generation 14 received the largest (fig. Bronze. for a two figure gioup to replace when one saint in the old Or San became a patron (i46. height of rectangle and lunette about 13'. 141). in the niche is psychologically. But the stone sculptors. Thomas is of the niche. with the most precise embroidery stitched on the shirt. the effect is in all of them. 1472. 1498. fig. Peter's. and significant is had a the Baptism of composition of two related stand high above the horizon as in other paintings of this generation. They group elegantly handled. 139- Tomb of Innocent Andrea DEL 140. In the niche Christ stands and is approached by .\Iichele set a different organization touch His W'Ound doubtingly. Rome of opening 15'. who reaches out to . Lorenzo. Florence in a great variety of media.-. fig.Saint Thomas. It is none of also splen- did technically. height VIII.-83). stringy-tendoned and almost smiling. but he The most Christ 142).Antonio del Pollaivolo. X'errocchio's early its work is all bronze ornament. the closest to active realism possible in ornament. Vatican. an apprentice in the street with the classicism of Donatello's David. but grandeur of scale and original design already lift it from a decorative level. like a Castagno soldier (see Christ is more remote and the cally central. St. figures. partly out hierati- spatial diffiruliv of the X'errocchio's paintings were few. again a (fig. and the irregularities of the stringy bodies are silhouetted. like made by combining ornamental frames and tough Castagno-like heads. the Medici (1472. beneath a tall lattice of bronze rope. 106). 140) is a His tomb for two of handsome porphyry sarcopiiagus encased in bronze foliage. large shop. S. Marble and bronze. The metallic precision of flesh surfaces in X'errocchio's painted figures w-as a fornnila imitated by many . Old Sacristy. \'ERROcrHii> liiinhi'l Medici. The ropes pull thickly. So we are not surprised that his bronze David^" is a Castagno type.

. to a general. Panel. Florence Or San Michele. 97). The strength of the work is the surprising synthesis ol active bronze ropes. SS. Florence provincial painters (such as Matteo di Ciovanni in Siena. 143. Uffizi Gallery-. 143). This monis the only rival to Donatellos Gatlainclula in Padua (see fig. Christ and Doiifititig Andrea DEL \'errocchu> 142.Andrea DEL Verrocchio. Venice Colleoni. here the close to these diverse qualities. was finished. 1467. at once more decorative converse of the earlier popping eyes are as ornament as active realism may come. and Leonardo da V'incl Baptism 0/ Christ. Andrea DEL X'errocchio. 69" x 59" Thomas. height 13'. an equestrian statue in Venice (1481. Bronze. 141. Giovanni e Paolo. Verrocchio. Fiorenzo di Lorenzo in Perugia). less and more profound but The energetic. height y's". but he died before ument it Bartolonieo Colleoni. Bronze. left Florence for a big com- mission. too. monument of Bartolommeo Equestrian Begun Campo 1 48 1. fig.

Simone Martini. a feudal kiTig's (as in places. sometimes supported by a lifted hand or the emphasized measurement of space between head and hand. nearly all small heads: Christ. King Rene was overthrown by the more fonso of Aragon.®' the Roman.35- Antonello da Messina. on it He creates his own variant in paintings. widih 2g'6" liking for por themsehes Flemish . later effects of their Antonello da Messina (docs. After the king's death the sculptors scattered again. probably in Rome.TJl scile are The Triumphal Arch. Francesco Laurana Naples plays almost no role in Renaissance art. but great moment was his the discovery at thirty-five or so of Piero della Francesca's most luminous and formal work. sterile left di brief conquest about 1440 by the connoisseur-king Rene of Anjou brought modern methods of painting from Flanders to the leading local painter. broadly and neutral space. others the visits of Camaino. Aside from the influence of a recent work very literally is modeled in Naples by Michelozzo. his triumphal arch of many a spectacular 144). He no doubt which traveled to Naples and learned about recent Flemish painting. 298). After when the early fourteenth century. Piero's. 1457-d. Castel Nuovo. Colantonio (see p. Beeun and (he sm. Mary. 112). 1479) started painting in his native Sicily in the provincial reflection of the late medieval Spanish style was normal there. The They are of a verv light often gleaming but not as remote in feeling as close-ups of faces with a droop- ing lip or swiveled eye. a century of civil war betw'een left dynasties The ground.-M- stories (fig. many is artists' . and their marks. '43!^ Height 125'. work in which the less marked than the personalities are the astrological frescoes at Ferrara. with figure type style a relaxed. provide concentral ed images of states of feeling. and secular portraits. but some work can be found. stable ascendency with a gateway. with on an egglike some of skull. traits 144. It who marked who came from many but they functioned like members of a me- dieval cathedral workshop. Tino Giotto. smooth geometry indeed. see Sculptors are recorded p. Naples.

Antonello da Messina. in Venice. Vi. Jeromf in His Study. transferred to canvas. 146) is One larger panel of SainI Sehas- again a single concentrated smooth form. Si. . Panel. for the altarpiece became a young N'enetian painters who were seeking out of luminous make threediincnsional forms (olor alone. 67" OrmalHr^alrrie. and one elaborate work. Antonello da . Panel. fills Saint Jerome London in His hard light-box with small a objects everywhere that show how more a literal Flemish sense of the world was potential in Antonello lian all (fig. the time. painted. We have lost . 146. There this backwoods genius had an unexpected model to to success. 18" / 14" \aiional Gallery.\Iei>sina. Dresden \ 34". here not the egg of a head but the cylinder of a body.I }3. 145). Sliidy (fig.Vntonello's largest set of works. in a continuation of his wanderings. tastes. Sekasiian.

so against the city which had but was slowing ists finding rivals in its duke of to speak. south to the reaction is move from artist to a after. and his por- Sicily. respectively. )458-d. neither to express a bal- older compositions in team " of artists perspective in a ance of figures and environment as the 1400 gener- ation had. talent. but They artists as a routine cliche. and the Milan. and they are certainly based on him. Renaissance also style. carrying Piero della Francesca one more step gettable (fig. a greatest. with such tell-tale evidence as the phy of any artist (Brunelleschi). all left the city for better long-term employment elsewhere with. when he returned His Madonnas there. one of the carvers of King Alfonso's triumphal arch. 118 procedure and Ghirlandaio Shortly after 1480 Pollaiuolo and VeiTOcchio. perhaps this of an easily influenced context of But traits. minor painter in Urbino.-st (to biogra- historical Giotto in the Cathedral). are limited in range and expressiveness but perfect and unfor- 147).*'* an effort to bring Fra Filippo Lippi's body back for reburial. negatively. It was an unprecedented vote. the brightest artists young of Florence. As mannered portraits. slight smiles. the Pisanello. and Leonardo. nor. Marble..i502). It because both happen to have Bargello. The "second remaining at home also handled new way. soon traits the carving to one of Flemish por- hardly prepares us for Laurana's sud- den maturing. the X'enetian senate. Florence manifested a retrospective atti- tude. superficially toward simple abstraction. partly made portraits of the same princess. and systematic quoting of modern works. the most prominent this Antonello had. often revive the balanced space of the earlier but now with completely symmetrical stage . height 20". become proud of its art- down economically and invention. 147- Countess of Urbino. With wide blank edges. the pope. they build up portraits of Louis XI of and others P'rance that are strongly characterful with simplified form. Batlisla Sfmza. in Naples again. Rene and there France fled to emerged as a best of the generation after to the rival King maker of medals.The Dalmatian Lauiana Francesco (docs. The half<losed eyes. Roman it also at thirty-five. to exalt the figure as in the more recent generation. they have seemed to typih' Renaissance culture. and certainly evolved in Sicily shortly after Botticelli 56. for princesses in the circle of King Alfonso's son Ferrante.^^ but he probably never saw a work by Piero. Florence often speculated is Laurana was affected by Piero that directly. surveyed all the notable painters and sculptors working in Italy and judged Mantegiia the At this date a neutral observer. Francesco Lai-rana. Museo Nazionaie. and barely suggested hair draw all attention to the egglike forms like Antonello's.^^ the plaque ever installed in a building first f.

with dancers before a shallow hedge. S. Jurfi(A. to be compared fig. C'an\' q'2" Uffizi Galle ^--^>>v /ii L also (see where stylized^with^oljl rfvpniid The engraving (fig. had small bronzes and collections . villas. SainI Sebastian (i474)''-^ tied to Judith (fig. use the space in Pollaiuolo's Hercules panels (see figs. the famous Spring (colorplate 20). ^'^ 149). Uffizi Gallery. x 10". loosening alert tautness into the tension of fatigue.spaces. 108) and his incisive drawing of muscles under tension. t n a <ly-4i]ank patrons were the Medici. is sky. 12" I4q. spatially to Pollaiuolo's and the Birtli of I'enus shar ply^rawn peopJ£»_UliD lines .Ltj. The same vehicles appear in his grander compositions.Thf Hirlh } of Vrnus. aesthetically sophisticated owners of in 148. 109). that were almost never used by the origina- tors of perspective. Botticelli (1445-1510) in his youthful work echoes the general group style of the generation before liim. Florence Panel.t]on. and sharply silhouetted into a dance. which they Sandro Botticelli.ANDRo BoTTicF. reiTiote_from^ fee di ng to the^j>oint of abstrac. but Botticelli intentionally slips a cog. 107. especially Pollaiuolo. a tree and seen against the whose walk 148).

But within them the details ting are new-. 150). a miracle. intro- which factors. Ghirlandaio is at Old Man his finest in separate pwrtraits. a fourteenth-centurv is sides of the closely derived The background photographic view of Florence. terms. This particularism has a larger effect in portraiture. we may in recall that a 20 Antonio and his fiiends around three work. Benedetto da Maiano (1442-1497) is the Ghirlandaio of sculpture. Botticelli's goddesses of love.^) modifies pwrtrait sculpture by His portraits are covering the head with wrinkles and the shoulders Rossellino's. 15. and But this is to deny only true in comparative a close look at his most linear arabesques. In levels of reality as of audience his cycle of Saint Francis (complet ed 1485) the most masterly scene. His vivid bust of Pietro Mellini (1474. fig.the Magi employ exact if miinterested perspective. linear bending patterns do indeed distort their bodies with expressive effect. the painters of the set- up narratives neatly and symmetrically in rooms or on similar stages. A more fig. unshaded modeling had become obsolete.Adorations of with embroidery. clients of frescoes could have among their portraits in a corner. In a p>or- Ghirlandaio can even invent a comjxjsition. especially the small anecdotal objects of daily that life mark the pleased discovery of Flemish methods. 152). There is from is a a reversal of the Florentine assumption that the ordering of reality is superior to the details. the Approval 0/ the FroTuiscan Rule (fig. offering two and pageant. that physical love duce us its so. To avoid lying^otTTceTR^toadecadent syndrome. . could even pose as the onlookers of models main modern for the But Ghirlandaio paints them in dress in front of the tableau of the traditional sub- National Gallery. London jects. more intrinsically. in to spiritual versions of themselves wipe out the original physical long to this world. massive modeling. notably the and a Little nose is filling trait. The old man's diseased not more emphasized than the sense of love the space between the two heads. *^ which thus remarkable late may be work is a client's order. This teaches. shifting the emphasis from mass comparison like contemjxjrary called him "virile" the patron formal composition. an archaistic composition derived from the Fra Angelico tradi- and angels whose tion. while his . does whose formalist extremism tends life. His continuing attachment to the Medici after their makes fall it unlikely that he was a devotee of Savonarola's antiluxurious evangelism^^ as has been supposed. with a strange prophetic inscription. Ghirlandaio (1449-1494). and his style. Divine Comedy^* may be of these years. . 151). Saxdro Botticelli. 1500. ecessors. ijo. was perhaps the first to of fresco cycles rework the spatial fonnula of his predecessors' pred1400 generation. Savonarola's theme of God destroying the wicked city appears in just one of Botticelli's works. and died But in his last years his drawings for Dante's unfinished His forgotten. he could get no work. as in the thiji igterlacedji a^nds of the Gra ceVi_shp*N^ accurate drawing and firm. grace.\fl/!!i/). and wisdom be- classical bodily literan dif- and beauty fused version. which to other painters. or figures. wraps portraits of of older and ancient an and cultivated the fashion of neo-Platonism. the Xalivily (1500. a successful painter all his life. Earlier. Boy (fig. 43 " 29 x ". Canvas.

Fresco. 18". of an Old 24"^ Man and a Little Boy. Tfu Approval 0/ the Franciscan Rule.niiitt *j fl ¥ «L <li »^. S. The Louvre. Triniti. 1 ^a —5Sj^Mj jpi iHH^^^^ ^^B n '-^^^^H 152. Paris 121 . Sassetti Chapel. Portrait Panel. 1 •ais-^^ 151 ' '^ ' rs DoMEMCo Ghirlandaio.ndaio. DOMENICO Ghirla. width !2'2". Florence ^^L^'. 1483-85.

saint. Ghirlandaio. Palazzo fig. in symmetrical formula. Bargello. articulated at the far metrical space is a powerful aid in exalting dis- passionate architectonic surface realism. his in Flor- 154) he sets each because he was connected with Perugia. chilly and them at the base gradually rising to a mild blue. an ar- big frescoed Crucifix- ion (1493-96)'' sets gentle. rich with filtered atmosphere. softly turning fig- ures of his Chrisl Giving the Keys lo Sainl Peler (colorplate 21). but then quiet figure in front of a square pillar. deep tunnel of of an event is (fig. Painting Saint Perugino it. and in old age he shuttled among the villages around Perugia to produce the same altarpieces again and again. Painting for a Pope Sixtus he avoids all in the drama new Sistine Chapel (1480-82). 153. as did his many Just (docs. others. His narrative panels of the story of Saint Francis. Benedetto da . 1523). is one spectacuopen to doubt well have contributed designs such sculptural elements in it as the splendid bronze lamp holders around the outside. Here the sym- them is a vast city square. 1472-d. Florence Perugino and Pinturicchio 37. and bright 122 a crew of painters. Behind end by two symmetrical Roman arches through which we can see the farthest.Mai.wo. so called in Florence. in the mild. like and and work Pollaiuolo. Since there are working as an architect. Pinturicchio is a vulgarized Perugino. But he had no further variations to offer. the only sense hand of the in the lifted The chitectural irregularity. certainly owe much to their execution by Niccolo Grosso. (docs. Museo Nazionale. Yet these. and there created a beautiful variant on Piero. take '*'' horn Ghibeni. ordered by the same client. all in a row in the front.i5i3). . the most dashing such objects ever made. he distinctive. 165). began with Bernard's vision of the Virgin frescoes in the Pollaiuolo-Verrocchio vein. and then ties to the painted fiames on the same plane. but to his less intense Perugino maintained two successful studios. In the Chapel Perugino led young Signorelli. who because of them was remembered with respect in later generations as the best of Ren- aissance blacksmiths. one of these is i48o-d. height 1 2 ". whitest sky.^" and they evidently bor- Botticelli. is air in the middle. il Capana. 1474- Marble. followers. Pietro Mellini. A painter growing up at this time one of the many rowed small towns south of Florence had a choice between effect. the tradi- their space systems no records of his tional linkage of his larly (see for name with good building. sweetish figures before an infinite empty whiteness. He may just Strozzi. or Piero della Francesca's local revolt in Perugia from ence about 1490 marks his peak. the figural imagery of the leading Florentines.

Canvas.Aracoeli. 6'4''x8'5'' ^destroyed. ^'et to stylize the Llca Signorelli..^^ unusual for theme. a youthful reflection of Piero. Signorellis people remain constructed metaphors of sweaty humanity. Munich 38. was faced. 154. greatest figure of the area in his time. the Stour^ug of where a firm perspective space is in harmonious proportion with a new kind of man. commissioned by the family. There gold Earlier. another small town south of Florence. the began with and then when he learned about \'errocchio produced a unique svnthesis that provincial but jxjwerful." the gold surfaces seemed to be atthe tempting to take attention away from the scattered looseness of the nan-ative tone. Formerlv Kaiser Friedrich Museum. as Christ. Bernard. Florence and of his teacher Piero della Francesca. giowing up in Cortona. Th^ . Tht Vision of Si.''' first. 3'8" v j'j'. Melozzo da Forli Luce Signorelli (docs. i474-d. Reversing Perugino's evolution. Signorelli. symmetrical spaces.a cousin of Ghirlandaio in his tastes. Perlgino. in the most closely indebted Roman to Peru- gino and perhaps to Signorelli. Panel. in much ornament and at the Vatican in works new Borgia apartments of Pope . figures stand ceremonially.s^h. Pinturicchio's most notable fresco series had been his church of . '* defined in musculature as any painted by a Florentine. in his leaf. Berlin it like \'errocchio's also uses this texture form into an inientionallv pattern that has its own stiff-jointed architectonic abstraction. is in his earliest It appears important painting. an abstraction in which he pro- 123 .i523). and as dramatic.Alexander VI (begun 1492). Signorelli. and even in the tinny shine of flesh. like Perugino and many other painters with the rival patterns of the city of in the area. work is the fresco cycle of the in Siena life His best-known of Pope Pius (begun 1503). is The gaudy in its II modern relaxed clothes. Altc Pinakothek.

and geometry. the School oj Fan their tension and meaning attracted the patron- having isolated dignity like a and is He fanning pages. LucA SlGNOREl. age of the Medici. Here and in i'un . a (1499-1504. But is he painted a unique prising inspiration in the twentieth century for the German not noticed. The Resurrec- Dead and the Punishment ojlhe Damned are the most powerful segments. which also stimulated DCirer's . twisting in torture. the Last 124 fig. 427). creating a painful but impersonanguish.Apoca- between tough personality. 153). Judgment same on one wall actually the (see fig. Ur on the vaulted duced endless aharpieces among the small towns parts of the subject distributed of the area. 197" ^3 Cathedral. witii lypse series of 1497-98 (see fig. make a formal group Madonna and Saints. 306). Fresco. are marked by ropy tension like the muscles in an anatomy book. with stiffly The to an open book painter (fig. and by lion of I he geometric tricks of foreshortening like examples in a perspective book. The all-over regular rhythms of line contain the squirming bodies as in a net.l. 156). each the other. the latter. His rare inanimate objects show the ing and wall surfaces so neatly that the unity of time same geometric handling.l I fi. for homage a favorite ceil- The end is minor the fresco hill town of the world and are the themes. At its date it no doubt gained extra power from the dread of a calamity in the magic year 1500. whom slightly stilted athletes threatening to flatten is subject that Michelangelo painted later pagan gods.1^6.14^9-1504. became the surlife Max Beckmann.- Hum\hmfnt nf tht Damned. Signorelli also painted portraits rich in distant grandeur and in his masterpiece cycle in the Cathedral of Orvieto. Heaps of congested nudes. height- al ening tlie pressure on them.

the first make Rome Renaissance painter of distinction to his permanent headquarters. Pinacoteca V'aticana. flect cept that the fresco work. His early been linked Me- art of us. 1477. he spent the last twenty years of his life in obsc ure village-church The unusual and underestimated lozzo da Forli (143H-1494) in a town. with foreshortened attendants clustering about. transferred to canvas. 157). but both structures re- X 7'io". d. Quirinal Palace. With artist is a friend of Rome. for Melozzo busts. 158. an Ascension of Christ wind from the side flaps the robe 15S). Rome x in Loreto^'^ through he again to the blue most pioneering in his fresco for the apse of Rome. where a IV fig. to us best is a center of Piero's activities. in subject of Christ laterally while he rises up. Melozzo's special interest is that who was I'lalina. the rooms in which they are painted. it has a very different architecture. In a Mantegna sky. Mei. otherwise is ian plain.ozzo da Forli. setting and others in this as he does the stage for Raphael in some of his ideas. Ascension 0/ Christ. Me- Sixtus suggestive (1477. Rome . Compared with Mantegna's court having the serious-minded realism and plain weight Roman of follows He is (fig. continuous with the viewer's Urbino these clues. iiWuj II' uith thi Librarian Piatina. apse of SS.Signoielli touiul theiiies involving the emotional distance wliicli nude an at carried liim beyond his other athievements. a look at Melozzo's impres- with the Librarian He is room. a motion of that even in sive fresco for the papal library in activity in the spective. frescoes at mass that anticipates he is io'4". Fresco. g'g" 157. and . in the remote southeast corner of the great north were dominated its artists life is Ital- unknown. Like Perugino. Fresco (detached).Mantua completed in 1474 {see fig. 12' dome in cutting the Santi Apostoli. can be obtained if But interesting we take note known as according to a local lozzo's. at a time affected by his origin without importance for when by Mantegna. 133). as well as in its per- supports this with firm pwrtraiture Roman Baroque painting more literally than do the works of Michelangelo commonly cited. More Melozzo's seizure of Mantegna's con- is a better reading the most admired painter in Italy was Mantegna. Apostoli.^ Forli. and to Piero della Francesca has on the loose grounds that both were interested in perspective that Forli near Urbino.

the system early Brunelleschian (fig. his palace built other work surv i465-d. 160).i479). His drawings for forts 159. Some notable individual buildings of this period echo Alberti in varying degrees. L'rbino. like Alberti's at the top of Santa . 1 10' square. Cortona. and He had begun as a skilled painter in the manner then cuiTent in the area. Luciano Laurasa. This looks across the valley. width 13' 160.39.Albertian Pienza. Total height of porches 50'. as in . patron of Piero della Francesca and other painters.Naples (see fig.Architecture in Central Italy. 144). feature its is the two-story two white friezes that bear a long inscTiption. In his ceased to be a carrier of became simply one of the artists hill generation Siena style tradition and towns among which journeyed.Signorelli's home town. Since the four walls as they touch set yard space.\Jaria Novella. . spending much of his time as a military engineer designing artillen' nical step froin bronze sculpture) and (a plex shapes based on how artillery Li'ciANO Laurana. recalling tersecting verticals (pilasters a net of friezes is through the new. The two and the in- up way of thinking made explicit The also Sienese Francesco di Giorgio (1439-1502) worked at the palace. Its by a talented architect ives. nervous but finnly sculptural tinny with figures. framing each of the four walls as an independent plane. Later above columns) make he was a similarly skilled bronze sculptor in the vein of the mature Donatello. Loggia on exterior. height 39' short tech- forts (a short step from palaces). But the ing as an architect. an agreeable civilian revision of the gateway on the castle of the king of . Begun 1465. who was an admired mentor of the duke. But he was outstand- the system of Palazzo Rucellai (see fig. X'errocchio . Luciano Laurana exterior focus is a design duplicate pilasters in the four corners are new. 102). 159). of had whom no (docs. Within. Francesco worked in his friend % own its ice versa. Ducal Palace. typically. the main courtyard with (fig. Ducal Palace. tighter Albertian vocabulars'. the court- of planes and space. of twin lowers flanking a vertical set of four arched porches 1465-1500 show com- can be fired. Urbino. an white lines over the brick walls. Courtyard. Duke Frederick of Urbino.

GivLiANO DA Sangallo. . notablv in the fa(. Length 144'. Caiano (near Florence Dimensions of the two main floors 47' / 142' Villa at Poggio a dynamic asymmetrical their chelangelo and ings fort designers logic aiuicipaies Mi- of later ages. Maria del Calcinaio.ade of the anony- human body.'" One major building by him survives. 61 S. Santa Ma- mous ria del Calcinaio in Cortona (model 14H4. The up a series exterior was influential in of big hollow Rome in the plans should develop their proportions from the following years. 161).1 Francesco di Giorgio. Facade. fig. began woodworker and He made Externally. Cortona. Renaissance architecture already. so that the efTect walls are drawn is of struts over which the tight. assumed that in building ends. setting cubes. the most prominent Florentine architect of this time. 1484. the four crossarms extending from the as a dome with a country house for Lorenzo de' Medici. Exierior. His writ- on architecture expound the idea. at transept 1 width 18' 162. Giuliano da Sangallo (1445-1516). the are articulated with pilasters at the outer sculptor. the interior structure has a similarly taut effect. Cancelleria palace. a mark 12" .

figs. so the church first Prato 163. Each arm 72' x 52'6" Ibj. . 164). the wall with green marble on the same plane strips. 1489. the richer pilasters make a more is at Cortona. a as the side.) temple front has an .Albenian also but seems a nearly flat classical dignity. Palazzo Strozzi. Benedetto da Maiano and Florence. The but this fortified faiTns. Maria delle Carceri. plan church. Prato. (The curved steps are a later The replacement of the original straight ones. S. Prato. articulated Florentine tradition. ornament. white between them. than Francesco's church Outside. S. useful marking in the center opening considered suitable to dignify villas in contrast to A ordinary dwellings. GitLIANO DA Sangallo. Maria delle Carceri. 128 II Cronaca.NO DA bANGALLO. and the con- ilarly struction less. 105' x 134' I.villa at Poggio a Caiano had been villas retreat. sim- is the instance actually built of the preference in Renaissance architectural thought for central-plan spaces profwrtional to man. isolated by being built ment platform. It is (fig. rarely realized because they were inconvenient for celebrating Mass. II LIA. Begun 1484. above the platform. The Albertian pilastered walls. central- in emphasizes the surface more. Facade. As the villa is the perfect illustration of Medicean aesthetic culture. diminished to the planar 165. Santa Maria delle Carceri (begun r484. 164. Plan. 162).Alberti on first Medici is a pleasure a wide recommended base- for im- portant buildings. In- and the short crossarms unified space between these brackets than Cortona. Exterior. very near Florence. as .

moun- 129 . and indeed Crivelli had to leave Venice and make a career in small 166. but nearer link this is the closest to his visual effects. of the illustration Florentine town house. Verona and other (as tow'iis) well as veiT minor work stems mainly from Man- tegna's early masterpieces in Padua (see p. Hi.i5i5/i6). Accadrmia Carrara. Panel. parallel l^iiiana's results The and suggest an perfect eclectic formula ol the period. Painters in North Italy. 1450-1500 40. Palazzo Strozzi. evoke spectacular grief. as in Mantegna and Mantegna's other admirer Tura. 19" X ViNCENZO Foppa. Bergamo 13". a il ser- viceable builder. Following a set of frescoes in . was probably Simone fig. Sharp drawings of gripping fingers or of screaming mouths can. but there skillfully 16(1). and units. so that brilliant unshadowed strict spatial people are cut to fit an area. Because Foppa so abruptly cuts off M ilanese Gothit he has been called a pure inventor of Lombard realism. Three- there. 104). His known first and ion (1456)^** paintings. blend the slightly fuzzy air. perspective is no Florentine mass-void balante. but the designer Cronaca. cutting line. In th e duchy of Milan the changeover from courdy Gothic to Rena issance occurred with one remarkable master. it now details.''* works are chiefly Painting in \'enice in his later Madoinias and routine altarpieces. i45()-d. Carlo Crivelli (docs. was built following a model that Giuliano marie (14S9.^)). This presenta- tion evolves from Jacopo Bellini's airy explorations. such as the CrucifixSaint dimensional is Jinomc and figures into a gray classical (fig. modeling is performed. but here the chief effect decoration.effect of the early Biunellesi hi. 14^. not feeling. a set for- suggests the nature of the palazzo readily than the more more individualistic originating ones of forty vears before. Jerome. VincenzoFoppa (docs. I'i. the figures wilt and blur into their world with modest informality.Milan with active elaborations of perspective. or his inspiration has been sought far off in France. Its polished proportions arc no more admirable than .^s its superb masonry the finest execution of what was mula.7-1493) adopts Mantegna's literal mannerismsof handwriting. I'ollaiuolo. In this context that is means a falling back into (iothic.

g'a" the Prince. In the most famous scene. Tht Leavetaking of St. like Gozzoli. X'ittore away and been received spatial ex- and from the evocation of laterally far this feeling is 1472-1525). before equally detailed buildings. is more admired today. and in by the subtle light flood- ing an empty room. his vision. and begin the Venetian love affair with the sights of the city that continues to the eighteenth century. Ursula and 167. from which all the chairs and perpendicularly. from the sultan asked the \'enetian Gentile's loss work has and. Benozzo new modernity of taste in established by Gentile Bellini (docs. the saint portraits of the squares vinced in his mind that his friend Saint Jerome has with died a and canals of \'enice.After imita- Mantegna. This luminous These are inventive variants on Mantegna's images ontinuing the observer's experience. from the tell human not an angular geometry but curved. it is the society's its relic own boastful history of the true cross. damage. This suggests a the city. Masses of people take part in parades. gentleness pulls the reality of oddments into unity ( Carpaccio made papers have been pushed aside. who in Carpaccio's maturest their qualities. producing state painter. Venice tain towns from far his birthplace. Sahil Augustine His SliKly (colorplate in becomes con- 23). It is refined in a later series for the local Slavic society (1502-7). we have some tions of his brother-in-law small portraits^? doges suffered like and one late remarkable set worked in a similar vein on commissions from the humbler religious societies. of Saint Ursula. suitable to the San Giovanni Evangelista (149B-1501. . the School of centering on life of a princess' courtship and pilgrimage that gives his art slick tights worn by is a the pages to rows of token of the interplay in between rhythm and reportage.\'iTTORE Carpaccio. with minute linear detail. ^ Accademia. without suppressing From |acopo Bellini luminosity had developed into the typical \'enetian attitude. Canvas. It is 1465-3^1507). work. These are materials of with patterns of cylinders recurring everywhere. complicated buildings. 16"). colorplate 22). . Splendor accrues from associations pansion rather than I'M) (docs. He begins with his most famous series (1490-98). Jacopo's son. and brightly colored of narratives for a religious society. a story crowds. trumpets. ten huge scenes of the ample occasion for panoramas of cities with anecdote (fig.*" and in 1479 was sent off to Con- when stantinople senate for an his father's artist. who became the official historical scenes for the Doges' Palace. also. seen mapmaker's accuracy. visible Heaven. 1495. This shape They jostling But the incidents are disciplined by geometry.

first known work is the RoPadua (1461-67). In the early Renaissance they willingly. with balanced proportions. with many-storied in producing tombs of and -statued triumphal arches. Pietro Lombardo i463-d.*" a systematic reuse in stone to N'enice. His tending toward blank cylinders with heads. 168. a jewel matter of pride like Palazzo tomb statues. 52' x 38' S.Another such craftsman. as in the His most spec- the building of the church of . a mild centripetal traditional local area and narrow effect. 169). and so convincing in construction. i469-d. offered ice with a series under a semicircular top. He also evidently scheme of a walls beside designed wide central windowit. His tomb selli in of the newest Florentine type.They were rivals doges. caria (from 1483. Maria dei Miracoli. which retains the . Mauro Coducci (docs._ 499). the Ceriosa (Char- (heir burial 131 . .Milan |X)ured resources into church near Pavia.**- faces. have the globular tautness of wineskins. 41. have come down from the Alps north Italian cities from the Middle Ages to the onward. Fa^adc.Sculptors and Architects in North Italy. i46r. ploiting light and shade is among so Venetian in ex the projecting and receding members inside the emphatic frame. San Zat 170). they articulate the facade with columns the Palazzo \'endramin-Calergi. expressing its sound four-square masonry as a 168).Strozzi in Florence.\ntonio Rizzo (docs. classical . precision. fig. and cornice. I'he dukes of . inspire or perhaps parallel those of another Lombard. Perhaps this how' a stonecutter would modeling. the his still Adam and Gothic annex of the Doges' Palace I:vr in (fig. Desiderio da Settignano's. It thus reinforces the scenic rhythm of palaces along the Grand Canal. Pietros later bust of Dante on his work is is see Donatello's expressive reliefs use this incisive pla- nar carving for characterization of tacular and refined in pressing the tomb (1482). that it loses the sense of being an imitation. often working as boih builders and carvers. with lively classical figures ornament. as good craftsmen. Rizzo's masterpieces. modern architecture to \'enof churches based on . His masterpiece. Venice. square spaces. down so that it is has an effect of being leaving sharp creases. arch.i5i5) brought Renaissance patterns (docs.^RDO. harmonious proportions. given stonv dignity by their volume and PitTRO LoMB. Compk-ted 1489.Santa Maria dei Miracoli Venice (finished 14S9. learned the newest style and used it with honesty and skill. relief carving ironed principal change Its flat. but it was not their idea or expressive of their viewpoint.Albenis in creating cool light. in fig.i504). onlv shifting to a Renaissance vocabulary of column. 1465-1500 Families of Moiiemasoiis. and white and grav stone. His interiors use very thin supports. box encrusted with marble inside and out. and Rimini.

cutting people out of zigzags and lozenges in a further zation of Pietro Lombardo's creased reliefs.and gracefully Gothic. with many assistants. Doges' Palace. ornaments.ade. a heavily framed marble rectangle.\madeo's early carving 132 now be- with fantasies of classical is placidly Macro c-nice. respectively). rich with w'indows and active .e. Eve. 1483- all a pattern. provincial responses. distinctive and mannered. the rivals with Their carving whom is he shared the fagade carving. ornamentation. but was then transformed by the impact of the Mantegazza brothers. Carthusian monastery). Fa(. Zaccaria. height 6'q". to they are analogous. (iiovanni Antonio Amadeo (1447-1522). . i. Cristoforo and Antonio (docs. Ultimately derived ornament 169 styli- and ironed I2i)' 74' S.o.i482. Begun Codvcci. carved much of its sculpture and buih the lower half of its facade (froin 1474). frenzied . I4fi4-d. applied Antonio Rizzo. The latter turns out to be like one by Coducci. 1495. X'enice terhouse.. Cosimo Tura's Marble. From this they make sharp images of running motion and over so that it becomes from Donatello's as expressionist stress. come . late reliefs.\lberli's Renaissance wall has a decorative fashion.

11 • iK'.COLORPLATE .) . N'aiican. Pf. ChnsI Cu'iiig l/if has lo Si.M.RVGiNO. Sistino C:hapfl. r 48 1 . Ro . Fi esc). Pi I.

COLORPLATE 22. ij' -'4') " Accademia. \'( . C'ainas. GtMiLK BuiiNi. 1496. PniO'^Mon HI Puizzo Sofi Matco.

Canvas. Scuola degli Schiavoni. Venice .COLORPLATE Si.6"x8i 5! . 1502. 23. VlTTORE CaRPACCIO. Augustine in His Study. c.

• - Ua.""'l- ' -"J 47" "^'ffiz' Gallery.-) <J. Florence .V P.

Jacopo Giovanni Bellini Bellini's younger son Giovanni (docs. and much He first thirty-five.NiccOLO dell' Arca. i464-d. Bologna 171S.i494) in Bologna to model a of clay figures to be grouped as a set lifesize cluster representing the lamentation over Christ's body (fig. as if the mold was set and could be removed.1516) was the great painter of the family. 1 7 1 )• The idea for such gioups came from France. letting light wash over the edges. Tht Lamenlalton Maria dclla Vita. a small Mantegna composition panel. iiniiates literallv a 1500 and even some of its ed sleeping man details. c - Chnsl. given seriousness by broadening of forms. In his youth was merged in the some small devotional his labor family enterprise. glazing the simplified surfaces and with light coming 10 rest 137 . first imitating and later superseding his brother-in-law Mantegna. surfaces are larger and simpler. Terracotta. the fence But the drawing and the is cliff wind- with striated different: the cliff is not rendered with a close net of lines. alism. like Man- Garden (fig. Niccolo's stone sculpture for Dominic (begun 1469)'" though here and there it is relatively restrained. suggesting plaster casts of people. partly painted: height of tallest figure Donatello also stirred the remarkable \iccol6 deir Arca (docs. They and wax musethe tomb of Saint are related to the folk art of creches ums. rock. to 1459- d. 172). Niccolo's figures have a shockeffect of natur- 6". between thirty with a group of masterpieces very tegna. flares out with an imagi- native adjunct of disproportionate ornament. The Agon\ in Ihr his. ing ofT into our space. such as the foreshorten- in the foreground. but are 42. In the two central great Fietifi* the irregular balance of the heads is a vehicle of human p>oignanc\-. and only panels have been isolated as probably appears clearly.

as (fig. is easier " rest at the horizon. Giovanni's. for Sanii gives us the same sharply placed.8". space. 4" 29 7. . London in Ike Garden. but he lutely independent color. Space is stretched far. 138 Thus begiti Bellini's famous 173). its acceptance of routines. Accademia. as by all e the Bellini painters. Giovanni Bellini. is both in its innovations and svstemizing. one of straightforward painterly sen- is them might be compared Pica. \"enice Panel. and separate in space and psychology from the quite conventional devotional figures in front Bellini's art sibility.Mantegna's forward landscape vignettes. the two of and more optical. air. the viewer's eye. a sunset or town or populated landscape on which we come to with . but in a new way. Madomm and Child with Two SainLf. focusing on the main figures.173. or Gentile's lateral probes. Giovanni Bellini.-2.sso. always atmospherically fresh. . Giovanni The first great Paolo (1464). and in is abso- the appearances of things.*"' a traditional comfwsi- . Giovanni therefore provides a "second theme far beyond the people. incidentally finds whatever is beyond them in the same sightline. in contrast to Mantegna's conceptual pressure. This In led to the Pesaro altarpiece. 1475 he was drawn away from Mantegna by the attraction of . In compositions Bellini quite willing to follow formulas. without Jacopo's improbable intricacy and scale contrast."^ altarpiece. Agony F^anel. 32" X 50". 21 i in the streaky twilight backgiound. National Gallen*. cool-toned people.Matisse and one would expect.•\ntonello da Messina.

tkt Baplisl Panel. while behind a river a complicated mountain in honey-colored light is filled with incidents. Giovanni Bellini. Maria dell'Ono. tion with its less linear. Both these tendencies appear in the strange Sn< ri-d Allegory (colorplate 24). The Rfsurreclion*^ poses also the vigorously fresh hill oddly jointed people. formal figures has left the subject matter puzzling. Since Giovanni does not show concern with his themes.Sen- ^ and Saints. Copyright The Frick Collection. 'and. sc\\ York 1 75.** or the 0/ the Trecs.'*" freeze in place. Francis in Ealasy.741/. abolishing definite edges. John GlAMBATTISTA CiMA.188. Light is even more [xjwerful (fig. Venice . Here the people contemplate the central space. . a heavenly Christ. perhaps reused from another subject. where the on the other — as in Transfiguration of light may be in Saint Francis in Ecstasy figure on one side looks at the —and in the Jacopo Bellini In both. making people warm. a masterpiece where the lack of interrelationship between the small. or meditate. air 174). those not standard are not comprehensible. yet itself pleasingly influence on form is still of standard design like Madonna the Frari altarpiece of 1. 10' . panorama of a comtown behind. Light's more pervasive in works the San Giobbe altarpiece. before a wild sunrise. 6'9". as is plete figures smoothly set in place but still they are glowing and cylindrically taut.^^ where the calm formal people are suffused by iLs slight diinness.'*'' part of the subject.S. in live textures. 49" 56".

enlivened them with scattered foliage 1438-1303).to sibility nature. now began painting tall ers and pebbles picked out like coins in the 173). velops a late aesthetic ists tiiaii to his still further discoveries who. Antonello da Messina had a basic effect people looming over bright deserts. Alvise V'ivarini equal exactitude. i467-d.Montagna (docs. Bartolommeo . briano and Mantegna). . 22(j). painters (his uncles had reflected Gentile da Fa- ricli (docs. crystalline on other talented painters in Venice.i523) began a long series of Madonnas having beautifully adjusted triangular designs. like Doiiatello. de- will lead to own more related to younger art- generation (see 1473-1517). and Giambattista Cima (docs. In this context of sensibility there sun was a giowth of beautiful pictures by talented paint- with minimal individuality. and light it has brought forth a poetry of in the old age of the artist. also the scion of a family of (fig. painting brilliant forms in light with fig.

Florence. Peruzzi Chapel. Bardi . Jeremiah. Little Flowers of St. . San Domenico. 33. mentality. Ambrogio 19.\Iusco in Padua.innunciation. . Annunciation. 32. Fra Angelico. Michele. Lorenzo Ghiberti Or San Louis H. The 25. son of Eliel Saarinen 1950). Siena. Museo delTOpera Duomo. Child.DereaediJicaiori3. Thomas Aquinas.stinguished environmental architect. Madonna and Child with and Assumption. for the Linen Drapers Guild. Fra Angelico. 20.Marco. Tre\iso. Peter . Siena and some from back of numerous collections). Fra Domenico Cavaica. Donatello. St. The Three Marys Tino St. on either side of nave. St. 10. 16. Sullivan (1856-1924). 31. Criicijix. Delia pitlura : written in Latin. altarpiece The Louvre. St.Supplementary Notes to Part 1. now removed figures for exterior of Baptistery. Francis. 30. 35. Louis of Toulouse for the council of the Guelph party ^now in Museo Nazionale. A\beni. 22. Nicola Pisano. Florence. Museo dell'Dpcra Duomo. and the reliefs martyrdom of St. St. al the Tomb. a di. Fontana Maggiore. is the Accademia. Duccio. Padri {Lives of the Vile dei Santi Holy Fathers). Domenico X'eneziano. Florence. Pinacoteca. 24. Pisa to interior of building. Florence. at Maria dei Ser\'i. Duccio. Francis altarpiece. Florence. lives Croce. del Donatello. 8. City Hall. Lorenzo. of St. Chapel Francis. Siena. Guide da Siena. meeting 23. fresco cycles in S. Summa Thrologica. Museo Siena. the Evangelist. 27. S. Pinacoteca. Leon Battista Albcrti. Or San George and the Dragon. Giotto. Paolo Uccello. other altarpiece. Florence. Magdalene 7. Siena. Cimabue. Donatello: in addition to the two statues mentioned at Or San Michele. Madomia and Child at S. Madonna with the Thret Franciscans. twenty-nine panels now Civico. room of the Dominican convent. Andrea Museo Museen. Pietro Lorcnzetti. John 1 1 Duccio. 28. Siena. Denial 0/ Peter. completed 1452. Perugia. Orvieto. Stephen for two statues mentioned the Linen Drapers Guild. Adoration of the Magi. George. Donatello: two bronze pulpits catted with Baptistery. 21. Museo Civico. Uffizi Gallery. Camaino. aliarpiece of St. One Francesco Traini. 18. and : 1 Paris. Pentecost. Lorcnzetti. a pioneer of the Chicago School of architecture. Madonna and 9. Florence. became an architect of great structural ingenuity and Giovanni Boccaccio. 26.\1aesta. 5. 37. Florence. account formulated in the fourteenth century from older versions. published 1476. The di S. the National Gallery. St. Bardi Chapel. Florence). 1436. Pisano. marble relief below Michele. Portraits of Dominican Saints. . Maesla. altarpiece of the Saints. I>ublished in Italian. 141 . written 1266-73. Church of the Pieve. Guariento. twenty-four panels of the south side of the Baptistery. Florence: John the Baptist life and of St. Marco. life 7. Mary Magdalene. of John the Baptist and the Virtues. of the Law- rence. doors now on Florence. 1 di S. Bargelio. Passion of Christ. St. now and Duomo. published 1485. S. Arczzo. Decameron. Eero Saarinen (1910-1961). 2. Duccio. (6. 13. di del Duomo. Croce. Berlin-Dahlem. del 14. written 1348-53. Cathedral. predella. 12. 1435. 6. Pisa. Siaatliche Donatello. dispersed in 29. 34. Dominic. Battle of San Romano (dismantled now in London. 3.Martyr altarpiece. from the . : in addition to the St. 4. Siena. tomb of C-ardinal Riccardo Petroni. Florence. The in his father's architectural office until the lalter's death. Museo deirOpera 13. Arezzu. and monu- Tommaso da Modena. from the Maestd. 1873- son worked Giovanni Pisano. written before 1342. Museo dell'Opera del (panels in pinnacles altarpiece.

his Florentine political 67. 452-1 4951.^pol- lonia. Antonio del Pollaiuolo. S. Annunciation. Brera.Aracoeli. aecompanied by the Cardinal Virtues : life' of Francis. by Benedetto da epitaph by . Harvard University. 62. now Museo in Florence. Cainbridge. Berlin-Dahlem. Naples. Paris. Galler\\ Florence. fresco series in the six Borgia . on exterior of Settignano. Croce. Berlin-Dahlem. pulpit with narrati\'e panels depict- Battista Sforza. Pisanello. in 1856. Venice 77. Museo Nazionale. Resurrection. Gallery. S. . Ferrara. sketchbook. Piccolomini Library'. 64. finished 1469-70. Arthur. numerous museums. Crucifixion. Antonio del Pollaiuolo. probable author of the biography of Brunelleschi. and the Vatican Library. i486. 43. Battista Sforza. right wall. Verona.Albcrtina. Pinturicchio.: published in Latin. Forli. drawing. Florence. S. Basilica of the Santa Casa. in Busseto. written . consists of three Old Testament heroes. 1521. Angelo a S. Turin Codex: Trallato di architettura [Treatise on Civil and Military Architecture). Museum. Marsuppini. Florence. the Vallardi who sold . accompanied by the 70.Madonna and Child. three pagan 59. Cardinal Rainaldo Brancacci monument. tomb of the Cardinal of Portugal. frescoes of the Hfe of Pope Pius II (Aeneas SiK'ius Piccolomini). Piero della Francesca. St. Pisanello. 32. Piero della Francesca. St. 71. (On archilectura Architecture). Martyrdom of St. De prospectiva pingendi {On Perspective 68. Maria Maddalena Pazzi. Pisanello. Civica. Antonio del Pollaiuolo. Loreto. heroes. Francesco civile e militare di Giorgio. on the back of the countess' panel. \'atican. De Vitruvius. Antonio del Pollaiuolo. Florence. silver relief panel for altar frontal. Bergamo. 60.\rt He dominated his accusations to of death by burning. The Triumph of the Countess. is Worthies. Peter Martyr.C. Staatliche Church through Antonio Rossellino. London. 65. S. owner Parnassus. Mark. presented in Kupferstichkabinett. 73.S'iccoli da Tolentino. St. tomb of Chancellor Carlo Frescoes of the of life Loggia del Bigallo. British 56. Milan. 54. Pinturicchio. Museen. Vatican Rome.^ccademia. Thomas Malory. David. 44. but condemnation to his Botticelli. two portraits Federigo da Montejeltro. Bellini. see above. century B. Church of S. tomb of Pope Sixtus IV. 46.Staatliche Museen. 48. Mantegna. S. who Croce. Scourging of Christ. Cenacolo di S. Baptistery. Jacopo on paper. life church corruption led Miniato. 55. Bust of Giotto. Jacopo 57. the Lamentation. frescoes of the d'. 142 life Rome. Anna dei Lombardi. de' Grassi. so called Louvre. London. note 49. Politian '1490). David r:r/on'owj. 58. a Dominican monk came to Florence from Ferrara and called for reform of the Girolamo Savonarola from 1494 on.\1orte d. Piero di Cosimo. : and Count of L'rbino.Apartments. Maria 76. 72. drawings for Dante's Divine Comedy. Theological Virtues. Andrea del Verrocchio. written first in Italian. Luca of S. Florence da Desiderio 45. it to the Codex. The Louvre. the back of the count's panel. Fogg . dei Florence. . . 47. Florence. 49. Grottoes. Nilo. 42. dome of Sacristy of St. 66. Rome. Cremona. Florence. Sir 53. Florence. Mass. Uffizi 69. notebooks: on vellum. Other painters Rosellt. Allegory of Lust. On Benedetto da Maiano. 63. Pinturicchio. Pinturicchio. in Painting). Siena. Countess of L'rbino. Botticelli. Antonio di Tucci Maneiti. masterpiece his 39. sculptural groups in terracotta of religious Modena. Botticelli. Florence. Fermo. -Andrea del Castagno. Birth of John the Baptist. The Louvre. and Venice. Bernardino. after the Other drawings in 74. Brenzoni tomb. Bargello. Sebastian. Museum.38. Cathedral. Bellini. Vienna. Naples. . scenes life from the life of Christ. Biblioteca Sistine Chapel wall Cosimo the crew were frescoes: left wall. (i writing and preaching. countess of L'rbino. The Nine Guido Mazzoni. Cathedral. 75. 40. Perugino. Paris. scenes from the in Giovannino 50. 51. of Moses. Berlin-Dahlem. The Triumph ing the of the Count. Mystic Crucifixion. National Michelozzo. S. three medieval Christian heroes. Sebastian. subjects. del . Andrea Castagno. a popular theme in the fourteenth 61. deirOpera del Duomo. 41.\Iaiano. Rome. Paris. century. Melozzo da Signorelli.

Giovanni Bellini. containing drawings and measurements of ancient buildings. Giovanni Bellini. 89. Trarufiguration 0/ Christ. Peter Martyr. Vincent between Sti. Accademia. 87. 79. Venice. SS. Venice. Dominic.Area. Pirla. Sacristy. Giovanni Bellini. Vincenzo Foppa. artists. Giovanni Sebastian. Berlin- Dahlem. . Padua. di Pietro Lombardo. Cathedral. in th e fire of Bellini. tUsurrection. Milan. Giobbe altarpiece.after 1482. Giovanni Bellini. Milan. 82. . frescoes of the life of Cappella Portinari. gamo. Muscen. 57781. Giovanni Bellini. 90. St. Maria dei Frari.Accademia. St. Pesaro. S. S. with works by many o ther St. Bellini. 83. Crucifixion. Ber- Vincenzo Foppa. Ravenna. tomb of Dante. tomb of Antonio Roselli. Niccolo deir . 91. Eustorgio. Bologna.\iadonna of the Trees. S. Giovanni Bellini. tomb [arcai of Oomenico. Giovanni e Paolo. Pinacoteca. Antonio. Lombardo. 8e^^I>estroyed. Frari altarpiece. 83. Naples. 86. \r^ . Venice. 84. Accademia Carrara. 78. Staailiche 88. S. Christopher and with Annunciation and PietA above. Brera. \'enice. S. Giovanni Pietro Pesaro altarpiece. Museo N'azionale Capodimonte.


I'ACiKS 2(j'2-2t)3 .tMl- \ 1 ARN \() 1 i:S.PART TWO The High Renaissance in Italy SL I'l'l.

nci. Adoration of the Magi. Florence . Panel 8' ^ 8'i ".1/6. Uffizi Gallery. Leonardo da \'i. Begun 1481.

with a neat contour line. His read the picture better. 78"X48''. It had created artists a — all not so much things was recognized at once that Leonardo modern kind of found \'errocchio and art. Raphael. Before the Baptism.Leonardo to 500 i Leonardo da Vinci (1452-15 19).^ and background. up straight. realistic The Louvre. artists: reason for this is .Nci. Leonardo had probabh blocked out in a light brown tone on a deep brown painted the more traditional Annunciation. Life to other things as they begin to turn a is a continuum of organic motion. has a face and shiny hair. V'errocchio painted his Bafitism of Christ (see 142) in his familiar style. and there produced the first High many Renaissance painting. round eyes. like pools. fig. Titian. equally in the process of a 147 . been mas- lines. This figure is one does into by Leonardo. one sees the extraordinary commission was (1481. real figures and a low perspective. and and sits one eyes into which also sees. dust as processes. water and skin but lacquered hair.\ 177. that painting was felt to be actually improving technically as it became more Leonardo DA \'i. but only rearrange same elements. but this group (so reached the final stage of realism (and so remained honor). the action of running. but One they are painted in different ways.^ with shadowy out of caves. Paris older artists were cast aside). He may flesh also have retouched Christ's skin. available only tered: things when an earlier level has do not heve boundary but yield new side. . later generations could not continue in further in the the same direction. Virgin of ihi Roch. for first the Adoration of the big Magi which remained unfinished (when work for the duke of Milan) with the figures When one dynamics of the people's of drama with tremulous with leaping horses is at first to be leaning has looked long enough to moment The background lives. Leo- strict presenting a further level of visual realism. the other turns its neck like a swan. hair. stayed in his shop for some years as a foreman painter. two angels hold the clothes. yielding unlike the linear nardo is metal of John's. like the angel's turning neck and many things that Leonardo later drew with special interest: water. and has fluffy hair into which one sees. which was quickly to produce so many particularly famous Michelangelo. transferred to canvas. just as the jewels. This is alreadv the High Renaissance. he fig. so that they seem the portrait of Ginevra de' Benci. left to 176). and so tcxa is a part of the landscape that is a continuum of dim light rather than a stack of rocks. grassy plants. with wiry. all his and younger generation stiff and unsubtle.\s usual in this story. Panel. reflecting a variety. one of N'errocchio's pupils.

how and he couldn't take any tradition using a design seen on settle for a more modest with a quietly walking horse that carries the weight of the bronze on in The technique but used fresco Milan three. S. 1495-97. he reorganized the old group photograph. . were stimulated bv his universal curiosity about li\e. Leonardo gives it a central emphasis and thus a stronger focus on the Holy Family. He things work for lioped to cast in bronze a statue of a man on a leaping horse. and before. Maria divided them into the order Milan. The ca\e who remarked for a i?*^)- monks' refectory 148 a pattern of three. the Holy Family and the Three Magi. . a natural treatment. but his project for a canal failed. is'g" same time Leonardo rethought the traditional composition of this story. phenomena and tion recurs in the Virgin of the Rocks painted in is "< all four feet.'' His revolv- ing stage worked. which had been a low ol thirteen people like a and The same helpful to paint people in the shade. which showed two groups meeting each other in profile.\t this time he was also keeping anatoiriical note- books and exploring the basis of architectural proportions. Supper Sg- Leonardo..Leonardo da moment. laws or patterns. He is like a scientist in that he observes but also likes to intently deduce regular schemes from them. In the three. Refectop. not always successful. a central group in a cave an old motif which 29'io". paint oils.Mural. while also heightening the sense of the spontaneous instant. (fig. Roman coins. to gain it lost its in tlie usual an experiment more shadow. three. But at the \'inci. Experiments. both the are phenomena more complex than that it is suits Livtt Milan (1495-97. delle Grazie. He sub painting soon irot through which he hoped one. granted. Last Supper. but had to effort. color because Leonardo did composi- design of this theme. 177).

and the — use sensibility all saint's of line to induce unsettled nervousness. a composition from Rogier van der Weyden's Siiinl FiMPPiNo 180. even in his absence. and pays homage to the old masters. Saint Bernard's vision of the Virgin closely derived (fig. Panel. S. CarafJa Chapel. Rocks zigzag books. so con- eniently similar in theme. more basically. in a bestrews the design quoting 149 . his personal style typical enterprise of the time) Homage to the past and to exotic Flanders join in his early masterpiece. Filippino Lippi (docs.shnyitig 11 Dragon up sets a symmetrical wall strung with lamps like a nervous Christmas tree. and similar Rrsurm lion of fussy decoration T)iiisinn(i. pages pose and his fingers in vibration curl. He too takes perspective space to be routine. width of wall 7'io". The i'Jnon of St. Rome 374). Yet Filippino's personal. Botticelli and Ghirlandaio. Leonardo's ideas appear shadow and. Thomas Aquinas. i467-d. 1488-93. view beyond fig. Rome. Fresco. gives us a among the scholars made is thrown and torn books.jHos felt I. Filippino Lippi. little devils peer monks outward like is highly roughly piled gesticulate like actors. Despite on line. Flnrenrr Badi. Lippi.eo once. In his a visual still life of most imjxjrtant fresco cycle in Florence (finished 1502)'' the scene o{ Sainl 179. I'aiiiling l. Triumph of St. I'hilij) fi'io" Dr. but then emerges with an approach built on Ghirlandaio's. often making it symmetrical. in the Filippino's reliance in the strong insistence on living processes. forming in the .iikc \ Virgin (see Ilit- fig. little from crannies. major fresco in Thomas 180). but in front the a debating shrill .n. Rprnord.-iquiuas Ghirlandaio city symmetrical room.Filippino Lippi and Piero di Cosimo 2. most strikingly when he modifies in adding scenes (a Brancacci Chapel fresco to Masaccio's unfinished cycle (see p.A Sanil intellectual tension. Young Kloreiuiiie painters of the nardos impact i. some- at what shifting the center of gravity from the methods of the dominant figures. the Triumph of (begun 1488. who had fonried their own methods in the 14705.i504) an apprentice to his father Filippo is and obscure as later as an assistant to Botticelli. 74). Maria sopra Minerva. 179).

some within the Leonardesque context.^ a is classical poetry. head of Cleopatra is profile before a live sky.S'rt. were done Sangallo. twining and gauzy. impressively staring. of which one has become an anthology piece. a as never before. gazing at Heaven. He painted some beautiful unoriginal altarpieces. unique themes have Its their kinship.^ a real but work over Giuliano da forty years is undated (consistent with his minor-league practice). he traveled south in 1500.^ a medievalism that seems doom and suitable since Savonarola's preaching of forms Filippino's combine both anxiety and Piero di Cosimo (1462-1521) worked chiefly houses where a non-Savonarolan for rich private paganism was cultivated. adding to the puzzles. Foppa. so he was forgotten. seems to foretell Bernini's permanent aspect of human ing smiling intimacy. Piero enters into by this spirit painting figures that are properly modeled but always a bit eccentric in their gestures and Somewhat more archaism. with his to have prepared the ground him on the later group (fig. 166). the Virgin with the Green Cushion. and a the darkness. Current taste finds 150 . but his enamel-like firmness of texture and brightness of hue seem to contradict Leonardo's meaning. A few soon (see made by treating these copies explicitly as fig. Boltraffio (1464-1516) painted smiling Madonnas turning their heads in leading artist in Siena. with deeply glowing color surfaces tion for and occasional anecdotal tokens of admiraFlanders.?i( Catherine of Siena (begun 1526). notably his late Chancellor 18:). later others gained strength by retreating Milan. to late X'ictorians he seemed inspired. gray atmospheric art. Andrea Solario (docs. Of the first group. like Leonardo. if Discovei-y of Honey (colorplate 25) set similar in nardesque Botticellian in evocation.* His only actual portraits for a friend. fifty his first miles west of objects. partway into tradition. the gener- Leonardo portraits. she is all curv- down to become the There he continues to out- before settling Leonardo the Leonardo style of about 1504. The swoon- . which in respects tap a Sodoma most acceptable . Solario 's thought- concern. For a patron who admired Savonarola he painted a hollow-cheeked Christ in a Cnuifixiou on a gold background.i524) also produced Madonnas. to ing of more recent observers. The comedy of is part of another the weaknesses of Greek gods.Giotto. tragic love story from faces.^11 A odd a fancy portrait. men hunting seems A showing primi- series to reflect the amused curios- ity of a patron about a learned theory of the origins of human civilization. •' a limp gray S-curve. There He is a laboratory of saw the current work of Perugino and Pinturic- tension here between a settled conservative tradition chio in Rome modern import.^ Leaning over the Child's body. remote. where people of a species slightly different from the human ap- pear as statuesque victims. with pretty decorator's colors. but his fascinating work is secular. i495-d. sugary. Painting in Milan after Leonardo 3. in front of personality. with his hands projected a table emerges from provincial also in iMorone and concentrating Sodoma (1477-1549) X'ercelli. the finest painter in Milan ations just preceding. but his manner was conservative in his time and connections painting uninteresting to young artists. quite un-Christian.SVi/h/ Theresa and the Counter Reformation. with second-rate engiavings that made to illustrate and that had been books of history and mythology. He has irrelevantly been admired recently as a pre-Surrealist because of the surprising among real things in his work. in a rich landscape. he makes them as sophisticated as Botticelli and humorous tive the mcx)d. could only copy him. the architect his . \ once-famous Saint Seliastian (1525)"" lifts his slashed body in almost smoky ethereality. in lighting. and Leo- the Death of Procris. their Of mark decorative what space can do emerges fulness about ones were so carried away that they for local painters to receive Many young among must have seemed.

29" x Collection Duke Morone. His art is less Andrea SoLARio. who spent most of his life in Vercelli. and. lie paints riage of Alexander and Roxaiia Sienese banker Agostino Chigi a ftesco of the for the (fig. Still is Panel.eonardesque vein when already mature. he 182.i546). like Nicolas Nfanuel neuts<h. with narratives from the Old Testament.Sodoma. 1 Mar- house of the 82). but statues of the Christian story stood before backdrops north. surprisingly. The Marriage of Aiexann and Roxana. 151 . and other carvers of wooden altarpiece complexes at this date (see pp. Milan of the provinces than of folklore. mythology. setting abstract fanning ties to Passion-play tone accom- profuse storytelling. or the . Bernardino Luini (docs. panies The artists farther H. in a stvle one generation awav from (iothic.s).Angelico and more archaic others. daily as if unable to life.i532) may have learned from . featherily melting. Rome worked n country sanctuaiies where painted wooden parallel.Apollo surrounded by columns.Master i of fre. I5i2-d. is a neoclassic . easy. in stylized swirls. up an have no Italian nardo's passage. like Fra .5.when. He firm is most interesting in secular villa decorations. Portrait of Chancellor Gaudenzio FeiTari (docs. L. using the comfortable local tradition of Foppa. He emerges in a I. and the bridegrooiri in profile. and had in for Victorians of the archaism the special virtue its cushioned primitive. inflexible poles graded textures.scoed crowds. pure but 181. realizes a type seen in Leonardo's drawings. I2'i"x 21 '9". Villa Famesina. motion inountain borrowing composi- The exuberant patterns of drapery. Luini's style is for all their dehydrated Leo- nardo. where people stand about move. i5o8-d. and his smiling Madonnas refer back to the earth tones and modeling of the fresco medium. Fresco. Sodoma. The bride. tions at times have in the figine.s2-:i.Gaudenzio's sense of the fluid figure is the onlv e\ idence of Leo- from Diirer woodcuts. bark in Rome. 24". . Gallarati Scotti.

in Francesco's expert theory. is dominated by is a fake. San Satiro has a circular chapel with niches utting t into rhythmic concave accents it. London half columns but the sides of the piers pilasters. arm start as is Its to reinforce the sense of space stretching outward from where The same inside of a balloon. on a larger a for that cross- develop symmetrically with the others. Donate Bramante (1444-1514) was born near Urbino. the a new projects there. is first He seen in Milan as the designer of a strange engiaving. anatomy The main had marked a transi- barrel vault over nave 183. just as Leonardo's science awesome natural forces and it or was also sought their control. His remodeling of Santa Maria presso San Satiro (from 14H2. the new growth implies that we. figs. but his few surviving paintings are more influenced artist in establishing the by another visitor there. 1481. Architectural Fantasy Engraved by Previdari after a drawing by Bramante. 109). The small Momorio shrine built in i")02 beside . heavy a climaxed 186) attracted Leonardo's at- figs. Going to and studying career among modest Rome with some thought of retiring antiquities. no longer equal with our environment. cloister for Santa alternates stocky piers thus again making three-dimensional units from the original modules. so that stimulating interplay can be guessed. to visual purpose in The the crossing. 29"x2o". where a harmonious is bounded at the end and above by semicircular masonry. Decisive managing of a central plan by pure three-dimensional units. Our space on the scale of grandeur far view extends deeply and then is closed in a cup. parallel to Pollaiuolo's for (fig. 187. may become either overawed by manipulators of attentive to it.Attached to the piers are not classical 183. As settles into if it being an architect. the convex in topped by an octagonal lantern with is windows cut deep to assist painters. 188). apparently an illustration of perspective and Leonardo was to architecture. . DoxATO Bramante. and trained as a painter probably under Piero della Francesca.San Pietro in . also interested bronze casting and proportion we stand. tention. cosmos. sion of a choir. but We are still at it is the center of the rational no longer of human scale. The Bramante found many new Maria della Pace (1504) and voids as equal forces. Francesco di Giorgio. and this in each side. and alternate masses voids. interior area is and transepts. sliding down and maintaining the unity of vocabulary in a second melodic line. a pressure and return balanced by the equipoise of the measurements and by the massiveness of the plain walls. dome over the hemispherical fourth crossarm basic to Bramante.Bramante 4- Another gieat Milan besides Leonardo was High Renaissance by his work during the same twenty years.\Iaria delle Grazie (1492-97. a perspective optical illu- Bramante's Bramante was repeating Francesco's move painter. mass. he then tion. as in the suggestion made is scale in the choir of Santa . recalling 184. British Museum. see fig. a nearby street left no room 183.

like Leonardo's a ratio between two cylinders." a classic defining the High Loil Supper. gouged by niches balancing opposite niches. too dignified to 189. Heieht under arch 34'9". Satiro. Thus Bramante was new II ready to undertake the where the imperious Pope Julius tear down the greatest landmark of Saint Peter' do 191. 192). work Renaissance. thus he fills a square which consists of spaces thrown off from the center and then from The piers also are smaller and smaller centers. the whole was inner. di Giorgio's forts. and exterior of circular chapel. The arms are huge niches ending in semieach has its own transverse arms and . so thai the central piers have an intricate profile. intended to be inserted dynamic celebration in a circular of the i irde as courtyard. iSj. circles. and Bramante otil\ to build ihc (ential (lossini. with a central dome over an equal-armed as four huge piers (figs. logical and lively like All this is had begini died one of Francesco on an ininiense stale. Begun 1482. ulu-n at seventy. as "the Tempietto. the transparent one with columns. Nave 200' long. be called a jewel box. 190). Milan. Maria presso S. an DoNATO Bramante. within which (then or soon after) he planned to give a dominant location to his own tomb. Plan of S. Begun 1482. Maria presso Milan. those arms.DoNATO Bramante. depth of choir 4' 186. It is (figs. transept 226' wide. Bramante planned the church (1505-6) cross. S. the solid one is articulated with concavities. proposed to the city and replace it with the world's largest church. a an evocation ol perfection. Satiro. Interior. solid tall. 184. height of chapel 48'6" to mark the spot of Saint Peter's criuihxion instantly became. one and an outer. short. he S. . transparent one.

Begun 1492. Milan. 188. Tempieito. Height of crossing 1 choir.187. Pietro in Montorio. Begun 1492. Maria delle Grazie. Serlio. Montorio. S. DoNATO Bramante. // lerzo 1551). DoNATO Bramante.NATO Bramante. C'hoir area 120'^ 102' 189. Rome. Pietro in Rome woodcut from libra d'anhitelliira. Height 47' [90. 1502. Plan of choir. Plan. ^. DoNATO Bramante. Diameter including steps 37' . Tempietto. View toward Maria delle Grazie. S. 10' Do. Milan. S.

104' square . 544' square (anonymous drawing. Montcpulciano. 1506.191. Rome./\i L^. DoxATO Bramante.^^J-~. Madonna di S. Antonio da Sanoallo the Eides Interior. Peters. m^ pencil.192.--7. Uffizi. Vatican. 193. ink and Gabinetto del Disegni. Height 136'. Plan and perspective study of St. Florence . Biagio.

its assembly room in the (like a similar fig. I2'2 1/2" ' H u 194). who watched attentively work on the cartoon the full-scale drawing exciting to — his before diagramed walls stiff This now archaic fixity is accented further by viewpoints from below making them bizarrely (fig. are is This painting was . Sangallo's Giorgio's. Leonardo's return home to Florence in 1500 was young artists. fig. But Leonardo liked it as a token of processes of gelo. a commission to the work intended younger Michelan- cal relationship of grandmother. The walls are still with niches cut in. perhaps on a Bramante design). men anatomical detail absorbed into speedy motion. 193). The theme is still essen- medieval. His figures in per- spective space are plotted at scattered points like chessmen. and more orchestrated. fighting the dust rises. see fig. of his Virgin with SainI Anne (fig. like the theme of I. a sinuous- accompanied by a further reduction of the edges between forms and air. Santa Maria della Consolazione at Todi (begun 1506. The newly formed republican government of Florence commissioned ness a Cavalry Battle (1503-6. 1536). growth. In Milan Bramante had left disciple in painting. Giuliano da Sangallo's younger brother Antonio (1455-1534). In both \56 siibjec ts the figures 203) to show off both a military victory Horses leap against each other. schematic as they evolve from jointed shapes.Bramante's arrival in central in the rise of central-plan Italy is reflected churches of sonnet-like much more modern than Giuliano da and somewhat more so than Francesco di orderliness.Swan'^ that interlocked. 195). with four equal semicircular far dome its is much more ornate. Leonardo's Last Years 5. own but complete and expressive within its constructed world. and a thicker of metopes running above. mostly a builder of forts. columns bounding these. to a Raphaelesque classicism. vertically 194- Bramantin'i Canvas. Milan This is an antimodern Mannerism like Gaudenzio Ferrari's. a and the specialty of the leading Florentine artist. but away. designed to expound the genealogi- twine among each other or among plants. produced his masterpiece in San Biagio at Montepulciano (1518. This heavier frieze vocabulaiT part of the monumentalization that is concerned Bramante. Brera.cda and the . one remarkable nickname Bra- 1503-d. He had already prepared one version in Milan. called by the mantino (docs. mother. 196) to be painted in city hall. and child. like Erocole de' Roberti's. has an interior much like Francesco di Giorgio's at Cortona not arms. and later tially painted it in a third form. lie was also working on. diagiam of meaniiigand not a report of the visible.

unlike those in books.\ci. the closest we can come sculpture by Leonardo. and indeed. of a citizen's wife which The famous face in smile is motion.never finished. Leonardo DA The Battle of Anghiari Vi. Leonardo's wandering represented by drawings years are mainly last (figs.).. The seems quite ordinary. Anne. either a personal feeling or dramatic creation. see fig. which are rightly called not so much anatomy as physimodern medical text- ology. ink. 18" x 25". rising the inevitability of a theorem. Charcoal on paper. and chalk. 197). and the oceans mouiiiains in past epKjchs. . It was now too that he speculated about the flight of birds. Paris 157 . Pen. icopy by Peter Paul Ruben. Designed 1503-6. National Gallery. The Loux re. John ihc Bajjlisl Preaching (1506. but another image of a process. which is a device to provide a con- half figure. but Leonardo did paint the portrait we call Moiia Lisa (fig. since. Traditional in poses. 56). and had covered that made the drawings of floods that extend bevond physical experiments to a an imagery of doom. it is vibrantly animated in gestures in a way otherwise seen its surfaces its at this to a simple and time only in small-scale works.\nother product of these years is of Gianfrancesco supervision his Rustici's (1474-1554) large bronze group above one of the Baptistery doors. it turns and narrowing witli the forms into a pyramid. 55" x 40". they convey the function and action as well 195- Leonardo DA The Virgin with St. Vinci. a as in finished painting.iI SiilJlJfr combined with new patterns vations are l)ase for a obser- in this folding of the hands. 199). 196. London as the forms. At this time he made most of his anatomical studies. vincing the new Im. 198.

Royal Librars Windsor Castle. 197- Leonardo da \'in"ci. . Deluge. 38"X2i". -iS i. Leonardo DA Vinci. Mona Lisa. Windsor Castle. Pen. Leonardo da Chalk. Paris ^rfc * . Panel. Copyright resci-ied .'4".198. >^' 199. Copyright reserved . 6 1/2" V'inci. Royal Library. Human Neck Studies of the and Shoulders. The Louvre. 15" x 10".

Museo -Nazionale.'^ It and imitates Roman and this theme. His natural refuge was in a greater past. After Bologna and returning home briefly. at about age sixteen. and now the keeper of the Medici antiquities. ticed. it if his trustworthy. the painting by Ercole de' Roberti in 159 .Michelangelo took a Cupiit^'^ to Rome and there working in carved his first large work. Ghirlandaio. so until he was thirteen he stayed in Then he being apprenticed. Michelangelo's (1475-1564) family had some social pretensions. a battle of and centaurs in high relief. The boy was allowed with others to study and was even. that Michelangelo supported the evidence shaky. Marble. a regular guest at the Medici table. but did not like later him memon much. with an action suitable to the statue's original placement in the at middle of an outdoor space. once by his big I'ielii (fig. with dense forms. bined in the work of Bertoldo assistant to Donatello once an (docs. both to be seen in the Medici collection. But simplified was stimulated by a poem on court poet's reading of a Latin his men is it uncourtly art. 1 16). sarcophagi in marble as Ber- toldo does in bronze. he the objects said later. Bacchus were anti-Savonarolan in (fig. This seems possible in the light of first sculpture. probably as a restorer. Bacchus. teeters fig. height 6'8'. a It was followed theme not then standard in Italian sculpture though familiar in painting (it is unfortunate that fame has given this example the popular title of "I'lie" I'ieta). when Savonarola became Lorenzo de' Medici's death in 1492 the city leader. both Bacclius is technically bold. A break in Michelangelo's life resulted from and the fall of the family from power. perhaps suggested by Rossellino's Saint SebcLslian (see in volume. The two were comto sculpture.Among 200. in this case Donatello and ancient Roman sculpture. 200). school rather than entered theshopof the favorite painter of Florentine society. . again dense and turns drunkenly. The god. Florence earlier ones. The theme. Perhaps reaction drew is though not to the style then pracwhich was similar to Ghirlandaio's. Savonarola but devotional and him is art. 1461-1491).Young Michelangelo 6. Bargello. Michelangelo. . 201). suggesting the very collision of intertwining volumes. opposed all A puritan evangelist.

was probably familiar 137) The image Michelangelo. height 5'8". since it gesture. I5OI-4. . ftf/a. into one moundlike mass. The group absorbs its contrasts of and horizontal. 1498 Vatican. set up before same bland. and a republic now anxious re-create the age before the Medici takeover of including the big public works of owned art. Rome 202.\t twenty-four Michelangelo was clearly the most talented sculptor (see fig. quiet. the Christ's face derives from V'errocchio 141). This colossal figure the city hall. Michelangelo. city and Medici- and commissioned new works like group and Michelangelo's David Rustici's bronze (1501-4). living and dead. finished Michelangelo 160 (fig. Side Ddvid. MtCHELANGELO.201. height I3'5". The power of polished marble comes from its is restrained in expression and Christ on her knees had first tion of the scene of Christ this over-lifesize volume. clothed and naked. . The bodies expropriated some other public statues to 1 434. Peter's. weighty is in the style as the Picta. 202). St. vertical around. He found Savonarola gone when he returned to Florence in 1501. balanced But by had changed tlie time it was his ideas. to of Mary with the dead emerged as an abbreviamourned. but he had not modified tradition. Marble. Marble. Accadcmia. Florence Bologna (see fig.

Yet from the start his psychology in favor of pure pictorial effects. engraving (see fig. in small where shift- ing curved line bonds the soft skin to the deep soft air.\i London) by side with Leonardo he liegaii (1504) his own big three neat rows. Earl of Leicester. syntliesis. a little digious. Naturally influenced by Leonardo. 204). and he worked under Perugino Lisa. It is a solider revision of Pol- concentrates on force in process. athletic nudes in complex positiotis. 109). . where he painted small . a painter in Urbino. But he results to ny new he had also seen Signorelli. and could without strain rework any into his constantly ones. The fxirtraits commis- of . who had been swimming. Designed 1504. the strongest painter of the area.203- Michelangelo. They relate the two emphatic structural areas of figures dramatically color. This is through changing patterns of mother and child people are warmer and more mobile than Peru- (urves. From now on a seeming contradiction. with when most of the traditionally famous "Raphael Madonnas" were painted (fig. likewise as all and geared to his specialty (fig. young Florence were.Madonnas and portraits while continuing to get aliarpiece sions from Perugia.Michelangelo scene for the city hall assembly room. 203). He seems of to less artists in approve and praise the world too readily and create too easily. this was partly because he available traditions. 30" x 52". Grisaille on panel. but exclude the potential of motion and of teen. the geometric-spatial was a talented and critical pupil and partly because the small central Italian one of towns and the mobile- 161 . Holkham Hall (courtesy Courtauld Institute of . with figures in is no dense in weight than the earlier works. such as the forearms of ginos. Young Raphael Raphael (1483-1520) is perhaps the least liked today artists generally admitted to be great. His father. Here the two ing with gentle breath. creates the special [X)wer of Michelangelo's works. died is panels like the Three Graces (fig. with before becoming an independent master at seven- arms. This Bailie of Cascina showed soldiers. He was indeed a "quick study" of every style he saw. and yet this patriotic laiuolo's 7.\iigelo Doni 205) and his wife'* reflect Leonardo's Moita pyramids growing from a base of bent Raphael was eleven. still younger than average but not pro- The altarpieces he painted for Perugia and smaller places are in the undramatic local tradi- tion of Perugino and Piero della Francesca. with suave figures in cool space. Bailie ofCascina (copy). answering an alarm. great solidity fused with fervor of action. their contour lines not just traced but swell enclosing each other reciprocally. Ill 1504 he moved to bigger competition in Florence. often own unmistakable abandoned the elegant more problematic. At first he when most accomplished (fig. 206).

Musfe Condi. The Louvre. Raphael. 205. Raphael. 48" x 31 1/4". Raphael. Panel. Angela Doni Panel. Three Graces. X 17". The ^n ^. La Panel.Ci 204. Florence Belle Jardiniere. . 24" Pitti Paris Palace. Chantilly 206. 7" x 7".

Poetry. painters. more difficult imagery of his strongest Michelangelo and the Venetian painters.r^ Raphael. The 207. 163 . are com- Raphael almost restores source in Masaccio. Listeners heads keenly. and Philos- reflecting Bramante's intentions for Saint Peter's. softly tonal and and invents sculpturally tion. the School of Athens. It is a which also stays within vividly recognizable anecdote a formal In 1508 he went to II for a Homer Rome choreographic system of curves. Raphael presents the ideas through groups of theologians. In the resulting Stanza (1509-11) he responds with his usual apparent ease. 1509-1 one of recent Florentine pletely blended. respond in a dignified parade. Fresco. Vatican. Having done so. 1. and restrained. The Poetry window. he at once abandoned it to explore wholeheartedly what he had alreadv taken into account. so that their common makes a big Money. softly changing rhythmic patterns of up to a general symmetry. . 26. how peculiar the shape of the painted surface For Philosophy Raphael designed a grand space and the rather unvisual themes assigned were Theology. figural School of Alhtm. to this the imp>osing wall fig. chains of up animation and repose. this majestic firm. which rises around the window as if it were not awkward. the rivals. Stanza della Segnatura. Like Leonardo designing the Last Su(>per. a muse's con- action which add turn their curves set tinuous quarter turn is measured by the folds in her robe and finished off in her head and feet. each of a blind man. hence when he will resemble the Tribute fresco it very graphically thrusts out a hand in the classic gesture to a scTibe Rome and suddenly was challenged by a large commission from Pope Julius roomful of della Segnatura frescoes. and philosophers in conversa- Huge vaults and piers. Raphael established his permanent authority as the master evades lining them up as for a group photograph of the High Renaissance figure. along with smaller images (colorplate reverberate into the distance. spon- taneously alive and produced by formulas of grace. and indeed we never wall has a notice is. there Raphael set the poets on Mount Parnassus. is a big half-circle. he work. Since the room is vaulted. and who head up twists his is also dictating to hear. smile and point. poets. ophy. 207). base line 25'3".Vlasaccio-like figures With alternating with spaces.

but some of the figures are surprising in their openmouthed athletic pressure. second rank artists in Florence were also involved in the High Renaissance. Andrea (above "Doors Sa\-i. movements. a Madotuia for Genoa Cathedral (1504). 208). is and some- Roman fiom individual bold his predecessors. Catherine. height g's". Andrea Sansovino d. Bronze. ike some of liis contemporaries carving in figures clever it\. like Sebastian SainI Rather were moving toward the High Renais- sance orchestration of the figure. but seemed end of its range. more monumental. as in the young Michelangelo. His first monumental work. 1511. By the time of Michelangelo's generation. 208. lets grandeur grow in a controlled breadth of curvilinear power which. esque. 56). art inter- are readily labeled "Raphael- Antonio Rossellino's 116). 1491- in the local carving experimental to enjoy the was perhaps an apprentice but lively Francesco Ferrucci (1437-1493). a part of the Fra Bartolommeo. group for the new campaign Paris .i>iinni 1. is an appeal to ancient Roman in his masterpiece. Florence Baptistery that 164 art. undercutting and objects in a technically involved and way whose excitement depends on its virtuosI. 8'5"x y'y".'. gracefully is earlier than Raphael. Marriage of St. imposing in a less way linear that times academic. and works of also (see fig. the the liafiti.\ i\" Paradise ot l:." yet the both artists work (see fig. an associate of V'errocchio.i5ii9) always belonged solidly tradition. Florence The Louvre. His marble altar in first Florence"* and his later tombs of two cardinals in Rome (1506-9)'^ use the same thin running ornament as Miiio da Fiesole.m (begun 1502. Baptistery. Rossellino also is behind Sansovino's most startling experiments with the spatial depth of marble reliefs. He to the little-known (docs. Begun 1302. Fra Bartolommeo 8. 209. of big outdoor sculpture like Rustici's group over another door on the same building The easy full-fleshed related and alive. Sansovino was learning from and Leonardo.Andrea Sansovino. ojchn^t Panel. two is This reaches its peak over-lifesize figures of fig.

like later centuries. 9. so that he evolves not in a steady metrical. a neat Periiin with the figures. figures in his large paintings are still related world to their Perugino way. the emotional detach- saints each related only to the viewer. Renaissance academic 1500. . 45). are all ol life. the easy the brilliance of his drawings. the Rirlh nj Ihr I'ir^in among meandei a\ailable forms according 10 his taste. unlike Fra Bartolommeo 's. just as happened have such dignified The shadowing breadth and easy stances. Fra traditional formal altarpiece that he succeeded without question to the leadership of Florentine painting in 1508. al that the tie Lhe semicircular ment of Jtidg 1m. but rather puppet e raftsman.Andrea. in home of the academic. .sI means not a cutting contour but an absorbent unity dramat- High gives us a style. the homages to Leonardo's glow . and loose contours are retained in as Gbirlandaio. The construction of the 1. the warmth of earth colors. others. In an early it mcnl (1499-1501). the ihvthmii turns. His predecessors. their dis- artists who simply used become chill. del Sarto finds the admired Raphael mention the later in the classic of the the paintings. to sil- houette against an abstract sky. in using the contemporary bomgeois or (unlike Leonardo) sketches for paintings.iionh he Ital\. the with a brush stroke like Leonardo's or Raphael's but without those evocation of in 1. including an application to a more tradition layout of Leonardo's shadowy figure modeling in the early Adoruliou.Andrea (i4^itj Florence who 15:^0) figures. esseiiiially is an expert ( raftsman Leonardo. happens followitio to surface he High Renaissance. which thus never so contradict the idea of an institution. linear increase of control of reality but in a lievond Filippino and Pieio di Cosimo who used such frameworks for more complex purposes. This changed situation him "the is connected with the tag calling faultless painter. at his finished paintings. and The a further. had worked to construct a set of forms for representing the by the disconnec- direct original naturalism of his landscape drawings. can order When ic he joined the Domini as air is (fig. usually sym- that set of forms. Mineral Kxi . with their in- sparkling drawings of figure groups. These drawings had to be dehvdrated for use in the paintings. But their freshness back life. but we are not visually between .'** warming up of a gino-like anangciiient does indeed fit 209).Academicism also seems hinted "second team" remained. vivacious.490S. such a master of the and artists' related human meaning. and academicism. mostly of the figure fuz/y contours. before was possible. Far Bartolommeo (i 172-1517) also gives the impression tliat Leonardo and Raphael had affected the him. whose vehirle.Small. seem oddly like a throwback to "diagiammatic" Dominican imagery of the fourteenth century (see fig. between figure and fixity of position. not his loose. like figuies are frescoed in a big space. plans. when Leonardo and Raphael tion had gone away and again creasing limitation to pure profile and full face." which means the best one can say of him: he plished but not original. Andrea . human coveries of its is the first artist of talent in High Renaissance alreadv would convey figure that reality. . fixed in in the reminded of Perugino because these swathed in toga like robes. But iiis early masterpiece. It is is also that it is highly accom connected with it seems (I")'!)'" recalls theme to record suave smiling a step as far (ihirlandaio only faces. Since Andrea was so obviously an admirable it seems fitting thai his early works are old fashioned.514.After a visit to Rome when he saw the newest works by Raphael Bartolommeo takes this tendency painting huger but still more vacant people. including Raphael.Andrea typically adds a factor linked to the craft of fresco. he stopped painting for three in but then emerged years. seven- teenth-century Bologna.

their slight suffusion in ent. it a minor of the Harpies (1517.(?r situation. awkwardness was put instead of the Sistine Chapel a (1 blow because he had to painting the ceiling -.So his life grand beginnings. figs. but not an (1527)^' colorful figures with shimmering color planes are blank space. suppressed gray its in its rigid formality But perhaps such was what Andrea needed as a coiiinerpoise softness. 163). both with vague cushiony edges. 5'9"x 1 1'2". and shadow marks his independ- reds. while in Andrea's set into a latest huge works large arranged without any environment./. yellows. imagination but could never reach completion because he was always tempted series of 166 to accept new ones. where tive scheme much as in is the test of a successful work. SS. double relation to modern and The famous Madonna so nicknamed fiom distinguish more tones. detail of white sack that Joseph leans on. to set aside when. the Virgin. very some "formal painting of the twentieth " centurs. 1525. It less interest in was painting and because ceilings in chapels are usually minor. perhaps. balances the big The 10. the pope grew more interand Michelangelo with some ested in the building. Fresco.b). fig. The rigidity figures are modern ordering of formal elements into a vivid and seduc- arrange instance 210). Courtyard. of the Sack. Madonna 2 10. The tomb was largeplaniier. Florence and greens are to remain typical. and .08-1 2.- ornament. old. 2iia. Madonna of he I to likes to A classic Sack (1525. strict is the and to from other Madonnas)^" depends closely in his mature work he balances between soft parts. time on he always worked on very large tomb involving projects. and soon after with Raphael for his room of frescoes (see p. In the JmsI . on Leonardo in and on Fra Bartolommeo as a holy piece for the altar. Sistine Ceiling Michelangelo interrupted work on his battle painting and on a set of to go to From Rome this twehe to plan the large statues in Florence tomb of Pope Julius II. sitting on the ground. Julius II became a was a similarly who was also arranging with Bramante redo Saint Peters. like this These excited his large-scale forty statues.Andrea del Sarto. adjusted in distance and color and thus equalized.S'i(/. . the two siiapes are To be able to com- pose refined balances of fuzzy materials was a necessary art in the new Florentine easy one. Annunziata.

in the paradox of her immense muscles. it (in was the metrical beauty. ate given tragedy in the . but he soon hit his stride. . 1508-12. General view of chapel and diagram of ceiling. (female prophets of pagan traditions. with rippling shivering contour and neurotic and Jacopo della Quercia (see fig.dam God creating the world. parts to the had learned about the mobility of from Leonardo. The Delphic Sibyl is and others). and the Drlugr. length 131'. for a device in expressing him the awkward- power. and three of Noah. which already told the stories of Moses and of Christ.refle( ting the seven prophets and five sibyls first project. Vatican. Sistine Chapel. in their stable masses. idea which he carried out with such assurance thai it was imitated ness is for centuries.'f i. the adjacent prophets still. despite and our tendency esqiie violence. the project to nanative scenes. hisstrength in the Vatican. Ceiling fresco. In the nearby Creation of Eve the hulking people are cramped and bowed.A. There are nine this suggests . aroinid theedges. revert. Adam and Eve tempted 213) the big-boned but cowed people. to the years before he life last scenes These I'lelii first and is a the only truly tragic failure of the small). an essentially poor [. The Cumaean Sibyl. Michelangelo. quote the admired and painful seeking in her book.After a short break. and in the masterly double scene of and expelled (fig. 167 . 2iia. Rome.zekiel (fig. on resuming. 65). b. and Eve. width 44' rationally figures. but the difficulty he faces Thus we is greater scenes taken from Genesis (because the wall below the failure of the great. is to associate a series of it its theme with Michelangel- detached well-rounded and Michelangelo consoled himself by managing to change figure groups. see theme (unlike the successof the great and the colorplate 21): three of three of . being touched. 212) is a mass pushed bv a windstorm and responding with sideways intensity. symbolizes this dichotomy of phvsical resources tremendous yet inadequate. sym- fear of immense age. limited in their decoration single to while the walls show narrative scenes this case by Perugino and others). Michelangelo. is great. recently paint- Christ's coming. in ed on Roman (cilings bv P'ilippino IJppi Michelangelo first painted the and sibyls. most important chapel Still. There are also."Ml Michelangelo's cau- tion in a strange context.Aristotelian sense.




1508-12. Fresco,

rectangle containing figure ii'8" y la'j".
Ceiling, Sistine Chapel. Vatican.




The Temptation and Expulsion of
Adam and Eve, 508- 2


Fresco. 9'2" / iB'B".
Ceiling, Sistine Chapel,











CosiMO. The Discovm of Horuy.


1490. Panel. 31




An Museum.








Fresco, base line 22'. Siaiiza della Sesiuiluia, V.uil.U], Kl


SislinrCh.n.rl. \







rcsco, rectangle containing figure

la'g^x la's".


l;olorplate 28.



Pehr Freed from


1512-14. Fresco, base line 2i'&" Stanza d'EIiodoio. Vatican.


went back

calm of the

to the classic





modified by the richer expressiveness attained in

the meantime. This gives us the famous scene of







the limp athlete in

repose, physically perfected but awaiting the



God on


second half of the ceiling goes through the

grand barge of angels


same evolution

as the


will bring.

from the stable

to the

ner\e-racked. but like the second stable beginning.

the second agitation

than the



and inward


Jeremiah's immense body droops


with grief (colorplate 27). evoking the same monu-

mental and tragic contrast between great powers



but in

as in Fzekirl,

their insufficiency

physical terms.


last figures


are the most

twisted and complex, including the elegant, difficult

Libyan Sihyl and
ness, a torso



Separating Light from Dark-

at the

corners of


frame. In

huge collection of people, moreeasilv completed
than statues, Michelangelo was evidently modifying

himself very




This happens

works having manv parts more often than



similar quantity or time-span of separate works,

because a new idea that came to him too late can be
applied immediately to the next related unit.

was finished .Michelangelo had reached

statement of superhuman strength and

once applied

tomb with


to sculpture,

Miise<< (fig. 2




his full




returning to the pope's

simply one more prophet

as to type, but, as stone requires, less involuted.

For the tomb he also carved two attendant




express struggle but in a late stage, close to

Renaissance sweep of motion had conquered un-

defeat, a slackening of a


Michelangelo. Mous.

Varblc. height

fierce effort.


S. Pieiro in V'incoli,


expected areas.


Raphael's Last Years

.After the

triumph of the Segnatura, Raphael repeat-


large fresco sets with apparent ease, mainly for the

Bramaiue died, and the new office of curator of the
Rome. Perhap he would have left
painting eniircK for arihiiectme if he had lived

popes. Within a few years he headed a large enter-


ed himself as to his outward conditions, producing


and became


at all;






But ihequalitiesof the paintings do not repeat.

hardly used

the projects giew larger and larger,

induding the supervision

antiquities of

Peter's aftei


second room of the \'atican. the Stan/a d'Elio-

doro (1511-ij). concerns ihemes of ihe Church



Raphael. The




Boigo. 1514

(like Ghirlandaio's frescoes)


base line



sorts of lives are



a vision of the wafer of the



focus from the back of the painting toward


are on a

In the Expulsion of Heliodorns a tiny praying figure

more particularized and



us recurs from

usual easiness of solution w-e take in the dis-

it is

Stanza dell'Inccndio. \'atican.



from the protagonist; but with Rapha-

tinction without stopping to find


17. Fresco,

of onlookers in

It is full

different plane of existence,



enemies, showing action rather than

groups of portraits.


Fire in

that two

Miracle of Bnl.seun,

Mass bleeding, proving

Christ's body, transmits the sensuous action

at the far

on, for violent expansiveness.

end of the funnel

triggers the action,


results are at the front, in big flung wrestling




tiny far cause


large near effect, with

the rushing funnel between, are varied in the next

of frescoes, in the Stanza dell" Incendio (1514-'")!

in the Fire ni the


center the tiny pope at a


215), in the distant



and stops

that has panicked the foreground crowd.

through fresh color, showing that Raphael had been


looking at some Venetians at work, and diverging

The drama

from our standard views of Raphael

Freed from Prison (colorplate 28) a violent light

new paradoxical version of the interaction
of drama and geometry evoked by the Florentine
tradition. The rest of the frescoes in this room are

shines at us from behind the bars, silhouetting them,


as well as


the Florentine tradition of form. In Sainl Peter

and having

a variant in the sensuous moonlit




on extremes of space and

scale, a


The heavier curving rhvthms appear in famous
Madonna of the C.liair,--^


oftheguardsat thesides. This luminous and textural

later .Madonnas, such as the

painting absorbs the figures of Peter and the angel


in the cell; these are


made of rhythmic


and gracetul

pler than before.



versions of the Rapiiael

but hea\ ler and am-






total interlocking

of curves packed together

embrace, and in the fresco of Galatea

a solid well-fleshed



rendering of a Leonardo twining

motion. This fresco was painted for the papal banker
.\gostino Chigi, Raphael's most important patron

after the


(see p.

177;. Later,

on Raphael's

design, his assistants painted the ceiling of an


porch in Chigi's house, suggesting anarbor overhead

and the sky seen through


as in VJantegna, except

that the openings are also frames for mythological

scenesof\'enus, Cupid, and Psyche (finished 1519;.
It is a new style for the classical love stories that had
pleased Botticelli's patrons.
In the late years the



of big paintings

by Raphael's hand ('because they were

working sketches) are the cartoons



for tapestries to

be hung in the Sistine Chapel (1515-16). The first,
Peter's Miraculous Catch of Fishes, is an open-


air lightscape like Saint Peter

Freed from Prison;

others are as restrained in their vertical classicism
as the

contemporary Sistine






Galatea. 1513.

Fresco, g'S "^ I'i"Villa Famcsina,




Victoria and .\lbert

Paul Preaching

in Athens.

Museum. London


1515-16. Watcrcolor on pape



Raphael lower portion

completed by Giulio


The Transfiguration. 151
Panel. 13'4"


Pinaroiera Vaticana.

sways slightly because she
as all figures are


indeed a

live creature,

perceived to be after Leonardo had

worked. Those were the two poles of Raphael

when he began

to a

this series,



to reject

he proceeded


balance and resolution. In

Sainl Paul Preachhig in Alhrns

right sides of the

crowd and

square and round,




(fig. 2


7) the left


space are competinglv

near, tight


loose. .Such

exploration of open-ended uiulassii rhythm

is full-

in Raphael's strange last painting, the 'ruins-

figuraliou (1517-20;



view of crowd action that moves beyond

simple energy,




21S). Like the tire in







balances a figine of spiritual power, high,

small, far off.

and weightless, with some very material

people, heavy, low, and nearby. But the two parts

now wholly separate, and we can only connect
in our own minds as reciprocals and as events
adjacent In time. Thus Rapliael does not keep to


worn haimonioiis giooves,

who ha\c



later imitators

hurl his reputation. His experiments in'

form and dramatic vehicles were probably more
MiiniiJ.Tiing to

most younger


than theabsolut-

isms ot ihc altern.itixe gieal souKes, Leonardo and

Mi( helaiigelo.

Set in a garden 1. Palazzo 220. The area between the two conidors. Gabinctio dei Discgni. leaving a square area for 177 . of rough sliops. fig. 1549). (It was turned into later one side of a courtyard. making the whole into one huge building and giving the X'atican the scale it has today (fig. Florence) Belvedere Courtyard. Uffizi. Caprini. modern design in the area. But buildings to a small villa on a nearby hill DoNATO Bramaste. and status involved. to The more bciame tagged that it ftom Louis nineteenth-century goveriinient ornate and formal upper floor in Italian as the "noble storv. The X'atit an palace had been a casual conglomeration of towers and apartments. Vatican. Bramante's trademark.Saint Peter's. Brainante's grandest scheme was to tie the Vatican by con- structing two parallel conidors and arcades. 2ig). or loggia. But and Braniante it a Rome and Ins muccssoi Leo X boom. contains the dwelling. a painter liiio C'.Agos" house (i5ot)-i alter a later owner). in letiilai building began naturally with the liimself. 221). with a livelv in- andout rhythm of recessed windows between light- weight half columns. 219. and. was to be arranged with three to stepped tenaces for gardens and an outdoor theater. the lower story. by an observer. each a long arcade. called the "Farnesina at the edge of open porch on one side replaces the inner court usual in town mansions (fig. the Cortile di . but the elegant surface is very urbane. consisting of a three -story porch. Braniante built a two-story house for himself on an mark the intermediate and end original design (later owned by Raphael. perhaps reflecting a tradition of castle towers. Pope L'lidei (r.San Damaso. Beside the town. the as one looks npw.Architecture in 12.iid liom the palace end there are (WO big ni( lies in plain walls.." Bramante's only rival was Baldas. particularly.higi's its porch two side wings project forward. Rome (Drawn Pen and ink.1560. |uliui II Rome had 1513-21). first The most obvious step was Bramante's high screen on the city side (from 1504). c. 220): tement blocks. Rome (desiroyed.sare Peruzzi (I (. The whole fagade alludes to ttie force of gravity piiiposes beiame and to the contrasting social and so neatlv a standard imitated everywhere. the upper is walls (from 1505). who built the banker . engraving by Lafrery. indeed. DoNATO Bramantf. three stories high at the palace end and one story at the villa end.) It reflects Albertian emphasis on using the thickness of walls visually and practically. \l\"s Louvre offices. Belvedere courtyard. began with a plan to remodel the small twostorv loggia had designed that Alberti until then the most in front of .Si-i 5i{6). unaf fected by Alberti's hopes of order.

Garden fa9ade. S. A. Mint (presently Banco Rome. 222. Rome. 21 178 '4" square di S. 1515. It23-24. S"' S'^' Faijadc.22 1. Height 48'9". Maria del Popolo. Raphael. Baldassare Peruzzi. '509-". Rome. . Spirito). Villa Farnesina.NTONIO da Sa.58'^ 121' 223. Chigi Chapel.NGALLO THE YoUNGER.

This illusionistic effect may also have flat the whole context is side Roman spaces On the thin pilasters. sharp geometry to explore a intellectual possibilities. porch where he was painting the ceiling at Villa Madama. Raphael learned architecture from Bramante. the very original burial chapel for . 1534-46. .^* of adopts Raphael's the architectural recent SainI Paul in tune. That Raphael thought of these as painters' walls Antonio da Sangallo THE Younger.I'reachitig in Athens. are big them opens onto daintily em- a garden. derived from the seem 222). Rome. 8i8' x 557' each window between interwoven thin pilasters and cornices. since very few earlier domestic social frescoes have survived. St. and at changed the ends of the short arms. to suggest the third dimension. 95' X 195' 225.\gostino Chigi Projected plan. Peruzzi 's than his work on Saint Peter's. on Bramante with spatial imagination. Rome. devices preferred by Francesco di Giorgio. workable structuie. semi- Antonio da Sangallo the Yolnger. tlingly. twenty-five years later he designed one other great building (see fig. Facade. uses His architecture altogether. Most typical is the unfinished Villa Madama. marked by taut teacher. perhaps for balance. Inside the niches that have small niches in house Peruzzi painted bracing us. and before succeeding him Peter's had designed which. most horoscope. Vatican. for which he designed mosaics windows to the sky like Melozzo da Forli's (see p. the representing Chigi's classical friezes. and mood all been used elsewhere. which languished. in its 268). The wall handling in is little altered from Rome. and a suggestive parallel to Chigi's a lightened variation this time. but differs in its clean. is more personally Raphael's There Bramante's plan for a centralized church was to the more conventional long one. rising to a to be semicircular rooms. a series of three communicating that one already standard (fig. and. Palazzo Farnese. 125). follows in having an interior of expanding curved space. a wall of columns a ceiling star- between naturalistic land- scapes as they might be seen in the neighborhood of the house. is suggested by his next 224- interior.Sant'Eligio degli Orefici ( 1 509) Bramante state. quoting ancient and perfect for holding receptions. a square with sliced-off corners dome. the Presenlalwn of the Virgin in a church fresco expressiveness cycle. his friend remodeled Saint at . thin w-alls as unarticulated as the inside of an egg. Periizzi's curved side walls. one other remark- able painting. painted or built. Peter's.

Yet Leonardo had retained the figure as an element separate from the space. which pulls the forms together. i5o()- d.Masaccio to Raphael. occupy the foreground. all fifleenth- it the older dualism of figure new dependency ol the peothem dramatically. suggested by the site. the horizontal moldings the three stories. The mild is almost like one corner framing change from an early Renaissance house Strozzi (see fig. In the Castelftanco . their enviroinnent affects become passive and isolated. of his forts. it built and on color was now a \'ene- specifically to Bellini's version ol sensibility. in and the assumption of equality hence his paintings look like tiie Bellini's. The horizontal mass with a window rhythm frames. His entire shapes are more adept than His model (1539) for the more is his phrasing. firom a stonemason backgiound. but tlien is firm in handling the vocabulary as well as the slightly concave fagade. mass and void. but none of this When Ijy attaching an almost separate extra uint to an equal-armed structure was carried out. Giorgione's eye and palette are Bellinian. Giorgione In 1500 the seventy-year-old Giovanni Btlluii still dominated painting in \'enice. The Tempest (colorplate 21)) anil the Castelfranco altarpiece (hg. rhythm from an almost regular beat to shift to a strongly accented center. But this ple involves a fundamental change from they 180 substilules unity for and world. hated had done Farnese. il. file The first rare suggestion of his personality is in the Rome Mint (1523-24. Giorgione (docs. 224).i5U)) worked a revolution while adhering to the concern for spatial continuity that tian fixture. he cannot follow Bellini's easygoing willingness to traditional big iconic image. Raphael died Saint Peter's was taken exterior. and a vast left his life of sensible structural drawings. but above the rough base the upper area not on is Bramante's scheme but the more traditional inter- weave of style pilasters where he and moldings. In Giorgione the on the spatial thrust keeps to an intimate area. fig. works by sim- ply discarding most of the style vocabulary. in or which the figure building. Yet even in his first mature works. a that could continue indefinitely. leaving only the corner marking each of and the heavy window frames. Its front accents. Giorgiones is as incidental as a tree results were probably triggered by seeing the logical tonal unity called for by Leonardo (who visited \'enice in 1500). It somewhat inappropriately uses Bramante's "noble story" pattern. 223). the equal-arined with the conventional long plan 13. Palazzo Farnese (1535-46. Most of built forts he he and remodeled wings of buildings. as compared with fifteenth- century t'lorentine painting based on perspective and figure modeling. 225).circular colonnades were added. at Saint He the main like Palazzo who inherited down what Sangallo Michelangelo. 226). which adds (fig. let the Madonna To him this evidently seemed inconsistent with the optical effect of the visual throughout bai kgrounds field. because space. Sangallo's tasks. the formal or portrait. 1546). Sangallo picks up finds it. lentiuN panning. resumed work on Saint effective in Peter's proposal to reconcile its rebuilding a smaller house. that had been dominaru in various ways from . but in the existing structure revised only one the is window. and tore Peter's but respected altered parts still to Palazzo be built. omits all vertical scale. result. and the only architect of this age who came Sangallo's masterpiece. Most young painters imitated him. 165). There is now only the field of Witii further modesty. than in forests of columns notorious its smaller to the without allowing for the enlarged over by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger (1485- earlier sets nephew of the two Sangallos encountered before. This unity became the special character of sixteenth<entury Venetian painting based on light and brush stroke. and only his shadowiness made for unity. fig. and his brother Gentile and Carpaccio were ineffective as rivals.

226. 48" x 56". GlORGlONE. Francis.Mus' . GiORGiONE. Canvas. &^" x 5'. Enthroned Madonna uilh and St. Panel. Castclfranco 227. The Three Philosophers. Si. Kunsthistorisches . Librralis Cathedral.

But beside a Giorgione it has a naive. colorplate 23). perspective. on the canvas by seventeenth-century Or may be with landscapes ground groups of people. is "Gior- His Baptism of 150231 modifies his earlier between protagonists and distant landscape across. he paints Endymion asleep in a meadow. whose subject has been vigorously debated. a seur about 1530 described the picture without pro- viding us a title. in its most positive aspect figures relate across space in slow Giorgione introduced the reclining theme nude as a classic most later ones) is sleeping for painting. The only exception. The still leaves their duality San Zaccaria akarpiece (1505.\ more literal bow to Giorgione's Castelfranco akarpiece is the strange Saint Jerome came with Saints Christopher and Augustine (1513). but his (unlike Bembo's The for philosophical conversation (as in and Asolans^'' The Castiglione's Courtier. lit drawings of spaces inhabited fig. works as Francis and Carpaccio's Bellini's Stiinl Saint Aiigusti7ie (see 174. in contrast to nineteenth-century later age too much art. this intact. modifies tradition in that the saints. however. Giorgione 129). thoughts. ^^ His Tfm/?«/. Giorgione made no drawings. 182 who was still trying out everything he all the angel . 228) 3" example. He worked mainly for patrons collected art in their houses. patronage. no longer look at each other or at us. involving the overtones of pastoral landscape and but amorous mythology. its problems pensive for an imagined and melancholy love. suggesting that the cannot have had a serious role figures planning. similar mood imagery without specific narrative is clearly assumed as natural in the lower-ranking products of this culture. and subject matter. an older artist. (a design bor- so that each figure the air in is remote and in its own The Tempest space in air. songs. as in small fore- an intended theme it was lost to aware- ness at once.m. but this half truth gives the revamping of technique. as usual in innovation. Three Philosophers (fig.akarpiece the Virgin rowed from Cossa) very high sits caught from the rest. fig. depends is on checking paintings only. under a dusky dome of gold. 14. 227. look. reminds us that such ideas were growing any- way. . This produces Titian's "Concert Champetre" with its lute players and nudes. later seen in Shakespeare's As Yoit Like It. Cima.'^ Bellini. The most impressive parallels to Giorgione were painted by the aged Giovanni on the step watching us. Such a claim. The middle of the is occupied only by as a storm. and meditation. like prints and furni ture decoration. a taste Contemporaries of Giorgione there Giorgione's art had such an impact tliai danger of explaining too much by Some it. and Giorgione's small picture for a domestic wall ticated offshoot from these. is used only for testing further from these than from the Impressionists: Renaissance painting is often described as based on the figure. as X-rays have revealed. 11 a.-^ both written in these years) and for pastoral poetry which rejects society parklike and nature. but the male figure was preceded a female nude. credit for originality. resembles Giorgione in subject matter when. the figures thus hedged. Consistent with who had in thematic \'enetian connois- this. like Giovanni focus by pulling the landscape Bellini's suggestive Sacrefl Allegory (see colorplate hedge of mountains and dimming into bonelessness 24). a subject in backgrounds of X-rays have shown the central storm area unchanged Magi) quietly watch the earlier . give equal value to a figure and an and Jacopo Bellini's by tiny figures (see empty which area." so casual that perhaps a sophis- is it that. All this involved a who in earlier drafts. The resulting hypothesis that there no subject has been rejected as unique and impossible in the period.Adorations of the landscape and the light that duskily penetrates their Giorgione's closest antecedents are such bodies. there is "for form's sake. fig. ratio upward into a hard gione-like" imagei^ of earlier date. is perhaps picked up fi-om Diirer. for meditate in shadows.-* and Giorgione's The and outdoors. probably the three Magi tracking the star. but revised on the canvas drastically.

came about through his links 10 prim. many portraits that Bellini (like Giorgione) was now painting of thoughtfully gazing saints In the aristocrats. with In the a fence Zaccaria. one more method of picture- making. Venice of trees and Priapus steals nymph. In little figures retain their sculptuial identity within the kaleido scopic dance of color.\lvise \ivarini's one notable pupil. and some ofthe may have a landscape fragment as an attribute. To be sure. though sharing the gentle haze. transferred to canvas. published by a German Venice. in which images are lined up in a row. This Germany.. such isolation is also an acceptance of a medieval tradition. 1505. soon to this ribald tale be awakened by a up to a sleeping braying from 0\iA^* the chunky ass. the gods are drinking before in 183 . Giovanni Bellini was simph using. Madonna and Saints. Panel. was the first Italianartist above the artisan level to practice printmaking in quantity. 1497-151 1).'j8 Giovanni Bellini. >6'3"><7'9"S where the center saint sits on a hill at the top of the painting and the two below ignore him. Jacopo de Barbari (docs. and mastering. the figure wiched between clouds. was an astonishing birds-eve his fii-st great Feast ofthe merchant for the view of \'enice. . colorplate 30) painted duke of Ferrara. without himself changing. a woodcut on many sheets that took Gods (1514. remains a solid chunk sand- a front The same «tyle parapet and a pillow of pervades the Mirror^^ which he painted Sude at eighty-five.

2". 20 1/4" x 16 1.229. completely novel object. Barbari had some influence on German artists such as Diirer and Baldung Grien. along with small paintings. again a blend of northern particularism and the Venetian feeling for luminous textures. biu the examples are 230. It is a possible by a fusion of northern minute description and Venetian atmos- pheric sweep. first 230). The strangeness of his work from an Italian view- point has led to the opinion that he worked under German influence. made fig. 1497-1500. and. Panel. 229). with wilted lilies. Woodcut. Munich Still Lijt. worked at the courts of several princes. he is comparable to Giorgione. Alte Pinakothek. though not otiierwise. He also autonomous seems to have produced the still-life painting in history (fig. many similar German . He then went to Germany. who a way. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Jacopo de' Barbari. poTUon. iiad late been seeking toward atmospheric and psychological subtlety. engraved linear style. entire dimensions 50" X 108". in line folds like This was developed from some with current taste. tall figures in a special sinuous drooping heads and thin works of his teacher Vivarini. Jacopo de' Barbari. level of opening up modern themes On the for painting. View of Venice. later. New York three years to produce (1497-1500.

Bartolommeo Veneto. for the High Renaisfirst time by widely circulated reproductions in favored contexts give us the vouth contemplating a skull. in fancy costimies gaze out at us." and lets thin shadows wash over drawing the landscape into subtle con- line tinuity with the figures. and the ture. but popularizations of the Giorgione This is presumably related mood. a (as in Barbari). 231. and The growth of professional printinaking antonio Raimondi. relating the effectively transmitted bv visual invention (a recurrent Giorgione circle). Giorgionism is not sculptural.ombardo (docs. The leading Tullio l. The engravings of tiie Paduan Giulio Cam- pagnola (1482-1515) include copies of Diirer prints. Houston The Edith A. l. The great who established inasters the sance were rapidly followed. Gentile Bellini's one lively pupil. but his Giorgionesque works are probably not copies. scape. son of He carved archaeological figures in Padua. Leonardo's Milanese drawings. and N'enetian sculpture continues to be infertile.S. the 'dotted manner. and Raphael's paintings and drawings of space and form were published systematically by substantial figures to second themes in the far land- his associate Marc- who made this his career. With a retrogression con- history. has (fig. with its learned traditions 185 . 29" x 20". these too have been associated with seem ing fine on Germany. 1476-1532). to the absence of Gior- gione drawings. Panel. and of the great fame of the painters are all inteiTelated. for us. an astrologer (fig. Mclanclioh pastorals and other But the new new technical factor in the This evades the surface. the handling sistent craftsmen.asi Supper were copied by anonymous with his role as a popularizer. with a weary melancholy touching 231). figure is Pietro. all in in the small corners of broad landscapes which often in- form of prints. a nude \'enus. sculp- clude a view of Venice. a suitable place for them. of book publishers.Bartolommeo Veneto 1502-1530) was (dots. He is most young gentlemen. though Heads of women rich in evoking personalities. but only the costumes to justify this. Here this minor artdocumented the Giorgionesque personality their refined luxury ist remarkable in record- in brilliant costumes. 232). by others. Str: Collection Giulio Campagnola. remained a somewhat di7 He natuiallv portrait specialist. is still art and is Bellinian. a large scale. and Percy . Porlrailofa Man. Riccio 15. Museum of Fine Arts. Giorgione's graphic echo was a somewhat more independent master.

Such depth of feeling ing in what at first small scale of Riccio's tiie is the more sober- seems a virtuoso plaything. and also presents the body with balanced weights as a satisfactory solid base of its parts. But in The Louvre. 233). work and its The separateness from standard family tree of sculpture has led to neglect of him in general surveys. that emphasizes extremities like an outstretched and It is twelve feet high hundred of religious. and with modeling Antonio. allegorical. dragons. Giorgione are the small — these are aesthetic The external paral- scale. Riccio. Donatello's pupils in Florence Andrea Riccio (1470-1532) Padua pro- make and Padua. yielding hundreds of bronze figurines (fig. the toys for < context of onnoisseurs classical civilization or the sadness of the satyr caught in the for alms or love.GiULio Campagnola. not an imitation of. mostly pagan and literary satyrs. nude shepherds. but then overtone of pathos. and. he comes to when forces him not to life generalize sensitive balance of masses to aca- a portrait but to apply something his specific (Guidarelli tomb. The Astrologi Engraving. more interesting Giorgione is the duced one sculptor who has fascinating parallels with Giorgione He began as a goldsmith. more startling. Ravenna^''). bin he angelos most original contempoiar\ is Mi( hel- . a career of the small bronze. Anon. The New York Public Library 232- Andrea 233. of writers and of Mantegna. A parallel to. \\\ this is hnger or pointed chin. Bronze. Paris —and the exploiting of an unusual technical Riccio is tiie first artist to vehicle. lels to patronage 186 and many goats. height 9". the idyllic regret for spent years over a strange example of jeweler's subliuman and begging elaboration. They became his repertory. Prints Division. the bronze Easter candlestick for Sam' evoked with poignant gesture. 4" X 6". spiders. and pagan figures on its many levels. preceded by the partial explorations by I'ollaiuoloaiid bv Bertoldoand Bellano. freely intertwines crabs. Like some other demic classicists. Padua (1507-17).

Palma. 4*9" x 8'3". he painted figures in large squarish planes near the front of his space. downward gaze. for see p. laurel branches. to distinguish him from Palma Giovane.^). But sitting in 234. Piombo with a set (docs. . a tonal sculpture. 1509-1547). tired face it with sumptuous hair. deep mooidit a is a Pietfi brown (fig. but he offers a admired Raphael even more. vividly combining himself to Michelangelo to render his concepts works The most extraordinary result he treats the motifs with greater superficiality. Dresden is: . which the master did not enjoy doing. The forms grow from allusions to luxury and poetry. 175) of scenes from Ovid's Metamorphoses. and the The most equally external.^^ But he transferred his career quickly to Peruzzi's a series newly built Chigi Rome. Gemaldcgalerie. and painted villa (151 1. 1528. and in that breadth of design. 1 r.Saints a meadows and plump blond nudes are all backed up by heavy foliage.i i-d. the Fall of Icarus and others. Jatopo 1 5 1 o-d. Sebastiano attached traditionally labeled ". making silhouettes of fied presence.^riosto. called territory. the men have feelings but the women are only pretty. surfaces in sky. a grandnephew) came from the provincial city of Bergamo. a still brighter sky The bright figures against have a Venetian breeziness that old- was certainly interesting to Raphael. Sebastiano restricted himself to portraits. Two Venetian painters had claims in Giorgione's age to share his revolution. He narrow range treated novel loosened the normal limita- Jacopo Palma. tinct small tradition of painting in that finely The dis- town is represented at this time by Giovanni Cariani (docs. group but botli soon Palma (docs. parallel to us but with sensitive velvet and fleshy textures. Sebastiano del Piombo i6. Palma always liked drenched Giorgionesque a effect in his early portrait curving bodies emphasize their dramatically indic- he surrounds ative gestures. 235)."^" In a soft. Later. in later in painting.1547) of saints whose tenta- movements. and subtly dimmed spaces are decisively Giorgionesque. pastoral where . so that in portraits especially they maintain a digni- somewhat more heavier and insistently reflection of Titian is impressive later painting (fig. Jacob Meeting Rachel theme legitimizes the interests. and two stony figures with undetailed they seem Giorgionesque only in official type. Canvas.Sebastiano del emerges tive is a Biblical and amorous as a painter material. and always retained links there. but Sebastiano fashioned tradition in altarpieces. Palma V'ecch io. 23. Jacob Meeting Rachel. Ever dependent. on the border between Venetian and Milanese drifted toward other magnets. Palma the elder. aside few altarpieces. and big red sleeves.

who are and officials chatting with painted as smaller portraits at their sides. Ercole de' Roberti came from Ferrara in the 1480s. having also quarreled with Michelangelo He and lost this last crutch. tortuous figures. Ferrara and Bologna By 1500 there was a modern artist or two in every town. Vilerbn and periments. was a weaker provincial fol- lower of Mantegna than Tura and Crivelli were in their provinces. or ones like Marco Zoppo (1433-1478). apparentlv could not accept his own talent. Mu'ipn Civico. who. the central portrait retains its patterns.) At tion of portraiture as an iconic. in Ills shiny. with some autonomy of regional in the fifteenth century visitors like style. only its outward relationships change.Sebastian obtained a sinecure and stopped painting almost entirely. and his forceful style strong influence here as elsewhere. (Mantegna and Jacopo 17. From had that back- . Panel. and Raphael had used the design without the narrative implications. 8'io" y i'^". timeless image. had anticipated this play uith the tension instead to temporal or narrative painting between icon and narrative. in single ex- about forty-five .Seeastiano del Piombo 235' Pietd. Bologna had made do with important less important Jacopo della Querela. formal de' Barbari. allied it by showing his cardinals their secretaries.

I50i-d. all forty years with a classical and suavity borrowed from Raphael. The result of all this. with first figure thrones under pavilions. i5i2-i-. pleasant- lygentle. drawn with in slightly angular planes. Cathedral. soft Perugino's Milan. in and Costa heads. 134). 1519. These pupils worked chicflv in Ferrara. but then he Robertian type of spindly against a pale sky which he retained through These shifting versions. 1479-d. consisting Giovatmi many self-revision mainly of a use of compositional arrangements for Bellini's altarpieces. and a and it seems to have come less frotn Bellini himself than from imitators like Bartolommeo Montagna and Francesco Bonsignori. But then. he spent Holy Families. His partner Lorenzo Costa (docs.Sai>i( A/ar/yr^c/. stimulated a slight modification toward a more old-fashioned modeling.Madonnas round substantial faces. another on the art. Milan. Of them. started as a goldsmith. Ortolano l)eautiful. and visit to Bologna. painted an early masterpiece Stephen in his. 236. see Costa-like ladies little visit to Rome. Ferrara past his prime.earlv Reiiais- 237. Cremona Fresco. like Giampietrino. is many Francia . Diameter including painted balcony lo'i 1" Palazzo del Seminario. and hit is it strongly centered in the saint's eye with keen its glance of pain. who Francesco Francia (docs. figures in landscapes. Garofalo (docs. literal imitators in produces a snaky form and a devout gaze. Ceiling fresco. and Venice. brightly identical. after a repeating iiiodcliiig seem fig. Altobello Melone. was to painters' a N'enetian key. ^'y" . \ariation soft post-primitive devoutly plain but easy. lookingout from a darkened space. but again it utilizes the work of Leonardo's slighter use of his figure types. lit (docs. 1535) at formulated a hrst copied Tura. Massacre of thr Innocents. a little thai strange in ilu-stinng.24) painted archaistic altarpieces.i559) began with a brilliant variation in Ferrara on Mantegna's ceiling (fig. \ more serious though still superficial modernism they then adopted was Leonardesque shadow. their eagerness for modernity enhanced by the crossroads location of the city. But the sources they tapped were not the most favorable.even. 1 483-d. between Florence. who apparently conducted something closer to a school than a shop.'"' sheet of tin crutiipling as suggesting a bright by stones. Garofalo. that later attracted Victorian admirers. ^'i 1". 1517).ground two young Bolognese painters emerge in the 1490s. when he was 236. 1516-17. where a chorus of and gentlemen looks down at us. clean and round. The style is also important because it spread among the two hundred pupils of Francia and Costa.

including Altobello Melone (docs. town of drawn round-eyed Madonnas.little known. animals.i522). S. an undigested tumult of small original ideas. His activity has to be reconstructed tinct strands.opportunity was the big fresco series in Cremona Cathedral. 1542). scene for pottery. individualized people col- lide in energetic scenes have taken the lead in (fig. His one spectacular 171) but has a High Renaissance command of broader. 151 2-d. the frescoes of Filippino 238. Frediano. imposing forms. Sicodemus with the Dead Christ*" comes from the who went back to his parenCremona and painted many crisph tradition of . His made to accomfirst major work was a Bacchanal*^ pany Giovanni Bellini's Feast of he Gods and muc h brief trips. all were made for . appeals to antiquity He often far from academic.several dis- in the records of his lifelong which led to paint- panorama of FeiTara. After two sets of narrative frescoes in Bologna (1506)3^ tal were Lucca sance ligluiiig. own swirl sometimes with one puffed cheek. with clean cylindrical figures relax- ing in a meadow. Miracle ofS. Lippi. whose when he of vitality took him. Altobello may other work of his this. a probable native of Ferrara who stayed at home. ings of flowers. 1493-d. often in rags and Lucca (fig. i5o6-d. a painting. But tliis indirect approach to Giorgione soon gives way to direct attachment. at perhaps admired most it. 1516-1517).Area's tableaux (see fig. The accompany developed crisp technique. and designs from . sharp-nosed represent merchants earlier to and equally down-to-earth in big hats.Niccolo dell' . whose style also comes from Costa. Both. a neat sort of image. One is service of the ducal pleasures. ing. and ribbons. Frediano. Dosso and His Successors brilliant developer of Giorgiones approach was Dosso (docs. to to ancient battle sarcophagi whose scrambling crowds he recorded in drawings. 18. with drawing. Boccaccio Boccaccino (docs. but he seems to have mixing a broad swashy brush stroke with ideas from Diirer woodcuts to apparently short had exceptional life is talents. The Amico oddest Costa pupil was (docs. 1524/25). io'4"X9'9". shared (1510-19) with others. let self-assured figure their hard. 237). hunt restless Pinturicchio's fancy ornaments visited and Aspertini for devices Rome. 238). Both of them are probably affected as well this date nervously with fantasy figures. His squirming masterpiece. Fresco. underpins scenes with very little now composition at all. tending instead to pour out notes of observed action. I influenced by 190 His by an older pupil. apart from The most and was the resident court artist. he seems to have turned to sculpture. swimmingand crouch- Amico Aspertini. tough mercenary soldiers. versions of Christ.

in a later gener- the French court he painted fresco series for rich houses. with illustrations of Virgil and Ariosto and leisured people in meadows. in high grass 01 climip of bushes. a grand seated figure wearing a dress as rich as a rug in its tone. Bullerflies*^ the 239). violent heads. church altarpieces that are Raphaelesque as figures turning in is in small more and more time goes on. away from Giorgione's poetic heightening of such moment and the lost. In a few of his masterpieces Dosso blends his possibilities. But actually it aristocratic social life seen a in International the same record of hundred years earlier is Gothic domestic frescoes. 1504-1528) are toward the Raphaelesque end of Dosso's range. trees close in and shadow far away.and the Ariosto. a big depth of dog and a suit of armor lie beside her. In Bologna Rome us by itseffect of telling us about social reality. A third strand Madomias. intermediate tone appears in the small diamond-shaped ceiling paintings for FeiTara. \n experience. Melissa. Besides the Allegory 0/ and Music*'* Painting Jove greatest of these Melissa is (fig. But the sensual immediacy is stronger in flavor now. 7'i" x iS'G". His series of musicians and card players (fig.*^ under the influence perhaps of the visit Farnesina frescoes in Rome. Only the fashions have changed. Dosso's many associates were in general more academic. these are still all mostly works of bizarre. produced no doubt on the basis of the whims of N1CCOL6 dell' Abbate. and scenes and a wisp for a figure's arm. Galleria Borghese. perhaps under the influence of court niterests. and they now follow Giorgionesque pastoral. as in the Borromeo house in Milan. mythologies. With garden-like nature. unexplained subjects. Niccolo dell' and ^u 239. colorful glitter. spinner of tales of love.^f. She holds a smoldering torch. and ground. A hint of these nonliterary.^^ and giinning ^^.Michelangelo sibyl. the repetitive small bright scenes by his brother Battista (d. His truest follower ation. soldiers are sitting on the her. Palazzi) drllTniversiLi. Small figures with ardeiu movements. and enticing strange themes. 240) charms Dosso. the picture is totalis Giorgionesque in its evocation of magic fxietry. going one more stage than Dosso toward simple refxjrting. painted in swift strokes. nonhuman images remains in the deep sweeping landscapes between caryatids and an arbor that he painted in a rare away. Canvas. duke's chivalrous ancestors. are a drowned in nature. in glowing colors. All this seems quite separate from the formal works. apparently of the moment. a spatter for a trees foliage 240. but they provide a suggestive correction to our usual ideas of Renaissance themes. a witch seeking inspiration like a . Fresco. with substantial broad movements. dragons. local poets like the great Boloena . 1548) and Mazzolino (docs. later at is Abbate (1512-1571). Card Players.

majestic and imposing. where the close-up figures evoke the sensuous experience of art as they listen intently and watch each other's reactions. but he also appeals to prestigious masters one degree more removed. Titian. 109). 192 Florence The Titian. outdoor frescoes painted in commission with Giorgione. Xliracle of the Speaking Injant. The Concert. Though Titian (docs. thick. ijio-d. The (fig. 242). In contrast with Michelangelo (who works with potential power). Scuola del Santo. sen- suous factuality and warm energy are always fundamental in him. evading the become academic and dead. of the body that Soon he modifies the contrast. In the Padua frescoes only one scene. such as Man- tegna and Diirer. figures. He in homage pays automatic the slightly dimmed knees. Physicallv emphatic people meet quick imorganized way. Yet the central motif is muscular.''^ are in ruins. io'6"x io'4". he would persuade us of the glowing life of quite passive people. Padua . representing a murder. Canvas. and sparkling with life but for the most part stand- ing in passive rows proportioned normal in them very 241). Titian's rebelling against known earliest a joint works. the elastic diagonal pull between the fingers pressing the keys and the neck turned 242.Young Titian ig. 43" x 48 Pitti Palace. he first appears at age twenty him with the effectiveness of a young genius and vigorous extremism. in a bumping with forward pressures and oddly rough proportions depth. is the High Renaissance. shows foreshortening in the Mantegna formula of tendency of massive forms shock (see to p. and a swiftly painted set of frescoes in Padua (151 1) shows us people still heavy.isyS) was probably a pupil of Giorgione's. Fresco. most obviously in the famous Concert subject is suitable. and asserts the immediate. Titian's use of big (fig. Woman Taken in Adiil- but the Christ with the lery*'' is probably of the same moment. In a few years Titian's expressive mood moved completely into the Giorgionesque vein. 241. but he makes alive by infusions of light. head height and to his and spatial master in continuity of very rich trans- lucent color areas.

but the donors.^" ures.'''' Such pictures 193 . It is set end of a long Gothic church. fig. including many portraits. Simpler again with feel works are single female fig- Salome*^ or the Girl Comhing Her Hair. Venice because the focused light enhances the already special limitation to their visual qualities only. only slightly into objects of aesthetic girls idealized The key painting of the group is Sacred and Profane Love (colorplate 31). 243) reverts to the grandeur of almost a decade earlier. the nudity of the girl yearning for Heaven balanced with the pleasure admiration. and the huge As- sumption (1516-18. moving diagonally ward the and Ariadne 244). and the Andrians (1518-19). Titian Thi Asiumpiion of ihe Vugtn. 1516-1J Panel. in large symmetry. of rich materials in the earthlv to girl's robe. A nude in furs and earrings shows us textures that seem more high- come ly the chief coticerns of a charged in the painting than in real life 243. 22'6"x 1 Church of ihe Frari. as in Giorgione's fills at the sides the figures iheir bodies. Above the arms is brawny of a heavy yet soaring sailing robes and clouds of and God the angels. then the Mary suirounded by its active Fa- Luminous big colored forms are the elements physical life that moves with smooth excite- ment. a procession with satyrs sky. pulling focus. using similar sandwiches made of forms and sky and freely borrowing poses from Michelangelo but refusing his psychological implications. 1'lo". styles Pendulum swings between forceful and quiet seem to mark Titian's life.^^ dancers and drinkers around a river of wine. before a landscape whose distant sunset is more one of like vaguer mysteries of Giorgione's Bellini's than the lights. alternate with Bac- chanals that continue the series begun by Giovanni Bellini for the duke of Ferrara (see colorplate 30). kneel in Toward stiff archaic profile on the front plane. then another slice of sky ther. while in front of and behind drifting clouds. 1530 textures of cloth and flesli be- new group of quiet works. The Worship of Venus (ijiS). ards fig.the opposite way. Other altarpieces of the following years. the real contemporary people. The across a a to- surprising altarpiece for the Pesaro family (finished 1526)^* and saints along columns rise up and leop- sunny island sets the Madonna diagonal line in depth. Thev sit be contemplated. culminate in Bacchus (1523. In the I'lirec Ages of empty landscape Tempest. but Man** an the tenter. at the space into apostles with glistening a slice of deep sky.'^' a packed sea of tumbling cupids kissing and fighting.

a child with compasses. while at showed business acumen in his contracts and assembled a huge crew of assistants. seeking against the grain to conserve a figure-space duality (see p. and talented the procedures of Venetian painting. the por(1505). He had trait society of Venice. unquiet portraits and scenes pieces but in less formal. 245) the thick forms flop on the . At forty he no longer had any rivals and dominated the same time he Lotto. Pordenone Venetians of Titian's age group their in- teresting more psychological works. a Riccio-like satyr. in flapping been deeply taught by his old master Alvise Vivarini. In Christ faking Leave of His Mother (1521. 138). fig. Meanwhile the was created a count by the artist lived luxuriously. command was also antimodern.244- Titian. and enjoyed the most 20. with bright realistic contains bodies background landscape. The landscape making a contrast between disorder. 1503-d. His earliest distinctive work. and Ifie Elders (1517). Holy Roman emperor. Its allegorical cover-paneP^ 194 masters a gently is more unusual. altar- we have many luminous cubic effect in the Bellini tradition. 69" x 75". 1523. brilliant Lotto (docs. National Gallery.^-'' of current fashion soon yields saints tossing their heads. but unluckily his rebellion Such to Madonnas with garments and wriggling folds. 1556) shares a rebel- calm classicism of preceding traditions with Titian and other major and lious agitation against the minor contemporaries. swung around under pressure built up and not released. and rebels only in the self-conscious layers of his painting. Bacchus and Ariadne. own who painted in distinct styles failed in their careers. Canvas. then to altarpieces where sculptural figures twist When of Bishop Rossi and order. like Susaiina sharp.^' whose neat space. London were enjoyed by Titian's lordly patrons woman as "the in the blue dress" or "the as illustrations nude" more than of namable topics. a pastoral and such figures appear not in traditional in distress.

Lorenzo Lotto. rivals Ti- same inoment.gvouiul. or merely stare with a pain more poignant because of Lotto's mastery of to the world. and their restless probing un- balance seems to evoke their uncomfortable relation They tautly offer papers. so in wool bans. and turand then in muscles powering swords and ropes which are propelled like whips or lassos. their duality with the be a discordant one. proposing to compete with Titian. and seems to have where angels tumble from the side of or a false prophet from the sky. who. Cathedral. and in the Iniiiinc latititi''^ an angel with dislocated bones gieets Mai7. based folds. 1521. sickles. he was modern in his concern with the potential mobility of all his figures. 246). Berlin-Dahlcm result tian's an imagery of power that is Assumption. But he resists to the modern unity of the keep the figures as they were as distinct visual field.scenes of Christ's Passion and as a on the thrust of muscular forms and thick spiraling lines. 245. Pordenone came to Venice when he was almost fifty. Pordeiione (1483-1539) learned to paint fresco cvcles in churches in provincial mouruain towns north of Venice. tal A visit to central Italy about 1515 Taking Liave of His Mothtr. io'8"x24'. Since Lotto's people are alive irregular. . flutters hand along the her were a window while a front plane as though them. nervously up flower petals. that The we feel how they inexorably hit their victims. overcome. him excited about the monumengrandeur of Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling. were Italian painters using. but just as lie Pordenone received his official appointment and his achievements remain little known died. large scale harnesses the space 246. After years journeyman in many sinall-town churches. In where Boccac- cycle and a masterpiece in his . Fresco. Staatliche Musecn. Pordenone produced a death (1521. These occur fig. 50" x 39". Canvas. Lotto absorbs poses from which many action-minded it between realistic cat races German prints. and seeks from their background more and environment must in the early Renaissance. with its stable images. horses' thick manes. painted the same Christ left perhaps also the spatial daring of Melozzo da The at the Cremona Cathedral Forli. Cremona between walls ceilings. tear the vivid tonal harmonies. He benefited from Titian's increasing work for foreign lords and kings and lessening interest in \'enetian jobs. dome cino and others worked. Led to Calvary. 1521. into his Venetian vehicle of colored throb- And bing surfaces. because of their obscure locations. Christ Pordenone.

but found in Giorgione an aid toward quietude. but in fact he. Mary Magdalent Ike Sepulchre. If the Venetian school means the style of Titian. deep and rich in color. 34" X 31 1/4". then Savoldo has to belong to school. and complex in silhouette. width at base S'g". but in the sixteenth to X'enice and sent Savoldo there. Perhaps trained by Cima. Savoldo's Holy Families and stable musicians sit in the dusky. Approaching Si. subtle air. exceptionally more. Romanino The flourishing town of on the road Brescia. 1508-1548) lived in Venice and the all label "Brescian school" for one time the result of local pride. GiROLAMO ROMANLNO. Fresco. a heroic the old-fash- impenetrable and in that nearly all — ^represent one static mass. GiROLAMO Savoldo. again old-fashioned. typical that despite lack of success. Castello del Buonconsiglio. National Galler>'. Trent and it is is shy rather than combative like Lotto's. The Death of Cleopatra.2 1 . he shared the general attraction to northern art. Giro- lamo Savoldo his adult life. London to have liked Van der Goes best. he kept ioned sense of the He seems separate. but. in X'enice instead of moving about he stayed as Lotto and . seems 247. was a some other product of a different X'enetian strain. Canvas. like Lotto. translating pastoral dreaminess into passive grandeur. when Titian was. His con- servatism 248. pictures his figure and —most little all his life to human form on to insist as it. him was at (docs. His early Sealed Hermits^^ show the resultant mountain-like figures. Savoldo. tween Venice and Milan. more recently a hasty deduction from the great gulf be- tween him and Titian. \'isiting Florence in his youth. He was tempted a little later by Giorgione. belonged be- in the fifteenth century to Milan and sent Foppa there.

1503-6. The Tempesl. Accadcmia. GioRGioNE.COLORPLATE 29. Venice . Canvas. 30 " x 29 ". 1.

\Vashington. of Art.colorplat: Giovanni Bellini. 1514.Gods. Caii\£ Widcncr Collection «7"- 74" . D. Fiiisl of tin. Tin National C.C.

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MarquancI Fund 4<i .SV. 1 1:52 Clanvas. Museum of Art. Mallhew. 37" York. New .do. Purchase 1912. 1.COLORPLATE 32 Metropolitan GiROLAMO Savoi.

the many painters to come at this time from middle-size north Italian towns. Francia's dilution of Leonardo. At is of giants along with Leonardo and list Raphael. brush works like a pen constantly shifting in breadth and thrust. ceiling which a worldly and some later times. shadowy. and in later frescoes in Brescia his on house Olympian gods ceilings are neither classical nor poetic. it is congruent with This reaches a para- it. he was placed on intellectual abbess received guests to the convent. Pordenone's. and armor.Mainegiiesque. below are tiny allegories of the course life. striking result 1559) stayed in not labeled as of a "Brescian group. from Francia. also recognized as a realism. the candle-lit Saint Mattlicw full of (color- where the extreme contrasting light and dark mark the separation of the red body and the plate 32). but the new still mensely sophisticated. Romanino is said paints with line. He was also delighted by Venetian tedniique. show oped with learned allusions. a see pairs of changing mo- of fantasy. the inconsistency between figural auton- visit to Padua at to draw with (fig. and evanescent. Correggio 2 2. i5i4-d. soft is further from our taste than But a close look will compel recogni- is. the same Mantegna's late work and tire as in sources natural nearby Bologna. But in his last works he returns to probing unity still further. es- frescoes for the small parlor in pecially in the eighteenth century. but a efTects.\t if we the base clouds and people are inter- 201 . All his resources are blended who 111 his effects. but he dynamic stroke used lor problem in his work. doxical crisis in his masterpiece. His answer was to omy and atmospheric make the figure more and more luminous and planar. and tiirough them of accomplished execution. we look up to see Christ in the middle of the hea\eiis. velvet. Correggio devel- own special forms like elaborately shaped downy. colorplaie 33).Still it is but the paint style comes so much more like a direct derivation alive that it from Leonardo. are a devices and with Titian-like live textures of glowing cheeks. after Melone's but before Cremona bumpy drama of soldiers at their plump citizens in shimmering light. never fully Venetian. always a bit leaner and never as comfortable in opulence. ing leads to Giovanni Evangelista (1520-24. his arms and legs spread out irregularK as were looking from below of the dome literal at a swimmer. He shared his friend but incongruously naked peasants of comic vitality. as his Tiie painted arbor through which in (Onstantlv we are oval. so that although separate from the environ- ment. . San clouds. Brescia. his use of keen line as a spice for his basic reliance on the truth of color has an equally 247) a silver-gray plane in the dawn. 248). This nocturne.i523) the short the greatest. making his figure of Mugdnlrnr (fig. The sense of events is satirical. Of Moving soon to Parma (fiom nearby) he got his first his small hometown unusual commission.^^ of figures with the daring diagonal relationship at a distance. black space but also create a single optical field.Pordenone He did. Just as Delacroix color. iiow. looks more . and became a master of the sketchy visible brush annex. tion of his brilliant inventiveness in design as well His early work alludes to in his city of Parma. In the first. we (iiildren playing tifs games see the sky is details are im- The openings softening ihange. Correggio (docs. ." His training seems to have been with the especially its Cremona once converted him to Titian's fireworks of big active people in higli color. He is an original quirky talent iiis left no talented successors. his The children already moving fiom Leonardo. 237)- Hence his frescoes (1519-20). nearly made him famous. This ceil two church domes. though later Caravaggio certainly enjoyed his coloristic roughness. Technically. His Madonna oj SainI Francis (151415)^" uses the composition of Mantegna's Madonna of I'ictory. but today the and faces Raphael his luxuriance of his sur- extraordinary technical ease seem and he repellent. for once excitement. Bologna-Ferrara But is school. (1484/87-docs. Romanino his work is Melone's attraction to German woodcuts for the excitement of irregularly interacting bodies and caricatured realism (see in fig. a tour de force.

in a beautiful texture as of matte porcelain. Canvas. clouds. liberties more In an early one^^ the three figures and saint surprising. . if simi- with tradition and the law of gravity. 8'5" x 6'2". —are at — saint. In both the famous "Day" and "Night" Jerome altarpieces Shepherds (1530. is again seen from below. Madonna. Audacious virtuosity and weightlessness at- woven. 1530. Adoration of the Shepherds (Holy Night). 249- Gemaldegalerie. Kunsthistorisches CoRREGGio. pushing his feet at us. as the spine of a diagonal design. Vienna . where Mary. 64" X 28". making a loosely iiTegular silhouette of vibration. beating wings. being received is one of the figures mingled with the and Christ. Madonna with Saiiil and the Adoration of the the light and figures 249) (finished 1528)*'' — Museum. 202 — the fig. Dresden more complex in form. Panel. Jupiter and lo. CoRRECGIO.250. The angels push their legs about like in Heaven. the people only tain slightly grandeur in the second cupola. descending heights from left to right.Mtarpieces take even lar. In the Madonna of the Baskel^^ the Child slips forward diagonally. for Parma Cathedral (1526-30). who receives her.

Michelangelo: the Medici Years 23. he died at forty. the dered both the she sits Uaimr. This or- up on her mattress and holds her legs apart shower of gold. Each tomb has a figure of 251. height 8'7". having made more than anyone else out of Leothe nardo's fluid forms of life. including a Madonna. and so now had one patron. It is striking iliat vir- and liixuriousness are developed nuuh as here as in Correggio's erotic pagan mythologies. The most perfect Correggesque erotic image is lo (fig. 250). 251).As to catch the divine tist's beak at the end of a end of a downy body. Michelangelo had been shuttling between the republic and the papacy. 252. which easily exploited. both very permissive patrons. and the l. came kisses her twisting neck.are placed so that the masses form angle with its its base the left side of an tlie isosceles tri- painting and point at the right. Accademia. Michelangelo. true to the Greek myth. Leo X and Clement VII. These were the Medici tombs San Lorenzo (1520-34). and Mi- than polished statues. . made of the family who head back in boneless but precisely rendered ecstasy. who. century that lie it so chelangelo was conscious of it at least to the that he thought of unfinished sculpture as a extent symbol of unreached ideal goals. Michelangelo closer than at any other time to completing a big set of sculptures. for He two scions designed and built the chapel for them (fig. although he probably worked privately about 1520 on the four Slaves that to us seem so expres(fig. see also fig.^^ rough fragments a at the duke of FeiTara In 1512 the Medici recaptured Florence from the sive as with is her.'^'' who The cloud contains a face and foggily enfolds smiles to herself as Pope Leo X. leaving them and make them more poignant the extremities for later. embraces the god Jupiter when he comes in the form of a whose swan . intention. where they are so much more a present for the emperor. died yoinig. Marble. 80) and then worked simultaneously on seven statues. and in 1513 one of them was elected in cloud. while she lets her republic. (ontaining a tangle of twisted garments and smiling tuosity faces. Under the Medici fxjpes.i-da. Michelangelo's procedure of determining the torso first. He again put aside the tomb of Pope Julius II. seems to imprison in the stone blocks Though this was not the armoved Rodin in the nineteenth made it a basis for his art. Florence 5/(ji/ fail is the peak and end of the career of Correggio.

Medici Chapel. Florence tomb of . Lorenzo. Marble. 1520-34. Lorenzo. Begun 1519. length S'g". of Giuliano de' Medici. with and Day. Marble. Lorenzo. Florence 254. S. from the Lorenzo dc' Medici. Main area of chapel 346" square. de' Medici Michelangelo.Michelangelo. bay 22'9"x i5'3". S. Dawn. 1520-34. Medici Chapel (including Media Madonna and inmb of Lorenzo 252. Tomb . Medici Chapel. 253. Florence Michelangelo.Vighl S.

and meant to complement. always berat- ing everyone. 230-31). Two single sculptures of this period show rather thin male nudes standing in a serpentine twist like the One Medici Madnnna. with enormous bunchy muscles. But several strong personalities offered to compete. for a garden. to — Rome sculpture. modern comments to ately heroic (like the The Queen Moses. Michelangelo's (tiles big Dnx'id (sec fig. The result Florence was his Bacchus on (1512. new type of court nate a and thus on portrait. mobility that remains vertical. went al- strain. This tone of courtly is remote from our conventional notion of flattery Michelangelo an as un. fled to a new career tremendous success (see Baccio Bandinelli (1. Many of his contemporaries were content to be craftsmen or to imitate him. is the "David or Apollo. fig. emphasis on their tragedian. the most finished figure.eonardesque grace. this formula Michelangelo's itifluenlial inventions.Similar ornament and proportions mark the two dukes. and he carved them so. the though the David was Hc)iiile\ looked old-fash- ioned simple mi ncled. His career centered huge marble bloc k which was first meant Michelangelo. The resolution to her its of stability into a spiral. like a ma- turer version of the Sistine Artiim (see but a I more than closest. a magnificent criticism of Mi- chelangelo's early up and where he was suggesting panic To is thin-cheeked. But then. be a rival for commissions with Michelangelo was unlucky. a Rejecting unbalance and pressure.Medici rulers after 1512. richly ornamented beauty of a figures seein often in role. (fig. 256). contemplative. the most extreme form of i).^* standing over victim like Donatello's Jiidilh.^93-1560) was constantlv favored bv the .0 . stares with inartic- Michelangelo seems to have invented an original ulate blindness.and two symbolic the deceased 253). 25. in \'enice. and I Day and wiUglil on the other. with was also the heir of the strong and that Sansovino Florentine carving of the late fifteenth graceful century. simplified shapes. but Xiglil. then for Michelan gelo again. but return to at Raphael."^'' the other the ]'irlor\. and carved fig. work (see fig. 1 ifi). harmoniouslv extended into the third dimension. I'wiliglil is restfully is pushing fig. 202). evidently allude to the endless round of time which leads to death.boxv. 200). new them. 164). The tombs realize in spatial tension all the formal grandeur of motion their heavy. like Raphael's. symbolism and lids fitted to it the figures odd and novel curved of the tombs on which the figures Xight in one case. with Andrea and lcx)ked at ancient more Se- which directly classical sacked in 1527. It was set beside. bui the technical ease a his 255). .\ntoiiio Rossellino's bastiuii (see fig. Sansovino went drastic results. it lives in ascending and expanding curves. upward along her curved base as is suitable and in the proce. and finally cai\ed by him into the Her- and Catiis (finished 1534. who seem to origi- and assurance of the Haidiin lecalU number around for a of their portraits. Raphael Madonna. just as flattery of integral to Shakespeare. then for him. F.-Vfter back Rome. the night. real factor. for failure to meet high standards. as seen in . Sculptors in Michelangelo's Orbit 24. But it be remembered as passion- Dawn comes they candidly are. he gave — .veii thirty years older. including himself. was also ver\ on young ential inflii artists. Daicn (fig. projects He was not only eager and overwhelming to start in his designs for difficult in his personal character. . almost a : 20. but Elizabeth is most l. Michelangelo death of the duke has blinded day and said. is under- stood as required to secure each figure in place. see 214). Perhaps a Raph- aelesque sculpture was the only possible wav lo create an alternative to Michelangelo.J) lie. and inflexible. where to his big Madoniia^^ is more and more ample in harmonies. When Rome was like a later Jacopo Sansovino (1486-1570). the brilliant pupil not son of Andrea Sansovino (see p./^'H'. with The figures are official costumes was one of their status. fig.S'ni>i( losing a job for he competed with Michelangelo.

and he was an effective teacher. and personal favorable. as apprentice . if mannered. Bacchus. linearity. Museo Nazionale. Delia Porta had the typical back- ground of '55 Jacopo Sanjo\"ino. Florence 256. an engraving of his studio night with his pupils drawing among the lamps 257). height i6'4". by always seeking large commissions. Htrcutcs and Cacus.set of four planes with lines cut on them. Flatness. has a Ban- was a devotee of theory who could never why his well-planned works were not as well liked and he made it more difficult as Michelangelo's. i534-d. Florence 206 a Lombard stonecutter. Marble. His schematic drawings are. Baccio Bandinelli. 1512. geometric logic of design which constricts dinelli see It it. small scale. 1534.i577) is belies the supposition that in a fine sculptor Rome there were only Michelangelo who in the 1540s and some slavish imitators of him. theme are In all a at (fig. height 57". strong and intense. Piazza della Signoria. younger generation Guglielmo della Porta (docs. Marble. Perhaps he can be most happily remembered through an untypical work made on his design. Bargello.

used with great aplomb. and then coUaboraloi these long modest years traiture and lie ornament. and colored marble. 1531. reveals that he has grasped new style. Titian's. During witli and encouraged and innew styles he found took to the with skilled comprehension. rhetoric. GlGLlELMO Pope Paul III. nude JusI ice was covered up.-\gosii. fluenced him. Elisha Whittelsey Fund. He planned a huge freestanding block with eight allegories. reflecting Michelan gelo's tombs of Pope Julius and the Medici dukes. Engraving. ol these lalamities where . a firm 25S). '_>()" . But the consultant on and steered him to Roman and Michelangelo vetoed the scale of the allegory rejected this coins. after portrayed the pope (see ful Titian visited fig. Naples now shows up best in his por- of Pope Paul HI. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. (after a drawing by Sculptor's Studio. . like other traveling carvers from Lombardy before (see p. 1546. and spent the rest it. DELljV PoRTA. and proposed the four seasons as a theme. plan because finally his it took too much space in Saint Peter's. height 30'.\o Veneziano Baccio Bandinelli:. for in 1537. with a masterly The and sweep of grand sharply expressive solid head makes lively center. like the Medici Chapel times of day. an uncle.\s a result 258. Museo Nazionale (fig. 1949 di he Capodimonte. in Saint Peter's and else- traits 257. 12" x 11". a Rome and He imposes a force- order on the pulsating and gaudy materials. . New York. ij')- On Michelangelo's recommendation he was assigned (1549) the tomb of his on life of Pope Paul III.Michelangelo He polished a zest for por- When he came to Rome had retired from new sculp- ture projects of large scale. 279).

with masklike and round harmonies of pink the bright young painters in Florence were Andrea's faces Pontormo ( 494. Theories of its rise have included inner stress and emo- tional reaction to the decline of Italy or of the Catholic Church as powers. This ism. a view that the work should bring out the dramatic skeletal Christ in white. up Jacopo Pontormo.) 525-28.'" cal fresco of peasant Poggio a less relaxed way. and in the tragic theme of Christ's death simply retain the traditional Renaissance point of thin. But the forms seem to use distortion no more in tragic than in amusing themes. but for presenting including previous is Manner- not a pattern for presenting styles. The resulting new forms its and distortion of nature are personally bold and imply sophisticated culture in the audience. Rosso 2 5- Following Fra Bartolommeo and Andrea del Sarto. Fresco. 1 harmonies. and the composition 259. a slightly if in Visitation (1514-16). a in this An- fig. In his drawings of the same time line becomes autonomous.'557) emerged at twenty as the chief talent. less like Leonardo. in Christ before Pilate. own technical vehicles. Perhaps but reflects unsureness. in the fig. in bizarre bows his head while the behind him and down to ment altarpiece pears ( 1 floor strangely shoots Then lacks the personal emphasis of modern painting. colorplate 34) space disapis a card house of linear ported by Pontormo's behavior. which was eccen- us. But a source of Verlumnus and Pomona. qualities of the assigned subject. Villa at Poggio a Caiano [near Florence. Medici 259). in which style is nature. (1522-24. in the Eutonih- but would be familiar today for actors or architects. bodies twisting around each other. Not surprisingly. have contour lines a bit sharper than drea's and the forms are pulled more er. The figures. a villa at sunny genre scene. His and the pastoral-mythologi- pagans Caiano (1520-21.3"'?'^ Mannerism in inner stress is sup- . Jw^': •. isolated in the middle. (Such an attitude become bony and tall eyes. shaped into ornamental rhythms. and followed his master's accomplished and icy blue. no longer easy and cushioned. he was a superb draftsman.Pontormo. 1520-21. principle it is tautly togeth- higher tension maintained as a positive Passion frescoes for a convent the where Diirer prints are used as source. 260). I5'X33'. as the contours of bodies are assistants.

reer. hot -toned. often lozenge-shaped. Jacopo Pontormo. art. unstated spaces. is color planes again the stress mark his Moses Defending the Daughters of Jrthro (colorplate 35). Rosso stayed the palace of Fontainebleau. and his not likely that he was anxious to state a pessimistic view of public affairs. painted mythologies in a long gallery. 26o. He was still more influential after he fled the Sack Rome and went to the court of Francis of France. q'lo" x g'G". In his great Drposilioii from the Cross (152 1 . drea. Christ brfou Pilale 1524-27. Florence and trie making him antisocial. Panel. The main result of his personal quirks was that after his great decade he subsided into court [xjrtraiture of a sure-handed artificialitv. 261 ) the controlled line and model- ing are so abstract that the too-tall figures are geo- metric colored planes. set Rosso {1495-1540. The Pontormo. Deposition from the Cross.An- of realism to produce caricatured faces. into superb and when he went influential engravings. and start- ed the Fontainebleau school. It is finally a recluse a few friends. had an identical early caHis frescoed Assumption (1517).\ndrea del ten years at Sarto. 261. framed them in stucco moldings of an elaborate decorative logic. fig. who had had |X)or luck with his previous invitations of to I Leonardo and .impracticable people was translated. Rosso FlORENTTNO. 11'^ 6'6".^' in the same with Pontormo's Visitation. Pinacoieca Comunale. and often build up the figures. it uses its command is further from . Certosa del Galluzzo. which specialized in erotic scenes filled with stylish figures too tall and willowy to be possible. Volierra 209 . concerned with daily meals. Only here. which are assembled into irregular prisms or polygons. to Rome. color units of artificial rainbow sequences. The in elegance of his implied but tall. Fresco. in Rosso as in tragic in effect.

If the pupil is talented. dome church where Coneggio had painted (see colorplate 33). It is not known whether Beccafumi (14X61551) was taught by Fra Bartolommeo or Sodoma. he is this really a tone painter in the is Leonardo tradition. both polished rearrangers of the forms of Leonardo. in Beccafumi the S-curves be- come unrealistic patterns inner glow shining out as and the if light through a becomes an plastic mem- These ghostly and sugary people occupy an elegantly distorted and patterned space. (fig. or rebellious. and who simply refine the harmonious where several conditions formulas. Sodoma) who cannot carry naturalism the creation of the and allusions these sophisticated patterns by heart.26. and a second stage of great or minor masters (Andrea del Sarto. in a villa. through long sketchy strokes that make up a pasty Panel. 264). in his native Parma. 263).Andrea del . It is the third stage. The key to this second stage.Sarto. the gray painted sketches on paper and the stone inlay scenes for the floor of Siena Cathedral (fig. Sodoma's The in figures. Beccafumi. compositions and sets He borrows intricate of scenes from the Raphael shop. jxjwerful stylizations result. of the twenty-eight-year-old CoiTeggio. derive from Leonardo's I. following first High Renaissance as an unprecedented harmonious formulation of nature (by Leonardo. or Raphael). Parmigianino (1503-1540) was a brilliant challenger at nineteen. Their pupils from the beginning learn places at once. element seem to in his early works. Rome. His early female saints in the the 262. in which he paints his hand . but only were present. like confirm the tradition. Pinacoteca Nazionale. through Sodoma's sweet and luminous ones.MEMCo Beccafumi. the context of his strongest technical crea- tions. CoiTeggio. Do. Despite his pleasure in yellows and pale pinks. back to nature can easily fade away. original. making large and small figures that seem far from brane 262). Siena 210 He self-portrait begins to play virtuoso games in a round (fig. but the opposite view is also His sinuous figures and the archaeological held. but only with the intensive study of Raphael by a formal stylist like . '^ suggest a rich and his Greek myths mobility of thin figures Birlh oflht Virgin. Rome Since Beccafumi was Sienese and visited his youth.eda. so that the first is the existence of the Mannerists never had direct contact with the intensive study of natural forms by someone like Raphael. Parmigianino Mannerist style in painting emerged in various any further. each other collide laterally. 7'8" ^4'9"- surface. Fra Bartolommeo. Michelangelo. Sodoma is in his traditionallv assigned mas- with a few compositional ideas adopted from ter.

Vienna 211 . Moies Receiving the Tablets of the Law. DoMENico BECCAFfMi. 1531. 1524. Siena 264. Self-portrail.263. Francesco Parmiciasino. 16' x 24'6" Cathedral. Panel. diameter 9". Inlaid marble. Kunsthistorisches Museum.

Panel. But the influence of his elegant formula was enormous through space and time. The home produced his Long Neck parallel like rake twists and become hard. 252). the most brilliant architects of Mannerist buildings arts. the Xi^hl. Mannerism in Architecture Like Brunelleschi and Bramante. and his first his came from other building activity for actual walls were those of the Medici Chapel (1520-21. Michelangelo began the Medici.San Lorenzo. As a sculptor's frame. but with line that has own decorative make lengths and folds marks.very large. like the .Sistine ters. The in- terior surfaces are conceived as frames for the sculp- sculpture. the unit is not the cut of a chisel but the masonry block. This many chic elegance because is an im- cultures have associated with involves novel amusement. a tour Rome took this with him when he went to There he was attracted by the engrav- ings of Rosso's work. 265). tains this quality for architecture so it it this is a sort of relief sculp- and Michelangelo's architecture is some free of luiexpectedly ties re- time. full of small elegant ornameiiiaiioii. setting Ceiling and for a fagade for the Medici Chapel's up Mannerist church. hui. He de force of atnbiguous truths. developing a consuming interest in alchemical experiments to the point of going to jail for breach of contract be- cause he never finished his largest commission. as it would appear at the front of a mir- rored space. He took this after the Sack of Rome in 1527. one statue finished here. it sophisticated appreciation. and small capitals to wider pilas- ture. France-sco Parmigianino. Florence 27. style with him when faces lose texture beautiful masks. suggest the close kinship of this artificial agined type that beauty with fashion. unlike 212 a /est for paradoxical games. 85" ^ 52". not making the conventional readjust- ment. fig. Hence ture of cubes. following his earlier designs of the . it is full of active projections and recessions. he fled its Fingers grow to impossible life. 265. Her head and feet. and luxurious elaborateness. tiny in proportion to her body. or leaves large blocks in narrow niches. Begun 1534. it is his fortune. see fig. and it best-known work. Uffizi Gallery. As nonprofessional standard conventions. It is also. Ilie lihrnrv built for . In Parma he had an unhappy life. Madonna of the Long A'nk. The Madonnas only more shiinmeringly a little to seek result was a series of colorful than his earlier works. the Madonna nfl/ie (1534.

Florence. 177). real horses stand before way. leaving us shocked but amused and appreciative. including the ducal plates and spoons with realistic leaves and fish in them. Giulio as an architect is to build a country house and 267). But the entrance lobby with its triple staircase (meant for a lord between sharp ornament so plays Mannerist courtyard a keystone regular intervals. with balustrades. perhaps. Michelangelo said) develops witty classical pilasters. as for- pilasters. widen as they rise. but we are also meant to trivance. Begun S. Height 34' Gliujo Romano. a Michelangelo. The disorder attendants. and gods throw boulders down on the giants and toward us. Raphael's foreman of to allusion sculpture and correct. fig. the with painted enterprises. 266. arti- never before. Romano Giulio (1. two steps from Bramante. in 1524 as court artist. The dynamic units are now not blocks but whole building elements. 199-' 546). 2()(i) in the same con- vent of San Lorenzo develops the paradoxes further.Vi7-34- who was occupied mean- . Entire height 48'8" fresco the levels of illusion that recalls Ric- on But major work was his Palawo del 1 fc. In the most spectacular and it is developed imaginatively in the instead of being in front of tliem as usual. Laurentian Library. Going 218). Palazzo del T*. using the younger Antonio da Sangallo's neat mulas of intersecting moldings and the Medici (begun 1524. is not carried room all all the four walls one continuous fresco of gods fighting giants. 1524. somewhat drier line. in any This case. rest not know unresolved pull between order and where deceptively estals slips the building were have a strong functional rhythm of windows between supporting pilasters. (fig. fice as in ceiling and floor. In down at tlie when he if and the walls in decay. Peruzzi (seep. Stairhall. Columns are recessed in walls and they is over doors tlie deception are responds. to the fact that this in which the human relation 267. to space is is a staircase unbalanced white but since they are on high ped- on the floor but on brackets halfway up. he designed everything. i. playful fantasy Lorenzo. The main reading room is again marked by small that we are not surprised games with them. The disruption of our sense of normal security pilasters a con- frescoes. Mantua. Courtyard. to Mantua result finest is the in Iraitsfiguration (see lower part of Raphael's fig. cio's inkwells. per- is haps the earliest "grand staircase" in an interior.and inegularly shifting. More than twenty years after the Villa Far- nesina. producing a cultured variation on Raphaels natu- classical ral The harmotiiousness.

The unique today it — in is curving front justified still effectively bold by the curve in the did not appear in the stories. with the thick Colonne. deeply shadowed flat wall. meaning of seems 64' suck us to front porches. 268. The portico. such transferred suggestion pairs of pilasters changing from middle of a flat to is in. trail off in an unbalanced way. built his with the Rome. small. small. to two simultaneous rhythms (unchanging changing refers to ingenuity of running across the front pair. He as- took part in small units of big decorations. Fa9acle. 268). Palazzo Massimi Rome. always with the excuse of practical reasons. flat symbolize the interplay of pure and applied thinking about design.Baldassare Peruzzi. The building remained without successors. Again the facade is paper-thin and marked by pilasters. notablv in the ceiling ol the X'atican loggia. in the excuse of shifting from where wall shifts porch. more most talented successor He was drawn into the Mannerist orbit of Parmigianino and Rosso. engiavings. when older were doing most of the painting. time with routine work in small towns. Polidoroda Caravaggio I5i9-d. — first project. Florentine Decorative Sculpture The Florentine Perino del X'aga (1501-1547) joined Raphael's workshop sistants at a late stage. street. but The four with their unique rising rhythm of large. we have Here find full- . The at and peak in the its pilasters to columns right to wall. but with a reference to the real nature of attic stories. Palazzo Massimi (fig. 28. in tension Perino del Vaga. a project for pupils. but now it violates conventions star- the second masterpiece tlingly.'-' biu emerges clearly later as perhaps the to Raphael 214 in painting. and back to flat) The pairs.i543). painted outdoor murals on house fionts —none survives—which seem been in the lead of the new decorative may have originated the approach that to style. alle X 92' round. large. with whom he collaborated on and one of his fellow (docs.

years later Peririo returned to Rome and Ten painted a similar palace interior. 269). for Pope Paul III. This very influential style is parallel to Rosso's at Forilainebleau. until he came into his own with a series of complex fountains.Andrea Doria. from which most of the leading painters of in the next generation same mood. though a pupil of Jacopo Sansovino's. after 1540. slower in maturing. Begun 1528. 6'9"x is's".*)9 Perjso del V'aga. came. gracefully active.. the remodeled Castel Angelo. the new ruler of Genoa (fig. he modified his sculptural monochromes of Sant' frie/es into larger scale. a typical display object of the court. But it is essen- descendent of Sansovino's Bacchus and early Renaissance Florentine carving in Rome forms and harmonious mobilitv. in the line first Rome. 1543-44. spent years assisting Michelangelo and others on large projects. Conscious of Michelan- gelo's potent presence. He used a large in the under the aegis of the new ducal court and away from Michelangelo. Niccolo Tribolo (1500-1550). 270. The Louvre. whose vivid musto Michelangelo. Genoa Benvenuto Cellini. Paris Bronze. cularity tially a is a nod typical figure dancing baby. filling the ft-ame with an even density and avoiding depth. with curving linear elegance. His shop. The frescoed scenes They were are rhythmic patterns of people. Diana. Each figure is an ornament in itself as well. fledged in Perino after fled the lie Sack ol Rome Several talented Florentine sculptors of Perino's age group were decorators and painted in the new palace of . and flourished best its solid simple 215 . His are indeed the that leads to Bernini's in is a fat. emphasiz- ing pure formalism even more. about 2i'4"x 29'6" Palazzo Doria. Fresco. energetic. Thr Fall of the Giants.

and his Diana for the top of a to gate there is a figure of graceful artifice. personal observation. short-lived pupil of Tribolo's. not surpris- ingly in the Rosso style. the ways suggests the average tendency of the group. with long graceful legs Coming home. I345-54Bronze. like tal Tribolo more fluid in action than the ornamenCellini. 271). like Cellini more formally patterned than the traditional Tribolo. square beside the and Bandinelli two of these had been civic symbols. though it reveals the elaborate base and the polished It is figure. Michelangelo. giving them an unequaled suave grace. His few statues in round have a similar surface quality. (the all first Florentine art). handles its grand scale from the special thus. goldsmith in The its detailing of the main with authority. its most artist's feeling whose precious acco- to him. a bronze to be set in the main city and (1545) (fig. Pierino in some are low. but now were regarded virtually as a museum of statues by Donatello. Florence 216 . the fullest statement of Man- had been made. was the only sculptor of this group to specialize in reliefs. meant eventhing A brilliant of the it. luminous. CelAutobiografjhy does not so much show us nerist style in sculpture that lini's view of his age as his superbly vain significant about lades documentation is his patrons the rulers. which and subtle. Loggia dei Lanzi. he secured tiny feet (fig. Pierino da Vinci (docs. his great ducal commission for the Perseus 270). '546-1553). height 18' Perifus. Benvenuto CtLLiM. But the sensitive handling with which he evoked a gently breathing life is a 271. Peiseus.The much more famous Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1571) began as a jeweler and goldsmith Florence. apart case of Michelangelo. He turned on to large sculpture in a trip Fontainebleau.

1 320 24. IV .ORPLATR S.noI. Giovanni Evangclisia. axes 3 '8" x ^8'. 1 .j. John the Evangelist. Parma I of St. CoRRfGCIO.j. Dome frt'sco.

1525-28.COLORPLATE 34. Panel. Felicita. S. Jacopo Pontor. Etilombmenl. Florence .mo. lo's" x 6'4".

Florence- . 63" 4*1 .15-24. Canvas.\l<'\f\ Dtji-ndino tfu- Daughters of Jethro. RoSSO FlORFNTlN Uffizi (JalUrv.COLORPLATE 35. 0.

6i"X57". London . Panel. Agxolo Broxzino.COLORPLATE 36. Veniii Disarming Cupid.1524. c. National Gallery.

face is a mask that cannot move. and greater centralization (Spain). and a tight weave of But Bronzino and ested in portraits.NOLO BrO. His later result. First he paints rich impassive citizens clad in black. Its appears all antirealism is intentional. Lat- 221 . Me- Each ceiling has elaborate subdivi- and the scenes mix careful historical portraits with newly devised allegories. Florentine painting aban- dons the rationalistic and humanistic Renaissance traditions. . Eleonora of Toltdo and Her Son. in the gray courts of their palaces. who may now and be regarded as the natural and given.Bronzino and His Contemporaries 29- government otcuned in the emperor declared the Medici its In 1530 the last change of when Florence. Uffizi Gallery. in Duchess Eleonora trait The such a masterpiece as the 272). precise in line. turning from commercial and committee poiver to (as with the Habsburg emperors). When. (see rolorplate The further from reality effect of pressing . as she formal reception. but an embodiment of royal status. Such organized learnedness is suitable to the artist most famous for hav- ing written the lives of his predecessors. Florence such a view would be in a small group of allegories such as Vetius Disarming Cu/iid. so exactly rendered that it Hence the duchess we c could be used see is not a as a pattern. Giorgio \'asari (1511-1574) frescoed the ceilings (from 1555) to record the dici family glory. on the executive (the Tudors in Eng- hereditary rule greater focus land). the great artists (mainly the Florentines) from Giotto on.^O. Their transformation from politically influ- which was ential bankers seems typical of this epoch. sions. as in earlier Renaissance portraits.f4). most fa- mously in those of Queen Elizabeth of England. . and the three- quarter length emphasizes the opulent costume. the availability of nerist artificiality was a lucky aid to Bronzino it it. in an apparent parallel. 1 553-55. When the duke turned Florence's old city hall into his family palace. its own (colorplate his patrons are chiefly inter- where he is a great inventor. (fig. 45" x 37". in one sense is it twice as Manneristic. they have lost the toward a goal that was conveyed by Pontormo's throbbing outlines and twisted poses. woman with a haracter. are now unmovingly suspended in a cool light.NZI. adding chill to the old artitension. but in another sense it can be read as doubling back. Man- and found the master who perfected it in as a vehicle. and complex owes much to the p>or- sculptures on Michelangelo's Medici tombs. One might conceive of this as a Mannerist way of reacting to the original Mannerists. he follows the style of his Dejiosition at first gious works. Bronzino is its instrument. dukes. whose cold eroticism still has a witty involvement like Parmigianino's 36).NO. This is would sit at a the state portrait which over Europe from this date on. The the passive exception to 2-2.\s a devoted pupil of Pontormo. negating Pontormo's negation of ficial a harmony and aniving somewhere near grandeur of Fra Bartolommeo. and always in reli- slick cylindrical figures are and even gravity. Panel.

273). and even establishparade aeology. His fellow pupil Francesco Salviati (1510- 222 Salviati. enclose us. and 1503) practiced a similar style with a fresher paint- touch. like the other painters there. Living much used making figures move heavy rhythmic processions. Space has vanished. for tapestries. the ideas of the later Raphael. ingenious designer and other similar deco- so evolved his inature style. Fresco. in the . His painting style. modeling re- and only an ingrained volume calls Florentine paititing. derives Mannerism but from Rosso 's loose and in He was an floats. i3'io"x I9'4" Sala deirUdienza. and favoring translucent reds in and is in ing spatial breadth. Triumph ofCamillus. robes and horse trappings.273 Francesco Salviati. Palazzo V'ecchio. shiny white and pink surfaces. without the overtones of an archivist and entrepreneur so basic to all Vasari did. wiry glittering. toned down by academic knowl- rative media. best seen in his wall frescoes in the city hall of Florence (fig. greatest monu- ment of the Florentine past. willful careful curves. edge of Bandinelli and of Giulio Romano's arch- er's Rome. Florence er he crowned his career by painting the inside of Brunelleschi's Cathedral cupola.

bv Giulio Romano's work in Mantua. of broadly . whose work he probably only is painted Raphaelesque erotic myths. if limited.\s Moretto moves farther from his sources he grows closer to Raphael. Finding 0/ Mosts. Hence the paintings have a somewhat linear and slow dryness. but when it had reached Venice in Bonifazio Veronese (1487-1553). as if the event luxurious picnic with velvets and dwarfs. sub- finding Romanino. . Par- stabilizing traditions with But the raw naturalistic thrust has been subdued. Bordone (1500-1571) starts in Titian's Assumplinn producing many Holy Families that sit heavily ritories on the comparable to the textures and shifting gratifica- mainland only Moretto (docs. with frizzled blonde They come close to . their glinting red robes sinking into the downy Receiving the green. Later.Moretto was a pupil of Romanino in Brescia. Titian tleties of the life was still a of the body in light — in formula new Egypt and her ladies by the riverside were a Venice the with all Renaissance had not run down. or those of his teacher's friend Altobello Melone. Brera. .t.i554) to Lotto. gradual self-revision. While Mannerism matured and became in central Italy. 1 1'^" in a beautiful \ j'S". through not until about 1550 other ways. for years government offices. attracted and classical niches isolate figures in cool air. His masterpiece.\s richness extends In the market towns in Venice's Big brilliant people lean diagonally glass. and his first commission produces saints who are ambling horsemen. more girls. the price of the classical clarity which he evidently was looking for and could not find nearer home. knew through prints. Canvas. art. its which directly evoke the sensuous thing else than refined variations on him. Paris style. the Ri)ig. tion of living. By 1530. Moretto had reached success Fiiui- 274). His masterpiece.Moretto and Venetian Painters of His Generation 30.'''* full slithering brush strokes. . Milan and sure. to those painted saints to decorate donated by the citizens elected ceremonial posts. routine than this. presents the princess of Bonifazio \'eronese. and other is ter- now talents of wrinkled velvets and own generation. is a typical in Titian's Doge pompous pride. I5i6-d.Mannerism. from the choice of objects to try any- lights. as in Gentile Bellini. gazing Venetian record out from under their big hats as his teacher's do. . toward each other. of a traditional civic ceremony. Painters a generation younger than Titian were unable Titianesque painting. i (fig. the ing of Moses 274.

He stayed huge influence Bronzino as all his life. formed by crisply undulating contours that progress in clear round drawing Spencerian script like (fig. began too with a bow to Giulio . It benefits this the only region at ftom belonging. From this obscurity he was lifted by an invitation from Francis 1 of France to come to Fontainebleau. 1536-4. barely moving. 276). These formulas are mechanically repeated by later paintFontainebleau. idyllic and contemplative. Canvas. dusky or is somewhat fig. and sets effective non-Titianesque painting of this time. 275). first is of tension. to in France. but apparently Moretto had to use his (see own route to arrive at this because Saxoldo's old-fash- ioned dualism of figure and space was not acceptable to him.1587). courtly and sophisticated. were important younger painters to in challenging Titian directlv. to a "Brescian school. Paitone (near Brescia) 31. but his purest paintings. turning the artificial forms into frozen perhaps recommended by Giulio in place of himself.painted standing figures.394-97)Lelio Orsi (docs. a very limited masquerade costumes.^LEssANDRO Moretto. ers at under Rosso. large and simple. Moretto was always in danger of slipping back into more literal and complicated Raphaelism." since the in harinony of gray air and unaggressive figures harks back to Foppa. . are played by tall. whose work he must have found very congenial. and we have only the draw- but distinctive 224 artist. In a Pontormo so Prima- he removes the important factor ornament. The invasion was complete when Parniigianino came back from Rome. a society without up fashion but with good manners. -'75. making stucco ceilingornaments. and successors in found who made brilliant assistants some young French sculptors (see stroyed his paintings. The effect Savoldos big detached figures 247). framed in ovals. The Virgin Appiaring to a Shtphrd Boy. genuinely this case. ticcio is to Rosso. like silver in tone (fig. and then in charge. quite aside from the loss of his PP. 1533. The remodelings of the palace have de- stucco reliefs forty years. Using Raphael. beautifully translucent people. y'S-^S''""Sanctuary. but Primaticcio. Italy ings to explain his minor way. Series of amusing Greek myths. chaeological Primaticcio (1504-1570) surted by assisting Giulio in Mantua. Moretto amends Savoldos heavy-limbed humble shepherds into judicial observers with a classicizing majesty. The Mannerist Painters in North stage was set for a Mannerist penetration of north Italy when Giulio Romano painted his ar and erotic exercises in the Raphael tradition in the Mantuan duke's Palazzo del Te.

life in colored light. and gives Orsi an unmistakable trademark. liquidly ing from head to foot. he explored his black night effects and especially his rippling edges of cloth. less technically sure but warmer.Schiavone (docs. also produced his own. arid the way translucent oil- diluted pigments on a white opaque base suggest Francesco Primaticcio.Mannerist in the is Parma not a routine follower of Parmigianino.Andrea . Schiavone's achievement is minor. 276. like Titian. So. Canva. less Andrea Schiavone.s. linear module to something like a figures with very Romano. Long Gallerv'. In Correg- gio these shapes area secondary result of his soft tering motion. This curious conceit creates an ambiguity between agitation and frozen ty that recalls fixi- the local popular tradition of realistic sculpture groups. like Orsi's. but Orsi's tiny pKjlished panels them central. 1547-156^) immi- grated honi the Balkans to Venice and completely learned Titian's technique —the zest with which the brush pulls in the hand. Orsi's appeal as in 277. but of oval painting 4' design. 6'i " ^ y'i". His solution was to retreat to a modern wide brush stroke. composition and Height of frieze '1'^" served phenomena. Fontainebieau. with assistants. altering Ojrreggio's downiness wildly inappropriate way by jelling it flut- make in a into a kind of modeling-clay texture. Like many painters in \'enice he was interested in paint and in the reality of ob- Palace. Most of all he liked Parmigianino's verv tall undulating bodies(fig.was to Correggio. Adoration of the Xtagi. He area who is the only . appar- source. a problem recurrent when. character in the orbit of a major one. It is and sinuously mov- boneless but livelv and glowing. chiefly from Parmigianino's etchings. a formula of stvle is important. detail of stucco sculpture and paintings. like eccentric small talents of other epochs up to Dali. 277). . he casually borrowed these little in He elsewhere. his technical expression pattern by which a minor artist often can retain his was in a narrow range. He changes their Mannerist. Ambrosiana Mannerism. . a ently because.

1538. Venus of i'rbino. that we can never see all at once. and perhaps they have the more visual richness for that. filling the side wall of a room. and makes the whole scene a frieze of gently breathing people and shiny columns in veined marble. '^ the foreshort- its . life is behind up The nonformal their real- tacked on to a standard immobile icon of the goddess. servants roll sleeves. the a third period of very energetic scenes. There Giorgione than of Giovanni Bellini is less here of (see p. This one. Titian. Titian's Later Years 278.32. the unfaltering opticality. Florence While painting more fifty portraits than ever. ^^ and far her. of Vrbiyw was called "the nude" by duke of Urbino's son 226 (fig. 278). ity one burrows of the courtesan's in a chest. near a bit of clear sky. Canvas. In a series of a direct vision: ceiling paintings of Biblical fights. 138): the easy acceptance of the solid conventional thematic image.After 1540 another pendulum swing produced owner. shows the girl in profile as she climbs the steps. the "second theme" footnoted behind. Titian at was finishing the twenty-five-foot-long Praenla- lion of Ike J'irgiu for a convent of ( 1534-38). 7'3"x8'9". It is The Venus she looks at us with the frank model's gaze that Manet repeated centuries later. ^5 Yhe more nuns in Venice he became involved with in- ternational powers the longer he took to deliver his local commissions. . Uffizi Gallery.

ening makes Abel's body and Goliath's head seem about to tumble out The huge majestic group portrait of the Vendramin family wrestlers in the kneeling before their prized relic has a similar loose sky appear to be inspired bv a Michelangelo project design and sparkling surfaces of ermine. Museo Nazionalc di Capodimontc.'* Titian's nearest state portrait. in the myth. It is an astonishing document. TrriAN. Daiiae. with claw hands. The This culminated when Titian traveled to Augsburg to the one patron who impressed him. gold. Naples 22'. Emperor Charles V. 1 546. He exploits it as he does other formu- but the painting lives in the horse's nervous paw- ing and the rider's watchful control. group. like Pope Paul and His Grandions (1546. eminence.^" the beauty to whom Zeus. the most powerful man on earth. But any . fig. all absorbed in tremulous landscape.'* He painted him (1548) on horseback as a victor in bow to the system of the battle. Popt Paul III and His Grandsons. painted on a trip to Rome. Even portraits grow vehement. one grandson passive in a corner III like a gray cally.Mannerist effect of excluded by the full resolution of all the movements. the other bowing sycophanti- But instead of being incredibly satiric. Canvas. For one of Poj>e Paul Ill's grandsons Titian painted (1545) another nude. 279). where Titian was lionized. G'lo" x 5'8'. it is simply Titian's almost naive unrevised celebration of the world as seen through its physical motion. las. and for a Samso)! tenseness is at us. fire. the aged fxjpe bent double. and their absorption in the stormy deep sky. . flies down magicallv 279.

while the full rest of choppy water and streaky sky. and the pwlished col- umns between like glowing harp Having discarded strings. Danae. incrediblv asymmetrical 280. Erotic central motif bits of must surely be the myth continues in the air. not trying to satisfy any knowing he can allusion. with her knees up. Paint seems to eat he later repeated the same comjxjsition 280). but in a loose.transformed as a shower of gold. woman who is ing forward trying to catch the gold in her apron 281). 50" x 70"." showing the girl sprawled on the back of the agreeable white animal in is one lower corner of the painting. up space again lean- (fig. unposed. in the 1560s Titian seems to give up color. 228 way that seems to emphasize the Titian. leaving a flickering glow of varnish brown. Madrid line demands get his own for finish or elaboration. Rape of EiiTOpa (1559-62). 1554 Canvas. The paint surface is used to set up the stretch of space and the force of drama. having as its shining metal flying through perfect Titian subject. replacing the cupid with an old (fig. and far back the minute figures of Europa's friends are waving. he is working in an old-age style. Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence for a friend in X'enice at the this fire is top through the lines of a night scene. and form and comfxjsition. the divine apparition at the top. effect with just the right an old singer who retains perfect art. delay. Like Donatello. For the Habsburgs painted liveliness of the surfaces. that burns the we tall actually see saint's bodv. in the done The God the base to A columns. . Since sensual myth. like Prado. The little but the with a ten-year canvas relates the yearning saint at tall while Dana'e watches.

281. as in the earlv Renaissance (but not its 1 555. Lawrence. Marlyrdom of Si. while meaning has grown. and had lived in Rome. He had been a minor painter. though. which is develops. V'enice Falconetto.ades are thinly linear new Madama and orna- 229 .\rchitecture strong attitude. For him he built (1524) a garden house and a concert room. was perhaps the executant the patrician philosophical writer . Sanmicheli. and those who poke at him. Christ Crowned with r horns (colorplaie 37) reuses a design from the violent forties but dabs at it with a technique like an Impressionist's in 1870. and these last works of his were picked up only by Baroque and nineteenth-century painters after the mass of artists had gradually worked around to T1TIA. When fussy archaeology of Pinturicchio at fifty he started to build. but most of the late works are religious. called Roman Odeon. It-suit Venetian sculpture and architecture continued to be very secondary. and after an interval the first modern architecture is by Gianmaria Falconetto (docs. Middle own . . Canvas. where he had been entranced by the and others. Jacopo Sansovino 33- in the this point. trained in perspective tricks by Melozzo da Forli. with very plain elementary compositions. The X'illa fa<.Mvise Cxjrnaro in Padua. 1472-1533).V. The death of Mauro Coducci marked a break. The dull copper glints and pasty swipes convey the relationships of ourselves. its implied has been reduced to a suggestion. 179). Church. he was encouraged bv and for a remarkable patron. The drama it is still of body movement. based on lively fagades.A few brightly lit portraits and mythologies appear. and with deep human expressiveness.\t ninety Titian was remote from contemporary painting styles. but. scenographic. .Ages). reflecting the pleasure pavilions like the (see p. like the style. the wounded Christ. I4'9"x9'2".

Falconetto also built city gates in Padua with the same light neatness.*^ His beginnings as a stonemason in Lombardy were reinforced by working for the younger Antonio da Sangallo in Rome. but was courted by citizens who had no one plays they wanted. It is lie placed a noblemen's for processions (1537-40. tend to repeat. when when large. and a long career group of town houses as a military engineer. At the same time Jacopo Sansovino. of three multicolored marble arches. with a series of courtyards from front to back. conspicuous display and military strength. style. like Lombard stone workers before him. from the Sack of Rome. 282). style and They SangalMint — "noble story" over rough-hewn ground more 223. with its sweeping and majestic plain forms. the Titian circle. Choir Cathedral. a pure grand circle of smoothly polished columns. 282. and small. it is not confident construction. a wall made on re- right. to design the splendid dis- Soon he was a fixture. and in his imposing citv interests. the piers marked by four bronze statues. as of a stage backdrop. and half columns are the only three-dimensional element. in several wall tombs whose framing columns underline satisfving two riiey typify his gates. 1534. He is more simply tery of a familiar meter. floor (see figs. Verona.285) —and vocabulary with more by the sharp fluting of Roman literally tect of the and tight his is than that of any other archi- "Renaissance of Antiquity. Earlier he had done monumental sculpture and small archi- now tectural jobs. with four niches copy ancient An octagonal room adorned with thin stuccoes that is Rome as neatly as any in Regency Eng- land. Height radius 19' Screen 19'. Verona. 283). At the foot of the Bell Tower of Saint Mark's viewing stand fig. Sanmicheli's whole typified 122' reflect zest. their firm and proportions. Fa9ade. Palazzo Bevilacqua. with pilaster strips." But purist. and the deviser of much one of that we regard as typical in Venice. he adopted the available lo's skill MiCHELE SaNMICHELI. He had not planned to stay in Venice. 1530.mental. shows the mas- That classical forms are only shown by the retention of the traditional Venetian ground plan. Set- he soon built an impressive tling then in Verona. 230 The interattion of architecture with sculp- . to function as building accents. 61' X Sangallo's still study of ancient ruins. (fig. settled a refugee in Venice. The Verona by Michele San- gates built in micheli (1484-1559) are very different. 284). a vocabulary is scenographic in smaller works like Verona's Cathedral choir screen (fig. His 283. columns. MicHELE SaNMICHELI. later sculptures. the proportions were reversed.

may cletoiaiioii. a two-story fagade. Venice. since it in its tiiiity depends on color Mint (1537-45. 1537-4. the tapestry-like vibration of the carved facade is a happy backdrop for the promenades of the Venetians. a on in type is left.. Mint. Sansovino also cast two sets of bronze relief panels for points of accent inside . w ith no sculpture or color but enrii hed by the light and relief efTects of its rough boulder construction throughout. it and cutting Jacopo Sansovino. 284.Saint Mark's. and the blue sky above. the lower arcade that Doges' Palace across from it. was ally a different "class" of building. sliuctuie be called pictorial. His corner. Between the two tion and 1536.5 77' y 88'6" 48'. but all nonbearing sur- even continuing above the roof Between the deep inner shadows below faces are sculptured. he works with a contin- uing High Renaissance approach.^^//y/y777.285). pedestrian bal- in loca- the Library of Saint Mark's (from 284). ancing the deep windows. Piazza San Marco. evolving naturally onward instead of reacting against off as was done in Tuscany. 285.with ture.Smooth half columns bear the arches and roofs. Venice. it . Like Titian. fig. '537-40- Width of Loggetta of Library 274'8'' . but later his sculpture is large airy limited to design- ing gilded stucco ceilings over the stairway of the Doges' Palace. matches the Gothic . around the meant to be an imposing government building but also a workshop for smiths.*' in which he adopts a Titianlike powerful movement of figures in spaces. fig. Jacopo Sansovin Fa9ade. so it is visu- action.. Loggetta and Library. in pinnacles.

evolved a suave formula: a meditative reclining figure. 1550-54 Marble. relaxed poise. Vignola Banoloinmeo Ammanati's career 1592) illustrates the situation tor-architect in now (1511- profile typical.\RTOLO-MMEO .\ntonio del fig. For his other figures attain a tomb commissions he quickly 286. Del Monte tomb. Florence.*'' very fluid sculptural forms. This tranquil Manner- tomb ism brilliantly marks the bronzes of the Fountain of later in his masterpiece. and its developed an architectural scheme which also flow- anatomical ers in the 287. he was a pupil of Bandinelli in Florence but was more affect- ed by Michelangelo and by the graceful mild Mannerism of the 'forties in He would Florence. Palazzo Pitti. a dinelli jealously prevented and again a decade tomb which Ban- from being Monte 286). Rome pose and broad gentleness of expression are inspired by Michelangelo's Twilight. Effigy. colossal central figure still reflects Bandinelli's Growing more involved in architecture. always carve standing male nudes with Bandinelli's inflex- but ible squarish forms. A sculp- the Sansovino pattern. is based on a very Coiirtvard. ironically. used as the surface for installed. with a satisfying balance of S.34- Ammanati. that hangs to knee. the of Cardinal . width of base j'^'. richly framed.^NATl. Its and unified by drapery B. sion carving small figures to adorn his buildings. softened from shoulder weights.MMANATI. Center wall i i8'y 131' .^MM. way surprisingly in a from the way we do. Neptune in Florence (' 560-75). assisted Sansovino. on tomb of Cardinal del Monte. he style. The formula appears Rome (1550-54. Begun 1558. In the interim he had in plain slab. suggesting that the period different in saw that work Ammanati's first large work. Pietro in Montorio. ^^ ^ ducal commiswhich he took over from Bandinelli. It Bartolommeo A.

jumpy textures. 290. Villa Farnese. Begun 1559 width of plan about 260'. sculpture. residence. and II Is villa in built a garden. thus setting sion of classical order Romano's Mantuan villa (see fig.291. but here umns and up the tenand raw disorder of Giulio arches beneath. His Pome Santa 233 . recalling Sansovinos Mini. more strenuous and tomplex expression no doubt stiinulated by his collaboration back into a garden. As the junior all partner in their project for Pope [ulins disassembled into stripes that reveal normal col- Rome (1550-55. Plan and courtyard. but sensuously is richer in his heavy. Maximum height of courtyard 62'6". new ducal fig. 267). ViGNOLA and Ammanat Plan and fa<. 2^^). facade by Vignola 54'6" - 118' GiACOMO Vignola. The courtyard between the wings has rough boulder walls ("rustication") on with the more experienced \'ignola. 1350-55Length of plan 544'. diameter 105' de\ eloped a in it. Ammanati a pool. wings extending three sides. a deeply shadowed scieening niche. Rome.\inmanati less witty and brainy than Giulio.288. the 287). Villa Giulia. mixing fig.ade. In Florence he then built for the duke an addition to the Palazzo Pitti (1558-70. Caprarola. 289. .

a from Cardinal single nave un- der a vault (stipulated by the patron) reflects Alberti's Sant'.NOLA. and Peruzzi that Peruzzi's pupil Serlio presented in his architectural handbook. editions. wrong. But centraliza- was very influential in the Baroque age and helped to powerful to rush call this 105). (fin- flat centripetal. Palazzo Bocchi in Bologna (1545). fig. but suggesting structure is and its Michelangelo.Trinita (1557)*® of bridges. staircase. figs. In his important work. 292). tensile is a \'i- combine it with a suggestion is unique and powerful. bracketing the favorite concept of the circle as ideal services. He built the first its source oval churches drawn some. (It is probably significant that he had had architect only (the younger Sangallo training as a painter. Since away and often called the most beautiful ished 1554). His own building trademark fairly is a thick pilasters articulating the walls. it made with naturally was as solid piers as possible. 288. partly Jesuit order. In Rome. a north Italian who worked mainly in Rome. he wrote a book. a shape allude to the softenings of lively villa quality. the door with deep narrow niches squeezed between extruded rusticated ftames is a knot that pulls the wall's pilaster forms to itself. it motion it toward the altar with- Mannerist is probably through the quick spread of the make concentrated weight and familiar vehicles expression. and a roadway as possible. using ancient Roman sources). Interior. neither flattened pilasters like Peruzzi's nor heavy half columns like Sangallo's. and uses these elements for pulling lines GucOMO X'iG. a heavy rusticated door contrasts with a making wall surface. the Farnese family. U Ge^u. The curve of three arches.*'' it was se- but unlike the older architectural books verely practical. the elastic pull of is it in a flood. the motifs are it the same copies from Giulio Romano. Unlike the older pure architects. For his great patrons. he remodeled a fort of Sangallo's into the N'illa Caprarola (from 1559. made he normal a pentagon. 289). (Peruzzi had rational comprehension. Sangallo. width 55' of Baroque . He and went through two hundred started as a perspective draftsman typical juncture of the technical — for Primaticcio's paintings at Fontainebleau. in a fort the pentagonal central court a circle and in front added a double curved These half oval. the refined ellipse its result gnola-like idea. of engineering necessity Giacomo X'ignola (1507-1573). oval form with the practical needs of church He does it by stretching the circle into an dome. 290. fig. This involves as well another constant was a replacement for one washed expressive quality of V'ignola's. shallow. is rare in being an and Sanmicheli were the only ones in the preceding generation) and surprising as one who had an original stylistic imagination. Height of nave 95'.\ndrea in \'ia Flaminia first along walls and through spaces. 291). He designed his greatest interior for the Jesuit church in and inteLectual doing backgrounds network of his lines key commission at the end of his Farnese (from 1568. To since.** but here they have unity and power. Rome. 292.\ndrea in Mantua (see tion: the nave seems out distraction. but to is as few as high the wide. life The Rome.) In his works the technical and the intellectual thus doveuil in a special way. had been It but odd in a villa. at Julius II Is villa (figs. as at Sant'.

. One exceptional weekend house by Palladio is the Villa Rotonda (figs. west of Venice. 75'. Exterior and plan.ade. but not depending on sculptico ture. tied together three-dimensionally by arithmetical proportions of height. which playing games with the purposes of its 235 . Palladio's large villas with side wings porches which allude to These units are they and columned Roman temples.\s craftsmanship and intellect mix mix and archaeology in Vignola. The covered walk projects in the center. craftsmanship in Palladio. rich in rhythm and imitating Sansovino's Library in the pictorial play of light.Palladio 35- Andrea Palladio (1508-1580) wasmuchlikeVignola in age and other ways. 294). main blocks 80' square woodcut plan from Scamozzi. for which he used a half-dozen formulas. were year-round dwellings. that label applies better to Palazzo \'almarana (1566. unlike the and smaller weekend retreats near Rome and Florence. Venice. above. the central block is left hanging over it. along with a Venetian tradition of stage scenery. Palladio's fame began when he won the job of monumentalizing the X'icenza market hall (model 1546). inten- suggests MaiHierism.idth. 296). he was trained by a nobleman interested in antiquities. Like Falconetto. emphasizing the Venetian big central entrance and syinmeirical windows. is fig. 293.^SDREA Palladio. certainly is 293. near Vicenza. cheaplv done in brick and for small estate stucco without ornament. Rotonda. 294. His first buildings were rural seats owners. a jewel-like object to look at (like Bramante's fame as a perfect Tempietto. This is a two-story colonnade. with which it shares its and to look out from. grow into front sophistication. but the unbalance is absorbed in the active N'enetian luminism of the fa{. 189) around it. If the irresolution tional. it . He then built town houses in a Palazzo Chiericati —tackling in Vignola's oval church a siinilar vein. 295). problem (see p. In the with 1550S. v. and length. 161. and he did his first major buildings at forty. turning it into a Basilica by wrapping a por- object. see fig. a These villas fancier domed box on a rise with four identical temple fronts. 234) like the one —blends two traditions of houses. the important central entrance and the covered pedestrian walk running in front (fig. Idea N'illa Height dtWarthittltuTa unittfioU. Until he was thirty he was a modest stonecarver in provincial V'icenza.

. matical. so that they clients' not finished. Arcades partially screen naves from crossings and choirs. with imaginative dynamism in their half columns and carvings. to They and scenic effects are clearwhich he turned only at this are mainly in Venice. many ways to architects of later . The his own materials. as in the great X'enetian musicians of this time. and a stimutypes lus in surprisingly centuries. the first (figs. Andrea Palladio. 46' x yg'B" elements. But this sides are left frayingly firmly framed. The one as if tall and behind scenic effects appear further in the white plain interiors enriched by and spatial sequences. churches. like Michelangelo's Laurentian Library. In his learned and practical way he solved the much-considered problem of how to put a classical front on a church that has a high central nave and lower aisles: the 236 is to build two temple fionts. and grow beyond the in scale resources. such as Thomas In Palladio's latest years his ambitious mathe- time.** The reproductions in this conveyed their plain shapes and medium fine proportions. Palazzo V'almarana. Tintoretto and X'eronese.And thus he is the only match for the great X'enetian painters then at work. that is a technician's gentle game with not a sharp twist of irony. Facade. est in answer derlies liis sensuous surfaces. which are distinct in their visible uses but draw the eye soft light through the screens. Vicenza. the whole has a grand scale and Palladio's unassertive mastery of three-dimen- sional proportions. 298). inviting imitation in distant countries and times by cultivated readers interested in building. Since geometric sensitivity un- [efierson. Fa9ade. The open instead of being and windows are framed by walls may or may not be meant as pilasters. 1566.Andrea Palladio. Palladio's fame rested on his especially the early ones. later palaces grow- ever more pictorial. were villas. 297. Vicenza. which he publicized from book with woodcut his small city in a successful illustrations. archaeological. where all paintings and sculpture are hidden in niches. Begun 1531. narrow and the other wide and low. 295- Palazzo Chiericati. 58' X 138' 296. he can move among building and from spare to elaborate forms.

ChrisI Crownrd with Thorns. c. Altc Pinakothck. 1". Munich .1570. 8'6" x s'l Til IAN. Canvas.COLORPLATE 37.

1548.coi-ORPLATE 38. I3'8" x ly'i i ". Vc . Accademia. Canvas. Jacopo Tintoretto. Miraclf oj the Slave.

Sebasliano. Venice Coronation of Esther. Canvas. The Ceiling. Paolo VERONESE. I3'i"x I2'2" . 1555-58.COLORPLATE 39. S.

FhDhKli. 53" - 41 ".j(. The Prado. \u . Madrid .o Bar.( 1 In.

231). he would still When take small fees and modify meet competition. saint fleeing a slave. Facade. Tintoretto (1518-1594) worked steadily for the local government and confraternities.Andrea Palladio. Begun 1556. I05'x88'6" Andrea Palladio. 297 Giorgio Maggiore. 298. the more it pure striking little girl. like Carpaccio before him. Plan. famous.\- also offered as a sensational challenge to Titian's handling of the theme as a lateral frieze. when Titian began to work almost young entirely for his gieat international clients. but always remained anxious. Sairsovino had already conjoined those strands in his bronze reliefs (see p. ures. on and understandably more conservative in solid modeling than Titian's. is at the far side at the top of the stairs. asceneof tlie Sunny and shining in the it is new in the fig- established Venetian language. meant to startle by their to keep cern. the center of These effortful our con- paradoxes seem Mannerist. Venice. complained of by Titian's connoisseur friends. despite all that. Begun 1556. This to be sure is prepared by Titian's recent experiments and by diagonals. backwards. then he invents devices as possible. S. which are clearly They are foreshortened. even imitating youngVeronese and Palma Giovane. Width 157'. 295). fulalion of the Virgin (fig. Venetian painters for the first time in several gen- erations had an opportunity for independent careers. 299) is The Pre. Giorgio Maggiore. His famous sketchiness. Tintoretto's of Michelangelo's awareness figure movement. Palazzo A mas- 241 . her. length 272' S. Around 1545. in ways parallel Chiericatiof the same to moment Palladio's (see fig. Tintoretto makes recession into pyramidal depth. is surely connected with his desire his style to er artists like to do as much His first great success (154H) was (colorplate 38). Venice. for the Confraternity of Saint Mark virtuosity. Tintoretto 36. but are resolved in the natural dappling of light and color. the because the chief figure.

98). In the 1570S Tintoretto was able to let his rich also conspicuous in the three later Miracles of Sainl 64). The firm construction charged thrusts. now tra- ditional in Venice. The hedge a steeply foreshortened covered with roses. The contrast of the driven crowd and the vertical him push Thecrowd Healiiigal the Pool oj Belhesda (1559). Some of the paintings replace architectural patterns by a stormy sky. in . emaciated. This style dominates the for the first "Scuola" or Confi'aternity of San Rocco.^" where the elders poke their heads falling forms around the two ends of schematism of figure placement that he seems hedge. S. with which he eventually arranged an annual salary. figures. terpiece of tricker>' eased by light is Sinanna and Maria in diagonal perspective contrasts 14' x Virgin. and intense. Venice with diagonally and ropes pulling against them. dell'Orto. tall. is'g". The the Elders. a phase introduced by the of bodies need air dominate and the schematic patterns relax. Crucifixion (1565-67) 300) the Pontormo-like Christ.^' is in lets group of many simple themes. so that the figure groups can turn in softer curves.299- Jacopo Tintoretto. marked by fjools of color and shadow and reduced emphasis on particular hues. bordered group of tied diagonals. is using the Venetian tering tendencies. fervent athletes organizes the crowds in triangular clusters. In Christ Padua by Donatello who was being revived by ists. and Su- is sanna's schematic diagonal pose is absorbed in the water is either by silhouettes or light patches. Such a witty nude toretto. Tintoretto's maturity.^. before Filate The huge them an immense empty Mark (1562- hall or portico (fig. but he controls of pervasive air to correct the earlier splin- continuous rhythmic columns suggests that Tintoretto had looked at the reliefs in to his breathless. the Crucifixion at San Cassiano (1568) puts lialf all the diagonal crosses in the right and storm clouds in the left. is part of a rhythm of spaced columns. The Presentation of the Can\as. proach who rare for Tin- and usually takes a simple to his usually The is direct ap- sculptural figure plays a lesser role in packed into a with closely grouped 242 (see the Florentine fig. Manner- of linear forces in space.

1592-94. a greater artist back to nature and its But in Tin- than Andrea. Canvas. Giorgio Maggiore. Tintoretto responds to Titian by constant preoccupation with problems of figure composition. V'enice 301. Jacopo Tintoretto. similar in gentlv revising the diagonal formula. 301). especially the Saint in her striped landscape. and Egyfil sitting leads to the final for San Giorgio Magwhere complete tonal triumph.the big upper room Temjitalion oj ClirisI. \enict . vegetation and at San Rocco (1577-81) the confronting diago- drowns them world of in a These sketchy canvases are ruins. the huge paintings giore (1592-94. Like . i<ii/ iu^^fr. 12' < i8'8".Andrea del Sarto responding to Leonardo. contemporary with more smoothly finished mythologies for the Doges' Palace (1578). fig. Jacopo Tintoretto Christ befoTt Pilate.New Tesument San Rocco (1583-87) extends this tendency Mary of further. Scuola di San Rocco. 18' x I3'6". 300. toretto. for all its nal blocks of figures. Canvas. the references resources are always strongly maintained. unity brackets the crowd life. even in drawings. 1566. S. series at The .

earthy fantasies like a minor Tura. Giolfino. in sensuous302. but these were considered minor art and may well have been paint- ed by an assistant. his life. ^^ probably had more effect on painters: his works in to the hedonistic with a virtuoso piece. ly Maser magnetic colors of pale key —apple green. recent notable painters like those in Brescia and Bergamo. of the white Sanmicheli-like building fronts tend to make the canvases work as two-dimensional designs. but X'eronese has villas. serious figures. Paolo Veronese. a Temptation of Saint Anthony (1552)^'' with Michelangelesque and fore- from Boucher shortened dynamics.37- Veronese Tintoretto and Veronese are the two equally great Venetian painters of their age. to ceiling paintings for the Doges' Palace. one of Palladio's most ambitious symmet- rical villas. and painted frescoes in one of Sanmicheli's To be sure. alive in animated color areas with contrasting liant sky areas around them. easily. whose silver light and grand relaxed figures in classic poses remained important to him all vision. The figures pose against columns. first had been ex- tended by Tintoretto. worked out by the learned owner. from the greatest miniaturist of fifteenth- century led. the one major artist of Verona when he was grow- ing up. but these simply prettv elements of girls fi-esh allegories are along with other equally simple vision ants. who has scarcely any interest in interpersonal contacts. It his earlv connected with in X'erona. as well as quite fantastic perspective arrangements. who no longer cared for ceptual painting for the physical stories of loves of the tions. who produced to a group in But the figures do not commit themselves ^•'^ the allegorical subjects. ruby-like surfaces are modified by Giorgionesque moodiness when he moved had not had imitators. to the early sixteenth century whose Cavazzola). he emerges like Tintoretto received more public attention. width 5'3'' on a Balcony. The ceilings have allegories. ovals with allegorical figures at striking angles of Mantegna a preserve of Liberaleda X'erona (docs. X'eronese is quiet. . Villa Barbaro. of his family's marital happiness and farm prosperity. children. 302). His helping him in his detachment from first masterpieces are the ceilings at Sarv Sebastiano (1555-58. they are real people. a hunter. (fig. X'eronese frescoed the at main rooms of X'illa Barbaro Maser. There follows a series of big 244 . and it is taken life gods but only for dance figurastill further by X'eronese. there are illusions of wide open landscape through fake windows. Where Tintoretto is excited. the Louvre have meant much color tradition in French Matisse. The squarish shapes blue. Titian's rejection of Florentine con- (Caroto. IVomen Fresco. so that Tintoretto has Titian. the family serv- and pet animals leaning over white balconies or walking toward us through trick painted doors. their faces and robes and the buildings all forming thinly painted planes. on the theme of Esther. Paolo Veronese (1528-1588) was more impressed by Moretto of Brescia. colorplate 39). chalky and persimmon. who wait bril- in their satins go on stage and represent Temperance or Honor to in a pageant. This difference is town that to It had long been Italy. He also felt a congruence with Sanmicheli.\long with the single. to X'enice. luminous and squarish. 1465-1526). true. a provincial life art. canary.

38. without per- and spective tricks. either low<lass situations in religious painting (the shepherds in the Nativity. rather than adopting any of these styles as his own.' Canvas. creating a lit human essence against the thin blue. and celebrates only the beautiful visible Such detachment. His surface is bright and drawing. beggars at feasts. Last Supper.\fter his early paintings his figures pause in detachment like a film move still (fig. and caterers —and \'eronese was actually called before the Inquisition for disrespect (1577). but in him was expressible through subjects considered secondary'. Supper at riage at Emmaus. hermit 245 . a color. flat from House of Levi. which are also absorbed into his brushwork. so that a Mannerist figure does not imply refineti decoration but is being seen as a visible shape and coolly recorded. a place far smaller than Brescia or Bergamo. Industry. fig. related to his remoteness. He then painted mainly altarpieces for nearbv towns and many styles. pure painting.banquet canvases with Biblical themes. Sala CoUegio. This concentrated seriousness oddly makes the names of the allegories. the MarCana (1562-63). or else his limited environment did restrict his development.0 N'ERO. styles in he became acquainted with f>ainting ft-agmentary ways.SEiE. not even having a bishop. etc. P. Doges' Palace. his brush technique and airy realism of pleasant scenes. as a pupil of Boni- fezio \'eronese. more memorable than any jG^. in his isolation. luminous. his was that painters leftover space in He was sentenced work. and The others. using Pordenone. Ir. still architecture grand is but the space has become elemeiitars. 59" x 87". but instead simply changed the title masterpieces are ceiling canvases in the late Doges' Palace (1575-77. remained JacofX) da Ponte he was (so that known by all his life in its Bassano name). his defense have a tacit license to fill pictures with diversions. to have represented them as he would have a person.duztJj. . the parable of the laborers. in gianino. 303). and brilliant as in Venetians. perhaps so as not to be in competition with Titian. all is the great fat as full but They a crayon of streaks or and Tintoretto's but also \'eronese's constructions of beautiful people. a variability which has induced complex theories of his evolution. often through prints.. dwarfs. the ImsI Supper to the Feast in the The church to revise The patch of all now archi- allegorical girls sit against the sky. marble columns define an area in it are gold satin robes and far swarm figures — pages. Meekness. and others.i5g2) either ranks with Tintoretto and Veronese and known because he lived in a little is merely less town. would today produce field. Bassano. Extra fiat skies. It rejects not only Titian's brushed energy of the figures. 304). still simpler. Venice that preceded them. i535-d. Ceiling. He learned in Venice. but returned home. little. dabs. the man helped b\ the Good Samaritan. but shinier and pastier.Ol. fresh. Vittoria Jacopo Bassano (docs. But he seems. j'b'. omitting not only perspective but almost tecture.A. Parmi- villages. This was panly because.

Venice 246 . Bassano developed related —motifs. Palazzo Barberini. but one is remarkable. Doge Niccolo da Ponte. seasons. . and later emerged on their own. Canvas.Many decorative sculptors worked on Jacopo Sansovino's big projects. height 28". which were market that his sons all and noc- many these so successful in a —but cheap mass-produced them. a late pupil of Titian who drew on Mannerist prints and lived in isolation. Rome saints) or paintings of animals. Alessandro Vittoria. . His own work submerges all the Mannerist styles he had learned into a new personal one in which a fragmented paint surface close to Titian's builds later a direct vision of undramatic shepherds and optical nocturnes close to Savoldo. Seminario Arcivescovile. turnes. 41 Galleria Nazionale. Jacopo Bassano. Someare prolific butroutine(DaneseCattaneo. Marble. El Greco.' ^ '^' ^.\lessandro 305. 415-18). Tiziano . The Adoration oj the Shepherds. has striking technical parallels with Bas- sano (see pp.-^ ^^^^^^^JK-7' 304.Minio).

The huge fresco of the Ijist latter dominates his paintings: first the Judgment (1536-41. reviving a medieval this graphic old gentlemen of character in the year Clement V'll. sump- . fills fig. Michelangelo's Late Years 39. staying in is always and Sansovino. to rhythms. but the treatment not so intricate. and the and color modulations are important. 232). died. Getting rid on one side and slowly fall on the other. last time. the works may be complicated. most talented like Saiisovino's other Ammanati sistant. toria is master of stucco sculpture. at . a odd grand The two angles. which. but made it (figs. His style has a more open. he turned to fewer and larger units He fig. there a mobile effect of is constant shifting along an almost The (1541-50)** celebrating Saints Peter and Paul are wayward the only ones he ever painted at eye level. had He was a series of involved with some of which seemed to reach and he was regarded as an awesome patriarch and genius. he staircase. a changed basis (fig.Michelangelo's becomes for the frustration of action it wedge-shaped At the top center Christ judges. and as his (fig. simplifying self-assurance. Capitoline Hill same ings already there were at only patrons. 311. arrangement of the end wall of the Sistine Chapel. in beautifully spiraling as- But Vittoria's tem- have been vehement and eager. tied together by colossal The pilasters. on the it. and souls slowly rise build- made one building a square with four projecting semicircles seem the secondary points. and matched the second at the side by a third symmetrical with on the other The side. He also had a giowing interest in large tectural schemes. a vehicle causing him to venerate Michelangelo but to be treated as secondary by Titian awkwardly toria's His colossal stone entrance statues hasty. Effects that call for planning are absent. Heaviness is sluggish. the Farnese. brown on a blue field. perhaps the viewer to giasp the correspondence of each angle therefore the figures air move back into space. 309. 306). their size emphasized by the vertical rows of windows 247 . and Michelangelo uses this difficulty for a archi- building new feelinginsteadof mi ng to reduce Colossal pilasters accent each turn of the wall. 224). which he had a learned for Sansovino's ceilings and then applied to unusually large figures in rows. with 308. see returned to Bramante's central plan both simpler and livelier. his focal center. 310). axial space. the . Pope Paul 111 was interested in the worldly success of his family. The two side buildings have each a long portico on the lower story and a solid wall above. . the so large that the corners of the square 307). with impetuous angular motion.Michelangelo's work reflects both concerns. fruition with less difficulty than before.\nd he most impressive in is much portraiture. popes demand but in theme. immense projects. Since the exterior walls are given the same decorative treatment all the way around (not shifting in reference to each wall).Sangallo's of Sangallo's forest of standard-size columns. Rome. effect of a skeleton of heavy beams suggests structural rationalism along with tuous ceremony. The change from previous relief style to a more directly three-dimensional approach he took over is also seen in Saint Peter's. and designed a city center to path. and . (1550) for Sansovino's Librai^ (see overpowering but lumpy. Mannerist tall saints twisting in ecstasy sometimes seem off balance. is too big to permit others elsewhere. all of them hulking bodies without waists. his 284) are fig.Vittoria(i 525-' 6o8) was led by his training to model whose figures somewhat life is perament seems (see p. Vit- 305). exploiting dashing mobile fragments of robes. 312. Thereafter Michelangelo. are among Mannerist personal variants on the few mobility that were used without change in the Baroque age. In the pope's new Pauline Chapel Michelangelo's two frescoes which death (1546). ordered result is a and dynamic. but also in church reform (he called the Council of Trent). but \'it- In 1534 Michelangelo left Florence for the mainly to avoid the Medici duke.Medici f)ope. (figs.

Sistine Chapel. Sistine Chapel. 1536-41. Rome Michelangelo. Rome . 1336-41. 48' \ 44'. Vatican. Michelangelo. Fresco. Vatican. detail oi Last Judgment.3o6.?oi//. 307. Last Judgmrnl. Z)flmnfrf .

Rome (engraving by Dupfrac. Capitoline Hill. Michelangelo. 1569) 310 . Capitoline Hill.309. Michelangelo. Eniire dimensions 63' x 141' . 249' 3o8.MicHELANctLo Fa(. Rome. Axis.adc. Pal.izzo dei Consorsalori. Project for Capitoline Hill. Plan. Rome. to door of Palazzo Senatorio.

450' square . in which the spindly thin Mary and Christ are iden- slips tical except that the Christ slips lower was working on a third revision of of his death. Rome. Inside. he turned when over eighty to a two-figure version. Michelangelo. Pe result is 's. rising to the dome Michelangelo planned but did not build. height ftXii. In his verv last years Michelangelo explored a new building style. Peter's. for his own tomb. leaving smooth massive forms. Instead we know ture. Like Titian's last (fig. Michelangelo. the mass carries the conviction of tragedy. 250 313. I. Milan 1552-64. Plan for Vatican. As the weight down. Abandoning this as still inadequate to his concept. even more sional through its strongly three-dimen- erasure of articulating columns. Wall height 144' squeezed between them. refermore fluid openings between the areas. Rome.^' at reverts to an early Renaissance formula of Christ's body held up to our gaze by three symmetrical mourners. first done lor meant no patron but himself. Michelangelo. Castello Sforzesco. these were notations too unformed to be influential until several generations had worked around to similar expressive approaches. 31 1.Jm 312. 6'4". Begun 1547. 313). this in the He week works. \'atican. live force that the piers also have ring to the wider. The a sense of on a superhuman scale. Marble. St. View of apse. more complicated profiles. But these projects were not executed. St. his late sculp- A I'wld.

and Pierino naturalism. The grand duke's foiiiuaiiis and oilier objects of many display kept busy in Florence. in his polished linear sharpness after 1560 Am- by Vin- 315). Still more suggestive is the Bacchus. 1571. been trained of as goldsmitlis. 314) is most notable for the fashionable Salome. and Hercules and the Centaur (from 1594). ^'^ an elegantly twined versions.\mmanati. It appears in the fantastic naturalism of small works.7()). His famous Rape of the Sahuie Woman (1579-83.Am- one in Florence). fig. (fig. yet the figure has strict in is the air of a big bear waking and growling. Behiading of John ihi Baptist above South Doon). 316a. siiilptors and Cellini were joined nianati tenzo Danti who {i. Florence which reflect his Flemish taste and his Flemish Giambologna's mature works bring Mannerism back Thus a remarkable fu- to life in a his first large newly powerful way.^^ his bow in his first big work in Florence to the older Renaissance her small liead to one side. holds its bursting stress in equip>oise in a way that signals the birth of the Baroque rather than late .So-i. Bronze.r. first when he No doubt what attracted patrons there was his virtuosity.Giambologna 40. when Giambologna the leading sculptor of the Medici and their activity by emerged of as Italy. canon of the especially his small bronzes add urbane and f>olish to Indeed. as well as his habit of doing revised His large bronze group of l\\e Beheading ofJohn the Baptist (1571. and was returning from an ordinary tour of Italy was induced to stay in Florence.'"" manati in competing for the formal and placement. Honor Conquering Deceit. because both had able methods."" even more subtly.'). da Vinci. So does the upper figure tradition represented by Sansovino's. like the bronze sketch of a turkey walking. Giovanni Bologna (1529-1608) was born and trained on the French-Flemish border. With balanced rhythms and \ersion of Michelangelo's I'lilory which had already sion of the local Mannerist system been imitated by . he bubbled over with facility. height 8'. work. his eager exploration of avail- resembles Cellini his sources. the Neptune fountain in Bologna (1563-67. b) is a tower of twined figures simpler and truer than the pose would seem to permit. nerist He could also adopt with ease the Manfigure turning artificially. leaning make it hard to trace his career. made after losing out to . Cellini. fig. Baptistery. All these sculptors had died or lessened about 1575. ViNCENZo Danti. 314.

Giambologna. Rape of the Sabine Woman. a Apemiine mountain god (because streams are born from mountains).) bologna as The Sabine one of those a \'eiTocchio's. 1579-83.^"life too. height 24" Nazionale. are the point. 316a. before. fig. his fountain statue of the 317). Bargello. We still more regardless of changing taste. an anonymous item of general culture. seem normal It that generals or rulers put their statues on horseback in city squares. Bronze. Merciny. Florence . and in Madrid. height I3'5" Loggia dei Lanzi. abstracted fantasy has stimulated elemental life. Florence Woman so is the flying see that they have virtuosity and and these. the classical subjects. b. he covers the colossal crouching figure with rubble stalactites under which mountain crawls the personified is Giambologna who makes it an like Caliban. Donatello's with Henri IV. In (1570. but now Woman artists century they became marks Giam- who have created an image more famous than themselves. Marble.Mannerism. not The name Sabine was given only after the sculpture had been finished. and continuous. Turkey. in continued in (Since Florence he started a series that was Paris. there had been none. 313- Museo GiAMBOLOGNA.

J/lf. has kept Florentine tradition. 318). and six luibors of Hercxiles '"•' are tinglingly original and have an anonymous p>opularity. was able in his youth to rival Giam- bologna's naturalistic use of Mannerist conceits by carving the duke's fat dwarf sitting nude on a tortoise and later echoed it in a series of garden statues. urif.'"'' (fig. awkwardly mobile The intentionally sweaty. \ Ula Demidotf. Valeric Cioli. Theseus Embracing Hippolyta. 318. despite a Bandinellian rigidity in his habits of design. Florence on a Marble. I j70. Plastered brick with stone. . art of V'incenzo de' Rossi (1525- and often vulgar. realistic in detail him underrated in Dying Adonis. height 46". though his 1587). minor contemporaries of Giambologna invented some images that jump out of the taste of their time. 7"^/ . height about 35' Pratolino (near Florence) On a lower level. Boboli Gardens. of which a woman washing a child's hair is the most effective. N'alerio Cioli (1529-1599).317- GlAMBOLOGNA. The Dwarf Morganu Tortoise.

installed by an imperial gesture.Milan Mint did his strong and ambitious character lead him to large-scale work. Charles V marks the end of the Italian pattern other than Venice and in part Thereafter for centuries Italy was a set in Bologna. in the state pwrtrait formula. well have been spurred on by seeing in Flanders work by Conrad Meit (see p. cities. the Habsburg eration. Their authority is in their firm volume. These circumstances shaped the career of Leone Leoni (1510— 1592). portrait sculptor of the previous gen- which similarly connects plain density and sharp linear definition. and soon after in Milan cast lifesize statues from them (fig. Along with the smith's training which made it possible for him to produce a figure of the emperor that could be shown either nude or in a suit of incise rather than armor. cessful artist to Giulio Leoni was a violent person. '"^ he may model a head. He was a diecutter of coins first and medals in Rome. such as the Carracci and Bernini. of his They are a row of slaves carved on the front own house. 319). is a startling contrast with his only large works in stone. since like most medals (but not Pisanello's) these were struck rather than cast. Yet it seems natural that in this early tentative case 319.Naples. Mary of Hungary. a galley slave after a fight in The splendid house of the suc- was agrowing tradition (from Mantegna Romano and \'asari). 254 . The Prado. The masklike remoteness of Leoni's royal faces. marked on the surface by metallic shine and intricate linear ornament. difference between public and foretells the habits but such an acute and private of the art is new. was happy to marry the daughter of Spain's viceroy in . with dangling heads and legs cut off at the knee (fig. official artists in the age of absolutism. of Austrian or Spanish dependencies. resident of Milan and portraitist of Charles V. who had even been Rome. 383). Moroni 41. Bronze. 320). Milan had a viceroy.Leone Leoni. and tlie duke of Florence. Leoni was trained to Only when he was forty and master of the . Madrid height 5'5". best of independent Rome itself. The when the pope crowned Emperor (who had recently sacked papal Rome) date 1530. and these statues articulate his private char- acter remarkably. After visits to Brussels and Augsburg he drew several Habsburg portraits. Leone Leoni.

watchfully noted for reality but not psychologv.Moroni. but more and more they Gestures continue trade. Early ones are relatively active. as in the famous must have been a private Bassano seemingly contented only talent in his town. monumental achieve a to illustrate a sitter's Tailor (fig. but perhaps more in the role of patron and owner than as master of the workshop assistants. National Gallery. He inherits from his teacher . London 321.320. Leoni designed the slaves. Leone Leoni. and with jumpy silhouettes.) . Giainbattista Moroni (docs. portraiture painter — —and it is the They first sliare the specialty of instance in an Italian the Spanish social context. 38" x 29". Leoni. this portrait favor. alluding to Parmigianino and to Raphael. Though wear black and stand before gray faces. But the single sculptor. such Edinburgh immortalized two centuries later. Thc TailoT Canvas. confi- find in other stable in as the Raebum's and one in p>ortrait$ . has a suggestive parallel with the single painter of nearby Bergamo. cutting cloth but looking out with Bergamo was under Venetian rule. motto or the usual tranquil assurance. (Most of the sitters are noble. like as the on the quiet stability.Sculptured faqade Casa degli Omcnoni. the difference results in part from the private art being executed by others. i547-d. Painting in Milan taste of the at this period (until a fore- Baroque appears with young artists about 1575) was a Mannerist routine. Width 54 GlAilBATTISTA MoROM. substantial figure. wear Spanish clothing or have Spanish or German mottoes.Moretto the effect of the subtle gray air and the 321). dence in its which has the same restrained mores that we complacent provincial centers. has immortalized the local scKiety. Milan. many of Moroni's sitters walls.i578).

civil wars. And from 1550 the arcliitect Galeazzo . Maria Assunta 323). but Its gieat families constantly did manage oddly to import it unique quantities of Flemish paintings. brought Perino del X'aga for it ten years to paint court decorations. courtyards growing out from the palaces into porticoed gardens. Peruzzi's pupil. no doubt witli the unique dominance of its life by connected the port and shipping. which play on the forms of the Farnesina and Raphael's Villa Madama. His originality in not is forms but in the airy grandeur of his space han- dling. back in Bologna. joined Perino del large crew. still more similar to Serlio. to the exclusion of local manufactures. Genoa In Alessi could expand from modest labors to rather grand mansions and villas. For clients in Milan he seems to have added ornament. Plan. who typically began by assisting forts. Alessi was a trained builder from Perugia. . In his majestic church. Galeazzo Alessi. but of its as a painter He under local imitators of too went to assistant. di Carignano. 21' stability. he virtually for Saint only Peter's. (fig. making the dome taller.42. the bridge from the fiont of Santa Maria di Carigna- no and across to another hill its interior places Bramante's sharp geometry with a broad 322. Genoa. and in Palazzo Marino designing a particularly imposing courtyard with a double-columned portico under an elaborate upper-story wall. invite visitors for stays of fought early Renaissance art than Italy. Height of courtyard which hand- 323. encrusting church fagades with carvings. with ele- gantly proportioned fagades of thin pilasters 322). and became his most independent Raphael. Genoa. Interior view toward open area 45'. like Naples. courtyard.\lessi (1512-1572) set the tone of elegant living. But when in Charles V's time Genoa became a clieiu state. He learned it from Peruzzi's works and from the somewhat decorated version 256 in the a Rome. Santa Carignano (from 1549. any other sizable city in of Pellegrino Tibaldi (1527-1596) grew x 15' Bologna Genoa had re- luminous master more of building than of designing. Entrance halls wider than long. executed Bramante's plan di fig. for did not even. these are the optical creations in a family of was trained V'aga's less to do with own and had no artists up in Lombard stonemasons. Galeazzo Maria Assunta I74'6"x 156' Alessi. and then skillfully absorbed in Sangallo with Rome the sophisticated style of the painter -architect Peruzzi. His talent in decorative painting flowered when he frescoed a ceiling. It any length. Palazzo Cambiaso. S. Alessi and Tibaldi book of Serlio.

style with spatial 325. They bow remotely to the more in spirit with Giiiiio Romano's court Mannerism. He is bold as well fall but then carves an most impressive is as Giulio Romano. This is a solution to the problem of Michelangelo's suffocating power: to admit one is imitating him but make it an impersonal game. as Archbishop (eventually Saint) Carlo Here too he he makes a column begin to angel to catch it. 324). Pavia. and bold free colonnades in front of a church facade.Cardinal Poggi. Milan for Working Bonomeo. with Mannerist figures in violein. ciesigned to be shocking and witty. painter in Salviati. Palazzo Poggi. into Pellegrino Tibaldi. The figures are audacious and absurd in taking impossible poses. Gianl. Tibaldi's wittiness reappears thirty-five years later in his frescoes in the Escorial Library near Madrid. 83'6" X 236' a 324. Facja Collegio Borromeo. fig.""' but otherwise he painted almost nothing. and rusticated boulders swoop forward to clamp the main door. where big niches alternate with windows in up-down and in-out harmony. Pellegrino Tibauji. 0". " x Bologna entire dimensions 6' 1 1 Ceiling. when like is in his Col Borromeo (1564. stress upward. Fresco. whose centralizing force predicts the High Baroque. but rest on the backgiound. he again an architect in plays artfully with powerful motifs. 1564. 1 1 ' 1 . and know it. The plastic exuberance and whimsical vitalism are more genuine successors of Michelangelo's Laulegio rentian Library than any other Mannerist architecture. Sistine Ceiling but belong decorative richness of that other Mannerist fresco Rome. effective because he really clever. Tibaldi's last stonemason structural works develop a cleaner dome. they also have some of the sugary tricky positions (fig. 325) for the Universitv of Pavia.

with figures of graceful artifice in the Parmigianino vein. Giovan Antonio Dosio). to and industries be sure are an odd to coral fishing. Typically. the Mannerist idea of The whole artifice played against observation. and by the hedonistic duke. decorative and rather gentle. Canvas. In have been discouraging. in both senses.Painters in 43- Rome and Florence after 1550 1550 Vasari's Lives included only one living the seventy-five-yeai -old Michelangelo.Moraxdim. 1566). and the presence of the aged Michelangelo. rebelled a virtual worked a very narrow vein. Rome was better off because of its continuing great role as the papal city. His one masterpiece. 45" x 34". 1570. Bronzinos chosen . but in 1570 he and a group of Vasari's students produced an original decorative work. 326). A series of rectangles and ovals. once more. Studiolo of Francesco I. the many-figured a Florentine one. is heir.^llori (TiSS-'Goy). again the entrepreneur of a systematic project. These ranging from alchemy list. busy with festivals and repeat old ornaments with a professional neatness. Indeed Florence iiad lost its political and commercial importance completely and was comparable to an German duchy employing good eiglueenth-tentury musicians. that seems to mark their awareness that they are wearing their tremen- dous heirlooms in a provincial backwater (Ber- nardo Buontalenti. and to reinforce. Among paiiuers. and today we admire the work of many Roman and t'lorentine painters younger drawings. with rippling muscles harder texture than Michelangelo's own. with Michelangelo. but this only da X'olterra (docs. wlio was a European these elementary images creates the most serious than Raphael. but few younger than Bronzino. its V'asari. His pictures are closer than ever to being sculptural Mannerism toward past art as a mine of style tended to assume. the study of Duke Francesco I. ect minute treasure vault. tion to the trend 1568 the second edition of the Lives expanded to include some who were quite young. the chief excep- artist. and This The limited range actually avoids any sense of competing Medici dukes did very well with their sculptors. figure though perhaps not architects. II Poppi The Foundry. Florence . but still create freshly. without color or space around the figures. and hardly any of the is a young artists ever accomplished anything qualities were evidently brought to life by proj- else. similarly Their painting of the time. a strong individual In reinforced its attitude that art had reached a peak talent. totally routine. Vet the leading work about 1550. of nonfrivolous mansions. 1532-d. surprisingly describe the trades of Tuscany (fig. still exploiting Raphael's last formulas. Daniele by the simple expedient of becoming copyist of Michelangelo's recent work. with Michelangelo and Raphael and then declined. 258 326. the same view. Francesco . Palazzo Vecchio. Salviati's and Perino del Vaga's wall decoramust tions. and imposing. but by concentrating power in culminating in Giambologna. usually looming before us alone or in pairs colliding.\lessandro . Certainly the attitude of These are gigantic.

the church called the first the fertilitv of Baroque work of art. and he was one was the one of those rare architects wriggling folds.\mmanati in the 1550s left Rome and turned to architecture more and more. few sculptures. Guglielmo but the result. and the less talented indeed were the best. della Porta got bogged down and never did another large work. and so confirmed Rome.eoni in Rome anyway. tliat x8'6" tomb and himself provided an architectural plan for it. and Leone In 1570 \'ignola first-rate artist there. who died young. . This appears in the talented Taddeo Zuccaro 66). Vet at his l. him move and more.'"^ (1529-1566). Detached fresco. death in 1573 he bequeathed to Giacomo which mav well be della Porta the Gesu. Rome who practiced no other an. of which a head of his master Michelangelo is the most sigiiifttaiit (1564- Other painters began to use a very odd man nered blend of Daniele and Perino's ornament. both paint Sculptors' problems arc illustrated by the re- aboui Mond. in the was 1540s. S Trinita dei Deposition from the Cross. and who 13' In each case he helped to secure a big commission for a Siciolante da . 1541. DaNILLE da VoLTtRRA. 259 . the 1560S was not in hulking monumental gioups of figures covered with peated encouragement Michelangelo gave to young sculptors who were not imitating him.327. fig- 327). Drposilion from the Cross. is thereafter timidity reduced finally to a early {1541.Sermoneta (1521-1580?).

Both paintings and drawings exist in enormous quantity. Milan.Cambiaso. The much more remarkable Federigo Barocci He Rome while young but returned to his native (1526-1612) also liked luminous color surfaces. where he avoided company and lived in The turning point came when in some way he learned of Correggio. The mythologies strongest are the reli- gious stories containing a tough genre element 328). Hence come his ceiling mythologies. and were told of his painting stories with both hands. but he produced merely an academic render- ing of . to (fig. by looking at what visitors had done in the city. extrapolation from Rome and Florence. Barocci 's return to Correggio produces something more. The same odd phenomenon that saw Palladio. 57" x 43". the the lubricity of Perino. but wrong. may also have an economic cause: Italy declined of his It as a patronage center. but the dead ends of their imitative works seemed to recommend a return to a pre-Mannerist art. with foreshortened figures in a filmy translucent brown. like prints. His drawings. and his shorthand methods include cubes for figures (a convention that he did not invent —Diirer had used it). previously unproductive towns Urbino. Bergamo. Palazzo Bianco. The Genoese Luca Cambiaso (1527-1585) at the same moment as Alessi. The mining habits of the Mannerists had made possible such poor health. have a quick Ge zest of line. The paintings are very unequal. Barocci 44- The belief that (except for Venice) Italian painting bad way in 1575 is a normal. visited Urbino. the altarpieces often reflect local provincial traditions. Romanino which seem earlier. 260 . content to stay in Vicenza out illustrated books allowed small. and Urbino all pened. the greatest was in a living architect. Canvas. when that hap- Venice. indirect direct leaps back across generations. Florence had no advantage over Urbino. The Madonna of the Candle. and the and send like Bassano. 328. in them from German he. LucA Cambiaso. each to have a painter superior to all those in the established This may have a stylistic cause: the repetitive artificiality of Mannerist imitation puts a premium centers. in transparent brown wash. not so much at Perino del Vaga as at Beccafumi. and sterile great city of Genoa.-Xndrea del Sarto. because Correggio had himself been so experimental and because he is used only as a stimulus. Genoa. with neat figures in blank rooms (though he does seem to foretell Guido Reni). borrows match the plain surface handling. who had been there emerged more recently. and the leading to artists of made trips Germany and Spain anyhow. by contrast on freshness and even provincial naivete. This was indeed being tried in Florence by Santi di Tito (15381603). soon to be illustrated at its peak by Caravaggio's use Lombard training in his Baroque revolution.

and. is disconcerting. Here. produced in isolation. These outward effects carry the motifs of vision and ecstasy of the Counter Reformation and its altarpieces. Vignola and Tibaldi. without plasticity or line. Yet we must recognize fusion of technical brilliance and emotional view- point so close in late instances to seventeenth<entury anists like Lanfranco and Bernini that they do not foretell but already are Baroque. had small influence and a complete is easy to dismiss. on a milder level. Iridescent mother- of-pearl emulsions rich shadowy and chalky pastels blend. Each is a pink or green nucleus spreading into a dawn-gray world. 261 . as in the late evolution of Vittoria and Giambologna. This art. figures. but has constructed a grand overture for its when it successor. and. have a sweetness that does not seem cosmetic. ingratiating love (colorplate 40). so far from our taste. but Barocci goes further in what he convinces us is the same direction. its motif of encompassing. with transitions. the Renaissance slides off the stage not when it has worn itself out.The diagonal forms floating in cloudy textures reappear.

Giorgionc. 15.C. Amsterdam. Filippino Lippi. Raphael. . Stephen. 1528. Florence. 24. 18. 27. Florence. S. 14. Raphael.St. Maria Novella. several drawings. Louis of Andrea Sansovino. SS. written in late January to first June— myths. Presentation of the Virgin. ChantiUy. Berlin- 25. frescoes 39. Casa Buonar- 13. Battle of Lapilhs and Centaurs. tomb of Guidarello Guidarelli. Kunsthistorisches century B. Pctronio.Vude with . Catherine Domenico.Supper . Leda and 12. Baptism.Con\en\ ofS. Annunziata. Gemaldegalerie. dalena. Baldassarc Peruzzi. Accade- mia. of the Sacrament.: six Museum. Sts. Spirito. Last Judgment. The Louvre. Dead Christ. Dresden. National Gallery. Mantua (now lost in the collection of Isabella 16. Pitti Palace. Staatliche Museen. Toulouse. Michelangelo. D. Leonardo da Vinci. in Galleria Borghese. L'ffizi Gallery.1514. 40. . Bartholomew. for colossal equestrian statue of Leonardo da Vinci. 28. Venice. Fra Banolommco. Death of Proem. . The Louvre. Sebastiano del Piombo. 30. Baldassare Castiglione. Bologna. tombs of Cardinal . Duke Francesco Sforza of Milan. Last . S. and Sinibald. 23. London. 31. Sodoma. 10. Giovanni Bellini. Maria della Rome. 29. Cecilia. Siena. Giacomo Maggiore. Annunciation. St. Chapel. Tullio Lombardo. 7. Ovid. mainly in the Royal Library. the Swan: known through by Raphael. S. Christopher and Augus- Giovanni Crisostomo. Ravenna. Cleopatra. London. Concert Champelre. portraits of Angelo Doni and of Andrea Sansovino. Sistine Filippino Lippi. 262 books on legends. S. Cardinal Pietro Bembo. The Courtier (II libro del cortegiano).Ascanio Sforza and of Cardinal Girolamo Basso della Rovere. 22. Florence.\'ladonna of the Chair. Leonardo da Vinci. 17. courtyard. . 1561.Mirror. Parma. Palace. S. Florence. . Bartolomeo. St. Florence. 32. 36. Solario. Dying Slave: Rebellious Slave. Florence. Pitti Palace. Virgin with the Green Cushion. Sebastian. Florence. the Florence. Harpies. portraits ofOiuliano da Sangallo 8. 1. Rome.C. Paris. Jerome with Sts. Piero di Cosimo. Corona. Florence. Amico Aspertini.iriosto. Sebastian. 1497. rituals. published in Venice. Amico Aspertini. Dresden. de' Benri. L'ffizi Gallery. project 3. Florence. Vienna. Florence. S. 26. Gemaldegalerie. The Louvre. Oratory of . Strozzi Chapel. Michelangelo. Pitti Sodoma. Museo di San Marco. Andrea 9. . 5. Titian. 37. Ginnra 2. Windsor 21. Washington.Vicodemus with the S. S. Paris. Giovanni Bellini. notable events. Andrea del Sarlo. roti.Supplementary Notes to Part Two Leonardo da Vinci. Rome. 34. formerly d'Este. Andrea 20.\ndrea del Sarto. Endymion. frescoes of the lives of Sts. Venice. Francesco Francia. S. Corbinelli National Gallery. paintings by tine. Jacopo Palma. Si. Piero di Cosimo. Pace. written c. St. 38. Vicenza. Philip and John the EvangeUst. stages of design shown in drawings. Milanese imitators. father Francesco Giamberti. Sleeping Venus. National Gallery of Art. Crucifixion. S. Giovanni Bellini. English translation. 11. Madonna of del Sarto. Maria del Popolo. 19. Dahlem. Catherine. of Siena. Raphael. Michelangelo. Madonna. Castle. Cupid. Bologna. altar Fasti. Musfe Conde. The Asolans written {Gli Asolani). his wife Mad- 35. 6.Salvi. S. a copy of one Chapel of . 33. Galleria Nazionale. Giambattista Cima. Paris. 4. and of his Rijksmuseum. the days from Birth of the Virgin. 1505- Piero di Cosimo.

Kunsthistorisches Bulterflirs. . 'cover panel to Portrait of Bishop . Girolamo Savoldo. Porta Palio. Swan. Florence. Vienna 'also . Museum. Dosso. Museo Nazionale 81. 48. 86. Titian. National loan from the Earl of Ellesmcre 49. Staatliche Museen.-l^w 0/ A/an. 42. Florence. Accademia. Vendramin Family. Madrid. Correggio. Annunziata. National Gallery. 52. SS. 62. Paris. Danae. Museo Nazionale and David della Salute. Madonna of Francis. courtyard. Jacopo Pontormo. Naples. Titian. National Gallery. Madonna with Parma. Castello Fontanellato 'near Parma). . Florence. Loggia of the Vatican thirteen bays overl<X)ldng 73. Bartolommeo Ammanati. Virgin. 65. The Prado. Zeno. Florence. left. frescoes painted for the Fondaco dei 46. Dresden. Galleria Doria-Pamphili. Museum of Impressionism. Lsabella Stewart Horseback. Joce Painting Home Collection. : courtyard of S. 59. Porta Nuova. de' Rossi. Worship of Venus. Bartolommeo . The Prado. 78. 69. Camera dclle Cariatidi. Madrid. Agostino. 57. Florence. Gemaldegalerie. 1541 : S. effigy of Museo Nazionale. Venice. Naples. Maria dei Frari. Francis.Vude m Accademia. 51.Annunciation.C. Kunsthistorisches Accademia. Titian. SS. Modena. di 56. Doge Receiving the Ring. Art Galleries. St. Venice. right tribune.Ammanati.Madonna. begun '546. Olympia. Dosso. Titian. Galleria Estense. St. the Paris Bordone. London. courtyard. Damaso. S. Capodimonte. 66. . artists in several versions). Ponte S. Galleria Borghese. 61 . the Gallery' of Scotland on Titian. Florence. Leda and the Rome. Bacchanal. Story of Diana and Actaeon. 76. Sanmicheli. Salome. fresco cycle. Boston. Dosso.Ammanati.41. 75- Titian. Venice: . Glasgow. in Adultery. Venice. Edinburgh. Michelangelo. Parmigianino. Mario Nari from his Bargello. cintjue first oriini d'architettura published 1562. 87. Dosso. Correggio. S 54. Venice. Bacchanal of 53. Florence. Girl Combing Her Hair. Presentation of the Virgin. Bishop Bernardo 55. Allegory of Music. The Louvre. Paris. Apollo. eight bronze reliefs of on tribunes in choir. the Flight into The Louvre. 70. Piazza della Signoria. Visitation. Lorenzo Lotto. Maria sopra Mercanti. Capodimonte. Madonna of Correggio. Lorenzo Lotto. Trinita across .Mark. 64. 1537. Jacopo Satuovino. Venice. Charles V on 80. Galleria Nazionale.Anthony and Paul. Rape of Europa. ceiling paintings. Danae. S. Vienna. some fragments Woman Taken Titian.\mo River I. 79. 263 . . The Sacrifice of Isaac. Andrians.Madonna of Correggio. Sacristy. tomb Bartolommeo . 72. 68. the Basket. gates for Verona: Porta 82. Lorenzo Lotto. Pesaro. Fur Coat. with St. Titian. 67. Titian. Giacomo Vignola. 74. Egypt. Rest on Victory. Christ with the 47. Rosso Fiorcntino. Museum.^ccademia.\rt. each bay vaulted 50. Raphael. Rrgola delli (Rule of the Five Architectural Orders). Lorenzo Lotto. 44. The Hermit Saints . TAr« . 60. Pesaro altarpiece. S. . 1533-40: Porta Recanati.Allegory National Gallery of . 77. 1863. 43. Madrid. The Louvre. Venice. Correggio. Hermitage. 1544. "Dairid Museo Nazionale. Mark's. 84. 1527. di Gardner . Titian. Titian. St. Rossi). Rome. Edouard Manet. . 83. 63. Paris (one of painted by in four frescoed zones Raphael's workshop. Titian. National Gallery. Giorgio. Annunziata. Giorgione and Titian. the iife of St. Berlin- Dahiem. Dosso. Rome. Leningrad!. Assumption of 71. 83. London. Titian. Villa Imperiale. Susanna and Contini-Bonacossi the Elders. Florence. Kress Collection.Museum. Washington. Corporation Titian. Ferrara diamond-shaped now : panels Castello for Estense. in the Victory. 'Samuel H. Florence. Correggio." or Bargello. Florence. The Prado. D. Uffizi Gallery. Jerome. Collection. S. (in fragments). Cain Slaying Abel. Palazzo Vecchio. London. Maria Slaying Goliath. Michelangelo.\ndrea Mantegna. 58. 45. Neptune Fountain. now Tedeschi. Jacopo Sansovino.

Vincenzo de' Dying Adonis. The Prado. Mus^e des BeauxCaen. Pcllegrino Tibaldi. Florence. Theseus Embracing Hippolyta. miracles of St. 88. others in Accademia. frescoes in Pauline Chapel. Vatican. Milan. Florence. 105. Healing at . Hercules and the Centaur. Giambologna. detrarchitettma libri the Elders. Boboli Gardens. Nazionale.Sebastiano Serlio. 92. Neptune Fountain. frescoes in Sanmicheli's Villa Soranza. Bargello. Venice and The Louvre. Removal of St. many still in situ . Vincenzo Danti. Accademia. Florence. Arts. Florence. Mark. Venice. 9 1 Tintoretto. first and Susanna Tintoretto. six Labors of Hercules. 1537-47. Escorial. Museo Nazionale. Mark's and The Miracu- Body. Madrid. 95. Paolo Veronese. Kunsthistorisches Giambologna. Florence. Charles V. First [to Fifth] and prima (-quinto) II libra d'architellura Book of Architecture) published separately in . Florence. 96. Florence. Temptation of St. Treville di Castelfranco Cathedral. Boboli Gardens. Rome. / quattro Books of Architecture). : fragments preserved Museo in sacristy 102. Emperor 106. 100. 89. Florence. Mercury. lous Rescue 93. Giambologna. Mark's Body. {The 97. Museo Nazionale. Museo . Crucifixion of St. Castelfranco. del Nettuno. Vicenza. Museo Nazionale. Loggia dei Lanzi. Honor Conquering Pieta. of Civico. Conversion of St. Leone Leoni. Paris. Mark: Finding of St. Patriarcale. [ The Four published Venice. Borgo S. Daniele da Volterra. Venice. Florence. Paul. 99. Library of Printed Books. Jacopo. Venice. Valerio Cioli. ceiling frescoes of the Liberal Arts. Piazza loi. Venice. Bacchus. Paolo Veronese. Museum. Bargello. Peter. Woman Washing Child's Hair. Michelangelo. Venice Paris. of the Saracen by St. Cathedral. Anthony. Paolo Veronese. S. thf Pool ofBethesda. ceiling paintings 94. 90. Andrea Palladio. Bargello. Giambologna. in Doges' Palace. 104. Florence. Tintoretto. Deceit. Seniinario 103. Rossi: Bargello. 107. 98. 1570. Vienna. Portrait of Michelangelo. Rocco. Michelangelo. Brera. Palazzo Vccchio.

PART THREE The Renaissance outside Italy SUPl'LEMtM ARV NOI F.S.S 4 19-420 . I'A(.1-.

whose Breviary King Philip the Fair ( 1 296. Special Gothic media like stained glass and ivory carving were equally traditional. the works the typical vehicle of the finest thirteenth- Bibliotheque N'ationale. communities stimulated 330. All the Gothic cathedrals had been begun. They had implied roughly equal importance among towns of varying sizes from Chartres to Paris. Denis. Stories of David. such that forty years after the book was made. Pucelle was also a personality. nearly every work of art in the fourteenth century eval. Hours is a compilation of an individual's for the year. 131 7. rich but small like a jewel. The . Pucelle's masterpiece measuring is Book of Hours made for 331). Architecture dominated the other is completely medi- most obviously is arts in the so. A very few outstanding works of sculpture show innovation. fig. of to gieat en- Bibliotheque N'ationale. prayers no two books have the same text. illumination 9" x 5". in the fourteenth century is it the royal person's prayer book. Paris all the arts in one project. ?). page 6 7'8" Denis Preaching. Vellum. for 329) represented real. Maciot( St. As the cathe- less is reli- preeminent. thick people. in vigorous actions channeled through flowing Gothic rhythms. A Book of a than three by four inches less Queen Jeanne d'Evreux (fig." in her will be- He is only the second outstanding French illuminator known to us by name. in gieat center in Paris. illuminated page in the Life dral often destined for churches. Jean Pucelle Everywhere north of the Alps. on flat backgrounds. 1296. and though gious themes continued • now has today. it Philip the Fair. were 4 i. and only continuations and annexes were to follow.'2". it had Gothic world. the royal family illuminated page in the Breviary of Vellum. The one widespread change occurs in manuscript illustration. 329. Naturally its influence from Italy helped this along. But ing the dominance Master Honore. preceded by an anonymous sea but followed by more and more frequent allusions to admired artists. Jean Pucelle (records A c. and perhaps for that reason was unlikely to seek out change. but it also involves a gieat original personality. His predecessor a generation before had been Master Honore from Amiens. the queen queathed 'my book by Pucelle. and they had interlocked terprises by their bishops. Paris was achiev- was becoming the main patron. 334). Paris century achievements. Si. 1 large shift was also going on in the condi- tions of patronage.1. 1 323-d.

medieval it and foxes behavior. Jean Pucelle. with lively groupings of Paris street 330). pagan the Arioralion of the I idols falling to the and his ground.2" X 2 Metropolitan 1 '2". he draws dollhouses. illuminated page in the Belleville Brevian. New York . running up and physical filled as live crea- thrusts. and light in Italy. links and stretch fluid continuities two symptoms of down and the Gothic to create allusive through which people themselves. or a night scene atmosphericallv fresh as Taddeo Gaddi's 332. he would only count the scenes directly all beams and in front. in which the its frame (fig. whether real or fantastic. These annexed scenes Pucelle's depth probing are personal tendency to break allocation of data in clear slots. a little Saul and David. the artist wlio illustrated a Life of Saint Denis for King Philip the Tall in 1317 (fig. showing anecdotes of games. flat most obvious innovation Pucelle's to explore is depth. main 332). Annunciation. modern He is also device.Again in his grotesques.n Pucelle. just classifies does not ignore the everyday physical it another section of in its system. crowds. may be 1302-1319). fights. illuminaied in the Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux. Maciot (docs. the first to a province. with receding (figs. 1325-28. (Contrary to a cliche. and Pucelle may have been But if that were all. The Museum Cloisters. page 9 1/2" x 6 Biblioihdque Nationale. the ornainental rectangles that had previously paragraph-ends glow into the margins tures.leading master of Pucelle's youth. page 3 1.) Pucelle uses these marginal types and adds a new from one. of Art. below the Flight into Egypt. but in a still diagiamined environment. people acting out in These schemes are taken fiom Duccio. importing another for the droleries developed in English little figures in import an invention into famous had recently that These are the illustration. 331. such as the fables of apes mock human that art world. Grisaille and color on vellum. below Magi we see the Massacre of he Iinioceiils.'. and lovemaking unconnected with the —sometimes quite official scenes but often paro- dies of them. Paris 1/2". 332). Vellum. He loves spatial the intensely geometric figure as 331. them. 1323-26. page Jea. the margins beside formal scenes comic. as local talent. story is The margin sprawling out is then likely show the tougher or earthier part of the holy event: the margin of the Resurreclio)i in the Brevito ary of Belleville shows the sleeping soldiers. . rooms with walls around except and shadow. as in and natural anecdote of a a spiral staircase.

hunting. ture of thick donjon towers 268 frescoes. modulated than even his. of the popes for seventy years (1309-78). But ant in is still he remakes the calendar through his sense of nature and the visible continuum of organic just as life. mixit is surprising to us but the insistent temperaments of more blaring and Matteo 's courts. We 333). peo- ple WTinging hands. that was gradually built immense structure that is was also one of the from earliest. Charles V's rebuilding of the Louvre. His palace frescoes recall the style width n'y". gray. and even his obvious dependence on Simone Martini may have been acquired or X'iterbo. in warming the increasingly green flat are likely to label which. is aristocratic patterns to preceding King A casual Barna both manage to use their master's more subtle and if and open The most relations. The world itself in famous invention. entire visible area i4'io". but secular paintings have a among buildings we have lower far chance of survival than church paintings (just as ruins of castles but sur- viving churches). reinforced there. Pucelle a Gothic draftsman of flowing line and a medieval artist whose vehicle is a part of some larger object. settled on the ground plumply and jumpy intermore passionate and Matteo in rocky landscapes. with figures strolling before a wall of landscape (fig. landscape of trees grows twigs and then loses leaves. Both alter Simone's twining line to make the people thicker. adorned with palace through their stay illustration of the transition It The home 45)' the series of the mark less life a personal note. this as the style of tapestries. Chamber of the Deer. French Painting. and he uses his Italian sources for in his style tive purposes. in his case a book. 47).the best surviving more earthy. since artists. It kind of picture inventory. excitedly finding themselves penetrating the world. near 333. of Simone's other chief pupil. so he is 28). seem perhaps to have evolved later in imitation of such murals. Barna da Siena (see Avignon fig. and his calendars still emphasize systems for dividing up the cosmos. Secular frescoes of this kind were probably frequent in being described in chivalrous castles.later (see fig. In of Saint Martial (1344- most startling wall has churches the saint founded. is an now. (docs. a as its theme all the them as a rougher and more presents . Palace of the Popes. castle to palace. beating and dropping things. height of Rome. 1336-1368) from We can think of him among we know his work only after he got to . with loose The only competition for Paris was Avignon. a motion set is the theme of his most of illustrations in the Brevi- month by month. These frescoes were painted under and the supervision of the papal master painter priest Matteo Giovanetti French Fishing. hawking. As he likes color less than ranges of inexhaustible in motifs of action. Fresco portion . ary for a calendar in which. 1340-1380 2. new posi- are the pleasant scenes of fishing. being helpful numerous rooms.\vignon. without human a its observers except for a peas- December who comes to cut branches. romances.

King John II of Frarut. illuminated page in the Bible of Jean de Sy. tough. poems of Guillaume de Machaut figures in manuscripts for the open landscape with monumental loose. But Gothic painting. ( constructing people out of smooth tall urves and flattening the panorama of hills. 334). This may explain the style of the leading artist at King John ll's court. page 16" X 12".umcqm CoutDuiif MxiTRE AUX BoqUET AUX ? 335. Biblioth^que Nationale. Paris Panel. often honored as the fig. training makes the artist modify this vision conservatively. whose varied works have been grouped under the name Maitre aux Boquetaux imaginatively to Paris was ("Master of the Thit kets"). 1360. In ing the a late work. 22" x 13". produced with a working symbiosis of Gothic curvilinear formulas and solid cubic modeling. 1355-C. even when reduced to an elementary form in this outpost. the Sienese teachings were highly capable of relating new problems. ( ! Lot and Abraham.^ time relate to an a sense of breadth that reflects and with the same rather bunched effect as Matteo's. the portrait in profile first (c. The least heavy of his works. 1370). CA'^bo. 1380. link to Matteo appears may be this master's. more sophisticated and perhaps the largest city in Europe.primitive version of Sienese spatial surveys like the Loreiizettis'. French painting.erottlfiuai(hrqao2am iioir icfaxpnurqucnontnif tw mmuats. This and the hunting landscapes done under Matteo's eye suggest that. Vellum. . but no doubt Parisian artists watched Avignon as a clue to Italian methods. Paris ii .\ closer in a panel painting that of King John 334. The Louvre. if fiuc. first illustrat- (c.

but both patrons also made use of rather more modern an active patron. tra- ditions from Pucelle's difficult refinement of ob- Beauneveu (1364-66) and other tombs. civil servants. 1360-1402). his portrait When he made the talents. He was King emerges ideas. of Charles and his queen. standard enthroned bearded tough thrust of gesture. letting plump queen and fiesh-faced king get their dignity from frank human individuality. King Charles 336. Paris chronicler most esteemed he had apparently been Charles V's.'' he naturally produced sculptor's figures without context or color. for King John (1355-C. 336). are the small illustrations in the large Bible witli the commentaries of Jean de Sy. painted Louvre over into a palace. it seems. but the minimizing of pattern in folds and face is new. The Bureau shows us a sharp inquiring Chancellor face above his conventionally folded robes. curious wanting for Charles' broth- artist. ture illustrated Froissart recorded Andre servation seems confirmed by the case of when he gesture and folds. trees are strung alternately fig. The Louvre figures are lost. fig. (docs. style. and er the 335). as a sculptor favored by King John's son Charles \' Cliarles about 270 books Accomplishments around King Charles 3.they are really his and not simply the product of a V group but strong carvings in the High Gothic tradition. from the Chapel of the Quinze-X'ingt Paris (c. three royal per- and three sons. and the whole figure is independent from the building. but their appearance may be guessed from echoes such as the nine statues in three high rows on the north tower at Amiens Cathedral (1376-80): three saints. is the most brilliant sculp- ture surviving from this period. 1380-85). Stone. height 6'5". along a base line with no other environment. he built a grand spiral staircase with lifesize statues exterior.1380. both sinuously for his V V . The Louvre. Also an echo of the Louvre project. The of himself and relatives on subjects and their location its make an instructive contrast with the rows of saints carved in the thirteenth century for cathedral doorways. is as 1370. Figures forceful and The tendency to slip tions back to provincial much at first. a own duke of Berry (c. with made Later. constantly but letting it be as in a men repeated with few varia- vigorous Gothic formula of rhythmic The contemporary him as the duke's realistic. Some High Gothic open and undetailed in its in sculp- solidity as this.

* oner. 1370. entire dimensions --" ^9'5"1 All the king's architectme. with King Charles and use during the tracery it Louvre.Parement de Smboniu. a Master of 33H). 1368-1381). the figures are sharply drawn in grand curves. dressed academic gown of the book as a gift (fig. the III- its and there even probing depth in small scooping ways. The king. focus ness of the Paremenl might seein. In the austere denial of space patronage. Flemish more painters who dominated French original than Beauneveu's looking than the Parement in modeled without line. which build like artist spatial (docs. It is the frontispiece of a Bible. Silk. seems to push his . and the artist. Gothic frames the scenes. filled Queen Jeanne kneeling in their own niches. his only certain painting.) as the is an One mild phase. but his unknown Master on to physicality may be is so modern that the spaceless- a conscious device of expressive stress. Paris have been rare as a large paint- was made. fig. unstructured freedom to move. in in the which the seated king. 337 center portion. (His father had in battle and died a knightly impressive big picture remains. drawn white (c.Arts. in this casual. and is lost as a result of all of the is illustrating books. strong fonns and also communicate the physical pressure of their pain. since we later find the a relatively been captured when ing intermittent struggle with England during which his reign The Parement may a vast amount of the sculpture Hundred Years' War. receives opposite page whom we know as Jean Bondol He is the first of a long line of John of Bruges. silk cloth for the front in black because it was It of for ritual mourning period of Lent. The leading role of book illustration in carrying modernity seems confirmed by one more remarkable portrait of King Charles. and the names of the king. the donor. in a royal is far and more forward- its soft glowing forms. Paremenl de Xarbotme a nine-foot-wide altar. is by a huge inscription recording the date. space firmly established by a squarish platform. the Beauneveu. 1371. This. The . neaily major painting. pris- known 337). As if cued by the standard decorative frames. be regressing in time.

Organization overruled realism entirely in most fourteenth-century sculpture in France. but as works of Bondol they are odd since they are copied from a thirteenth-centui7 book that he needed to work out the old-fashioned themes. partly in of and most urban but in 1384 he inherited Flanders. discarding linear convention for a human realism eased by and grace. so it was con- venient to both sides for Philip to collect Flemish taxes but use the in Dijon. Vellum. Among Hetice Sluter's powerful reference to particular ex- coints. the Flemish managing their town governments. or England. 1371. Yet Bondol's only other surviving work is the design of a set of tapestries for the king's military-minded brother. and the king's other brothers. as in the transept portals set in a big tended to cool down encyclopedic system that their individual differences.chair forward to see the book better. the first gieat realists of the Netherlands. but always in the context of figures borders of France. . Rijksmuseum Meermanno-Westreenianum. and it offers smooth stamped-out curand robes. Since part of Flanders was outside the of Ciiartres. partly in his provincial capital of Dijon. from his in father-in-law. tapestries 1375).1405). Thus the Paris court had ambiguous values. The Hague 4. and Burgundy. duke of Burgundy. the duke of soft light Anjou.\ monumental realism had emerged at times High Gothic sculpture.^ (other These are the oldest existing than small fragments). Germany. more stimulating Jean Bondol. tions The assump- about inodeliug here are related to recent painting in Florence. Frontispiece. Claus Sluter from Haarlem (docs. the richest part of the Netherlands. He lived these is the greatest sculptor of the century and one of the most original in any century. so artists 272 his feudal court we working at the royal and ducal tiie . he also considered that the best artists were Flemish. This accidentally surviving page shows the origin of a widespread phase of Renaissance style. the dukes of Berry far 538. received an appanage from his father King Joint II almost equal to his oldest brother's royal inheritance. illumination 8 3/4" X 6". such as Maso's (see colorplate 4). fiom 1380-^^. were patrons. merchants were concerned about ent. on the complex theme of the Book of Revelation (c. money to adorn Like his brothers. he became even more independ- framed and Paris. Bible of Jean de Vaudetar. Glaus Sluter Philip the Bold. Even the vilinear formulas for faces find town-bred rare realistic face seems to be treated as a type.

Claus Slvter. licight of each figure about 5'! .)%'' rpnF 1^ 1^ ^ •411^ ( ^ L «^ WJ^ ( lj:i~ slijiir. and Chartreuse de Champmol. 341. Portal. Dijon T alii „ J Dijon. 1393. 340. height of kneehng figui Jerimiah. Moid. Sione. Charlreuse de Champmol. David. un the Wi-ll of Moses. Stone.

Alabaster.Arts. he modifies them to small now more separate statues in an arcade. has as another expressive factor its environment. these mixtures were more marked when the figures were painted and Jeremiah had 342. around the sarcoph- process recalls Italian thir- teenth-century painting but ture of the ished work. 1404.perieuce. either side duke and duchess kneel. not least the Zuccotie of Donatello (see look stretches the self-sufficient rhythm of the system near to the breaking fxjint. more ex- came to Dijon from Brussels. He next built (1395-1404) inside this mon- huge Crucifixion group over a fountain. The its loosened relation to A frieze tomb (carving begun of small mourners all agus was traditional. but those kneeling thereby leave a gap above themselves which is all the more conspicuous. but irregularly. by Sluter fig. The base survives in place. merely resulted very^ [>leu- showing endless variety of incidental evocations of grief. Sluter new Carthusian monastery (fig. Charles (see significance. ranls. even a result of a later duke's discouraging heavy ornamental brackets above and below the figures. from the tomb of Duke Philip of Burgundy. eased by this earliest work which shows new principles but only a small change in the visual qualities of the sculptured figure. partly as directed by the people across the door openings involves real space typi- faces. s clearest predecessor. natural yet cubically simplified 339) M (fig. These become the famous and therefore impressive. almost sloshing around the feet. his eyeglasses! Powerful particularism in contrast with patterned background reappears in Sinter's 274 last. 341). scheme 342). 340. David's is set in a crown and formal curls. Zachariah's soft old flesh mixes with a frizzled beard. Jeremiah's bony and fleshy face is framed by an ornamental neckband. Broadly it affected all ture. most of all when the cal soft robes hide even their Sluter's shift of to particularity a emphasis from organization Renaissance innovation and a classic Gothic door-sculpture arrangement. to sculp- fig. to work as an assistant. In 1393 he carved the doorway sculpplosive birth. In Burgundy and Flanders. set against the central door post. the fantastic naturalism being constantly underlined by ornaIt mental patterns. supported by imposing weightiness. and are received by the \'irgin. and are soft and pliable so that an imposing materialism gives the figures reality and of folds. height Musec des Beaux-. These are set in fiont of panels. again loosening the is since naturalism at this later date has a violent. each presented by a patron saint. This is basically underlined by 1404). the year after the duke inherited F"landers. with six prophets (c. yet these qualities rhythm The ducal faces reflect the realism in King V and Queen Jeanne at the Quin/e-\'ingt 336). the tension between a firm static frame and the naturalistic mobile figure is basic to Sluter appears within each figure too. figs. unfin- removal European internal are infiltrated into a standard Gothic linear it in copies for fifty years. weepers. Mourner. Robes are thicker and heavier than usual. 93). The has its is chief impact on the Flemish painting most famous through Jan van Eyck. the duke's Claus Sluter. but he took over in 1389 when his master died. 1400-1403. under the name of the astery a Well of Moses. where Philip was planning his dynastic tombs. Dijon 18". . like a musical rest. Other- wise his sources are a problem.

but tends to ignore the trickiness spatial of its forms. and Broederlam's part was the outer surface of the wings (colorplate 41). how- straight on. like Sluter. and not as makes much the highly tuned Pucelle's look primitive. even while using every bit of available surface. Panel. develop in this vehement environment a pushy vigor of action. and making our eyes climb a mountain where people. These had. 267-68). a famous figure he walks in front of the donkey.Broederlam and Bellechose 343. produced the central gilded wood relief of the al- mobility of did at tarpiece and two hinged wings that fold over it. The result was this artist's only surviving in the fat Joseph. a wayside shrine. 1381-1409) paint them the duke of altarpiece. . push energetically through the spaces. Dent: When 1416. but so does the light. 5'3"x6'io The Lou\Te. blending in depth from tone to tone. but he has modified . Its is not Burgundian but origins are seen slightlv in the Maitre in Pucelle aux Boquetaux. It is ever. since later religious wars destroyed what he comedy home. Broederlam environment. They are oddly shaped. suggested more fully the sense of restless hu- energy. an earthy matter-of-fact peasant whom Bruegel will later see in the same way. Crucifixion. with a base of frame. man The manipulation of spaces that now supports it. in big curving robes. Broederlam's elaborate and articulate working of space people. Broederlam's vivid low- most obvious drinking as only one phase of the three-dimensional work. He does not fight against the brating physical activity of people. but primarily and the hunts real spaces. Henri Bellechose. VV'here Sluter built on real mass. which Flemish. Paris Burgundy wanted a Flemish and let Melchior Broederlam (docs. constructing one complicated building in a corner view next to another seen Sienese painters (see pp. he sent the panels to Ypres there. and is all Not only do the people the people. one indoors and one outdoors. and a castle cling.-X Flemish sculptor. with Communion and Martyrdom of Si. Sluter and a revolutionars concern for vi- on each he had to crowd two scenes. lubricating the flow of force so that the beautiful opalescent glows move over Broederlam share the surface. Jacques de Baerze.

Ring Charles V and Anjou and Burgundy. Width 56' is an incised cube rather than a cushiony mass. Xnrhoiiiif. but Beauneveu's only surviving work for the duke is painted. 344). and illustrated manuscripts.the pressure of physical motion relatively One niitmeiit to paint the altarpiece for the Carthusian little. Beyond he was happy the dukes of his re- s[X)nsibiliiies as a feudal ruler. Henri Bellechose from Bra- bant (docs. from which extraordinary individuals this Broe- like derlain stand out. and 338). but also a soft surface continuity be- until his death in 1415 (earlier he had apparently tween figures and lobes and several small votive images ol the dead Christ seem to reflect his presence there). and statues of the royal family more which a his inventory. after Charles X The who died. . room as rebuilt in is destroyed it. painted Book of Hours which is full of ex- . emerges fiom a typical family of builders his brother had done the duke of Burgundy's — Carthusian monastery (begun 1 at Dijon. other large altarpiece sur\'ives that ilie Burgundian court commissioned from a Flemish painter. Guy de Dammartin. The tomb duke's 405)^ presents his marble recumbent statue by Jean de Cambrai (d. at Poitiers (fig. the figures of prophets illustrating a psalter in the sculptural way already noticed. There we see his grand dining hall with three fireplaces at one end surmounted by a carved balustrade. 1416-1440).-^ndre Beauneveu. Limbourg Brothers of Berry and the riie duke of Berry was less oriented to politics and war than the other brothers. of estries. taking along his tap- jewel cases. Great Hall. 1438). duke's came first sculptor was . many He traveled to live among rich castles he built. a life the of luxury and patronage. old-fashioned in presenting several inci- When dents on one gold panel. Jean Malouel was court painter in Dijon monastery. Chateau of the Duke of Berry. 1330. who The Duke fulfilled Jean's com- as in the Flemish Bondol Both qualities will reappear. 343).martin.Another of Charles the Master of the for the 276 duke a I'airiiicjil ilr V's artists. but the form 344- Grv de Dam. its characterizing realism betrays admiration for Sluter. The elegant and less individual than Charles Vs. (see altarpiece. Its figures have a physical impact of almost brutish massiveness. hundred survive out of three hundred in Only one castle remains. fig. exemplifies average trends worked in Paris. 6. he died his position in Dijon was taken over by another Fleming. fig. The 1388 after the English had duke's master mason. Poitiers. representing Saint Denis (14 Hi.

like the pack of hunting dogs copied from Giovannino de' Grassi's notebook of animal motifs (see p.j 16) duke engaged Pol and his two broth- the most famous manuscript illustrations of this age. Vellum. tlie I'arrmfiil but freer in color and depth. shifting little but from the schemes of the Maitreaiix Boquetaux less linear and more joiiuy in detail. but in of Berry's various homes. But his favorite painter seems to have been anotiier Fleming. and other contemporary explorers of landscape and less surpris- realism also conceals art. peasants plow or the fields. 1384-1410). illuminated page in the Trfs Riches Heures 1416. and more than his in cast shadows and clouds. Mus^e Cond^. Jacquemart de Hesdin (dots. is of Bern 1416. the TrPs Riches Urines of I he Diikr 0/ Berry (1415-16). in the Tris Riches fieures in collaborative teams." he has a personal style than less the Gothic Master of the I'uremenI and a ern one than Broederlam. the Ires Riches On itig. People enact their lives from of castles which render accurately the duke is a somewhat twostage effect of front and back as in Jacquemart. in another ladies stroll and pick flowers. records typical activities of each in Brussels. and the sense of luxury is heightened also by the artificial j-hyihm of very thin curving line. less mod- offers processional It but lively groups before spatial backdrops. 346. illuminated page of the January. illumination 8" x Chantilly The identity of his controversial. 279). Chantillv picssive looping rhytliiii> ot line like work Duke Vellum. Musie Condf. who produced 1 402-d. If his man- hand peasants. When we know Broederlam. with the typical Flemish soft organic surface. like month (col- 345. since he was evidently a who worked ager October. there an atmospheric blend as in Broederlam. Duke of Berrv. 5'. ers. In one month the duke feasts. the Boucicaut Master (see p. illumination 9" x 6 The Limbolrg Brothers. ^46). Yet of course it still remains an extraordinary document of life and work can be isolated in one of the duke's Books of Hours. After Jacquemart died the de l. i. of the ".345- T"^ LiMBOURG Brothers.imbourg (dots. the famous calendar which. especially orplate 42. In other sit by a and the realism fire is months the duke's while snow covers as specific as in Broe- . the other Heures seems hand its tracings from older art. of now others. figs. a I^te Gothic device like Lorenzo Monaco's in the same years (see fig. 59). 102).

Some Conclusions whom it does not imply social protest. the dukes. Thr Virgin with King Charles VI Knelling. displaying the 278 result is 347. the second phase of the power. The picking flowers.Mtbtting is a social Rohan Hours. though less famous reign. It was carved in 397 by Thomas Prive and Robert Loisel. Enameled gold with Church. medieval habit of classifying and all visual realism. backw'ardness. One bauble New survives. sat on the and prayed from Books of Hours.* whose hard mass has a fascinatingly gauzy surface. in the royal burial church of Saint Denis the one remarkable tomb at this time is of the swashbuckling Bertrand du Guesclin (fig. and of course not The Boucicaut Hours and 7. various ladies strolling are working. The the who became insane and under Hundred Years' War Agincourt. Generals are the most interesting Paris patrons. Parish . many cities. contrast of classes was con- as in the contemporary poetry of Chaucer. jewels. 349). His gold and jewels. "the little golden steed. symbolizes the lost at to him but of central loss artists did not come to his uncles. the world in King Charles was \'I. height 24". Jean de Liege. giving the object iar It 347). a fantastic jeweled gold-andenamel ornament (later pawned) gift to in which the king kneels before the and groom wait below his horse (fig.derlam's Joseph (see colorplate 41). 348). ordered the finest military governor of Paris painting of the Book of Hours as marvelous as the duke of Berry's Ires Riches Hemes." seems more prom- inent than the Virgin. rep>orting. were melted and dispersed. 1415. His father Charles \"s so) slots. a Year's him in 1404 from Queen Isabel. and returned and sharp. Another rare survivor is a quick ap- and irregular the tomb of the count and countess of Mortain (1412?). is life and the among more castles. 1403. the all graphic through the contrast with the huge The sense of seeing everyday classes inescapable. It is its a famil- mixture of anecdotal realism and radiant glow. recorded in long inventories. 1 the latter a French pupil of a Flemish sculptor of Charles V. fig. a contempwrary as true as the peasants report describes the morning routine of the lady of a manor who walked with her grass attendants. scious . But (despite our temptation to see this in the duke's a modern What we have luxurious book. but shows preciation of Sluter in its rich surface ugly detail. \'irgin while typical of this court art that the horse is name. a (finished and in c. The marshal Boucicaut. It is extreme in The unknown modernity Boucicaut Master loves the Gothic and feudal.

tend- aristocratic references. Its space modern. its visitor. a very fat shepherd with a big bagpipe and his thin wife are lower<las5 character types shepherds The fill who fill the page as anecdotes of the extra scenes in F. but figures are. developing from Broederlam. illuminated page in the Hours of art. (1415 or 1425) a very different and the is effect not is at all like the popular drama of the time.s Hemes. There is seen on some tombs of God looming above. This tailed "International Gothic. with an oversize is as that culminate in (fig. 1398-1403). simpler works. lomb of Bertrand du Guesclin. time marked provincial extremism. Abbey Church. 3f. while the gant train and with its use of ornamental line. with St. shrunken corpse the time. another Book of Hours it is Rohan called the Hours. BoL'ciCAiT Master.o). Vellum. token of even partly medieval 349.nglish miracle plays. deep rooms us let jewels but ordinary objects picked out by real light. who has left may have been Jacques another Flemish artist illustrated for the ducal Anjou family. physical exaggeration ciianges in the Passion scenes. to a remote audience. medieval and modern intersect when sun rays are shown by gold Interior spaces are lines. page for by now themes and the Renaissance has re-observed left all the Musiejacquemari-Andr*. The Viiilation. But he explores space and light subtly. this The expressive the tone of the play Evei-\'man. fashionably ele- pages. as sensuously alive as landscape. Marshal Boucicaut. partial side views in see glittering no longer fabulous little objects. with distortions of honor the famous scene of man's death a dried." it is gradually shifting gleams that avoid the front-back is often defined by discontinuities of the Tres Riches Heures calendar ing to be abstracted from nature. In the scene of the shepherds informed of Christ's birth.Robert Loisel and ^48 Thomas Priv^. violence that insists and simplifies makes the message loud and but in own This its is the last clear today. In the famous Visilalion the Virgin's and her book are held by pages. 279 . length 6'3". 1397. marshal's coat of arms everywhere and using a line rhythm as thinly graceful as any in the Trps Riclie. Coene (docs. The many other. X little later anonymous artist. from a later ow'ner. 1 1 ' > 8' Paris only a trace of the old patterns. Denis Because there aie so unusually few regional differences in commonly European art of about 1375-1425. but this light runs back to an atmospheric panorama more visu- modern than anything before ally in north or south Europe. and therefore pleasurable. Stone.

Panel. only some edges of robes have Gothic mixes both traces. Paris 351. and pointed towers. being ornamentally linear and vice Pisanello and the Boucicaut Hours show Iransitional artists are coping in their techni- (al veliide with the shift social psychology. from feudal to capitalist fiom Gothic line to Renais- . 350. and are selected because as natural objects they are already consistent with Gothic ornament. a provincial English panel of II kneeling before the Madoruia. as in the Riches Heures and the Rohan Hours.excludes too much. The Judgment of Mankind. the same applies in other paintings to greyhounds. embroidered dresses. who agree in the soft surfaces of their forms. naturalism versa: this. frl-s Some of ihe most brilliant works fully synthesize both. In such works only the flowers are realistic. and tion of earlier Gothic. . like King 351). The Wilton Diptych. atid saiue modeling. or the Wilton Dip- all line. London 280 V 7". Other International Gothic linear. Richard is almost Lorenzo Monaco. armor. Usually the style in various suggestive ways. 10 Bibliothique Nationale. illuminaled page in the Rohan Hours. like Gentile artists are entirely non- da Fabriano and Sluter. Vellum. A is too much like the defini- better definition combines with nonlinear naturalism that shows this linearity people and things in ways that emphasize their Gothic social status. feudal homage paid to a court filled with long-winged angels. National Gallery. each 19" x 12".Some International tych (fig.

wings of an aliarpiece. . Musee des Beaux-Arts. Dijon into Egypt. Annunciation and Visitation: Presentation and Flight 41. 1394-99.coLORPLATE Melchior Broederlam. Panel. each 66" x 49".

Musee Conde. 1416. .The Limbourg BROTHERS. illuminated page 42. illumination 8" X5". Chanlilly coLORPLATE in the Tres Rukes Hemes of the Duke of Berry. Vellum. April.

<.COLORPI. Mu::hcj.. 6. Pr. .ATE 4_J. National Gallcr\. 45" 37". Panel...i3ljo bj.. Masilk IntuDuRii.

Ghent Cathedral of St. Ghent Altarpicce .>sed i. 1 1 6 a 77. HuBERT and Jan VAX Eyck. Bavo. .COLORPLATE 44. 14215-32.

Stone. Ivory. He had been educated in France and marKing John ried so ll's sister.3).Prague and 8.-. Prague . and quantities of ivories (fig. width about 19". even that by a leading Flemish siulptor in 353. brass so took over as administrator of the cathedral in 380 and had to be added to the the much tombs (so well h and with much like the nineteenthknown to everyone todav is easily applied to English known altarpieces. and some of the heads are probably standard types of realism. But the latest do seem to as the figure of This who 1 is be directly personal. clearest in the Everywhere new ways in set. . seem be devices for liveliness. the fourteenth century that of the Sienese and of Pucelle did not reach. 336). Following Its The most intense influence from the court art of on the court art of Prague. conservative its effect. 1367 (Jean de Triptych of St. Sulpicf du Tarn. and stained glass. 352) (fig. groups of stocky busy figures. there survives an old-fashioned painling sculpture almost mechanical in tensionless thick curves. 3. But the succeeding architect was Peter Parler (1330-1399) from south Germany. flat in rubbings). church and close variant secular textiles. Wmzil von Radecz. and himself ently a kind of credit for the building. Charles IV (1316-1378). became Holy Roman Emperor Paris was and concentrated great resources on his ancestral capital.Spanish French Iwok illustration.-V appears everywhere in tomb sculpture. the head of a large staff whose small-scale church sculptures. as V Charles in Paris (see fig. as in archaic to Greek sculpture. century Gothic revival from playing cards. . car^•ed in the triforium gallery of this cathedral a series of portrait busts princes. Cathedral. and yet their smiles. head of Wenzel von Radecz. — the emperor. Musie de Cluny.1380-85. Paris 352. —appar- and other notables. Peter Parler. list It is not surprising that the portraits seem naturalistic. can be seen in many Between 1374 and 1385 he cities. sometimes too fecilely called the most distant point that maices this art international. it was natural that he brought an architect from Flanders to supervise Prague Cathedral. 13x11". the king of Bohemia.

The Kiss of Judas. a its Prague (which soon ceased center) was the 354- Conrad von Einbeck. 354). The grimness of his realistic figures of the mourners of Christ. Maurice. but the massive breadth of these glowing people by Tommaso Theodoric may have different. and of his self-portrait (fig. thus producing a haunted cluster mannered reworking of of figures that suggest a Bondol. be be- 355). Theodoric's truest heir (docs. or 1414) signed the most notable 286 woody even though . is when got the idea the emperor brought paintings da . figures tend not to (fig. of a church in Halle. Panel. Self-portrait. height 20". for thirty-five years. Conrad von Einbeck (docs. may be found more the so for rigid traditional symmetries in his old age. from is panel painters. Grand paintings in this style are Prague until the emperor's court painter Master Theodoric (docs. His only talented lubricated by successor in anonymous Master of to the be a Tfebon (formerly Wittingau) Altarpiece. soft translucent in flesh tones and startling in tlieir ir- Where lie came unknown. fiercely violent. using the The explanation Conrad carved them in the fact that conventions of his Gothic youth along with more recent attitudes.\Iodena back from Italy (see fig. Sandstone. St. Hanover exploitation of light and space. minster Abbey).'" w-ho thins the proportions down again and emphasizes tlie glow- ing surface light. The only worthy continuation of the Prague group nearby is the work of the extraordinary sculptor and architect. is Master Bertram 1367-1415) working in Hamburg. Thus his nonschematic modern painting gains new if somewhat awkward lumbering grandeur. seems to anticipate the expressionistic much vein in German later art. one of the ports of the Hanseatic League. Master Ber- tram in turn formed Conrad von who (in 1404 German painting Soest. though retaining 355. he applies paint in tiie Bondol manner and even more like provincial Flemish regular bulkiness (colorplate 43). Bondol's tradition Master Bertram. the to become increasingly restricted from the modern excitement about the physical thickness which and energy of the figures the next century of German will be basic in painters. 50). 1382-1416).tomb of Queen Philippa of Lifege's typical in West- EiiRlaiid. seems Niederskchsische Landesgalerie. from Passion Altarpiece. He fills his narrative panels with densely painted thick-limbed figures in active there is motion and no space and the hind the front plane collision. all being embedded in and conventional fold patterns. Halle opalescent color. 1359-1381) painted in and 1367 a series of panels with heads of saints. 20" square.

Conrad vo\ Sovsi.356. As this tradition is passed on. its fertility is widespread and long-lived though it is always provincial and limited. until he turned to Conrad Witz' more up-todate ideas. He was evidently most attracted by the Master of the Paremcnl de Narhonnf's crowd action (see fig. the leading Austrian painter of his time. Niederwildungen of the following generation in Dortmund near (fig. 287 . was in his youtii perhaps the last exjxjnent of the Prague for- mula. Conrad Laib of Salzburg (docs. and so he evolves intricate actions of weighted motion in broad swirling rhythms. center panel of Niederwildungen Allarpi lu-j/n ( Stadtkirche. 356)- He worked Dutch border. and thus nattraining by a renewed look at the urally modified his the prestigious Flemish masters. 337). it has become rid of Gothic conventions of me- chanical pattern in the mere process of sloughing off richness of resource. composed with a sharper grace than the local works. 1448-1457).

who worked both for the 1422-d. The third modern art was in duke of Burgundy. This rise of the administrative control of his Flemish properties. i (the first i'6"x I5'2" artists has corrected. was less concerned than his predecessors with French and feudal questions and more with close back later always tended to make begin with a it great person.\liai Looking now Rirhrs at Jan's Hemes piece iopenl. Observers looking 357. school from nothing was a simple idea that redis- Thus covery of the great earlier in his working at time the Flemish painters shifted to home.g. Jan van Eyck (docs. Jan van Eyck: the Ghent Altarpiece Certainly the mainstream of Flanders. Panel. Bavo. we see that the Tres of his antecedents to be . 1426-32. Hubert and Jan van Eyck. 1441). Philip the Good. work. Ghent 288 . and the Flemish Renaissance school of painting really begins. duke and for burghers (only the latter works survive). Ghem Cathrdral of St.

piece have plausible ideas is that he painted the Sluter-like more formal and less atmospheric. or f>olishing with emphatic festive light. and that the Boucicaui Master showed him reality as a sensitive continuum ol fied Human action light. jewels. and. we may when we reject Since Jan van Eyck certainly intended ask why he commands our resjiect realism as a criterion in art.agreed taught to) him real detail. after doing the figures. the meadow shifts our focus it by absorbing it in gentle light. that Sluter. instription died in 1. This is a basic Renaissance approach. and still life. observers say none. the AiDiiincialloti would mark the point where he stopped.Adam and Eve appear similarly at the far edges of the frescoes by Masaccio at the same date (see p. and the view through the window. generally lamb. Indeed. which Jan van Eyck's immense skill completely articulates. the dignity. as in the case of Shake- we know no other work by Hubert Many different parts of the altarbeen considered his. slightly. 74). decked with heav7 and shiny. a carved or painted frame). flanked by his usual is Judgment.\dam and Eve. shelf. What emerges is that \an Eyck does not simply copy reality (like the academic of later centuries for realists whom we his intense look have no re- proposes the fascina- aiT rivals in north Gerinany). crown M the and judgment. insistently massive with stiff is of Christ. prophets and saints. whose bodies are invaded by a slight duskiness. assistants in the I. as in Broederlam. This synthesis of mass and light may be ab- and niches portrait. these images can be . No doubt the idea of Jan van Eyck as "the beginning" also was reinforced by the ish first work to the is fact that his the largest produced by any Flem- painter in his century (though it has contempor- when we shift Boucicaui . and \'yd finally. Jan would then have painted the room with its shadows.Mary and John. was made for the chapel of a rich citizen (later inavor) of Ghent in the Cathedral (fig. and people and tremble glisten it from Sluter far buildings. showed him pleasure of specific the perhaps more significantly. The painting all shows the most authoritative mastery of realism. Its size and the odd variety of the pieces may mean that Its it was assembled from smaller previous projects.S57). limits their capacities (as a Gothic figure was limited by its environment. which would explain why the figures and the room in this hulking figures. The image smooth-fleshed and luminous. that the inscription forgery (a less likely is a occurrence than the giowth of such speculation around any famous (jerson as- sociated with few facts. labeled the Adofulion of the far edges are . the angels make odd faces robes sewn with pearls as they sing.The tion. tarilv with CUirist's sacrifice: in on the altar ed from C'hrist part refers to divine rule with a triple angels. and the brilliance of physical reality lower part deals elaborately but rather elemen- seriously. are aspects of the artists' . . that a naturalistic figure can be a digni- moimment. This altarpiece in sfject) but thai many parts. Holy l^mb is approach- by clusters of saints in categories. scene seem to be inconsistent. thus by honoring it. . with ceruinty. .426) finished it Some tells Hubert van Eyck (who and that his brother Jan Which parts did Hubert paint? us that began in 1432.\11 covered by folding the sides over the central panels. to 289 .Adam and Eve and the donors. This altarpiece is surrounded by controversies which luckily affect only secondary questions. Similar atmospheric continuity apf)ears in the large figures of . One of the more speare). the kneeling portraits of Mayor his wife (colorplate 44). the world. below. the Atmucialioii.ast and by the behind the fountain of life all sides The upper the center. and has the human effect that the massive figures are humbly aware that their environ- ment. by following deuil by stabilizing the forms. as in the Charles \' statues. whereupon we fi. alluding evidently to man's sin which Christ's sacrifice redeems. in the world. are also important.-Ml transformation of naturalism into an art that celebrates nature. this. about eleven by fifteen feet over-all.Master) where grass. and the modern very a toul field of vision (as solutely new. If so. it.\ed see images of the witnesses of God's action.

these learn that this not simply a portrait. culties. on a but there are always a few like candle and the gestures of the hands that can't quite be fitted in with such an approacii. fore him it is exceptional to a a dozen. at the frontier this . this the . both symbols of marriage. 12 1/4" X 3 1/2".Middle . But a better reading realism of the symbolic objects 290 that the an extra tribute to them with more strength. . The Madonna sents Jan's and faces new in the Cliurch (fig. charging It is is is Jan van Eyck. a medieval image. the shoes and the dog of fidelity are among the ones that survive even now. but not can almost truth can ism would demand for physical at its in yet. another factor illustrating is .Jan van Eyck: the Other Works 10.A epoch.All shows Jan's position between medieval and modern ways of attributing meaning to what we see. VS'hen |an makes symbols fit in this way. would not be realistic in any would not be subject to Jan's diffi- both needs.\rnolfini is wife (1434. but represents a specific moment (which |X)rtraits in principle marriage of the couple. 358) pre- on solid sur- utter realism of light his specialized notations of textures. we might suppose 358. This — extreme.\11 liis new status as in the generations be- find an artist with half these belong to the last ten years of his and most are small. Panel. Berlin-Dahlem .Ages not have required of them. hardly bigger than the book illustrations of his predecessors. nonsymbolic the lit level. It is spectacular and his the only double portrait. Some twenty (This other works by modern artist-personality. possible to see in a room. and the only to satisfy 359). the age of Impression—exclude symbolism. fig.) life. Thi Madonna in a Church. VV'e inspect the picture as full of ordinary objects. This ness of a portrait in a in a chandelier. part of Jan's presentation of the world as won- their high value. lit do not): the fact resolves the strange- bedroom and the one candle in the daytime. Mary stands bigger than a person could be because she symbolizes the Church.\ modern viewer could not accept the physically impossible scale. full-length portrait. that he is a realist by temperament. jaii van Eyck survive. forced by patrons to paint symbols. of its when we oddities cease to be puzzles is . based on symbolic meanings. Staatliche Museen. showing symbolic respect and so sizes. All the symbols have to be given a persuasive role as realistic objects. Jan wishes case the portrait of Giovanni .

see fig. 361) is more heads. leaving portraiture to minor. 23". (fig. the donor is not only in the same scale as the \'irgin (as earlier with Sluter.National Gallery. London Besides the significant {xjrtraiis in these works. 32" x . fig. scopic 359- Ja-">' va. we are meant to admire the traditional in this respect. 360). more conservaiive artists. Philip the Good's great minister C:hancellor Rolin eight of Jan's surviving paintings are simple portrait Along with shining jewels and the microand telescopic landscape. from wrinkles which never looks fussy because it always light-filled and thereby unified and glori- appears in another way in the \'irgin painted for fied. 1434.derful and dignified. Masaccio and others.339) but in the same space. Panel. The contrast is a . exact drawing of reality. The I'irgiii of Canon van der I'aele (1434-36. other than donors in 86). Giotanni Amolfim and His Wife. and without a saint to perform an introduction. including his wife's (1439. fig- 362)- This works contrasts with large proportion of all his his contemporaries in Florence. not (as with later realists) the artist's skill in in copying them. to armor-hinges. Natural reality as something splendid and holy is its minute. but equally extraordinary things. who painted no f)ortraiis religious works (see fig.n Eyck.

Bruges ^s . x>2 . Paiir. Jan van Eyck. Jan van Eyck. ^cL .i 'I '^ y 1\ i\ .J . Panel.- vs._. The Virgin and Chancellor Rolin. 26" x 24".360. Paris 361. Virgin of Canon van der 1434-36."(:js . 48" -"62"./ /' ->. The Louvre. Panel.^s . Groeninge Museum.

but he was soon eclipsed. in minor Deep shad- rooms and cool bright surfaces reinforce Still. in formal composition in the south. is and many details collect to world. Still in many other corollaries. partici- effects. Groeninge Museum. and only rediscovered by twentieth-century historians. Panel. He thus may have the better claim to be called the originator of Flemish Renaissance painting. some- Broederlam. Space and mass how are in active explosion. not on books for dukes in castles. Bruges 1 1 The Master . move toward more breadth and Jan's last works and simplicity than before. whom they labeled the Master of Flemalle. the objects he paints in altarpieces. 1439. helped out of trouble by the but local countess. with which Jan was key ingredient (it is later credited. In Jan (he specific detail real. 293 . of Flemalle . His early Bctrolhal 0/ tlif I'irgiti what like larly side (fig. In Florence the field of vision is make a which real. perspective and other tools then neatly subdivide down to the detail. Master (nearly is less all sure of himself. mature statements. one round and one square. at this earlier moment. In the oil that decade another painter emerged. there is a ten-year gap He is concerned with the same things and celebrates physical man and objects as before the sudden appearance of Jan van Eyck's pants in the holy mysteries. an officeholder they cannot be accepted and employed for some fur- during a ther later citizens' revolt against the aristocracy. Jan van Eyck. They first assem- bled a group of paintings that appeared to be the work of one artist. 13" x 10". aim as they are by Jan.token of a differing view of reality. 363) shows. to manage them is the topic of the experiment. with fewer and larger figures dominating an area. had long been used ways) for translucent or polished ows as Jan. the last of the older generation. as a He evidently developed medium. compared with Jan. he made few portraits) have a rougher and more impetuous form.\hex the death in 1416 of Pol de Limbourg. two buildings placed irreguby side. nearer one is packed with people crowding and bumping. Campin was the leading painter in the city of Tournai with many apprentices. The who appears in many documents (from 1406d.1444). The same difference emerges in the pleasure in texture in the north. 362. Portrait of His Wife. older than Jan yet already a worker on panels for city merchants. He is thus the master not only of the object but of its bonding into an optical continuum of the world. the spaces and volumes. Later they identified the artist (with high probability but not certainty) as Robert Campin.

294 Campin's close links with sculptors in For he designed statues and painted . The Prado. Panel. the altarpiece. it recalls Sluter and is to be thought of in relation to Tournai. Virgin of the Fire Screen. not dexterous. Master of Flemalle. 364). 24 3/4" X '9 '/4"National Gallery. in a fraginent (fig.'4"x34 1/2". 30 i. and we are often shown broad tops of objects. which curiously flatten the paintings for floor in perspective tends to rise too eyes ready to focus in that way. The much. as if seen from above. —an ordinary object doing duty as a symbol. 365). perhaps his largest painting.363 Master of Flemalle. but in a glaringly noticeable. Madrid 364. the Merode altarpiece of the A iimiciation (fig. Panel. A Crosi. with a is preserved only wicked thief and two spectators whole was almost the The Descent from the size of the Ghent writhing muscular figure outlined on the gold has an expressive force that Jan never sought. Thick people near furniture again fill his the floor and big jostling most famous work. even heavy-handed way. Betrothal of tht Virgin. as in Jan. 366). window The heavy planks with studs and hinges are typical Flemalle objects. London A Madonna in a room is a huge white-robed figure A firescreen sitting scarcely above the behind her neatly placed to serve as a halo is floor (fig. spatially expansive. The far end of the space is accented by shutters that project forward in a zigzag. roughly articulated.

Master of Flemalle. an. each wing 23" Cloisters. but too is known to say more. surviving fragment. like and originated the device of statuepaintings on the backs of altar- One two-figure group. 52' x 32'. the little tilt.4 >i»n(fi(/a/. 363 Center panel 25" square.o/i carved in 1428 by one Jean Delemer and painted by Campin. Panel.^fter about 1430 new ideas had passed him and he surts to imitate Jan and then Rogier van der Weyden. is preserved in bad condition. New York finished ones." It resembles the Master's dramatic thrusts of masses into space and suggests that painting and sculpture interacted in early Flemish art. Dtscenlfrom was more accessible. monochrome piece wings. Metropolitan Museum 366. sculpture and the straw halo are old-fashioned elements that inix but do not blend with the Master's eager modernity. Master of Flemalle. The of Art. Yet outside Flanders he was more imitated by young artists plete than |an was. . perhaps because model iiity tht Cross. Merode Altarpiece of the Annunciation. so that it is not surprising that he was forgotten later. this less com- . The gold backgiound.

which do the jostling themselves. 34" / 32". came in 1434 to settle in Basel. tilted 368. Basel I . more urbane artist with these standards. oddly supported by the complex altarpiece carpentry that cuts trarily as in a stained glass this. his up the space as arbi- window. Space is not much (fig.The 12. clean. from Altar of Salvation. Madonna and Child. with people But excite- ment about physical volume is mixed with elements more archaic than in the Master's work. deeply. and faces and objects become simple bright planes with graphic force. height 69".- all Flemalle Style in o\er Germain in ihe eaiK hlteeiith ten- were producing altarpietes w itli variations. not far away. art. in what has now become Switzerland. standards imported from Flanders. Kunstmuseum. The result is a cool. 296 Bavarian National Museum. Canvas on panel. Moser added a state- and complain no one cares for you any more. up at a wide Jacob Kaschaver. The 367. and a system as the heavy irregularly linked buildings who Its filled press each other at close quarters. Lucas Moser "from Weil" signed an altarpiece 143Z in the village of Tiefenbronn. Far up the Rhine near Switzerland. 1434-1444). Towns tun. figures standing and solid. 1443Paimed wood. making asymmetrical powerful gestures." The word "art" must have the sense of expert skill in the craft of painting. where the General Council of the Church was meeting."'' as modern in space has Master of Flemalle's. is of suitable theological elabo- showing the correlation of the Old and New Testaments in the twelve parts that survive 367). His a huge altarpiece there ration. turning or leaning poses or brought suddenly to life by vivid and even comic expressions. cry. strong. modern ones tend the few Germany and Elsewhere to be those by named — a typical correlation at the beginning of artists the Renaissance. slight regional Most are old-fashioned and anonyinous. almost like Broederlam's Joseph (see colorplate 41). Munich Conrad Witz. but Moser's distress must have been based really on having no one to share his new- ment to his signature: "Cry. hard and often with intricate against gold backgiounds are thick and very shiny in texture. explored. there is light but no air. Conrad Witz (docs. But when there is space it is Flemallian. fiercely energetic image. But from the town of Rottweil. On the fi-ame of only surviving work.

L'sing his ter's figures. Master of the Aix Annunciation. The \'icnnese Jacob Kaschauer (who was also a painter) known from one set of painted statues made in i is 143 . glassy breadth is Its smooth a provincial modification of wide water landscapes bv the Master. painted for the bishop of Geneva (a In Wit/ 1444 participant in the council) an altarpiece of . 349). like the London Madniina (see fig.angle for people to robes. depth. with burnished costumes. Witz is impelled to use his own force of feeling for big clear units in painting a landscape space unprecedented sweep. The figures similarly I'tsiialion modify the Mas- away from relativelv complicated flexitoward the elemental and plain. in turn inspired b\ 369.Saint Peter. An . character. which doubt reflects the bishop's political position no on the papacy.Mx-en-Provfnrr such pioneering images as the Boucicaut (see fig. and of figures with a special power of simple gesture. It is not surprising that the Master alsoattracied German sculptors looking for modernity. Besides energetic stocky pressing people. 364). bility and predecessor's sense of weight. it also presents an ex- traordinary lake landscape in the scene of the Miracidoxis Draft of Fishes (colorplate 43). The sit on in (rumpled spreading is to those works only obvious likeness of the Master of Fleinalle with few figures.

still shows traces in tiveness is best suggested Fra Filippo l. Upper Rhine included 1466-67).The painter. ai 370). invaded Naples. 50" ^60". these regions are politically connected. sophisticated than Witz himself. JcTome in His Study. the in a revolt against giaceful line even more conspicuous than in Madonna moves The rocking motion focuses on the Child. wrinkles in cheeks and fingers. Witz' own the Master E. CoLANTON'io. (fl. in 1437. Colantonio. So also may the vibrant cityscape far behind. Witz' . saved from oblivion. thus barely a basic ancestor of the realism of the next two generations of GeiTnan sculptors. But the cubic wooden like one of Witz'. The school's masterpiece is the anonymous Anthony and Paul (1445).-Xntonello da . . heavily and irregu- with angular.\vignon. and not the distinct 370. 369). the next town to Aix. His Saint Jerome among tumbling books and is (fig. in the provinces. line. di first French paintersince the Master ofthe Rohan Hours twenty-five years before.\11 patron the bishop of Geneva had earlier been bishop of .ippi. But now the skin has an Eyckian (or Flemal- lian.Messina arrives twenty years when it later. swamped still life. while they in turn press downward for the main Bavaria and (fig. links with the Master of anonymous for a artist church of the astonishing Annunciation in .\ix). Naples disjunctive composition of space doing everything except contain the figures. blocky. who sudden informal realism crawls horizontally puppy in his Mother's arms. centrifugal thrusts of larly. altar of the Cathedral of Freising in 368). and the Panel. of the last phase) textural realism of flesh. is The statically.'^ two saints in crumpled costumes sit and gaze at each other quietly across the space of a shadowed meadow. it is not strange that the same form of modern vocabulary is used by the chief Neapolitan master around 1440. earlier figures of the Annunciation again kneel on the floor in wide crumpled robes. school in the S. but with suaver Italian modeling. His Madonna^^ wide-angled room. uses in a The tradition Naples when thegreat . with a Saints 298 He indicate is still restating another talent tlie Flemalle idea own emphatic of physical truth with his simplifica- tions. they contrast abruptly with an immense perspective flight of depth. with a copy ofthe Flemalle hinged shutters. clear person- who kept these formulas vigorously alive until his death around 1470. the artist was a Flemish wanderer. more may have had direct Flemalle. fig. the first ality in the history of engraving. is like The artist.Anjou. Capodimonte. Museo Nazionale and Some have thought form of the head of God.^ix-en-Provence (1443-45. other vigorous is proof that he had looked intently some example of this art. Close to the foreground. soft surface painting. Since Rene of . and still The chancellor to the duke of Burgundy. St. But its effec- a Florentine master. another wide-limbed figure in wide-angled space. the remarkable ruler of Provence (and thus of .

Mtarpiece. near Cologne. all the elements of "tapestrv-like" artificial grace and none of later altarpiece). the Hamburg merchants.Masters I'isilation (see fig.\ neat exainple 1420 or little Garden by an unknown artist who was perhaps of the of I'aradise (c.-K wall with Fl^nialle-like in pieces of and Child. Of course Barbara Betiay/d. 1424. National Museum. \\\ this. Its contrast of brocaded lords shepherds is much calendar of the Ires Riches that grow small and small ugly like the separate areas in the in the Hemes. Helsinki in he his storytelling. Master Francke's earlier usual altarpiece. and thick with in tone blond is (fig. The likeness is lesssurprisingsince their illuminated pages already had the quality of independent and more un- little paintings. has made the image fa- mous. she known up an sets stage. who figures turn through space. Saini Barbara Betrayed. 36"x2i". not disturbing because they help to show eventhing plainly. gracefully linear in their gestures but also full of graphic character. 349). near Switzerland. the N'irgin 299 . biu perhaps of the Middle Rhine. saints and an angel. like him. thus and fresh observation Boucicaut Master. is later. purely ornamental factor International Gothic has a constant effect on German panel painting. When they betray her. fig. Master Francke. In the best- Bondol scene. the legend of Saint Barbara 371).Master Bertram as the artist of wide perspective encloses ladies looselv grouped III especially toward the end.imbourg. from of old convention the simple. a miracle transforms their sheep into grasshoppers. Barbara . But unlike the Boucicaut Master. and the scoop behind the front plane that spatial tradition traceable to Flemish in 1371. Panel. the ordei for the the garden. and has left two big altar many parts (doc. too. . and foreground are forms its much like the small foreground trees in the Boucicaut . The effective drama. the precision of the anecdote. Master Francke superseded . from Legend of St. from the great Flemish book illustrators. the 372) I'pper Rhine.13. but in him the conven- more powerful. the uncertainty reflects the north (>ei-maiiy the strongest personality of the Master of Flemalle's generation learned. standardized quality of the International Gothic. Stefan Lochner iiated b\ the Boucicaut Master or Pol de L. all with the look of pages illuini ihc tough elements. Master Francke. . and charming birds and flowers. Si. speaks for the adequate platform con- is cealed in bushes while her richly dressed pursuers pause to ask two shepherds where she has gone. Master Francke eliminates effects of light. which in his provincial view must have seemed is a a distraction mix like the tions are 371. some twenty painted one by one on the ground.

Frankfurt result is the phenomenon of "easily accepted late primitivism" so favored by Victorian observers in Fra . lo" " 12". Cathedral. along with the energetic toughness of another more modern vehicle. 1 later seems to be to preserve the International Gothic scheme of things when more it has become archaic. In a late work. . But as lie and in a and brass dishes on the shelf matures.Madonna image he paints brocades and the flowers of an arbor on a gold-leaf base. . 7'io"x8'7". presupposed and then denied. '^ which alone asserts space for their WTiggling robes. the work tries for a so as he goes on. Adoration oflhe Magi.'^ so that their space 372- Master of the Frankfurt Garden Garden of Paradise.This mood prepares the way for Stefan Lochner born on the Upper Rhine but the leading artist in Cologne. Since is the saints' sweet blank faces continue to be painted with the textural materialism of Jan van Eyck. figures stand before an altar. 1442-d.\ngelico and other artists. Cologne being a motionless total effect of the bright soft surfaces remains vast fifteenth-century German church a basic com- production of paintings. Panel. skin textures of hands. 373). the rest vacuum. the Stadel Institut. His early skillful Eyckian reality with perspective systems. 451). center panel of triprvch. this ponent in the 373. His concern (docs. his Adoratioti of the Magi is rigidly symmetrical on a gold background (fig. The is a skilled sentimentality. Stefan Lochner.

Lukt Painting the Virgin. and died is we can in 1464. artists in a well he made a trip to None of his works official city painter. Campin from basic to it work is already very inde- that Rogier takes the con- 374. the time suggests that he was really assistant. St.Rogier van der 14- The Master of Flemalle's greatest successor was naturally in the Master's Among der Weyden of Tournai. at It is He was 1427 to 1432. where he was Italy in 1450. his earliest pendent. -Museum of Fine -Arts. and guess their sequence only from hints. 54"x44". Boston. officially apprenticed to wide region but his age We know him an little through his ( 1 dated. enough through his work but life: he was born in Tournai 399 or 1400) but lived chiefly in Brussels. Gift of Mr and Mrs. Rogier van der Weyden. the great painters of history. Rogier van Weyden and own town is one of the Michelangelo) few' (along with Giotto who completely dominated for more than a generation. Henr\' Lee Hig^nson Panel. 301 .

Mary Magdalene fingers of perspective any more. even sweeps the donors into the event. and it a huge sky which and the angels. Panel. Vienna quest of realism for gianted. different implication from perhaps the Rohan Hours 302 duke of Beny's but these people have a all ern natural truth. with emphatically silhouetted gestures. painted possibly because he Christ's is tragic stress Luke Fainting updated in that for is fat. The in the faint- Crucifixion triptych (fig. a and torsos. Rogier's and to a society interested equallv in religion (see fig.\s it like the Master's is not excitedly and Jan van Eyck's. the Deposil'ton Cross (colorplate 46). abstract objects. fascinating to artists and . The landscape stress. as the forms seem pulled and stretched. 375). impressively so in his early masterpiece. perhaps the is set against first that con- tinues through three panels of a triptych. each a zigzag profile pressing the terrace allows Rogier to cultivate the values both forward with bent knees. less filled window on a as The space from Jan van closely copied Madonna shallow stage with a icon. does not demonstrate mastery of all Jan van Eyck's modern material realism. his art involved with . We see that reinforced by abstract design we become aware when that the farthest figures to left and in a on each other uses realism their pressure brocade robe. at hips and knees with one shadow or repetition The thin boninessofall the people makes these patterns more obvious. the physiognomic type is also a device suggesting tension. 375- Crucifixion Aitarpiece. an Eyckian type very man who the rich provided tomb. earlier images of Luke artist show him holding a completed and landscape here are Eyck's Rolin (see thin projxjrtions and a 360). landscape. make abstract space is a drama of woven net of arms tensions. implying realism. 40" x 54". Likewise Christ's bodv. but with fig. Castagno. Flemalliaii still-life comparatively very empty. is and his use of it to furthera illustrated in the bony new expressiveness. The deep space beyond right are symmetrical. and again in the one figure The concentration is uses Aiiinincialioii^^ early bench and motifs. as in the garden (see colorplate 42). as in is the Virgin (fig. a theme the artist-saint draws from the model. in Florence. Bony people may also pose rhythms when Saint as who in zigzag not involved. Rogier does not demonstrate when volumes or textures or poignancy. The result runs back to a sharp horizon and silhouettes the dark cross is a wide-embracing blend of familiar natural con- young the earlier ones except text and dramatic 350).ROGIER VAN DER WeYDEN. like the long but the room light. background The from figures are set as if they llie on an were sculpture in a shallow shrine. their interrelationships. of medieval concentration on meaning and of mod- hinged in three parts arm trailing. tall. Sometimes it sug- gests a reversion to the over-tall elegant people of International Gothic. Rogier's on human is reality. a fencelike system of taut bodies and flung robes. has a ing body of Mary. Kunsthistorisches Museum. a huge open landscape. 374).

the and the centralized. gamut of 376) is a virtual paradigm of Rogiers opposite. insect-like versions of Rogiers thin-jointed people with Eyckian skin textures. uses and bring to pull arms and legs from their sockets cushioned amiability that would have seemed human It was mine next . feelings his is — of almost any emotional timbre. Staatliche Mu«een. a ceremonial. presides hieratically but also atmospherically above a strip of earth where panin icked souls scramble and run. full of warm Baptism.nature. leading to a The new dominate the Braque triptych. and inclined both as parts of a to think of single whole. '9 unchanging triptych of the a half-length figures (an Italian idea new to Flanders) against a cool series of skies. St. a melodrama. made him the favorite northern Europe during the . >« terests static revolt against Jan. echoing the symmetry of Lochners version (see fig. But the airy breadth of these works reduces the high-pitched stress of the earlier ones perhaps less in The and is the physical character of pain. The life of Saint John the Baptist (fig. The Eyckian room Birth. home seems to have made where the strings people grow gentler and the Columba altarpiece for Cologne. 376. each panel 30' a 19".'' A celestial hard glassy color. ordered by Van Eycks old patron Chancellor Rolin for the chapel of his newly endowed hospital court above. Italian trip in 1450 anointed Christ suggests International Gothic dainspace tiness and rank. in Rogiers Burgundy. where this was a favorite subject. Traditional schemes tions for them and fresh loca- relate sharply again in the ImsI Jitdg- tneiil.\ltarpiccc. Triptych. (fig. a domestic event. Berlin-Dahlem is John in- row of secretary. an Adoration oft he Magi done and more sensitive. 377). His unity resources. is light and Rogier van der Weyden. in an dishes. a city It is typical of Rogier that he could absorb into his figure style of angular skeletal types a more reposed balance of figure relations. the Death. dramatic range that for artists all over fiftv its that these figures articulate years. 373). as well as the Bladelin altarpiece for the duke of Burgundy's financial oven mathematical designs more attractive.

Alte Pinakothek.377- RoGiER VAX DER Weyden. 304 Munich Adoration of the Magi. center panel of Columba Altarpiece. 54 " x 60" .

since Daret to His sense of clear order takes a the guild in Tournai. That interest imitate the is that. 39* X33". 1449. in a corner of a or behind a ledge on which a single This specificity of place shown (fig. limited one. Eligiiis. fly is who to a bridal is couple and stock on the shelf record Jan had given to tools same particular reality that a few years before had belonged to two or three bold dishes in a cupboard. painting work as a unique portrayal of daily Petrus Christus (docs. active 1450-1475) is the first Renaissance painter of the north Netherlands. The earliest methods of tlie the standard vocabulary' of is Jacques Daret (docs. pxjsitive fonn in his accurate perspective. the richest in his panel of shop selling a ring in his 378). beyond a recorded prove that Campin was the Master of Flemalle. from 1444-d. ver>' life of common Flemish painting.1 1 5- Rogier's Contemporaries esser figures begin soon to use the pioneers. Eligius in His Shop. but the larger scale lets this individuals. but it is the period. New York 305 . in sixteenth-century His distinction from Jan becomes van Ouwater (no exact records.\lbert c. Petrus Christus. he had a long career and was head of Master of Flemalle directly. Eyckian works serve to show an idiom in use by an imitator which smooth round shapes. is their main these rather flabby echoes of the Master's later. since Jan's had always been 1418-1468). anticipating what of a kind often evolved bv followers: he simplifies the images. traits. is patron saint of goldsmiths. Si. this helps to to specialists. which become Flemish realism. Courtesy of the Robert Lehman Collection. but only one early group of his down subtle surface detail which vivify He most individual is in por- persons not only in features and lighting but in environment. Saiiil The room painted. Panel. wiping the . an approximation. detached from the great towns 378. 1472/73) workedwith Jan van Eyck and finished some pictures incomplete is a at Jan's death.^'' They assistant of C^mpin. works is known (1434-35).

The first. Erasmus. starting with Geertgen tot Sint Jans (see p. 379. Toiirnai. solid. but lived in Louvain painter to the approach to the all his At city. talents as well to work within the established revolution and to evolve subtle variations upon it. In the firmly constructed space of the temple. from i447-d. The control of composition and diffuse gestures. Berlin-Dahlem Dirk Bouts 16. 315).e. Major now emerge. no doubt owes solemnity It as well as its its unrelieved complex symbolism (fig. Pierre. partly because his work and largely in Louvain. 48" X 36". Staatiiche Museen. plain make figures their serious intricate on one side and doubting Jews on the other. and shares something of Ouwater 's mood. The Raising of Lazarus. Dirk Bouts. center panel of triptych. There the patrons were not burghers but monasteries. 379). Louvain). the Raising oj iMzarus. Bouts (docs.Albert van Ouwater. because of its own is still partly understated tone. Almost noth- ing but rather traditional book illustration precedes him here. and not even that in his town of Haarlem. Panel. Louvain 380.. 306 . mature first figure. of a very recent aspect of painting in the southern cities. also reflects awareness of Petrus Christus. giving life and was chief he follows Rogier's it all the emphasis Dirk Bouts. all in modern Belgium (Bruges.ofthe time which are Brussels. while still more peer in through a grille behind.i475) came from Haarlem. even hiding its originality. is one of the least-known artists of the highest level in the early Renaissance. . and to this difference his one surviving work. apostles light make credible the tradition that and also a master of landscape. i. Ghent. Martyrdom of St. X 31 3/4". 32 1/8" St. a little-visited city. work was in this Ouwater was his authoritative also a natural source for younger artists northern Dutch area.

are so in the manner of faces grown set after they have long discounted any feeling. and silent. the rich detail of their en\ ironing world. omitting what in each master conflicted with cles of passion. he excludes the nervous stress with which Rogier would endow his people. unarguable facts rather than vehi- way Bouts starts out with a negative compromise between Rogier and Jan van Eyck. like The bodies acquire a quality of being there mountains. Expressions are distant. of Christ. he reduces. up on While the Martyrdom ofSainI ErcLsmus saint's entrails are being wound a windlass (following the typical medieval hoiTor fantasy) spectators contemplate this with DiKK BuLTb. John the Baptist io^. Brussels :U)7 . 381). highly Countiss. merely turning necks and arms with a stiffness that seems as mechanical as the martyrdom. io'7 1/2" x 5'! 1 is without pressures. Painting examples of \ain's law court Brussels. like Jan. But sharp tense angles are held to slight tentative so that the figures become stabilized movements. reserved and self-contained. Panel. m Herald Munich remote rigidity. Wittelsbacher Ausgleichsfonds. and the reality of each person and thing Such is overwhelmingly credible. a grasp of realism is easier for us in a Ijist Sujjprr (1464-68). . Musics Royaux des Beaux-Arts. Tht Appeal of the Panel. resting hard on the ground. who the appeal to in a trial by fire proves her husband's innocence and the guilt of the emperor's wife all this (fig. 1/2". Ouwaiers can emerge. in a lost a justice for condemned man beheaded and then the emperor by Lou- theme Rogier had painted in work-'). and when melancholy. 380). such as the (fig. -2 arranged unusually around a squarish table so that the figures are farther from each other. and 381. Gangling courtiers watch with intelligent impassivity. In this the other. This shows up most extraordinarily when the themes are violent.and articulating it by angular movement.As a result a ritual effect like the spate Dirk Bouts. like Rogier. Bouts' two panels show (a his widow. 20" x 15". While.

John with the kneeling donor on one side of a river points out Christ on the other. Campin to ^Jan Toumai. Rogier Bouts to Louvain. Munich 17. Panel. and. landscape. This approach also strengthens the environmental imagery. as in happened when in Florence or Ferrara.\ltarpiece [Adoration ofthi Magi triptych). In John Baplisl as Herald of Christ lite (fig. right wing of Pearl of Brabant . are steeped in a lovely deep-clouded area of immense meadows. John and donor gaze across the expanse. In the Way it becomes psychologically to Paradise panels-^ isolated sinners are caught in rocks. Generally in this epoch the distinguished painters all — belong to different towns Bruges. and the Israelites gather manna. sometimes identified with made of them reducing the heads these forms his still two drier. light.Middle Ages. while angels lead saved away from us toward the fountain of souls life in the middle distance. where . In three of the sacramental scenes. an angel feeds Elijah. is not further local schools grew but a fixed tradition. 383. Bouts' approach dominated a naiTow group of voiinger artists. lived in Ghent from 1464 to about 468 and matured his art there.suitable to this altarpiece whose four side panels also refer separately to the sacrament of communion (colorplate 47). Joos van Gent (docs. der Goes wliich housed two remarkable artists almost simul- taneously for very short careers. what they stimulate explorations. St. 1460-KI. and in 1473 became a court painter to . Hugo van Joos van Gent.1479) arrived from . 382) the religious purpose helps the landscape invention. the river gleams. Altc Pinakothek. the rich-robed stiff-jointed people. and yields such a concentrated portrayal that pressing. Its invention of Saint Christopher wading through a deep stream at sunset (fig.Antwerp. The to Brussels. the other's dewy fresh landscapes that one became more famous than any of Bouts' originals: altarpieces have such the so-called Pearl of Brabatil. The truth about the openness of the world is stimulated in an original way. as tlie 308 . to devotional icons. after which both under unusual circumstances. 25"^ 11". but soon went left 1 off to Italy. Dirk Bolts THE Vol NGER '.Abraham greets Melchizedek. van Eyck to partial exception is Ghent. Chrislopher. irregularly distant from each other. and Christ never sees them. 383) helped to stimulate the emergence of en- tirely uninhabited landscapes shortly after 1500. most remarkably.. One sons. interior structure.

1444. The Miraculom coLORPLATE 45.i CoNRAD WiTZ. 52' ^ 60" . Geneva Draft of Fishes. center panel of altarpiccc. Musee d'Art et d'Histoire.

DeposHion from the Cross.1440. The Prado. RoGiER VAN DER Weydex. C. Panel.COLORPLATE 46. 7'3" x 8'7". Madrid .


0. center panel of Portinari Altarpiece. 8'4" X 9'i Uffizi Galler\-. Florence I ". Adoration of the Shepherds. GoES. .1480.HuGO VAN DER COLORPLATE 48.

only the pictures but the people in them are big. are lost. But he usually isolates them sharply painted on a small .% iiS.At the peak of his success he 1472-74. from I4(i7-d. and makes us realize that Joos had been drawing toward Italian waysalready. but he seems to be the only Fleming of his moves scape in his early Cuicifixion''-* his (fig. seems to have made exotic and piquant people a Though this is Not scale. such as a . but unlike anvone before. c'\ ^ \ . Hugo van der Goes (docs. wir> and forceful in a plain world. Urbino 384.i482) becomes noticeable about the time of Joos' departure from Ghent. decorated the town for festivals.^s depth gradually. Galleria Nazionale delle Marrhe 'C' %<>. little 1472 in Communion Jan van Eyck had done Adoration of the Lamb (see fig. for a pious lay society meaning of the Mass greatest work. Ofcourse. he Joos VAN Gent. Joos probes depth. He. his figures are Rogierian. and Joos regular vehicle. it is oj devoted to the time who never Ghent in the is The land- intensely bright. Apostles. is own variant on the now accepted able to work his tradition. in 357). with an Eyckian glitter in the costumes. and move in broad sweeping rhythms in a world of geometric balances. his figures into altered fiom what he had 384). like Bouts. g'a" x io'6". Some.was a great success there.Duke Frederick in L'rbiiio. done before. Already in L'rbino he arranged to paint the llie Apostlcf.Nativity b\ night and Jacob and Rachel meeting in a vast meadow. The Communion of the Ducal Palace. Panel. in a deep giay atmosphere. and painted elaborate works. Thus Joos. with the most surprising motifs.-'" .

The two figures have a concen- makes them not nude but naked. but not fully. anaiiged for important visitors and for his work. Groeninge Museum. the perspective and broad modeling result in Hugo's calmest work. An Adoration of llir Magi-^ works with a similar intensity on Italian methods. Deallt of the Virgin. Vie retired to a cloister. im- pressed by his fame.385. Bruges 314 imitations he arrives at his own style . an astonishing token not of Rogierian but of Eyckian realism. Hugo van der Goes. The Hugo was implication that torn about what he should do seems confirmed by his next accusing himself of being a damned sinner and trying to "do himself an injury." After a period in this condition he subsided into humility but soon died. his superior. Hugo van der Goes. Panel. 13" x 9". Kunsthistorisches Museum. Today this mental The 385) is it is impossible to stress in his sixteen or so early Temptalion oj resist seeing surviving works. The Temptation of Adam and Eve. trated surface reality that Through such 386. 58" x 48". Panel. Adam and Eve (fig.

smiling ingratiatingly in parklike landscapes. giving the but share the all works. Presumably learning from Ouwater.All sion between treated as a this on and is line a big scale. It is typical that a It form taken b) does so again in the superficially very different Salivily at night inspired by in space relation between parts of the painting stimulates the this novelty. so that the ten- surface. concentrating on realizing itself. In his last ahaipiece (colorplate Poitiiiaii painted to the order of 148. his figures. flying. the art. that it turns into color grows thin too. line.xposition. the strongest young personality was in a remote province. Geertgen Sint Jans (no exact records). literally John's. He also traces Rogier's figures so that they lose elasticity and become soft. he worked in there and for other local churches. time more pressingly Eyckian in things. I'hese include d.i4g4). artists. from flowerpots where more its and had it pressingly thin. he develops his style further. Florentine banker living pressure to reality. faithfully than dling of its religious themes. 377). . Carrying the Cross. 0/ t/ie Rosary.Saint John Haarlem. are an unforgettable type of smooth simplifi- does is extreme. when every 1 able modern group tot Sint Jans. But he had also traveled to great cities and was an urbane person. shows the findingof the saint's relics and hence the connnunity of Hospitalers logically (not in space or time. tense at the in the glare same of reality to brocades.famous in the in a Bruges and shipped in an enormous impact on (M).) to Italy. little is figures tend to be of oddly different sizes. By 480. is often teenth-century Georges de cial compared to the sevenTour.Memling retains the symmetry in his many altarpieces for Bruges (fig. 389). indeed. he simple by his talent for e. another provin- la genius whose complexity of religious culture is resolved in abstracted simplified shapes and lighting. original in the han- narrow suie- Geertgen's few nonspatial works are the ones with impressed him. placid and neat. a shiny is minor inconsistency. as Ouw'ater's had been. .^^ a tiny petal-like image made of an astonishing number of minute Geertgen objects. pulls the figures together gland high-pitched choruses. plane There has a shrill force.-^ the Christ Christ streaming with blood from and the Madonna many tiny wounds. plotted with elaborate vivacity in a wide space. Memling column with an egglike head. (fig. unity. light 388). pjerhaps from the Hoh C^hild glows into the black world. but in association of ideas) watch from a group Dutch portrait of little farther back. and depth. from 1465who reflected Rogiers figure style more a 1480-1500 is any of the painters so In this fidelity he is like a but he managed to be far mentioned. Van der Goes' compositions and perhaps Joos van Gent's spatial constructions seem to have cation. each Geertgen 18. which and more. town had its own repeat- Fleniisii type of painting. is Jeny tot at Saint so called because he was a lay brother at the Hospital of . first members of an organization Van der Goes. of supreme average. clutching. It is Rogierian than anything previous in figures. and the resulting sculptural effect of the groups of people super-reality of a floodlit sharp-focus photograph tends to discard their reference to space. a major presenter of the standard. which iriakes visually . with a cutting The a personal style. violently striking cylindrical forms partially eaten away by shadow.•\iigelico. Memling may have been working in Rogier's shop when Rogier was painting his symmetrical Adoration of the Magi for Cologne at the end of his life (see fig. well washed and dressed for feasts. Everything Hugo But more typical artist of the generation Hans Memling (docs.\ surviving panel from his huge destroyed a Itarpiece for Saint John's (fig. Hugo 386). . but he pushes realism so far. polished anced. and bal- Like LcKhner and Fra Memling appealed to the \'ictorian re- :U. number of minor a sort artists. His imagery is interests to a single has mastered absolutely.i87). . Born in Germany. but he steadily changes from having many external ment which he unusual and complicated symbolism. . The painting is technically splendid. such as the Adoration of the Shepherds-'' and the Death of the Virgin in (fig. or staring.

but sugared and easy to like. Besides his casket for the relics of Saint Ursula (i48g). with a detail. London 316 Museum. he was not remembered long or much imitated after his death. But though Memling was very successful. X 10". an original system that was much liked and added light to the faces.'"'coveredallaround with bright little scenes from her legend like manu- sunny rendering of Eyckian Memliiig's most distinctive works are his script pages. Kunsthistorisches Vienna discoverers of the early Renaissance as a "sweet primitive. are placed before open landscapes. Panel. 390). 13" National Gallery. unlike those of his triuhful predecessors. 67 3/4" 54 3/4". Geertgen TOT SiNT Jans. . Nativity." clean and simple and thus uncorrupted. Panel. Handsome classical features. portraits (fig.387- Geertgen TOT SintJa The Burning of the Bones of John the Baptist. 388.

1484. It re-emerges with a changed character when the est capital at young King Charles \ll. at his death in 1401 the richest wool merchant in Eng- land. urban luxury.) The mansions. St. Mus^e Royal des Beaux-Arts. The collapse of France. following the example of the dukes of Burgundy. Like the duke of Berry's earlier castle at Poitiers (see masonry and as a used to talented painter of this court. The merchant and financier Jacques Coeur. drawn into government second career. and much less ambitious in size.389. in Gothic stone structure being used for dwelling purposes. 48"x6o". and sophisticated division of functions counterbalanced bv limited ground area. but the surviving similar houses lier ear- than this are rural. 391) now is a is a fig. (The best example of these seems to be the house of William Grevel. Bruges Hans Memling. symbolized by the defeat at Agincourt (1415). Jean Fou- quet (docs. is also within a traditional vehicle. 1462-1477). As his activity illustrates the creation of a pattern that seems ordinary. Antwerp 1 Jean Fouquet 19. is the most important of these. Man 390." in its portrait sculptures in It even echoes Poitiers above eye level.h: . with a Coin. in his mod- Bourges. began to be reversed only by a later generation symbolized by Joan of .Arc (military career 1429-31). so that carved ornament runs over flat ceilings and frames thin curtain walls in the style that traditional architects call "Tudor Gothic. being almost the last major painter in Eu- rope to specialize in book illustration. then an important market. his house pioneer among city in Bourges style it (fig. Vellum on panel. 344). 1 " x 9". Ha. Groeninge Museuin. Hisearliest work. hence looser in plan. a fiercelv realistic panel portrait of . center panel of triptych. at C:hipping Campden. These developments were gradual. but differs having more but smaller rooms. but his stvle is Eyckian and particularly like Petrus Chrisius.\s Memling. Christopher Altarpiecc. replaces his feudal lords with a civil ser\ ice of commoners.

kinds of problems. as Diirer did later. flabby- skinned. closely reflects Christus' recent portraits in smoothing down Eyckian spatial anecdotes in favor of a same an undetailed reality to and goes further by eliminating Christus' cylinder. Panel. jowly bourgeois. this system comes from Van Evck's and Christus' convex mirrors. massive and with graphic Madonna The facial individ- been Agnes Sorel (fig. he had then learned perspective and apparently decided. and in a big Piela for a church. shown as a substantial Van Eyck directly in its Ursins. Fouquet's like in some painted by Fra An- Rome But the at about the time clusters of people are seem to be and the geometric ab- in perspective too. In even Fouquet represents perspec- diminution from center to sides (as well as the usual sort from front to back). that it was the solution to buildings are gelico. Fouquet's manuscript painting Evckian vein. and Fouquet's other manuscripts (colorplate 49) derive from the saints crossing the grass in the Ghent Courtyard. and therefore shows straight horizontal lines as curves. style. 3^ But the later portrait of Jouvenel des uation. This has a preparatory drawing (final Cardinal like Jan van Eyck's of showpiece in two colors of and complete. 34"x28''.^' whose columnar forms at irregular angles and in strong light are a rich variation on a treatment of the theme by Christus. 1443-51.\lbergati^''). more earnest tive research. vast are unified in a dancing. Jean Fouquet.^^ the royal treasurer. But Fouquet introduces a surpris- ing modification. 3^ perhaps the starting point for a French tra- dition of portrait drawings in the sixteenth century. so that they undergoing a military drill. the 39a. framing curtain. The crowd is scenes that in this wholly the fill Book of Hours of Etienne Chevalier. so that we can visually manage the multitude and accept its movements. all much who worked Fouquet was measured there. 318 Paris . probably the result of an Italian trip about 1443. King Charles VII. . straction of their regiments oddly penetrates the easy naturalness of their Eyckian color. Height of main facade (at left) 39'4" numbers altarpiece. reflects small intimacies of texture.Charles VII (fig. 39 1Bourges. House of Jacques Coeur. The Louvre. a chalk. glinting light on robes and grass. wide-mouthed and 392). another royal treasurer. recurs in the that has often called a portrait of the king's mistress. 393).

and his father-in-law. The Madonna of Etiennt right panel of Chevalier. just before the Annunciation of . as a sort of caricature makes him the teacher of Colanand after he lost that. lost weakness. which show a similar curved world 378). 393. 316). it sawn planks. The figures built surfaces are a richer mix. was an amateur painter. 36"X32". vi- brancy with casual mastery. (docs. His constant travels match strikingly the spread of the Flemalle style. and a patron of painters by the score. Antwerp Avignon and King Rene 20. weighty divine figures century eyes. iie and this is said to have studied painting avidly. the large up of prismatic stiff robes. in 1454 painted near . larger paintings provincial geometric Flemish realism. was evidently not a failure as a ruler. Fouquet the victim of his is him provincial isolation. impose Florentine order on the cosmos. anticipating Memling's Saint Ihsula casket he revives Van Eyck's microscopic (see p. among enamel-smooth met ones skittering fom seas. As a young prisoner of war of tiie duke of Burgundy in Dijon. 394). Painting in Provence in Rene's later quieter years develops Fouquet s more emphatically the approach that showed in a mild form.only type then manufactured. 298). fated." and so. Jean Fouquet. to his duchy of Provence. grandson of that duke of Anjou who was one of King Charles tonio. to accumulate domains by dynastic accidents. Rene was V's brothers. He wrote romances. He all and the kingdom of because none of them them all in wars witii other claimants.\vignon a huge altarpiece of the Trinity crowning the \'ii-gin (fig.\ix-en-Provence was painted (see of late feudalism. his great- uncle. despite his had sons. and tiny ones in Hell below. A (as in Christus' SainI FAigius. 1447-1461). which has The simplification applied to attains a hard plainness like a great impact on twentieth- Enguerrand coming from northern France. Qtianon leading painter. Naples willed by a cousin. above. but he was remembered in folk literature as "the good King Rene of Anjou. see Flemish studio trick is his tool to fig. Yet an artist of beautiful images both the massive portraits and the crowd scenes where. which allowed ate out of proportion despite himself he in is to exagger- what he had learned. In devoting himself to these curiosities. must have been Flemish. Melun Diptych. Council of Basel Conrad VVitz. small souls in Heaven. Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts. Its mixing of sizes is archaic. One of the strangest but most effective of fifteenth- years (where legend century patrons was Rene (1409-1480). 369). see p. duchies ftom his older brother. the small hills and This same collection of approaches marks the 319 . in 1434 and !ie may attended the well have from there he went to Naples for fig.

6' X y'^". Coronation of the Virgin.394- Enguerrand Quarton. Panel. 5'4"x y'^". Field.Avignon 395. Paris . 1434. Panel. Musee de I'Hospice. The Louvre. \'illeneuve-les. Enguerrand QyARTON(?).

H/arl and Desire at the Fountain.^'' full of jerky movements and nutcracker giimaces. like Fouquet's. Its greater. National I. Vellum. and Sloth.azariis. power comes from its tragic theme. Jealousy. lends itself to a pattern of geometric jigsaw-puzzle fragments strewn on a flat surface. here both the as elsewhere. A more elegant simplification of Flemish painting. in . Froment's masterpiece is the Virgin in the Burning Bush (147576. a layers meaning (Moses sees the bush that burns Ijut is unconsumed. The cubist compoactually less dominant here thati in the close- phistication in the taut rib cage work-worn nent ly is face connected altarpiece from Boulboii. Its anonymous set of illustrations in d'Amour Efiris {Heart Captured by Love). Vienna :V2 . Cathedral of St. of a standing group in brocades gets a provincial translation in Raising of his I. The illustrations thus quite naturally reflect the International styles of the Gothic at its subtlest. the symbols of the Passion. 1475-76.''^ Its theme. even shocking. which may be by Quarton and certainly shares his aesthetic.ibrarv. and only later the Flemish so- and the donor's and staring eyes.\njou. Burning Bush. Nicolas Froment (docs. It tells of courtly love and virtue masterpiece is the 396. fig. who ordered it. the Boucicaut Master and the Limbourg 397. Sauveur. like Love.famous Picta of Avignon (fig. huge altarpiece that has two 396). 395). each one glaringly real. Height is's". 1461-1479) is a lesser The Flemish motif native Proven(. near the French king's. . affects and our master. and his skinny queen. Mary bears Christ but remains a Virgin). center panel of triptych. artist We are likely to notice first the angular design that makes Mary's face a cubist disjointed scheme.\ix-en-Provence the manuscript of Coeur through personified qualities. illuminated page from Coeur d'Amour ipris. was practiced at Rene's other court. much is suaver in drawing than his ear- to the point of being a persuasive dupli- cate of a Bouts. a romance written by Rene himself in 1457. Nicolas Fromlnt The Virgin in the . of The whole lier work. which. in a tone of intellectual nostalgia for tales of chivalry best known to us in Edmund Spenser's Faerie Qiieene written for the English court a century later. page 1 1 " y 8". The work includes vei^ frank portraits of King Rene.

It is in Tonnerre like a theater tableau. Johannes Junge. with individual brilliance at times but with vocabulary change. Entombmenl of Christ. a sharp leaning of the whole body to the right.\ndre Beaune\eu's work so that the curving movement of the whole patterned body has dramatic expressiveness. naturalistic French sculptors repeated power and his his tricks of soft. only Bouts' comparable the at deep landscapes are In general time.\dven- folds. which the otherwise unknown Jean Michel and Georges de la nieiil Sonnette carved for a hospital chapel (1451-54. turousness seems a little more marked in occasional works of architectural sculpture. Coevr the Master belongs to the group.mixing ornamental grace with vivid hints (fig. Italian .\iccol6 dell' . 399). a talented carver in Liibeck (docs. is modified the standard Late Gothic it mechanical curves by toughening and simplifying the forms a little. of Sculpture: Hans Multscher For generations alter the Dutchman Sluter had done his work in France. Tnnnerre . The the many on Mary's knees. adds to the sweet face phase of the Sluter tradition. 4'3" X i I'lo". tional linear decorations based with their tradi- on graceful bending were called the "beautiful Madonnas" in Germany. 398). latter. who simplifs Flemish figure imagery with a structure of sharp gestures. The around 1370. They include Pieta gioups of the dead Christ and votive Madonnas.\rca The probably derives from this far more exploited experience of Holland and varied. thick tex- no approach ture. like a gesture. Germany was The most important base being ultimately . fig. Jea. and a bedroom. creating candlelit 2 moods with sensitive The Growing Role 1. 397). and rarely emerge from the type. retained while working as the leading master in Dijon. produced for a and swirling drapery of his Virgin. A few scenes push this brothers. with Sluter's massive seriousness but plainer in form. church location. Stone. it Juan de la Huerta fifty years a . of fresh landscape an astonishing point of originality. Master Hartmann in L"lm (docs. 1406-1428).n Michel and Georges de la Sonnette 398. from Petrus Christus on.Spanish immi- (docs. interest to a sunrise with figures meditating on pale grass. . 1451-54. 1437. utter authority.1462). most iinpressive single echo is the lifesize The Entomb- of Christ with six mourners. The authority of his was sufficient so that after grant. In quantity the period is con- spicuous for the increase of independent statues unrelated to architecture. Cathedral. giving her a positive identity (fig.

Wood. Sebald. Master Hartmann. Annen-Museum. height s'y". i 399. Cathedral.b >^B''. Ulm Virgin. 400. Cathedral. Mainz . Nuremberg Tomb of Archbishop Konrad von Daun. 8'io' x 4'5'. height 41". Johannes Jl'NGE. St. Stone. St. Stone.msmaM - W '-' - m . Sandstone. 1430. height 67". Martin. 402. Liibeck 401. St. Madonna.

instead. 295). i 144 r6". they are fi-om the architecture as in But the actual carving is fairly An accommodation between old Gothic habits and Flemish materialisin seems to have been worked out in such Madonnas Saint Sebald in Nuremberg plump matronly 403. 400). Sandstone. Hans MfLTscHER. height 5'6". Stone. St. height St.1417-1430) sets Saint Martin Madonna beside a conventional who is a materially solid burgher a (fig. As he turns to cut off part of his cloak. as early as Flemalle's tor with similar results (see p. we do. as that at 401). 324 Ulm face (1430. he does not show ornamental folds but a personal seriousness exactly parallel to Hartmanns work is own collaboration with a sculp- the Master of Flemalle. gauging the height to the top as not so much detached counterpoint witii conventional. illus- trating his legend. Sebald. whose presides over an irregular . Nuremberg 404. Christopher. 1429. Christ as the Man oj Sorrows. fig. Spatial boldness. They sit figures of the Strasbourg on the parapet and look up. Cathedral. it. marks the carved Cathedral tower. Indeed.

i509) late in traveled from his home in life Liibeck near the Baltic Sea to Stockholm. Sainl George and I he Dragon (1488.i467). On a small scale passive and outward facc-s he seems to parallel Rogier van der Wevden's evolution. is the fig. expressiveness and environmental space are being 403). (1442. where rich but jumpy folds in the robe where the blocky people thrust energetically against each other. i427-d. and so seem to revert to the International Ciotliic being trick of be elegant. producing an expressive stress parallel to the first works of painters in the Flemalle vein. body angled at the marked by the stretchrobe. less abstract than most of the and tlie deep shadow patches all over the relief surface. ordered to commemorate a military victors by Swedes over Danes. i467-d. Hans Multscher in L'lm From about who have 1460.) Man and horse are Rogierian in their thin. They work in the context of the sonal styles are spreading influence of Rogier van der VVeyden. from Gothic formulations.cascade of flowing folds. fig. Painted wood. Bernt Notke (docs. holding a serpentine vertical stick that insists grasped simultaneously.\11 these single works in Germany are related states a to a leading personality. more smooth broad tired expressions stand in robes spreading in thick folds. 1488. Multscher's later works withdraw into dignity. (docs. Xicolaus Gerhaert and Other Sculptors 22. 405). 402). both extending a single on gesture in which the figure points to his wound. whose scales are made of real deer antlers. refer to the twisted wrinkles in the face fiom Nuremberg spaces. tlie masterpiece indeed of these scattered experiments. sculptors original per- more concentrated in Germany than anywhere else.-'*' . altar. Si. functions an is the where saints with (The nearby work of an in its church like statue of the rescued princess assistant. The whole form contrast with the heavy its active pull further ing of the soft. George and the Dragon. In his youth he was a vigorous painter of crowd scenes in squarish Flemallian tomb of Archbishop Daiin of Mainz (d. Stockholm 8'. where his eight-foot-long masterpiece.<4. In sculpture his full Rogier van der VVeyden.All this is 405. Similar power emerges us with an intense gaze. bronze realistic The whole Sai)ii whenever nature chances to follows a tradition seen in a George of 1373 in Prague. width Siorkyrka. . power appears 404). a Saiitl Christo(>her in its waist.i4. free in his standing suffering Christ (fig. leaning out The [)ossibilities to of human fig. . wiping out the last traces among linear robes of the language of curvi- carvers. Sluter-like dynamic splintering of tragic weight. fierce pressure. Less accommodating. Bernt Notke. height from pedestal 10'. but are overwhelmed with decoration in the armor and the dragon.

Mus^e de la Ville. look out from windows but regular volumes of the figures send out centrifugal to probes into the space. 9'io"X5'5". clashing with the extraordinary mastery of space. This illusionistic idea in his sculpture. Begun 1469. 326 His first p>ositive role known work (1462) is a intri- His colossal Crucifix 406). To this taut twisting line of his main respond ornamental areas swarming near the frames and suggesting a harmonious re- figures there lation of the live and the decorative. And the ir tomb slab. 1462-d. which also has a frames. but did most of his work Strasbourg (then a German-speaking city of the pire). Marble. variant on Rogier is Nicolaus Cathedral. A more urbane 407. 1473). and wood bark. whose few but brilliant works make him the chief founder of German Renaissance sculpture. capped by a crown of thorns that expands with the woven decorative richness of a fan vault. height 7 3/8".^" typically much higher in relief than previous ones. and reverts eventually . Self-portrait. Vienna Gerhaert (docs. Red sandstone.4o6. Leyden He apparently came from in Holland. two disjunctive naturalistic textures. Still more striking are the busts for ( 1 467)'"' relates flesh Strasbourg town hall (1464. in which the huge active form pierced by holes dominates its environ- ment dynamically. Tomb of Emperor Frederick III. like the contour of a mountain range. not incised into a surface but tracing the outermost projection of a volume. He uses sharp bending line. already mature in the clots of cate volume peaked by line. fig. figures placed now without is found their earlier in the house of Jacques Coeiir. NicOLAUs Gerhaert. Strasbourg 1 provincial exaggeration and lag. in Em- but in a new way. N'icoLAVs Gerhaert.

first appears on the scene with his masterpiece. 1469-74.'" stone stone parapet. ne\er rivaling these unique secular figures. One might hence be guess that the sculpture done in the aissance exported two gieat tors. Ulm faces in south with sharp looks. 409) that geometrize Gerhaert. is visually commonplace. Tiburtiiu Sibjil. The vibrant mobile heads have faceted planes. the most sculptor brilliant there in his time.''^ taut sunken<heeked in echoed earlier (fig. enhancing their keen sizes. but it stroyed and what survives echo of Flemish is a literal is Jorg SyKLis. largely de- 327 . rest on robes that thrust with a giand expres sive motion from shoulder to toe. but of uneven dramatic life. fig. despite vigorous folklorish simplicity. Most of Germany. attract us be- first cause their physical vibration of supports a life of feeling that pops out at us with a smile. with to plain elementary forms. (dcKS. Gerhaert's peo- a and ple twist like screwdrivers. Cathedral. but simplified to raw caricatures. Much later in \'ienna . Cathedral. height 20'. The Netherlands at the beginning of the Ren- and influential sculpand Gerhaert. and tending convey their graphic motion largely through silhouette. this was when Nicolaus died.\nton Pilgraji. a all. workshop headed by Jorg Syrlin (1424-1491) carves heads for choir stalls (1469-74. almost Eyckian domestic truthfulness that belies their technical intensity. thin-nosed and sharply twisted Stone. witli a brittle brocaded robe m equally tremulous coats of arms. His influence turns up soon everywhere. Portrait. which works in space as Gerhaert's did. wittily characterized.Munich a more independent personality. resembling Gerhaert in their flamboyant motion and their expressions that seek contact with us. window. His later work. i495-'5'5). In 1469 Gerhaert was called to X'ienna by Emperor Frederick marble tomb framed (fig.such to Charles busts fourteenth<entur)' I\' and empress his bowing from statues at as Emperor Miihlhausen.-Knton Pilgiam (docs. 111 and began his red 407). They (fig. 23" X 21". often inventive wood scidpture such as the apostles at not finished in Wiener Neustadt. retained Gerhaert's pattern in a portrait peering out of a 408. Sluter inclined to Netherlands was also notable. are burlesques. the ten half-size morris dancers carved for the municipal dance hall 410). Ulm 409. Wood. 1480-1526). like dia- monds. Vienna busts from the Hospital of Saint Marx. they life may gaze at us wide-eyed and have a casual. in the painted . in Strasbourg wood it is 408). Erasmus Grasser of .*^ their heads.

figures in that style for altarpieces loose-limbed hardwood people in pulsating groups. Munich German Painting and Prints in the Wake of Rogier 23. Wood. 1447-1499) of Utrecht. did so again with Rogier and with a bronze foinider on tomb. Near the Hamburg like Bouts'.-*^ She dynamic figures of her ancestors stood lies in a tautly around the sides of her sarcophagus. directly or indirectly. Boutsian style of and Hermen Rode tall make even stiffer a detached people in sweeping The outstanding master in landscapes. 411). and violent last a level of (docs. gentle.i507).'kSSER. in the on Zeitblom tain this tradition tholomeus with a primitive vigor hardly different from con- placed. The two artists who rise above this pattern are . all purely Rogierian in There was style. continued to practice a stylized version of Conrad through Basel to Strasbourg. i470-d. height 30". Rogier who is now mainly Of imitated.\hes Rathaus.1484). Rueland Frueauf the Elder (docs. Funhof of North Sea 475-^1. and the Mid- Witz' style at this extraordinarily late date. spatially actuated in interlocking filigree small intervals. clos- is and Ulm. After Witz and Lochner structing his hard enamel figures in imposing pyra- around 1440. Possibly this made were artists are still all of the hard brightness of making them flatter and without because the assumptions they is medieval (certainly most of the anonymous). are painter to main- competence. a virtual industry of small wood and choir stalls. er than they are to his source in Bouts.\drien von Wesel (docs. whose controlled suavity of curving forms slows down Rosjierian nervousness a Er.painting. its Swiss source. near into the is largely con- commonly subdivided centrated in the Rhine valley. German fitteenth-century painting Upper Rhine. but his forms are modified temporary painting (docs. Bar- 1482-1518). airier less rigid (fig. the anonymous Master of the Cologne.«MLS 410. but material realism of Rogier. imitating Flemish narra- of saints with tives the originals but air. Bouts is also reflected in near the Upper Rhine. tall. Jean Delemer. con- dle Rhine. so periiaps there was a correlation between and Gerhaert's Sinter's and talent their emigration. in Spain. and it had been easy to ab- sorb a courtly Gothic language as Uochner had and a still rather stylized not the course human and ii is modern one as Witz had. and small (1476). Life of Mary. 1485-1504). Morris Dancer. after collaborating with Campin. 1480. GR. The most webs with definite personality is . 1 of LCibeck (docs. little. and a lost royal survives that is perhaps echoed in one Princess for Isabel Bourbon of folded robe. . . 328 Hinrik flat people. the younger generations show mids. from in and near Salzburg the leading painter.Austria a sur- prising provincial retreat. whose spaciously in behavior. near Cologne.

happy to show how it works (fig. Both. Like his pictures. in the fifteenth century popular of art. 329 . thin-boned in ci-um- pled robes. was to provide models to artists. for the their purposes. obvious parallels to the invention of printing there. The 411. Munich d. quickly becomes a vehicle the first being the master signed some of his three hundred engiavings E. woodcut always remained a used for holy pictures and illustrations moral books. the line. The forms are tight but vibrating. The and should be seen as a variant aspect of it an altarpiece. 412). and both are Vtsitatwn. gantly. especially close to Flanders.S. Engraving and woodcut are creations of fifteenthcentury' Germany. Engraving derives from decorative incision on armor and other metal. and first gets on paper (perhaps to make a record of a (pressed off design) about 1430. 1463.Master of the Life of Mary. although their status is as different as rugs. Alte Pinakolhek. One of Mantegna's and PoUaiuolos engravings. to be sure. for individual who It artists. context. They are in the standard Flemalle tradition. as in themes of altarpieces and also for areas of ornament. they are completely in the Rogierian man- Schongauer and Memling are the two artists who followed Rogier most faithfully and most elener. Within the technical all it is too common to bracket woodcut and engra\ing together. 1453- signed a hundred engravings. which seem to be part of his technician's temperament. on the other hand. metallic line glistens like the white paper. emphasizing techniques collecting. To Rogierian people. on a piece of paper. panel of eiigra\ers.1491) painter Martin Schongauer (docs. the history of painted images. Our awareness of them suffers from the separateness generally used in portraying the history of prints. 33"X43". linoleums and Persian stamp a pattern of ink lines Woodcuts similar stamping of woodblocks are an offshoot of on textiles. to make an inexpensive imitation of eiribroidered cloth. Schongauer applies his crisp engraver's and adds his clean perspective diagrams of broad spaces. (datable 1446-67).

two men pausing to chat as they meet on the road. EngraWng. an effect still more enhanced by the smallness of the prints. Washington. Drypoint. Martin ScHONGAUER. io"y 7" A much more personal an is seen in the nnici\ dr^points of the Hausbuch Master. Hacsbvch M. so only a few copies can be made.413. and — dog scratching all twisting match in this respect the main quality in the Master's rather commonplace paintings.aster. Rijksmuseum. The burr wears away in pressing the plate on the paper. Hausbuch Master. Drypoint. sixty of these ninety survive only in nearly all lection one copy. Amsterdam . a painter near Strasbourg. 412. children turning somersaults.''* presumably a col- made in the artist's time." is not wiped off. but private. All this suggests something not only delicate and experimental. 2 78" ' 2 58". But they further suggest. Dnpoints are engiavings in which the excess metal dust from the incisions. Indeed. genre peasants fighting. and of those in one place. diameter 6". called "burr. National Gallery of Art.C. D. Solomon Worshiping an Idol. Nativity. leaving on the paper a soft effect of graduated shadow rather than a sharp edge. mostly three to four inches high (fig- 413)- Some represent standard saints. Beggars Fighting. but they also range startlingly into typical daily life. in a larger print a actions of flexible bodies which 330 4 1 4.

But the exploitation of space is an extension from Gerhaert and was presence their spreading this sculpture irregular such akarpieces are the also afl'ected b) Italian painting. Salzburg (1471-81. Tht 415 may be rather than of accident. Even the today Hausbich Master. 415). near (docs. in a notebcxjk called the Hausbiuh (fig. serious and broad inven- but intricate. are too impractical to have been intended as models.Master's anonymity the natural result of his behavior is usual.i Wvnhipiiigoii Idol (fig. Michael Pacher whose major work is the altarpiece of the parish church at St. Pacher painted the wings for his the Crucifixion akarpiece in Nordlingen akarpiece with ingenious applications of Maine- major vehicle. This gently mocking satire grows systematic in his drawings with a wide pen. Its single figures are in the Multscher tradition. with fleshy naturalistic faces that of seem more modeled than carved. pictorially gentle that art without a definite narrative subject was possible in the period. the wise man foohsh (these are his rare choices from the Old Testament). Of is somewhat figures in graver 1478-1495). and it appears occasionally elsewhere (Schongauer's scuffling boys). its absurdity and toibles. it is perhaps connected with this unusual nonpublic purpose. and the famous Yoitng Man and Death. g'xS". \her about like 1470 else German sculpture enters on years of splendor. i'o/omo.Netherlands. stance lithe. . 414). Hausbuch. In fact. resem- bling the burr effect. witty spatial (sometimes thought to be by Simon Lainbcrger. a sharp irony about mankind. A sundard but imposing early 331 . i467-d. Wolfgang. evolving from Gerhaert's tions and the Multscher's robes. Pen drawing. It comes from the . when recurring. They show how the planets influence ish but is human which may be action.beyond common experience. an early example being the Dijon akarpiece whose wings Broederlam painted (see colorplate 41). the strong man tricked. which is still more emphatic in Saimoii and Delilah. docs.*^ with carving. It is transitional is the big between medieval sculpture that and modern ones ing. . as Planet I'enu^. not far to the in- south. and were perhaps the personal sideline of the merely competent painter. evil or fool- observed with refined detachment. much is part of a build- that stand alone.i498). They indicate prints. similar to the made under The its technicalK splendid Wiener Neustadt Gerhaert's shadow.\ Sculptors typical vehicle of fifteenth-century northern an wooden akarpiece. an open-fronted box containing many carved figures. an old woman making lose to a young man (and vice versa). colorplate 50). The and psychologically imaginative. but great master of this art is less apostles sharply cut. Schloss Wolfegg sheet in The Wood 24. Graf von Waldburg-Wolfegg.

Certainly a comparison between them and those of his great contempo- rary \'eit Stoss in Nuremberg (see p. Painted wood. 1491-93. wood were meant to be seen unpainted. center of Isenheim Altarpiece third viewi. asserting instead the mannered end of a tradition.ThecityofUlm.'*' The masterpiece of Gregor Erhart (docs. His more sculpture absorbs spatial ideas effectively.Al'S Anthony wilh Hagenaier Sts. 416). Thus and pic- but in essence theatrical. Pacher's torial. TiLMANN RiEMENSCHNEIDER. 335) is the polished elegance of an old culture 4l6. a ritual tableau. fied deep box frames in turn is modi- by the painting and gilding of the statues. the Blaubeuren altarpiece (1493- is with a grandiose row of saints swaying in gentle volume. Eve. The altarpiece blends into the building. Si. and so apparently to give up some of their human illusion. g'lo" x lo'g". in contrast to earlier practice. It the greatest instance of the use of statues in dramatic groups. is which work is architectural. the figures and tendril-like ornament in the are conditioned by shadow. and that his figures. The expressive gestures. Sandstone. Wiirzburg gna's perspective tricks. they pay homage to Syrlin's prismatic planes in the tilted. but concentrating their mass into insistent. Unterlinden Museum. extending them to bizaiie logical conclusions with provincial literalness. was important in sculpture. The one notable master in Wiirzburg. Augustine and Jerome. Tilmann Riemenschneider (docs. height 6'5". 417. XlKOI. not far from the Upper Rhine. dainty precision of their realistic. having been the home of Multscher and of Gerhaert's talented admirer Jorg Syrlin. sculptural. 1531). and common at this time in France Italy too. Gregor 's father Michael Erhart and may be it that is sculpture of of uncertain iden- Gregor is only a reflec- tion of him. carves with a craft perfection so refined that his figures suggest cut jewels. even alabaster. 1494-1520) 94). tification. jowly faces many (fig. Luitpold Museum. Colmar (see colorplate 51) 332 between and the . It is even typical that he tried out materials. 1483-d.

a carved altarpiece with robes that corkscrew around arms and legs in parallel patterns like the certain stiffness in the figures that abstracts somewhat. the a nered fantasy remote from altarpiece. such that they absorb the bodies into their foiTOula. only a them too.** Vienna . could 1'l i". uncouth life L. no light gleam to make Book of whole becomes man- human life. Coronation of the Virgin. center panel of altarpiece. East of duced in the (151 6-25) an equally elaborate Passion plays and embroidered costumes. 418) in nearby Breisach. dedicated for- malizations of earlier urban stvles. produced with an intensity of detailed care. Still later Rells. 4 1 8. is Wood.\ndreas Morgenstern proand enormous Their art reminds us of the emergence same locales of such folk-art expressions as areas. real only in the explosive caperings of line. so that the strongest over-all effect is of a huge flat (1523. is only the most conspicuous of many carvers in remote ornament clashes But in Hagenauer's a transition. is'g'x symmetrical ornament. 52. Breisach 417) whose wings (see colorplates 51.\ikolaus (docs. 1323. a jun- with shockingly is magnet 1 1493-1526) carved gle growth of abstracted vegetable there a later generations. just as in Pacher's altarpiece. of the future.< ^1 Master H. fill Cathedral. But the power of Riemenschiieider's absolute precision to some artists even in . Griinewald was to paint later 434). (fig. realistic faces. L. 333 . L. The Master H. Hagenauer the altarpiece in Isenheim fig. H. In it. the Master fig.

2 5-

Nuremberg and



Most German art in the fifteenth century appears in
on its western or southern edges near the Danube or Rhine, which either had a medieval tradition


like Strasbourg

and Cologne or were new commer-

towns like Ulm. But Ulm's strong succession of


from Master Hartmann



and Gregor Erhart, is shortly surpassed h\
Nuremberg's, which had hardly any past (its wellknown "medieval cetiter" is of the fifteenth and


sixteenth centuries).


center of trade routes from

and the Netherlands, and a metal manufacturing city which did much to develop the clock,
Nuremberg is in east central Germany, far from

the traditional leading centers, except Prague.

painting was dominated by the usual local

imitators of Rogier van der VVeyden, the sophisticat-

ed Hans Pleydenwurff (docs. i4-,7-d.i472) and the
cruder, prolific

But there


Michael Wolgemut (1434-1519)-

a surprising secondary tradition, led by

Tucher .\ltarpiece (fig.
whose patrons were the most prominent family.
His figures are clumsy and inarticulate, but he
>trains to make them muscular and solid, with crowd

the unusual Master of the

pressures that

show an admiration

for the .Master of

Flemalle which parallels Hans .Multscher's, that
for sculpture-oriented painting.

persists in a small


later in


This rougher vein

Bamberg and


burg, two lesser towns of the region, and in the


wcxDden people painted by Jan Polack (docs.

1482-d. 15 19) in what was then the minor city of
.Munich. In Bamberg we are shown narratives of

blood and torture, with figures attacking each other
crudely, but with rich implications for sculpture.^"



Church of Our Ladv. Nuremberg


Nuremberg (see figs.
plump Madonna at Saint

.\nd the earlier sculptures in

Resurrection, right side of center

panel of Tucher Altarpiece. 69


401, 403), the informally

Sebald and the twisting, burdened



pher of 1442, had implied the most distinctive style
of any German city, roughly vigorous, with irregular
strong shapes and physical impact.

This then becomes the

style of a great master,

Veit Stoss (docs. i477-d.i533).




dominance of the other
tradition, and went to Cracow in Poland. For the
German church there he produced his first masterto practice



reflecting the

Veit Stoss. Dtath of tht
Marv, Cracow


piece (1477-89;


center panel ofaltarpiece


420), the hugestofall the


en altarpieces, forty feet by thirty-five. It is not the
usual series of enthroned saints but an asymmetrical
event, the death of the Virgin; she is surrounded by
the apostles, big lumbering


trying to help. In

general this matches the trend of the moment
(ierhaerts spatial incisiveness slowed down by the
dignity of Multscher





more powerful in weight and life than all other
candidates. Only Pacher competes, and Stoss, like

lower portion



Painted wood, about I3'4"


might be called not


polychrome sculptor but

engravings, rough echoes of Schongauer.

He continued


have a

difficult life after re-

turning to Nuremberg; he was convicted of forging

document and branded on both cheeks.
Pardoned by the emperor, he carved two more masterpieces at the end of his life. The Annuiicialioii
(1517-18; fig. 421) consists of two statues inside an

a financial

immense wreath,

the whole suspended in the air

from the vault of .Saint Lorenz;

molded naturalism. (But he uses little ornament and
no gilding.) The small side panels with figures and

as a variation

that the color in


relief, as if

creates an

sculptural and pictorial energies.






conflict of

idea that


three<limensional painter seems confirmed by his

him, paints large areas, giving the faces a waxy,

landscape are in very low







George; see




ous between the carved and the

work wTeath offen an

might be regarded

altarpiece (like Bernt





since the open-

essentiallv two-dimensional

His altarpiece of the X'irgin (1320-23)*"




asymmetrical but quieter, even

classical in its

simple cylindrical shapes, under the influence of
talents like Peter \'ischer and Diirer.
Only Nuremberg at this time produced sculpin media other than wood. Adam Krafft, a


stoneworker (docs. 1490-d. 1509), began by copying
a painting,




a very belated derivation

from the routine types of the Parler workshop, once
the dominant producer of stone figures in the region
and without a successor in the interim (see p. 285).


as a

craftsman, in the


city self-consciously

led bv skilled shopowners (such as the shoemaker-


.\dam Krafft. The Weighmaster



over the door of the Municipal Weighing

House, Nuremberg. 1497. Stone, width 511"

42 1

Veit Stoss.

Annunciation. 151 7-18.

Painted wood, 12'2'x io'6"

Lorenz, Nuremberg


Adam Krafft.


from Sacramental Shrine. 1493-96.
Sandstone, height 35".

Lorenz, Nuremberg












T^l^ ni ilmcopjurfmiioir iniruoiiic
yt fine Its Irbumrnt .-^Qjxtt^emiitm ad crnncili ni nn
itiirniiff mmrufjnrnicr piu A j^lfiir (iifiioiirana .cr u oifpH u fu
c joiairn' &i

uoioif a Ui)'ni lofuc. ^ofnc ccm.

*V"£D(t«m(ri omnntfUwoulfifHiffpii





Jean Fouqlet.

Till Fall

ojjeiuho. illuminatid page in Joscphus' AnltqutUi Judaiqtus. c.1470.

V'cllum, ^^" y 12". Bibliotheque Nationalc. Paris

COLORPLATE 50. MiCHAEL Pacher. High Altar, with Coronation of the
Painted and gilded wood, I2'9"x lo'g". Church, St. Wolfgang



coi.ORPLATE 51.

Matthias Grunewald.

center panel of Isenheim AUarpiece

view). 1515. 9'io"x lo'g".


Museum, Coimar


COLORPLATE 52. Matthias Grunewald. ResurrectioTi,
right wing of Isenheim Altarpiece (second view).
1515. Panel, 9'io"X5'4".

Unterlinden Museum, Colmar


Peter Vischer.

Thaddrus, from the

tomb of St. Sebald.
1508-19. Bronze,
height about 36".




Peter Vischer.


Man Breaking a Stick of Wood. 1490.
Bronze, height 14". National Museum,


Peter Vischer.

from the

tomb of Emperor
Maximilian. 1513.
Bronze, lifesize.


Hofkirche, Innsbruck



Sachs), Krafft tan suddenly evoke the

early capitalist tone of his enviroinTient. His sacra-

mental shrine in Saint Lorenz (1493-96) is a pure
Flamboyant Gothic pinnacle filled with Parler-like

but the base








on the shoulders of
and his helpers

are the artist

422), skilled laborers in their aprons


be sure, types like Parler's portraits.



carving over the door of the municipal weighing

house ('497; fig- 423) is a giaphic scene of a weighmaster physically establishing a just price for some
goods and a buyer accepting
tion of




an implicit defini-

postulated by Renaissance cities and

from Giotto on.

While exploiting nearby tin and copper mines,
also produced the first great bronze
sculptor of the northern Renaissance. (There were


earlier individual works.) Peter Vi.scher the Elder
(docs. i487-d.i529), seeking to secure tlie big


mission for the shrine at the tomb of Saint Sebald,
presented as a


one knee (1490;

piece a small figure of a





man on

genre as vivid


his friend Krafft's self-portrait,





supporting something on a shoulder, but of a
ent style.



translates bodily naturalism into a


positional rhythm, going from prose reality to the

intense order of rhyme, which

Flemish but


And just






then the independent

cal cylinders,

with regular horizontal

folds, support-

ing faces that are classical in their openness; this

as Pietro


a masterly


revolutionary, and


illustrated by


reworking from such stimuli

(see p. 131). In




capacity to yield antholog\

two big bronzes of Emperor

small bronze was developing in Padua, near Venice,


where .Nuremberg merchants were always to be
found (see p. 186). When, after a career on smaller


emperor's Innsbruck mausoleum, perhaps using a

tombs, Vischer did begin the Saint Sebald shrine

design of Diirer's

(1507), he surrounded

the simplest dignity




who stand with
They are clear verti-

with saints





426), that Vischer contributed to





procession of royal

forebears that are the overgrown descendents of


Albrecht Diirer of Nuremberg (1471-1528), though

apprenticed to Michael Wolgemut, hardly relates
at all to









printmaking and of the special Nuremberg


achievements in sculpture. Wolgemut's most


was to be the




painter to design

woodcuts, upgrading them from their cheap tradition.

His apprentice quickly learned the

earned a living


an illustrator


for publishers



he made his



His designs, cut in the woodblock by


trip away, at twenty-one, to the

other craftsmen, have the traditional

flat stiffness.

far more
Hausbuch Master,
which he echoed in his own first engravings, and
by Schongauer, whom he adopted as a model for

But the trip


confronted him with the

sophisticated metal prints by the

impeccable technique and the Rogierian vocabulary of figure action.




piece, the AfKJcalypse series (1498;

his first masterfig.


one of

the world's unforgettable sequences of images.


consists of fifteen woodcuts, full-page illustrations

of a book he published himself in Nuremberg. Like

no woodcuts before, they are executed with engraving-like suppleness and complexity. Such giandeur


.Albrecht Dl'rer. Tht Four Hontmin,

from the Apocalypse

Woodcut, 15" /it"




Albrecht DOrer. earliest (fig.) . G'xg". :U3 . they are meant to appear in public only as back- giounds. Kunsthalle. This in which Diirer adds visible effects of his female nudes most remarkable to his is the first simple visual of the ways fertility the plaiming and theorizing.slace (fig. in a sk\ above an incrediblv detailed Eyckian panoramic landscape: the world as experience. The old problem of portraying the supernatural in giiorelli a realistic style demands beyond nature.Alps in watercolor This is —costumes. a study of anatomical proportion like Pollaiuolos engraving of battling " Fletcher Fund. when Bremen Diirer exploits literally the words in the text that the angel's legs were 'like columns. tlius geometric and classical. 430).Semens.After the visit his paintings and engrav- ings develop his lifelong device of explicitly playing Italian and northern methods of rendering against each other in one image. (But. vision of the end of the world. Diirer emphasizes the flatness of the black- and-white pages with vertical compositions. 1919 men. 429). 428). had appeared is . or in Saint John F. Metropolitan Museum of Art.^(^atn and F. is pagan disorder).vr cliff 429.Saint John's matter of popular a anxiety near the magic date 1500.\mong (a is favorite \'enetian theme) the the engraved Xemesis (fig. In the prolific years 130412 Diirer produced several sequences in woodcut and engraving of the lives of Christ and Mars constantly inventive in dramatic motifs and sieadiU . Albrecht Dl is ex- the famous Four Hnraemeti stretch through unreal space so keenly that we run with them. but makes the details rich. 13 < 9".nting H>s Book. as works by Si- and Botticelli also attest (see figs.sion of SainI Eu. Its para- (1504). . under a psychological law. 156)." The only available means Diirer had not yet used and enlarged was the Italian clear order visible he visited X'enice. as sketches.and active p>ower in Rogierian figures The theme before only in Veit Stoss. where i Watercolor. optical unities rather than topographic records. The I'i. . This Eyckian principle of "imaginary gardens with real toads in them" emplified 4^8. with a backdrop of foliage like his but far more detailed and sharp. Engraving. 150. tlie largest engraving he ever made. and on in Peter X'ischer. offers the same doubleness in a profile of a classical horse the allegory of retribution. In 1495 the trip sketched the . but as that still we react to the vision be convinced of every object. shown standing in absolute profile. (which is Christian order) in a jungle landscape of and forest (which digm is . N'ew York. part of his pleasure in recording everything fish — but it also results in the pure pictorial landscapes. flowers.

known best needle-fine preparatory diawings for 432. 1514Engraving. and thus moves from an early Renaissance to a High Renaissance torial style. Engraving. in His Study. Eustace. These are also the years of his paintings. it in- Albrecht Durer.431- Albrecht DURER. him to Venice as the great- of printmakers but did not accept his painting). Metropolitan Museum of Art. Fletcher Fund. Tlu Vision of St. the sinface becomes instead a continuous net of lines of varying density. 10" x 7" Si. Melencolia I. New York. 344 for a today because 15 14. and a lost citizen manv Assumption of the Virgin (1509)^^ of Frankfurt. 1919 more subtle in working me- light into the linear dium. an altarpiece^' on a most ambitious second trip in 1506 (where the artists treated est pic- without diminishing crisp precision.' 10". 14". White areas no longer contrast with black borders. Engraving. Albrecht Durer. 430. 9"x6 1/2" Jerome .

aissance medical concept to . This has now become sentimentally isolated and famous Praying Hands. In Knight Death." as if it had no context. Four Apostles. ignores the shadowy monsters in the forest about him. Three famous engravings of 1513-14 mark the peak of Diirer's technical mastery and his fertile collision of local styles. a title alluding to the medieval and Renplaster which assigned everyone one of four temperaments. To this the complement is Melencolia I (fig. agery of a hero's internal self-confidence parallels 433. Munich - 30 Handbook of a Christian Knight by Erasmus of Rotterdam.\lbrecht Durer. 1526. the The other two engravings also have their themes. and De-oil the knight. The imas "Diirer's . They are fantastic amalgams of texturally real details. with action more lifelike than the knight's. . the melancholic was connected with cold and At\ bodies and minds.*^ who called for the recently published personal rational virtue as a response to the world's corruption. but the focuses of light and design are able to make his abstract figure more solid and convincing than the empirical ones.eluded one for the hands of a kneeling apostle. each 85" Alte Pinakothek. Saint Jerome in His Study 431) reports the balance and contentment of life of the mind through Eyckian room. in clear profile and thus clear in his ideal aims. life styles as (fig. Two panels. insistently exact in perspective. 432). extraordinarily the thinker in his warm with sunlit and worn wood.

fig. Diirer gave these paintings to his native city. with his genius for making intellectual attitudes visible. the happy. but him as publisher. not puritanical. it like the is. colorplates 51. approached \Ve err. and necessan. of which just one. 433). Griinewald wald to group of painters in German history: Cranach. Diirer's turns to elementary ments. Melencolia lives in a definite but said. the converse of Saint Jerome's. it tragic violence personal statement of tragedy. It is but evangelical. and when it was being used for a painting on a . architects. themes assigned by clients is still — world famous indeed. Last Supfjer (1523) now working also on human books on not even that one. Figures cease to exert and stand as large bare forms. and was perhaps suggested by his Jeremiah (see the miiunial puic dignity that makes no claims. 1528) is known through about ten surviv- an is today the beneficiary of our awed response art that distortion. with work involving geometry and construction (whose shown). Griinewald. the Isenheim 346 This art than of the Renaissance. 52. Griine- we artist's to the distortion as if Such 434). with an in- Diirer was his and perspective which. the style in which he communicates tion before.\\\ Diirer. who wanted full elabo- Like the huge bronze X'ischer was at work. Diirer's last years glorify instead the ideas of . Renaissance artists' stylistic it languages represent the tragic. and most fa- ly mously by the Four . they the great Protestant art. and sometimes with artists. a form of glorification perhaps natural in the literary and typographical context of German humanism. produce with the clear-eyed absolute presence of Masaccio. With is a Master of Pontormo. when successfulpublished in 1525 and 1528. 1 he\ stand was engaged artist time by Emperor Maximilian. rate to illustrate Luther's a familiar to us to- day in actors. forcibly reoriented and p>ower. thus that he chose his to own subjects. has an architectonic simplicity less like Ruysdael than Van Gogh. work. In cases when the artist's language was a rather unrealistic one. figure carrying these references is we tools are The allegorical as awkwardly trip to Flanders. because of the printmak- this man could only become famous enough artist called great if his work circulated elsewhere. . it was the qualities of an intellectual's they to Diirer's offered to the public by gieat first more Gennan far other works. and Rosso. In 1515 the famous monuments tomb on which a natural to himself. Like first artists' late powerful because they is the only great artist important than made both possible. because a Ger- Following the constellation of sculptors one genera- 1 Yet in general Diirer whose prints are state- drawing of boats on a beach. they have emphasis on the Habsburg genealogv. artists. so simple and declarative that at A view that church scription about avoiding false prophets. and others. . . through should be repeated.** greatest his exist. be work was mainly produced not for patrons.H)ostles (1526. the years 1470-80 saw the births of the the which turn out be conspicuously an intellectual's notations on typical of like ordinary generalizations. with modulations of detail to ar- commitment to altarpiece (1515. though some worked elsewhere.Mtdorfer.Matthias Griinewald (docs. some other seem disappointingly 27.^^ modified the rules of his youthful strict Italian exfjerience to approximations and options. fig. ing paintings. had roots in the area around Nuremberg (Franconia).Martin Luther and. not in academic perfection like Fra Bartolommeo's but w'ith pressure. only part of few other Renaissance Avignon I'ieth. make books Diirer was to of woodcuts for him. and the comic too. disturbing world. heavy and incapable as some of Michelangelo's. His being ing tradition there. 503-d. as has been It is illustrated by a which omits the woodcut sacrificial food sacrifices do profxjrtion not literally repeat Christ's sacrifice. but none of the projects was finished when the emperor died in 1519. a souvenir of a modem life. imbedded by his skill is more it is but deeply in familiar traditions.with depression and insanity. colorplate 27). if were the respond ticulate each as called for.

Xalivil}-. In his Mocking but rather note of Clniil^'' he retains its brutality of thick bodies colliding in little or no space. 1315. g'lo" x lo'g Unterlinden Museum. but paints thick soft our own inconsistency in denying to painters the behavior we uke for granted in actors. 434- .Matthias Grl-. stimulus readily take the Renaissance to look less at the artist's nontragic same its to far Griinewald was brought up in Wiirzburg. 334) that precedes V'eit Stoss. We should not consider the we tend work in the Renaissance personalism in modern painters like the change in an actor is who becomes somewhat a star and acts chiefly himself. we react with suddenly greater warmth seems to match our own idea of painting. center panel of Isenheim Altarpiece (second viewj. Colmar tragic theme. succulent forms with a texture artist insincere for and giving them accepting all his clients' a full expression. and style. which calls for a tragic theme (if there is any human because it theme) and an unrealistic We in private feeling. not from . High Renaissance people instead of hard angular 347 . themes. and the area where works like an anonymous Rothenburg altarpiece of 1494** belong to the tendency to a crude and vehement an (see p.Nuremberg.newald. Their fatty. and has personal stimulus. The change ones. work to have a like style.

painted wings professional pigments. which seems to Though apparently an intense Prot- Durer. The Isenheim altarpiece was painted for a a hermit. But on Sundays in the \alivily a plump. he. unhannonious yet soft. and landscape. along with Saint Paul artist's smaller paintings are variants of either this Crucifixion or this Madonna. 1498-1545]. Luther's foremost antagonist. this the linear tightness that had been used to support soon becomes stabilized the logical persuasiveness of such compositions. become his trademark. pasty color. like surface. emphatic woodcuts. time by minor painters Hans Fries in Switzerland [docs. Though not only shows the painted backs of the hinged only paintings and drawings survive. attacked by fatty against milky blues. will 434). such further (on great holidays) to show the innermost as and N'ikolaus Hagenauer's carvings (see fig. worked for the cardinal of Mainz. and at the time introduced still being were being explored at the spatial twists. he lived obscurely in the Mainz diocese. Griinewald replaces incisive drawing as with strange. 348 changed abruptly He . The a natural response to scheme into sitter turns to look up. is This is equally typical of Griinewald's fantasy. and and one thief partly from the back.fingers. the dying Christ has a green skin covered with sores. in a chicken-broth tone dissolves the body. the Resurrection next to the innermost wings Saint (colorplate 52). since the Crucifixion has a ritual in 1505 when he went to far-off Wittenberg in northeast Germany. once In the Isenheim altarpiece raspberry reds press tossed about in his temptation. hydraulic engineer.* color and landscape. dazzling light. of the basic emphasis of Stoss and of Diirer's Apoc- roses. vibrating clothes. (Similar elector of Saxonv's invitation to be court artist. and other forms of sensual calmly meditating. It is and pudg\ (fig. but was in Austria by the time he painted his 435). The hospital chapel run by the monastic order of Saint Anthony Abbot. the portrait of the X'iennese professor Cuspinian (fig. he claws with wald his fingers. all against a bodies. The weekday image is a Crucifixion (colorplate 51). 1518] [docs. fluttering in thin. differing from the black sky.) Cranach's early masterpiece. the face of a fainting figure slugs is miraculous light of plastery. mental sensibility of light and color. an up-to-date explorer of expressive many human others in experi- in his time perhaps only by Correggio. But Cranach removes hills. plaster-faced Marv' faints. in two small towns halfway between Wiirzburg and the Rhine. but his painting substitutes a Danube among life the artists grouped school. The shock effect is increas- Cranach's early style lived on for some time in his rough. Griine- Flemish medical realism of color. again plunges a traditional and landscape. without the Cranach and Altdorfer about work is at thirty.Austria by Pacher of Mantegna. in the Resurrection a mit. and Griinewald's succulent world takes the form of a jungle-thick rose garden beside a a painter's reworking chapel. 1480and Rueland Frueauf the Younger in . The it is Crucifixion we see Christ first surviving impressively innovative in profile is (fig. whose Gothic tracery resembles climbing like plastic emulsion. and the open center and the fronts of these wings (on Sundays). This idea was perhaps developed from the odd-angle perspective into . swollen cheeks. and today in the High Renaissance concern for light. light 436). but is opened suggest his concrete concern with materials. being surrounded by wooded sensuous base in nature for and events practiced there by his school. ed by the subject. and matched smiling Mary holds a preciously smiling 28. given a quarter turn.\ustria in this area. fir forest of thickly silhouetted and once tlie Her- drooping branches. so that we seem accidental arrivals on the scene. he was also a wings (on weekdays). In it Anthony appears. 417). fat Child Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553) was born sixty miles north of Nuremberg. alypse series. It is so splendid that it nastiness. accepting the tradition of fixity to an unusual degree. painted with a more than estant.

The titillating other specialty is erotic. big ent veils (fig. In rare cases new religious images appear. or transpar- here. the latter works mass-produced to the point of having printed captions. becomes reduced It to specialties. lived and prospered there being mayor. Luther did not oppose church paintings. but Protestant churches largely excluded them. but chieflv nudes adorned only with necklaces. The Crudfixion. only their veneration. such as "Suffer the little children to come unto me" painted several times by Cranach. tin Luther. The result bears ness to the poverty of nineteenth centurv (that an astonishing commissioned is. the escape hatch for tight ethical codes —and labeled as 349 . notably [jortraits. which had been the mainstay of German artists. 1503. including many of Luther and the electors. The Reformation cut off demand for altarpieces. the start. Munich Panel. which Cranach's shop produced in vast numbers. in- anecdotes (Lot and His Daugh- Hercules and Omphale). excluding art like- in artists' the spon- taneous work or display pieces for exhibitions). elector's great protege even was Mar- and Cranach was Luther's friend from one of the three witnesses at his wedding. 437) —apparentlv hats. The for many years. 435. cluding ters. In general Cranach was the first artist to practice in a society interested only in secular art. 54"^ 43'Ahe Pinakothek.LtCAS Cranach. supporting the Protestant emphasis on man's relation to God with- out a mediating clergy. as later.

This fatalistic art. These too are mass-pro- mechanical style and a simplified formula. Later this art grows as in the famous woodcut of the Hdly Family by Ihe Fountain of 436. the seasons. dreamy or alert. to avoid. 15" x It 10". and the Holy Family crouching in a shadowy corner. Saint Nicholas calming a storm. 350 Lucas Cranach. Tiny paintings. on the is Upper Danube. His starting poirn is Cranach's early sensuous landscape. at (fig.nach. Albrecht Altdorfer (docs. made to vibrate luminously bv the fine white lines of the mortar. 438) minute figure in a forest. the sixty miles south of Nuremberg. and drawings quickly scratched on colored paper (a technique invented shortly before by a local printmaker). so that they are basically similar to Giorgione's people in the 7'empesl (see colorplate 29). Dr.i538) artist of Regensburg. field. . LbCAi Cra.Altdorfer was in fact the city architect a well as a long-time city council- Panel. i505-d. is a not in the depressive sense but in an organic and even elegant tone: strength is not in individual purpose but in the lushness of inevitable movement through more architectural. Altdorfers Nntivity^^ shows a ruined brick house 437. Winierthur man). Frankfurt in elaborate perspective. with Alpine panoramas (as . a design huge construction with the people squashed the side. Their moods. the whole surface dominated by shimmering foliage all these people are — absorbed into the inviting. About 1520 he suddenly produced a series of pure landscape etchings. with a sinuous silhouette and stylish elongation that seem to derive from Parmigianino. beautiful landscape. reflect the tone of nature. a family of satyrs.warnings of what duced in a hard. Cuspinian. — and Saint George slaying the dragon (fig. 23" x 18". 439). Panel. Stadel Institut. of Regensburg Oskar Reinhart Collection. emphasize the vironment on human vital influence of en- Lovers seated in a acts.

and fir trees as in his other works. pure landscapes in West- ern art that are autonomous objects and meain be public. Hans Backoffen George in a Wood. 1 panel. Si.ilexaiitlrr 439.) many by the duke of Bavaria from (docs. a tombsculp- Albrecht Altdorfer. In his one large secular painting . tlie large clay figurines. but hundreds of which are diagramed for us artists.Altdorfer. a starling point near Giorgione. swept up from a deep land- scape into an orange and blue sky. nonsculptural analogous to those of his only rival in his 1 5 1 o. but these are the is first in made from which the style iind Darnis. Pinakothck. The Holy Family ky the Fountain. These delicate generation.Altdorfer like drawing. he was clearly aware of being experimental here. (Etchings had been about 1510. 1519). based on sharp ropy rhythms and nervous two-dimensional silhouettes. 438. as to Altdorfers few other etchings are equally special cases.Altdorfer ends by anticipating the human herds of Bruegel. also belongs to the Danube and style. Woodcut. Leinberger experimented with the new fashionable medium of the small effects are bronze. 5» is evocative when Christ. men move ordered There is in streams by the direction of thrust of their hundreds of glinting spears. Working in Madonna images hav- area small towns. Hans Leinberger based on the technique. the earlier ones were imitations of engravings. but it being mannered in and wriggling outlines like figures their heavy loud color is still in the Resurrection. part of a set of ancient heroes no fighting. the finest sculptor in this generation of great painters. like a river under the wild From sky. Munich His altarpieces of later years are more con ventional. the Bailie oj . loosely scrawled These seem natural line to be the first but in in this more ilie technique.Albrecht . .\lte (d. less other sculpture than like an . " 1 X 9". 9" X 7" 351 . he produces ing mannered artificial life. . colorplate 53). 1513-1530). Parchmem on .Altdorfer produced his late master- piece (1529. Far from being provincial.

This extreme of daintiness. Michael. and twisting it his figures are He treats wood like is wax. The most ing style of Diirer's woodcuts (fewer engravings were being done). they are two parallel lines and do not meet. Benedikt Dreyer. but his stimulus in style from the south. I50i-d. and af- warm glow of Venetian color. 440). and others. height about 60". and the most distinctive sculptor. and there was an intermediate tradi- tion of Liibeck carvers. (fig. is that his with their cubic breadth and tremolo of outline. His most interesting difference from Diirer figures. and the main forces were the draw- sheer quantitative drop after that date seems unique in the history of art. He has an with the earlier Liibeck master Bernt Notke 405). seems to have a Bene- final fling in dikt Dreyer (docs. the Danube landscape mood. and the prestige of Italy. 1507-1555). "German means work of the 352 sixteenth-century painting" first third of the century. He was faithful to Diirer in his strong woodcut line but perhaps was more naturally a painter. There was no second group of great individuals like the painters born about 1 470- one great painter. based on immense skill. All this makes a provocative analogy with the contemporary mannered countrv' sculpture of the Master H. Marv. 5/. Holbein. Lubeck 440. Diirer Pupils and Other Painters 29. are able to fuse the Italian craft traditions which in Diirer and northern had always remain- . Wood.i522). Conrad Meit. pulling and leaving per\erse hollows so that both decorative inventions and car- riers of soulful pressure. a fanustic artist in Liibeck on the Baltic coast affinity (see fig. By 1520 regional distinctions in German were art almost obsolete. again like a phase of Par- migianino. L. the brilliant of Diirer's early pupils was Hans Suess von Rulmbach (docs. sudden decline in A seal was 1530 when radical Protestant groups burned church paintings in vari- ous cities. and symptomize the abrupt decline tor in of sculpture. These make him the most impressive designer fected by the qualities of stained-glass windows in the Renaissance. St.Mainz. the tions set who prove on this the rule by emigrating. are both excep80.

fig. and its less properly ascribed to small private scale reveals the important impact upon Baldung of his greatest predecessor in the Strasbourg region.n. and among religious 442 Hans Baldcng Grie. he produced strange small paintings intense in color.^o). 441). 442). Hans Balding Grien Death Seizing a Woman. Basel painters.Master's civilized irony. to remain cTeative after the burning of church picture*.Mong with rather conventional church paintings. the Master (see p. and finished drawings of scenes. as Hans Baldung Grien (docs. could absorb them and Hans an apprentice. Panel. woodcuts often in color too. all with themes of haunted stress: Death seizing a woman who tears off her clothes (fig. alone 441.^" the famous woodcut of the stableboy stretched on the floor. . but the fatalism opposite to . xS" images the limp corpse of Christ hauled up to Heaven by figure a crew of drawing is The mood projects a of men not part of angels (1519). Kunsimuseum.ed separate. 14" 1 544.\ltdorfer fir forest (1510). Woodcut. vacy also allowed Baldung. i507-d. and woodcuts hard to distinguish from Diirer s own. Tke BeunUhtd StabUboy. a witches' sabbath witli bony crones in an . **ith Hausbuch an amplified pressure The priamong German that has lost the .\ less-known Rhineland painter of violent 353 .*' little Diirer's. apparently knocked unconscious by a be- witched horse (1544. This imagerv of battered fear truly shows the temjjerament often Griinewald.\ltdorfer's. . That had had presumably because Diirer is to struggle with the Italian ideas. the flow of nature but the victims of unnatural powers.i545) of Strasbourg was certainly the most original of the Diirer pupils. s. 12" ^ 7".

Stuttgart imagination is Jerg Ratgeb (docs. Flagellation. Staatsgalerie. 8'io" x 4'! i ".^^ the balconies of Pilate's palace. but his formations of architectural space and active people are acutely dramatic in a modern way. His tall Gothic altarpiece panels are old-fashioned. Panel.screams.i553). 354 This the Christ Child is less is circumcised. Virtual copyists of Altdorfer are a series of behead the female martyr the executioner pulls her hair up. from Herrenbcrger Altarpiece. 1519. I5i5-d.443 Tht JeRG Ratgeb. He up-to-date than Baldung only because the fantasy belongs to storytelling rather than introspection. are filled with faces peering at Christ's scourging. To fig. up when . endless stories. 8* who draw and etch the same Alps and fir and thus disseminate the pure landscape wide- artists trees.i526). Wolf Huber (docs. i5o8-d. ly. who in his . as in a Piranesi prison (1519. 443).

ate in his generation.i53i). ornamentally rich playing to the animals on a luminous fir-covered hillside (1519. and Hans sack (b. 1550. docs. 1550). Augsburg. soldiering at the time (Urs Graf. by the Beham brothers (Hans Sebald. Basel rical ornament. provided drawings for the multifaceted craftsman (1503- Hirschvogel Augustin Sebald Lauten1553) to turn into prints. Hans Burgkmair. and door frames (fig. Der Weisskunig. they recall the painting in the only city that being done was now emerging regional center. but his bent is more obvious in superficial copying of Italian decorative flourishes on costumes. use quick curly pen lines to draw soldiers in slashed sleeves and pants vehemence (fig. 382). i5io-d.^' When these Swiss painters move away from 1527/28). 12 1/2" X 9 1/2". Kupferstichkabinetl. 1502-15. . was the most Italian- milian's favorite residence. They provide patterns Madonnas of decoration and Raphaelesque profile with equal smoothness. and He likes broad simple spaces large undetailed figures. Woodcut. 1561) worked the same vein. especially to landscape-oriented eyes. with a bitter caricaturing that reflects the Swiss trade of mercenary 1503-d. Pen.8S or they las Manuel Deutsch. These fashions were much assisted by the emergence of engravings. 444).*^ and Saint the dead Pyramus John beheaded in fi^om of a rainbow (both by Nicoi509-d.i53o).10) and Georg Pencz (docs. buildings. HansBurgkmair (1473-1531). 1500too (see p. not woodcuts this time. by Hans Leu. Soldiers on the Road. It new as a was Emperor Maxi- and its leading artist. docs.^^ The same and majestic sort of Italianate tight decoration figures dominates . M a date when most German tious their sketches seem painting was repeti- our fresh.«-' mourned by Thisbe. Indeed there is also a flavor of Baldung in such a drawing as Grafs young pregnant woman smiling as she walks past a hanged man. flated his his has importance in modern him more perhaps histories. This Italianism of 445). as it in- gave success than Diirer in the ceremonial woodcuts of the emperor's triumphs and ancestry . pupils of Diirer's late years whom print collectors call the "little masters" because of the tiny scale of their works.paintings repeats Altdorfer's clayey modeling and fluid translucency. 1523-d.Augsburg sculpture. docs. 445. by Emperor Maximilian. 9" v 8" 355 . Thr Wrisskunig illustration in Visits an Artist. 1 5 1 6. 444- ^'^s Altdorfer by stabilizing their people with symmet- Graf.Somewhat recur among less analogies to Altdorfer literal They surround us with nature when they paint Orpheus Swiss artists. 1524-docs. Barthel.

show broadly formed heads surrounded ing the last by thick architectural ornaments that carefully telling because repeat boxed. he simplification of the images. especially . and related Deatli as a skeleton Dance of 448). all his life now also Holbein. where the work of Leonardo and his local successors. 1524). (as woodcuts. Hol- bein thus becomes thegreat master of the generation after Diirer's. bin . flat. folk tradition show fig. but are also the in Hans gauer. thoroughness. they coming to fifty people wlio are labeled by social class. his first portraits. Death replaces the king's cupbearer tumbles the carter's load of barrels on the ground. This participation of real detail in a and measured design gives Holbein's portraits their effect of be- twenty. excited is experi- scenes. \ei already classical the zest of motion in the friezes and the juicy fleshi- mented across. it is 446). is the theme. skilled in the wald's Cnuijixlon (see colorplate jii. Derived fiom a to mystery plays. The first masterpiece thereafter della (1521. and the only ones not prepared to go with a text. so that each tiny pic- is not playing one against the other. firm.iKo accepted patterns of Rogier and especially Schon- Erasmus (1523. Hans von Kulmbach single High Renaissance by presenting had done tentatively) a Holbein had gone to Basel to work as an illus- scholar Erasmus had been attracted from Rotterdam. are the fifty Deatli scenes (1523-26. Younger (1497/98-1543) but was more attracted to modernisms of Burgkmair. 1493-d. In five or six years he drew about thirteen hundred printer's designs for translation into tiny nearbv probably a trip to Milan. drawing While these. him truly trator for the great publishing industry there. statement in which Italian and northern dialects The poignancy are synthesized. he was also painting fres- . in character and appearance. His son learned his father's the craft. most unforgettably. but makes each one an ingredient plainly calling for the other. So when the young man went to try his fortune in nearby Basel (then the still within the Empire). Holbein Hans Holbein the Elder had been a leading painter Augsburg (docs. The is the Dead Christ pre- rigid tension of death seen naturalisticallv. with interesting w-ho styles saw Baldung's work (in Italian influence was something quite new. not with slowly revised perfection but with a daily fertility. and hands describe the personality conspicuously. simple. as in Griine- is keener because of the graphic ture again has the unanswerableness of a four-line epitaph in tial strict meter. at liis feast. with infinite invention of motif. fig. In the profile portrait of face units of a compositional pattern. and even ironically making them seem Italian conventions. 356 fig. not anxiety and paradox. The most famous. whips the farmer's horses to finish plowing this one furrow. ness in the faces allow us to forget Buigkmair's decorative epigrammatic word about the people. and.Andrea to observed and neatly he came them out with weightier figures and made the black air enforce unity of design.30. at age is a balancing allusion to the shape of the rectangle. the concentration on essen- points underlined by the tight order. as the Freiburg) and followed him in trying out night Solario. 447). Yet he filled But the most important it detached and objective. as Diirer was still doing.

1529. Panel. Munich .COLORPLATE 53- Albrecht Ai-TDORFER. Alic Pinakolhck. 52" v 47". Thf Battle of Alexander and Darius.

Basel . 1528-29. 30" x 25".cOLORPLATE 54. Hans Holbein. The Artist's Family. Paper. Kunsimuseum.

Jerome Bosch. center panel of tripivch. Palace. The Hay Wain. Escorial . [490-1500. r.COLORPLATE 55. 55"x 39".

The Louvr . y.coi.N Massvs. .ORPLATE 5b.5.ENT.4. Backer andH. 28" x 27".fe. Panel.s W.

painted private chapel (commissioned own wife and chilThe clinging figures portrait of his dren (1528/29. and Holbein went into exile along with Erasmus and others. but with fewer and fewer lines to evoke their portrait intensitv mental and with volume X'isiting England as a intelligentsia in 1526-28. Basel. the and painted their portraits. New York. These developed out of Burgkmair decoration into vei-\ complicated per- spective systems related to Bramanie. The Louvre. 1523-26. Basel religious 361 . 17" coes for the outside all destroyed (fig. now 449). Kunstmuseum. and Mayor Meyer.^^ and the of the Meyer family. Death and from the Dance of Death Woodcut. 1919 H\si HoLBzis. 449. and through him by the archbishop of Canterbury.Hans Holbein. Sir as of a single monu- figure. Museum of Art. 2". and extend into group designs like the for Madontm Mayor Meyer's 1526). 23" x 14". 448. the Farmtr. moderates who advocated Hans Holbein. Erasmus of Roltfrdam. and inside walls of houses. 195). ^ 13'. Paris 447- 152'? Panel. In 1529 radical Basel Protestants burned church paintiTigs. colorplate 54). 2 I Metropolitan ^'x series. His pxjrtraits develop sculptural volume as well as a sense of character defined. constitute pyramids which are surprising versions of Leonardo's Virgin with Saint Anne (see fig. Rogers Fund. Drawing Dance House. Thomas More (whose member of the Basel Holbein was favored by i'lopia had been publish- ed in Basel). the royal astronomer Kratzer. for facade of Ink and wash.

''* a curious High Renaissance remodeling of Jan's Arnolfini couple. Anne of Cleves. embroideries. Gerard David (docs.\ccomplished in the tradition and amiable in mood. called Amboi. leaving 362 positive it gentle and almost immobile.toleration. Georg GiszeJ" a chant in London. and jewels. between the two men. and otherwise textured full-length French ambassador and The German mer- in a corner double portrait of the a visiting bishop. made a principle out of drawing the fangs of the expressive Rogierian language. making the person a vessel of status (fig. The musical instruments. The Louvre. are and most fantastiwhose acute distortion in virtuoso perspective. the result seen in two great portraits is of 1532 and 1533.sadon. and the sits surrounded wood. and the amendments that it evolved in the interim were often precisely in the direction of the routine and easy. and when Thomas Crom- next two centuries. i484-d. 1539Parchment. The interesting exceptions occur in marginal circumstances. became the chief minister. The Last and Remotest Extensions of Early Renaissance Flemish Painting By 1450 the acceptance of Rogier's idiom was becoming very widespread. Luckily for Holbein (as for Bronzino). see best in the poised late drawings where as a few acute lines create a mass.i523). But these experi- ments soon give way ity. globes. 31. Jan van Eyck is being imitated in the microscopic surfaces and exact textures of velvet and skin. and so on. by countless objects. as Portraits are with most to a steady increase in simplic- now his only subject for paintings. Holbein became the royal artist of Henry VIII. who glass. he first offers people who stand quietly and without sharp edges in a well-lit and softly shaded world of blue-green air. But literalism decreases and generalization grows in his Bafnism oj Christ . artists in Protestant England for the He also did designs for pageants. well. 450). 26" x 19". Memling. Heading back to London. the royal jeweler. Of the king and his wives he produced images that are the counterpart of Bronzino's state portraits at the same time in Florence. Besides Rogier. A more conservatism seems suggested by his successor as the local leader. Paris 450. It was maintained in Flanders and France with little dissent until 1300. Holbein in Flanders was evidently struck by the work of Jan van Eyck. the immigrant accepted in Bruges as the leading painter for twenty years (see p. in contrast to the sensuously chalky ones done earlier. Hans Holbedj. this pattern we coincided with personal interests. cally so a skull on the floor the viewer must correct by looking in a minor placed in a particular position. 315). . typically fiontal and three-quarter length with fixed faces and emphasis on costume.

\miens (docs.\n unjust judge is first condemned and then duly skinned. from . In nearby X'alenciennes on the French border a miniature painter called Simon Marmion. Eyckian aspect of Rogier fied in his panned a small which adopLs the most Birlh of Saint John. Bruges symmetn' and deep style openness. These emphases almost produce a new kind of time (fig.Gerard David. altarpiece (finished 1439)"^ stable. 1 449-^1. 45 Baptism ofChrisI. center panel of triptych. exempli- He tells the story event of the local Saint Bertin through solid groups of people. s range. est test whose figures seem Perhaps Davids hard- in the late Crucifixion. and each of working had spread out from Bruges some earlier.1489^.''''- was his early pair of scenes for a hall of justice (1498). conspicuous for image its heroic in front of a faint sky. as they are in is watched by quiet spectators in a softly blended light with a detachment that makes Bouts' Such graceful acceptance of a wellininured frames. 1 . analogous to Perugino's work in Italy. 52" ^37"- Groeninge Museunn." on a theme like Bouts'. are his most individual work. and linear portraits but Marmion's particular way of toning Memdown 363 . Marmion's emphatic ling. . 451). sharply lit and bound firmly in architectonic seem involved.

there Colombe's carving is somewhat more detailed than we saw at Solesmes.ders. 1496. width I7'9 Abbey. who was probably an immigrant from Flanusing a similar vocabularx.Madonnas (fig. distinguished French sculptors were . the most notable French painter about 1480-1500 and periiaps still active later on. again tamps realism to large plain surfaces. 1502-7.. Autun Rogier. He worked in eastern F^rench provinces for the dukes of Bourbon (this no longer involved an independent feudal duilu. but is 454. Cathedral. been dropped. 452) again are a rounded. 22" x 28".o2-7. from his late tomb of the duke of Brittany (ir. might be considered French. Beautifully outlined. Nantes . Panel. by blander mood and bioadei shapes. the Master's portraits are keener and suggest the idiosyncrasies of great court persons. earlier one in down Flemish fig- 45. To judge from the few surviving reinnants of tiieir works. the motiiers gaze at standardized infants while donors kneel in their official furs and stare heavily. Michel Colombe. on the analogy of Fouquet. 5'3"v ii'io"y5'4". not too sweet. Tomb of Duke Francois of Brittany and Marguerite of Foix. 1494). Again.^ii jr Hugo van - s Master of Movlins \alivity with Cardinal Rolin. Solesmes (1496: 453. 398).iii> widely thought to be identifiable with Jean Hay (doc. 454). fig. The idea perhaps gains support again from the work of the Master of Moulins.\lthough a theory that Peneal was the Master of Moulins has now is a connection between them. IP^ B9L'S Wi ^-^^^H -^Wfdmf \|U^^| /' 452. Entombment. We know one sculptor of this time. and a painter called Jean Perreal (docs. . i473-i5'2). Stone. ! Ji His . . bui an tocracy dependent on King Louis XI). Michel Colombe (docs. Solesmes ". both in realism and ornament. 1485-1529) provided the over-all design. Mus^e Rolin. Marble. almost classically bland version of a source that is 1 now der Goes. and builds to a pyramidal cubism of gieat force in its famous figure of the Magdalene sitting on the ground: the whole group is distraciingly framed in Italianate ornament.S)- Tonnene The EntoniUntriil at similar in type to the (see fig. Italian specialists carved panels of ornament.

air nocturnes. from an aliarpiece.Alexander Bening of Ghent (docs. jewels. The painter scenes inside now makes and the frames bigger than the them treats to dazzling still lifes 455 of flowers. after the invention of printing became very but traditional. or even skulls. they appear far do we have dimmed . Mary of Burgundy's Habsburg son maiTied a daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. such as the that almost prevents us to the cross. Real individuality in this context reappears in Flanders in the curious form of manuscript illus- This was obviously an old-fashioned tration. This was seized by the Master ol Mary of Burgundy.Master of Madonna and at the Feet of Jesus.\ustria. 8" x 6" Royal Palace.Mary.and accumulaies symbolic objeiii solid truthfulness that uiili an amiable.Mai7's illuminator went to Spain as Isabella's court painter. somewhat like the hand-tooled racing automobile with us. and an apparent pupil of . 455) exploits two habits in earlier Flemish art. Less icenes within the frames. in front of Christ watching him being nailed or the series of calendar landscapes. three-dimensional enough to suggest the surrealist illusion that they have been dropped on the book. 1469-1519). Vienna b>oxes. da ugh lei of the last duke of Burgundy. the love of materialistic detail and the elaborateness of the frames in earlier manuscripts. manied Emperor Maximilian and thus transferred her Flemish wealth to the Habsburgs of . Madrid Scene. Her Book ol Hours (fig. National Librars-. Framed by a Windou Vellum. logically. illuminated page from a Book of Hours. . 456. one frame is occupied by a lady inspecting her jewel flamboyant but still more inventive back in space. around 1430. virtually without figures. and yet the ordinariness of the figure drawing reminds us that this is a from the great inventors of Flemish minor offshoot style. that note the changes in (a modern variation on and reactionary context of throughout the year light Pucelle). . who may have been . art and flourished as an it extreme IUXU17. rich are the minute moody us Not only and experiments with in aerial perspective. Magdalene Saints Mary of Burgundy. and the absence of any normal function opened up an opportunity for wild originality. Panel. perhaps the worthiest is trib- ute of a sculptor to Jan van Eyck's ideas. but the notion of distance from again logically extended to the treatment of is crowd the themes. book Thus the strict illustration leads by paradox to the freest experiment. 9" y 6". he was known Juan de Flandes.

National Gallen. but the light. I49i-d.there as Juan de Flandes (docs.Aragon who was queen of England.\ntwerp. who were more countrified even than the Germans in their distant medievalizing echoes of Flanders. who was probably and he does suggest an average of this whole context. later he turned up at the English and Danish courts too. D. in a neatly plotted perspective that suggests he might have been in Italy on his way to Spain. with a festi\e and impulsive air surprising in the domain of . since they are giouped archaically. the Catherine of . a less stagnant environment than Bruges. soft tonality of this tradition However tragic the is themes of Christ's Passion and death.Memling and David. in the vivid surviving head of Guevara (fig.of Art.Marmion's widow. Washington. an altarpiece for Isabella's orator)'.\gain the drawing forms are traditionally Rogierian. and possibly connected with his awareness of . nously routine pattern only the more noticeable of his time. 1469-1525). 12" x /). as the repetitious is tion in a being born only from other Isenbrant is absolutely skilled. He an extraordinan masterpiece. both in color and space. . and as he copies David and ful to his others the shadowy. Another of Isabella's court painters was Michael Zittoz (orSithium. like faceted jewels. has left 1496-1508).\drien Isenbrant (docs.i529). His portraits were especially approved by Isabella's daughter. Andrew Mellon Collection Juan de Flandes and Michael Zittoz were made firm by modern inquiries. where he had married . has a unique assertion of precious intensity. Each enamel-like 456). His figures and many of his small-scale objects are mobile and fresh. polished little figures. But it is only contrast that makes them conspicuous. but vacuum. we can see why. 9". Before the identities of Michael Zrrroz 4j7- Panel. art. His sensitivity to tone and because of the bright details. remote from the ideas it is a holding ac- .i55i). a wanderer from Reval on the Baltic and a pupil of . panel encloses bright.Memling's. and by other royal patrons. texture More 366 typical of the last years of Bruges. Clearh Isabella preferred northern painters to the Spanish altar-craftsmen. of fifty small scenes of the lives of Christ and Mar> (fig. an immigiant from Valenciennes. no is the prolific painter . 457). the figures are as remote from stress. In Bruges itself Gerard David has a li\elier but more obscure younger contemporary in Jan Provost (docs. He was faith- teacher David. a survivor. i5io-d. some of their works were considered his. happily intertwined with rich variety of costume texture. doubt.C. Don Diego It modifies Memling's portrait pattern toward looser and irreg- ular shapes. in a monoto- ever more accentuated.

Lisbon is it is somewhat skewed and uninformed preferred." the latin for Jerome. (The romantic modern habit eccentrics. Jerome Bosch. . he never traveled. near the Flemish and town of 's German borders. Bosch.\ntiga.i5i6) had a father. a genius in a small town developed a different art out of still altitude. so far as any records report. [ust Bosch when the all-purpose Heinish language of Jan ofcalling Bosch "Hieronymus. worked called in a locality where no important earlier. like El Greto later. Vet he enough to receive became famous an order from the Habsburg ruler.") background is The impwrtance suggested by the of Bosch's fact that he (docs. a token of this van Eyck and Rogier was wearing away. if older materials. two uncles. and a grandfather who were all artists in the same small Dutch Hertogenbosch. i486-d. Jan van Eyck ought to be •Johannes. thus observers who have tience to hunt out the very up the artists not the great pa- minor currents making traditions of these masters standably.\rte .32. from which. center panel of < ^^' Museu Nacional de triptych. 52" . if unfortunately. Anthony. The Temptation of St. had lived have under- regarded them as unique and built rather fanciful theories to explain what they did. 458.

soft. in Conrad von Soest. who was working just across the German border in the time fourteenth-century Flemish style of Bosch's giandfather. with his textural assurance. descended from medieval manuscript borders and gargoyles. he gives panorama. And iiis sophistication greatly all combined from real details. in small scale. The Hay Wain (colorplate 55) proceeds from original sin in Eden on the left.Maryof Buigundy'sson. tion. all as a aspects of Erasmus. show daily life undated. made doubly disturbing by being monstrous. the Lord sees" (the readily coiniecl the hallucinations with our cultural view of the subconscious. seem guaran- space. of things within a Boutsian airy with an inscription. But he learned to be an expert in the realities of textures modern Flemish The new result is Museum of Fine . Jan attacked in Arnolfiiii and 359). indeed a age it moral literature of the Ship of Fools The large triptychs. but one is angry and one gently himian emphasis on hard work. 459. both were concerned with silliness. Thomas a Kempis' book The ImiUUion of Christ this the a puri- for the of the most piiysical sins. The paintings. perhaps. these. so that the old stylized fantasies teed real. We may communities of Thomas' admirers were strongsmall Dutch towns).^rts. 30" X 33". the combination of extreme and major contacts seems parallel to the mix of the old-fashioned and the innovative in his localism art. gluttony and lechery. as a berating of society they belong to the same trend laymen's lodge. all sidered in three groups. and Bosch seems to have retained all of these as a natural inheritance. Panel. Lochner uses another medieval tradition that becomes Bosch's most famous motif. In a noineligious picture of people cheated forerunner of the Protestant Reformation. The seven a deadly sins^^ are jeered through caricatures of the within the atmospheric glutton at table and the vain girl before a mirror. His way of painting people. with a about the world's instincts. are again sermons to the sinner's conscience. under ethical judgment. he is less is to be seen the psycho- analyst than the revival preacher. and special hatred rueful. In produced some of its greatest effects. filmy transparent surface. it A cities 's emphasized an emotional approach relatively slight tanical importance to Church. As a systematic set they maintain the tradition of calendar pictures. Bosch paints as had grown up without a the Eyckian if matching giowth of new bourgeois themes. glovsing. and some enlarges the repertory of monsters. of his God. so influential in the time of Bosch's father. the fantastic evil creatures such as devils with heads on tiieir bellies. and boneless. It is a different phase of the tension between supernatural values (the and est in visible facts that His Wife style (see fig. to humanity indulging itflavor of fatalism ."" Bosch can be compared to less cosmopolitan time and known to have been active in bosch. closest to the late is seen in Bondol and last. But Bosch. others of Bosch's aeatures. the second group. "Beware. To Jerome Bosch. a It is constant syndrome of the Western tradi- though for various reasons not of its art. who was first a factor in it is still Lochner. Christ Bearing the Cross. with heads and feet but no bodies. especially the crawling and the slimy. like dreams where we what we cannot accept. If Bosch twentieth-century type. can be better linked to a religious as the secular trend typical of the Hertogen- by Brant (1494) or the Praise of Folly by Erasmus (1509). by a carnival huckster. are usually con- The earliest. especially nudes. the career of Savonarola. Ghent the hallucination effect makes him that positively see fascinate us. a rich citizen and active member of a pious most authentic words of Bosch). 368 Hausbuch Master.

with a minute precision. e\en witliout lull capacities of articulation. pressed and crushed by tough evil all around it. 378). Jan Gossaert (docs. soft weak good figure at the center. In painting he is in the train of a drawings of ancient sculpture. Massys is older than both Raphael and Diirer.Schongauer seen in Diirer. Massys paints. Bosch's important compositional forms. recoiding minutiae of their strange heavy heads. is not taut or thin. to It is like the be seen in Leonardo. sharp focus survives not in things but in a banker and his wife confer in the acts. and although he copied Leonardo and found him a comfort. surrounds the shrinking hermit with the innnense Antwerp and 33. and introduces one of variety of his nightmares. takes them monstrously jowled grotesques and seriously as persons.and the feelingofa cultivated 369 . 459). and Massys worked effectively on double portraits. and continually implying a puzzled the change from 460). in which regretful on the High Renaissance the stituent part of a widely scattered state.Spain making it a con- burgher (owns of Bruges and Ghent were giving way Bearing the CiOis Clirist (fig. polished classical lypically humanity. This is the motif of Bosch's last works. tailed . the is he is not every level. A simplei systematically. though. journeyed to Italy as a young his native exoticism to Burgundian prince and made It was clearly an him and dominated his whole life. His instinct for the figure (lie fatalism seems to replace preaching. The nude tiius becomes not an idealization of tectural fi"ames. to Hell's Kjiiiients Bosch's glowing light. tlie paintings were tlie made related of bodies entwined with These for a series of roval patrons of Burgundian family. the werp. The same theme reappears in the Garden of Earthly DeliglilsJ'' but more making a tapestry-like invenand spiky bnshes. Massys to the artificial eroticism also copies his the precise laboriousness of a blueprint. of Erasmus and another scholar at the ends of a see fig. wayward inven- self in the tenter. His aims were perhapsonly understood by Peter Paul Rubens. and his extremely articulate. fascinated by nudes. materials of objects do not greatly interest him. came from grand house that was a tourist attraction.Massys. such as the repeated to .()u\aiii great world port today. lory of hopping beasts variant. In the and the females extremely cushiony.Xnt- sance art began in artist. both as to his way of living and as to painting the massive own time energies of real Flemish . and both frames and figines are and sliarp-edged (colorplate 57). as he nuist more bance about liow literal Italian imitations to proceed.on the right. so that shop and a reference to Petrus Christus arises (colorplate 56. The double man seen as statuary. both bulky.Mabuse from man town. (fig. with all in and animal tions of plant life. from a foreign land table. did permeate he wants to present people of imposing grandeur the city. E\ideiuly . As the kings Burgundy ol . In his Renaissance mood. They are surrounded by extremely intricate archi- main. r503-i5!52). taking no role in the local guild but building a High RenaisAntwerp when one forceful Quentin Massys (i465/(i6-i5'5o). though. 45H). A High flesh. the great . usually in and monumental sweep (hange from \'errocchio than Massys'.'* Parallel to Leonardo in the way congested a precious curiosity displayed with distance — is groups of heavy people turn to each other. Portraits are important. the focus were replacing the dukes of as rulers in Flanders. wanted to be modern. but as virtuosity in a jewel box. the males extremely muscular flesh imitates the real thing. the Templatioii of Saint Antliouy (fig. change from . evoked at distin Perugino seen in Raphael. and so he also behaved like an artist-figure rather than a craftsman. But the bigger and louder scale distinct. a close- up probably influenced by motifs of Leonardo. and memory began to dependent on Van Eyck and for the first paint in a way not time in Rogier.Massys was given fame but oddly limited imitation. anatomically have learned to do.Antwerp artist a century later. still a l.

I of France (the same year Rosso sitters smile mildly. he -i more . For his many Madonnas he develops an efficient and smooth formula. painters. he went in 1530 for some years to art has settled son Frangois. the court of Francis arrived there). and. reflect the portrait type established by Leonardo's followers in Milan. 151 i-d. Joos van Cleve (docs. 8'6" Madonnas Herculean mus- ornamental tracery.i54o). collector of the Cross. in a flavorless alternative Holbein. and more superficially. as if the already become routine. like him. who had immigrated from Flanders down to —which city is not sure be court painter.Antwerp.Qlentin Massys. some other Antwerp absorbed the High Renais- sance more calmly. A very sucportraitist. i5i6-d. luxurious 461). and his rare altarpieces in like that of When center panel of triptych. a more S7() and Rapiiael than like Rogier. Antwerp 460. Deposition from Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts. naming his —and been given attention because of like Diirer His routine new ways had his accidental status as the leading painter cessful time in France. dead exactitudes anticipates the grand- ducal court of Florence.At the French court Joos found a provincial carbon copy of himself already established. Jean Clouet (docs. with a plumply soft and bland figure 8'i i ". Gossaert's small specialize in infant Christs with cles. and centralized to The (fig. human of his spark appears only . 1540/1) settled in .

Panel. but we look down on the total panorama. perhaps modernity.i524). which he did both alone and in collaboration Massys and Joos van iliis on panels having C.Johnson 462. . The objects are often on our eye level. I5i5-d. tative of . The picturesque ob- 461 . technically imi- Leonardo and maintaining the Fouquet tradition. Francis I's invitations to Rosso.\ntwerp Mannerist Artist. Mus6e Royal dcs Beaux-Arts. and filled lakes (fig. 7"x8". Tht Flight into Egypt. Primaticcio. Staatliche Museen. Thf Beheading of John Panel. The most surprising .ire the the succession of Flemish painters for last in French kings that had begun with Bondol. Panel. with 462). and others soon transformed the visual environment in France. villages.EVE. 14". first painter anyw here to make his career as a landscape specialist. Joos and Jean Clouet.ill his albums of portrait drawings. a \ers early kind of division into figures by example of In all his specialties. Bcrlin-Dahlcm . Joos VAN Ci. These two visitors.\ntwerp vears. landscapes wide miles of geography are the same rocks. 19" x the Baptist. Collection. forests.M Patinir. Antwerp 463. He was the is a artist of these token of the sense of international )oachim Patinir (docs. Philadelphia J0ACHI. I 23". King Francis 28"/ John G.leve.

but Bosch. Indeed a very it as landscape but as an atmospheric Flemish set of interesting objects. but ilic assemblage taniioi be. and tions in an equal series. This might be thought of not still life. embroidery. 1490-1520). his greatest contemporary. but they all paint traditional panels with scenes of the lives of saints as were costume jewelry if they 463). Muste Royaux d'Art Job's Afflictions. Besides emphasizing David. briefly in his youth). Jan de Beer (docs. 1 52 1 . some Patinir learned his blue air from Gerard A group style was practiced in Antwerp by the mainly anonymous "Antwerp Mannerists" of this same generation. Bernard van Orlev. candlesticks. 69" v 72". . freed him to see the wide world as provocative small nota- carved banisters. would be strange if these primitives of professional landscape were not in essence thing else. vel the clear atniosphent intervals permit an uiicrouded. is less acutely mannered than others.jetts are real. they twist their tiiin people in a snaky 464. agreeable sequence of contemplation. They are even more agitated by exotic interests than Gossaert one of them (who probably was The best known. Brussels center panel of tripiych. et d'Histoire. (fig. sword scabbards.




to uaiit to substitute

dramas. They are best




makers of surfaces, with

tiny brilliant ornamental designs that are meaningless

but authentically inventive.

Their mood


Orley, the leading painter in Brussels (docs. 1515-

action in figures.
ness of Raphael,

His masterfig.

shows Job's dying sons and daughters flung


a congested variation


massive cubic palace,

on RaphaeVi Deal liof.-iiiaiiias.

By keeping many ideas

a static pattern

genuinely Rogierian nervous

successors in his city than his contemporaries in


was dominated by





Bruges had

in theirs.

whose tapestry designs were shipped

Haarlem and Leyden


It is



in control. Van Orley makes
one of the most impressive assertions of the
Flemish High Renaissance, but he had no more

ornament of the

two contradictory forms,

face takes


AfJIidions (1521;

J all's

forward out of the space of

related to that of Bernard van

d.1542). His thick small-scale

on buildings and

be woven (see

10 Brussels to

piece, the triptych oi


and Holland

to contrast Flanders

period (they were not

split until tlie



next century;.

provincial and


onservatix e cast, hard, wooden,


angular, tight in contour, and unshadowed. \et he

but they do contain regional schools, and just after

rejects the

1500 the northern one in Holland was the most

and thicker physique, and above


complexities of color, especially in costume, so that



neither ran conservatively into the

Bruges, nor was





Rogierian formula in favor of a shorter

color areas the people

older suggestions, and were especially lucky in being



Geertgen's early death the leading painter

Haarlem was Jan Joest (docs. i505-d.i5ig), who
came from the German border town of Calcar. He


another literal-minded user of Rogier's spindly

jointed figures in precisely adjusted actions, with

more smoothness than some others, and oddly accented by the vehement caricatured heads of the
wicked that suddenly dart out

at us.

He differs


German towns only in
wide influence may suggest

competence, but




grow malleable and easily
Without borrowing

in rich crowds.

Italy he has found a modern resource for High
Renaissance airiness and mobility. It is a narrow

vein, but this rich precision





made him







presumably, he was able to stretch to a surprising
novelty, an imagined landscape of the .New World

(now a Habsburg territory; fig. 4(13). with hills, huts,
and naked Indians fighting, a graphic variation on
Patinir and a curious parallel to Piero di Cosimo's
Klemish-tinged fantasies of primitive

a host of regional tnasters in

he piles on deep

merely by the saturation of adjacent elementary

swamped by the attraction of Italy. The painters
managed to build a modern language on the base of
able to tap Geertgen tot Sint Jans and Bosch.


In nearby


Leyden Cornells Engelbrechts

asserts a distinct school (i4<W-i5.'{,s).


His cosimnes

the strategic position of Haarlem. Joos van Cleve

again area purposeful device. Elaborate and modish

may have learned from him

from hats

before inoving on to

Antwerp, and so did Bartel Bruyn


as the



lions of




1493-1 r,r),')).


leading painter of Cologne and

enamel hard

portraits ot genera

tinctive flavor,


to shoes, they are as decorative as those of

the .Antwerp Mannerists but not so artificial,

with acrobatic rhythms in crowded dramatic tab-




now stemming fiom Geertgen,


portraits or

old inaster.

His figures indeed have their

color areas, along with inevitable lineai

neatness, can validate

somewhat more



reinforce the wearers' actions, bonelessly twisting


long career of Jan .Mostaert (docs. 1500-

1556) brings to








Engelbrechts paints otdy nairatives. no

Madonnas. His most constant iheine

the Crucifixion, with




groups swirling aroinid


Jan Mostaert.



World Landscape,

Panel, 34" x6o".

Frans Hals





and side panels repeating Geevtgen's

blood-spattered Christ. Jan Cornelis of

1506-1533), the






painter in that as yet

shows the effectiveness of

his provincial

who translates


copy of







Engelbrechts into more old-fashioned

orderly patterns, and his color areas into glittering
points, until carried


away by the

different ideas of

pupil Jan van Scorel.


a parallel to Engelbrecirts

vivid Leyden master Jan de

He went

to .Antwerp


and was so





(docs. 1503-1526).

successful that

became head of the guild, but we have


to recon-

struct his

work from slight indications. He too paints
marked color fields, but instead of

action in sharply

costume, the units are fantasy landscapes.



Anthony tempted or Christopher crossing the river, and never repeat, but each
time invent a wayward jungle of twisting trees in
wliich the saints' robes whip and flounce. Lakes and
fires behind them form pasty color areas and complete the wildly decorative dream worlds. All this,
including the landscape color, draws heavily on

with hermit

Bosch, but

is less





ambitious, visual without moral


after Bosch;



his son

Jerome Cock became an Ant-

werp publisher who issued prints



providing the link from Bosch to Bruegel that
otherwise hard to trace.


Cornelis Engelbrechts.

The Lamentation^
renter panel of triptych.

Museum "De




Lakenhal," Leyden


Lucas van Leyden


Theoiiegreat Netherlandish

artist in


was Lucas van Leyden (i494-i533).


pupil of

He seems to have been a child prodigy,


since he produced important works in

1508; his

him from




directions like a chorus entering a


and victim grows more
is a tiny background

relation of world


figure, hurt

the hero-victim

by large observers in the foreground; in

494 has been doubted, but seems to be
right, and other factors seem consistent. His father

Susanna and the Elders, Susanna

was an


birthdate in


which often favors early development;
works are engravings, where the exception-


his first

high importance of technical factors



tible to early

mechanical talents)






learning from great

as well as to

long distance.


children's musical

(as in



to liave


unhealthy and small, and adolescent self-preoccupation


be behind the very original themes,


repeatedly concerned with people


are victims


just visible in

the faint lines of aerial perspective, while the piglike




her become identified with


the lookers-on or voyeurs, fiom in front of the

engraving. Saint Paul in his conversion


his horse in the airy distance;

in the





him again


foreground staggering wretchedly among his

soldiers, like



King Lear. The greatest print of



to the

People (1510;




small pathetic Bosch hero, stared at by a tumul-

tuous foreground crowd


again are us, a com-

of a greedy world, which pour out in his early work.

position soon famous in Italy and frankly copied in


a great


and message are remarkably

similar to those of the youth of Picasso.

The first great prints record people hurt beyond
hope: Hagar

and Eve are


told she

must leave her home, .Adam

bizarrely seen not

when expelled

or as

workers, but as tattered refugees on the road from





the source of hurt from


print (1508) conceals




odd theme is the sleeping Mohammed falsely charged
with a murder.

off. in




the sleeping Samson's hair


another print, ugly soldiers CTeep up on





subject most often

the part of the Passion in which Christ

mocked and

beaten. These

more ordinary themes

allow us to pay attention to the drawing

a technically taut version




of the Rogierian tradi

showing hard bony unideal people in action
it to insist on ugliness and uncom

he concentrates

fortable proportions.

A minor work, a small Madon

na sitting on a bank, gleamingly brilliant in line
presents a tired

and dull-witted woman; others

beggars and pilgrims and a

Lucas van Leyden.



peasant having



to the

Peoplf. 1510.











Harris Brisbane Dick Fund,



purse stolen while his tooth

Lucas' world people cannot
plavs to Saul (1508;

while Saul



pulled (1523). In



together: David

468), keeping his distance,


great image of insanity in art.


Saint George, having killed the dragon, has trouble

coping with the hysteria of the princess,

Anthony and

gingerly touches. Saint



his temptress

(1509) are two tight verticals. In this vein the master-

The Milkmaid






469). a scene of


always noted as a century ahead of the type

developed in Adriaen Brouwer's peasant paintings.
.\t tlie far left


fannhand stares at the girl
and she coquettishly ignores him;

a gangling

the far right,

they are held apart by the horizontal lines of the

two bony cows who
the world in




the middle

this faulted

occurring. Lucas reports not so

tragedy as a


muddled despair of things going wrong.

a miracle


and represent

human relation is
much inonumental

by Christ, the Raising of Lazarm,

open-jawed crowd and
seems to inark






triumph of goodness

than an incoinprehensible violation of reasonable


Lucas van Leyden

David and Saul.


Engraving, 10" x





While the analogous depression

Baldung Grien's prints


of Art,



Rogers Fund 1918

a social




traditionalism of Lucas' drawing style

aided the speed with which he presented his


privately liaunted, Lucas'



prints were famous at once, but were

iinitated only for their piquancy, not their charge.

The few early paintings
in mood and originality

are less skillful but similar

of motif, such as the chess-

gawking kibitzers. '* Later the paintings
gain command, and the prints grow less original.
plavers with

Lucas shifted his technical allegiance



Raphael. Tlie satire grows milder, with


in the scene of Mary

her conversion, strolling through a
witii lovers, a

world of mass

their foibles with


meadow crowded




Magdalene, before


Lucas tolerates

he does in the

painted crowds of the Last Judgmenl (1526-27;
colorplate 58) and Moses Shikiiig the Ro( k:^" he

mellower and throws away hard impact.
a great painter,



AN Leydev. Thf Milkmaid, i^ir


Engraving, 4
Gift of Felix





of Art,

M. Warburg

his family, 1941



exploiting the Leyden color tradi-

tion but eliminating


x 6".



tight detail: thinly painted

gently modeled, create figures

alive in shafts of light.

Even single

portraits analyze

character in the set of inouth and wrinkles, with

penetration but withholding a formula of judgment.

Yet these works seem to be tentative moves
direction unsettled



He becomes

when Lucas died


in a




JAN GosSAERT. Danoi.

1527. Panel, 45" ^ 37". Altc Pinakothck.


COLORPLATE 5S. LucAS VAN LtYUtN. The Loil Judgment, center panel
Museum "De Lakenhal," Leyden
g's" X 6'i ". Stedelijk

of inplych. 1526-27



FiETER Brif.gel.

HuTiteTs in the

Snow. 1563. Panel. 4b



Kunsihistorisches Mu-scum. \





El Greco. View


of Art,

of Toledo,



1600-14. Canvas, 48'

York. Bequest of Mrs. H. O.


never, 1929.

The H. O. Havemeyer


The Beginning


of Italianate Architecture and

All buildings of noiiliein



structural technique





in the fourteenth

and many

fifteenth centuries,

later ones, are

and therefore


the other hand, the emphasis in the types

of building changed. Hardly any cathedrals and not


large churches



were begun, but more

change from the elemental



brought a

rising living standards

with a few


complex mansions and palaces.
vaults and more flat ceilings
and rectangular windows because they had several
purpose rooms


They needed fewer high

hence spaces with balanced proportions and

human scale. This is a slow and obscure growth.
The new kind of relatively low wide rooms might




were. Short neat



but we can't


drawn on Gothic masonry. The same procedure
emerge soon in Spain, where it gives a name to

whole epoch of style, plaleresto (silversmith-like),


also in

Germany and









masonry construction) and the

Renaissance; yet from another view-

point they are Renaissance in essentials (the organizing of space

and social character) and the ornament

Gothic, a tracery evoking profuse plant growth





about their visual qualities,



higlier rate of remodeling, not

mention destruction. Their appearance may be



new treatments of church


on the walls of



hall-like space (choir of

Gloucester Cathedral, begun 1329).
idea that a church




borrowing secular motifs seems

confirmed when other churches, built


horizontals and verticals are strongly equalized


low cubes,

crowned with battlements borrowed uiifunc-



castles (Edington, 1352, built

by the

powerful Bishop Edington of Winchester). Only in

do we begin

the fifteenth century

to see elegant

dwellings that are in no way castles, such as Jacques

Coeur's (see



when wooden

they seem most

noticeably like the Gloucester choir forms (Ockwells,

about 1460).


1500 their small decorative elements,

window frames and moldings, may be
King Charles

and from



France inherited

no longer feudal

to invasions,

and some

V'llI of

state in






a peaceful,

483, he turned

brought back fashion
visible result


in the

chateau of Gaillon, begun in 1501 for his counselor,
the cardinal of .\mboise.






motifs from

such as those of the Certosa of Pavia or

Pietro Lombardo's work, easier to absorb since


were thrmsehes smface elements, not iinegral


Countries. In one

true sense these buildings are Gothic in essentials

particularly their surface handling, since secular

building has

with curlicues,

grotesque animals, and mythological fancies,

evolve inside a traditional castle tower, as a stack of

luscan originals

as the


Staircase, Chateau of Blois.
Begun 1515. Height 49', width 26'




Begun Plan. and on both counts possible to define as mannered. the richest in Europe.Augsburg. panels to be decorative but this Round one is stair labeled French towers are a Gothic tradi- widened and given an easier gradient. originally royal hunting lodges. staircase at the transition.\mboise's 1515. is an intimate enough blend of Gothic masonry^ and Italian Renaissance. dominated by art forms prepackaged elsewhere. is to the emperor. tion. the balustrades articulate these changes in a unit Sculpture of course work chief resulting tomb (begun is felt same the stimuli. Their family packed with carvings on which known to have worked. bankers chapel (1309-18) many show artists are a tradition.«( paradoxes characterize an art that is pressive of its makers but a suspenseful not fully ex- which the same time at and uncertain the building. an Italiaiiate noveltv the settled vocabulary of local craftsmen trained bv Italian visitors. fig. 471. height 40'8". bord (begun 1519. figure is The the cardinal of . and allegorical virtues like Michel Colombe's stand behind in a row. Visible pan of shaft. Begun 1519. later modified to accommodate another cardinal of the same family). Italian fashions came to German sculpture through the Fugger familv of . 47 1 . But they are set in heavy ornamental panels. Staircase. 1519. After the becomes tentative probes this first The first spectacular products are the chateaux of the Loire. 470). and which range of styles from tightly decorated Italian- ate panels to wooden choir-stall figures in the older much debated whether the artist in It is DOMENICO DA CoRTONA ( ?) Chateau of Chambord. which impose cubic measurements on the statues and add to their seriousness. the spiral stair in the courtyard. Chateau of Chambord. diameter 35'9" miff a similar four-hundred-room chateau ofCham- in itself outside. figs. producing a novel pattern of tension be- tween stockv vertical and near -horizontal the exclamatory focus of is more emphatically. Still MUi^^^ IBlZmEKSIE 472.*' Its focal French tradition of Flemish in the recent textural realism in a milder translation with broader forms. 472) is moved to the center of a square building. Main block 140' square . The most famous part of Blois (begun 1515.

sculptors are divided between the "overripe Gothic" the Master H.. others. or one (docs.\nd of course the the chapel exploit the rich accepted tradi- reliefs in German tion of Italianate made prints. 474).Apollo Fountain (1532.\polIo Fountain. . because he was the architect. Hering 473. and a very few from Italy.Vlultscher still in Ulm almost a century before (see 404). because younger participants.\fter an obscure youth in the Rhine area he is found working under Cranach at the Protestant court in 30* Nuremberg controvertible reality he left (fig.Not surprisingly. In a broader sense. fig. 1511-1544). with satyrs far altars of Leinberger. of representing the deceased twice. them from a body of either of The large central image of the suffering Christ. though. Adolf Daucher he was the eldest. medals. mood. and once underneath Meit wraps as all this in a florid 383 . one ambitious sculpture by 1522-d. such an achievement would not Italy seem remarkable. court toys like the small bronzes of Italy but serious in tone. using the French memeuio niori device nude formula of Cranach's paintings in statuettes of alabaster. and other fine German energies of fig. plain though rather Peter Flotxer. more a vast production of is tiny precise plaques. The great the era of V'eit Stoss fig. For her Meit made statuettes. 1546). The Adam and Eve and nude and half daring is viewed fell back on favored themes the Judgment of as half classical idealism real personality. in pose. either by 1538). apparently the Flotner Peter figure in Italian (docs. He artist in Margaret. height 'without base copied from an The (docs. the but he then reliefs. and wood. it is fundamentally in a continuity with . sculpture. L. .Augsburg printfaithfully reproduced. and intended impact. once on the bier the specific material being thus charged with in- a desiccated corpse. revises the standing richly dressed as if asleep. and the . Wittenberg and soon became court Malines to the regent Wittenberg. bronze. . 1532. 1491-1523). and in any Daucher or his son Hans (1486comparison with what went in a close is. Conrad Meit (docs. 449). it is flat. a dominant engraving of about 1500. is 473). they are compactly built and densely heavy.charge was a craftsman from L'lm. for such copying. The not even be a genuine one. may question case we do not know other works. family tombs which were set husband's family domain (1 may 475). this classicism in monuments also copied Nuremberg sculpture after miniature. ornamental designing. . at recall the plain She then ordered up in her deceased Biou near Geneva 526-3 1). Diirer.*3 These are an odd mixture of funerary traditions. repeating the miniature Paris. very modern.'^ imposingly are Diirer's Bronze. boldly freestand- ing and with a though in rhythm of thin swinging soft cloths. Cranach. Out of this context comes one City Hall. the . Sebastian of the Loscher (1482/83-1551). factuality of Roman ones (fig. and then equallv solid portrait busts that to us titillation. the Habsburg who ruled Flanders on behalf of the emperor. before in Germany. Bavarian I^y 1499-1554) carved one major cult image of a seated bishop saint (1514). maker Burgkmair are success by Holbein's also indicated is Dance House in Basel outcome most visible today nal (see and The Roman and Their origi- But the low-relief lettering.

Length width 474. British Museum. London 475- 476. CosRAD Krebs. Portraits of a Boxwood. Couple. Torgau. height of projecting ground level 2n'4" bay 89'. Courtyard. Museum. height 10 Kunsthislorisches Lucrelia. CoxRAD Meit. 1/2". Schloss Hartenfels. East wall. Boxwood. heights 5" and 4".Conrad Meit. Vienna at 179'. 1532. .

Antwerp.Antwerp in their time. full of interesting reporting of costumes and Matthew among the tax collectors.Apart 47«). and l. Saint of the habits of minute drawing his (fig. but without the panels of The builder. its left and right. physically and psychologically. 385 .\Iassys. but the Leyden assimilate both the methods. The most typical personality of these decades is Pieter Coecke van .Massys' two most distinctive imitators. the castle 15^2 is same allusion the appearance of German Renaissance archi- full tecture bv twenty years. fig. much like X'asari. to the dignified by the unyielding stone. in cutting caricature. [XX)r.\ntwerp was certainly busy in the arts. and they are One might that in . Hollands vein is not so thin. but his The first last (fig.) These two are the only good painters of . colors.'\ntwerp. Ihis sug- 470). the man robbed of woodcuts resulting from a trip to Constanti- in the parlor of the bawdy house nople. .\Iabuse. merchants.Serlio's hand- as their base. The trend to specialize in painting certain out the moneychangers. and real part of Bruegel's base.\fter the regent died Flanders. but then retreated to his native rural area and there spent his life repeating a few themes. and people wear archaic costumes and are twisted. the spark indeed died rapidly. 1519-1557) and more modern touch but the same has a softer and similar themes.o). Massys' two rather untalented sons had successful careers there. by imitating his more Flemish modern Belgian painter James Ensor.Antwerp artists a say had to High Renaissance and lulian under the weight. Conrad Krebs (1492-1540). round \ less 476). Its staircase at in also is Torgau. . translated . And his one visual legacy is a archaic costumes.. Both make clear that . bills The Jan Sanders van Hemesscn (docs.\leit German Renaissance building near Wittenberg.Vlarinus van Roymerswaele (docs. 477. which polishing. no certain paintings bv him survive and those that may be his are fairly tax collectors. and artists fell only had to assimilate the High Renaissance. he insists on social corruption. was a skilled Gothic mason. which The 37- remained years are again obscure. the main a new^ duke in base of two staircases at gests Blois (see ornament. and spaces. .\elst (i502-i5. or gold weighers.Gothic shrine. . and realism of particulars more personal notation of daily life and caricature. we see Meit's firmly monumental people. figures in little all of them based on half-length rooms painted in hot colors.Massys' time the . w ho have a certain public fame.ucas van Leyden. . Often with a loose attachment to a Biblical text. These and some lesser related structures precede walls focus at the center in a has a symmetrical tower. who designed in a Nuremberg town house (1534) the first German room with the same Italianate pilasters already used in France. he designed tapestries and stained glass. Saxon court. book on architecture.Massys was most usable at the least Italianate end of his range. 1505- 1567) was trained in . (Elisor's work is often traced back to Bosch. Christ driving topography. sunounded by an drawn objects and sharp-edged papers on which we can read receipts (fig. the new cosinopolitan older Flemish clutter of precisely had asserted that itself so distinctively with city . Scorel Generation well-known generation separates the careers from the repentant Saint Jerome in his siudy. and took charge of a royal procession in 1549 and wrote a book describing it. from the emergence of Bruegel these curiously concentrate on financiers. In .\Iassys. The painter seems smolderingly obsessed with the style of life that the classic Flemish painters had assumed But he was brilliant in organizing activities: a print publisher and an architect. but by analysts who know only the few Renaissance painters adopted by today s tastemakers. ordered by seat of the emphasized by ."* of . His congested groups of ghastly smiling people make him the truest precursor set themes (as seen in Patinir) is the context of . see colorplate 56). about 1550. he may have got his ideas from Peter Flotner. peering through.

in his color and variety.\fter all this his first big work on his return.Panel. The Prado. As a pupil of Jacob van Amsterdam.477- MaRINUS VAN ROYMERSWAELE. Jan Sanders van Hemessen. Panel. Staailiche Kunsthalle. and his became a permanent base of his Rome to imagery. 386 works. he manages crowd scenes. not . to assimilate Italy. '539. While returning he stopped in work for the Dutch pope Adrian VI (whom the Italian artists considered to be uninterested in art). His travels liad taken him to travel sketches also |evusalem as a pilgrim. witli modern depth rich ornament. giving and still first his later works. an altarpiece of Christ's Eniiy nilo Jinnsulcin. . vein. Karlsruhe It was then easy tor the next geiieiation. The Moneychanger and His Wife. Madrid 478. Loose Company. 33"X38". 33" x 45". with Jan van Scorel (1495-1562). in prefer the crowd of them sparkling Lucas van Leydeiis to the hero.

Scorel perhaps he most memorable is first in portraits and exemplifies the complete separation of style for portraits and for other works. Gallcria Doria-Pamphili. in Tintoretto). most fascinating. and. (1 525-28). Entry Museum.. center panel of Lochorsl Triptsch. 1527. 15" X 10". Panel. Ron " ^ 58" . Jan van Scorei.g. inspired (e. 1529. a version of Michelangelo's Deluge on the Sistine Ceiling so thoroughly translated Dutch that into 479). Agatha van Schoonhoven.. as in 480. creating the formula of a landscape with decorative foreground people whose primary function to is emphasize the receding space.479- Jan VAN ScoREL. a city map. a constant of seventeentliientiuA classicistic landscape. foretelling portraits typical of seventeenth-century btit he is finest wiien most personal. Utrecht of Christ into Jerusalem. He painted members of a club of pilgrims to Jerusalem in long rows tlie gtoup Holland. hinted bv Massys and later commoTi Scorel's portraits. become silhouettes in front of a far-off vista. it does not seem an intrusion The foreground climbing figures (fig. by l. use translucent simple cubes for the heads and graphic hands. 31 Centraal surprisingly involves a crowd scene.ucas and compa- rable at their best to Holbein's. ^^ like Geertgen.

480). It is aggressively expert in in sculptural modeling. but the comic touch of the saint peering through his spectacles saves becomes symbolic of the it enhancing deeply glowing color his his very real now He is a splendid people with the traditional in and with rich contexts of gesticulation of still life. and 481). Martin van Heemskerck. best record of Museum. Such drawings are a and others. still to pin down home in Haarguild members his wanting Before leaving his lem."'' tiic construction. 1532. remembered for his four years in the sketchbook he made Rome He is is best (1532-36). entranced typical expression of this artist by the dignity of Italy but the facts about surfaces of paper or cloth. His velvety costumes and rigidly frontal faces of court dignitaries are again early instances of the state portrait. Samt Luke I'uinting Ike Virgin (1532. the Virgin. drawing artist's instinctively close perception of his high-toned subject. Si. A more versatile Dutch rival of Scorel Martin van Heemskerck (1498-1574).*" Both pin their liveliness to a fixed moment by devices of transparent A rival Dutch portraitist. there includes accurate renderings of the half-finished Saint 388 its Peter's. portraitist. Haarlem it. fig. Frans Hals and of a smiling twelve-year-old boy. Jan Vermeyen known today. (1500-1559). Luke Pawling portraits of his lifelong mistress (1529. at from bombast and Holland as well as . Typical of the times is the record he made and then used in is less tapestries of a trip to Tunis with the emperor. perspective fig. 66" xgi". Panel. he presented to his fellow most individual painting. though he was much favored by Emperor Charles \'.481.

Pieter stiff. only the arrangements are claimed origins of Italian painting. prized.4. which make a network of limbs without He sought remains of spatial context the . Thi Fall ofth. often foreshortened. There he had studied Michelangelo's where he transmitted knowledge of the ancient sculpture he had copied on a trip to Italy.Antwerp's Countries. The particular figures are \'asari about the not original.The Hegemony 38. is almost primitively who is even less known for his own paintings today.lps in Liege. soon after returning from Rome. though his own work as inventions. Mus^e Royal Antwerp ioi"x 7'3". Lombard (1506-1566) drew pupils to his school these teachings were Frans Floris (1516-1570) became . 482). 389 . 1554. in the Low- The artists were generally pupils of Coecke and sometimes of Lambert Lombard. Judgment. were jxiems using ordinary Frans Floris.\rts. and his own grand-style work is dominated by nudes in complex poses. Roman sculpture north of and corresponded with Last (fig. In the new generation at work from Antwerp nearly monopolized painting of the Antwerp 1540s. des Bcaux-. as if they 482. Ribtl AngtU. Panel. leading painter about 1550.

produced smoothly constructed Biblical compositions. capitals. secure.Aertsen (1508-1375). who were more interconnected with each other than with the in- its jxartrait. wife of the (fig. and it remains the habitants of any of their nations. and always turn a bit to the and environmenfavor of calm and as a result are side. Yet Floris' authoritative sweep in composing is on a quite different level from Coecke and LomIf this saves bard and his style is found echoing all over Europe for the next fifty years. sensitive to individ- ual mood with delicate shadows. age of Floris considered composing. them from being copies. He server lie and rose as is proportionately less a it were an spent his twenty most active more to a direct ob- learned designer than Mor. The fine balance in Mor between and good breeding may indi\ iduality reflect the fusion of his . His cles and his women most attractive men show idealized mus- sinuous limbs. painting the royal families. symbolizes . atid personal brush work makes . His Qiieen Tudor 483. Being very busy. In its early imposing formality had emphasized the importance of the person who now such art seem academic in the worst sense.Antwerp residence and his Dutch training (he never ceased to admire Scorel). capacity to wipe out artistic He at once became the favorite of the Habsburg ^9R^S court group and was sent about to Madrid and other HIm classic Antonis Mor. a synthesis of aims. but both also have an unerasable Flemish reality of skin siuface.Mor's usually knee-length. Mary Habsburg Philip II of London. for use by his assistants. Quffn A/ay Turfor Panel. in Holland. Madrid 483.Antwerp's autonomy elsewhere.Antwerp by category of ob- . more intimately than anything else in Floris. and graphically individual in expression. where he had been Scorel's pupil. a period easy to misinterpret if this building-block is not known. His . his status \ mark later evolution more nuand has not happened among Mor's countless followers (even merous than Floris') destroys the individual substitutes a pure mask. But the great Ant- ^^HkCa-'. to each other's all cousins and the lords of all around them.Amsterdamer The same fusion in Pieter . but eventually went back Holland. is more obvious . He his slightly older contemporary Bronzino mark rich. the classic words. they suppress active gesture interest in tal clamped into rigid patterns.Antwerp from Utrecht. who \ears in Antwerp. but the was a ruler. p)ortraits do that all is needed taste for Suave. 1542-d. who Willem Key (docs. The heads have a globular substance and creamy freshness that make them. also tionally low-keyed portraiture. X'ermeyen) Our Indeed make them seem to ideal ft-ontispieces to biographies of their important sitters. yet are distinctly soft. was the master of an excep1568). as an intellec- person. portraits naturally flourished in Antwerp. Spain) took him to version of her appearance. :^90 Roman and Flemish the ruler is a different species of above casual mortals.: werp portraitist mo\e to Antonis is Mor (i5i9-'575). 43"x33". The Prado. but that Mor's cool well-bred people. restricted by patterns of etiquette that tual phase of painting. an effect like some of his contemporaries in Venice.^1 ^H As these heads suggest. it sets up an unwanted tension between the grand and the ordinary. he only sketched comf>ositions and painted separate head studies. and in control. they are large. to be the area of concentration. But to the challenge of the intellectual invention of a new . moment of the state phase (Holbein.

impeccable in perspective. Conversely. Herri's landscape both linear and for episodes. is more learned age. This cosmopolitan as perhaps its command of all sorts of imagery has onlv virtue for us that it made avail- able feeding materials for the great . he is a weak composer.ser\ation. aerial. heavy and these solid a little simplified. like the work and world still-life schcx)l PiETER . they are given admiring due of statuesque they produce. Suitable to this less impulsive. of . imagery of peasant per at a market objects (fig. 391 . a painter of portraits of meat. full of substance not only physical but philosophi- cal. stability. 1551.Mors portraits are more grandiose than \'an Eyck's. painted with microscopic correctness as in miniatures or as in the \'an Eyck revival. cheese. He makes monuments. installing little figures in his backgrounds to give in a manner that backgrounds. Tilt BuUhfr's their food foretell life. as the Floris.\ntwerp also retained the landscape specialty established by Patinir (perhaps his uncle). It continues to be a stage with Biblical or otherwise traditional crowds.\ntwerp artists still to come. 484). approving of these materials and backnig them up or with orchestral glorification.\ntwerp by Stall. abolishing the super- But ciliousness that pervades all other sixteenth<entury a f)ortraitist. and it was indeed utilized by Bruegel and Rubens.Aertsen's tfie great Baroque 484. they are as much more the occasional earlier grandly dominant over still life as .-Vertsen. his works legitimate themes Jan van Hemessen's Biblical only people who really command recalls The respect are cooks and farmers. . narrow Mor social relevance. the imagers of a passionate shop- minds us re- that . Panel. outliving their he is career first still-life painter in he was even more influential than histors'. Herri met de Bles (no firm documents) vegetables.

rarely not surprising that his royal 132' palace at 392 its Orna- themes. Escorial to mid-sixteenth century.\CHVCA. where short scallops 485. i525-d. 1541-53. catching small shadows like latticework as if the masons were still recalling the Arabic traditions of older Spanish builders. the usual Italian patterns. its it is curious to find inside vestibule a Gothic fan vault carved in the same expressive tone. Granada. Alcali. Height 42'. here as elsewhere. rather more translations from the Italian fluid and active sources than their French and German counterparts. (docs. tUmatized into the producing what local idiom. Since the king. a package. fig- plain- inore exclamatory around the door. the University of Alcala (1541-53. early masterpiece is the town hall of Se- by Diego de Riano (docs. 1534). like ribbons ment grows thicker and around classical RoDRiGO Gil. universities. an all-window front marked by narrow pilasters of ville (1527).ade. Rodrigo Gil 485). Courtyard.Palaces and Other Buildings in Spain 39- A large fraction of the most famous names among — Foinainebleau. 1523-d. Royal Palace. Sometimes the formulas are borrowed not Italy but from Andrea Sansovino's work from north at the end of the The fifteenth century in Florence. Fa(. A short generation later. Spain had been most dramatically transformed from congeries of local kingdoms. is A a great increase in and administrative centers also manifested there in the new buildings of the platerescn style. University.\I. Dimensions of two main stories.i577). Their blocky fagades have orna- ment drawn on them. hospitals. diameter 100' 486." Its product. by er. 54' x came spawn fantasies on to Spain. is with narrow bands of elegant ornament on smooth fagade is most brilliant Granada (model 1539) is in a completely . 1546. the boiTOwed vocabulary has been ac- PtDRO . Hampton the —belongs the the palaces of Europe Court. the Louvre. it is Emperor Charles \'. a natural effect of the grow th of absolutism and of unified national states. called the "second plaleresco.

Its designer. Italy. as a huge circle. closely He designing an in Mannerist version of Bramante's basic intensified and perhaps goes two-story aristocratic mansion.i55o). The interior Sanmicheli. Philip 1 had been built by 19). its more archaeoand engineered precision. fig. in a bit further. height of facade 131' . 487. with detailing like Sangallo's latest Ro- man work. brought was the first to give the Spain 489. Granada. Escorial. the sculptor Diego de Siloe (docs. It is a Renaissance geometer's idea of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalein. 488. Couri of the Kings and facade of Church. but almost a complete circle. 136-80. Plan. but not Gothic with radial chapels.Diego de Siloe. Machuca was commissioned It He lived in Italy for years. and on a much smaller Michelozzo ence (see at the fig. could execute in scale. designed later (1546. II.: . foreign idiom.Annunziata in Flor- its Habsburg peak. 1520-d. depth to steps 170'. He lands. This is probably Si- of a Gothic system intended but barely loe's revision begun before he started work. like San Pietro ante's plan for the yard (see and even is on the proper it this palace the Cathedral of dral was Bram- Montorio court- Apparently only an emperor 190). 486). 1563). 1528. Length 190' JiAN Baltista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera. court. far from Italy. like logical who had proves a master of the and the very pure modern were certainly what Pedro frotii i520-d. fig. Almost as Italian is Granada (model 1528.TTVi^nn:^. Width of courtyard 123'. But the most special element of the it is building. heir only to the Spanish hall ol his father Charles \"s royal scale to scale Santissima . Its five aisles 487) give the choir inside is it a and semicircular normal Gothic outline. gieat scale that his Romano follows Giulio Italian forms patron was seeking. had also long lived in apse (fig. is still more up-to-date. unfinished. a cathecity had only recently needed because the been conquered from the Arabs). Cathedral. Escorial. in—trH^ U . JvAS DE Herrera. Plan. 679' X 528' 1 hn. . a painter (docs. realizes the it Italian architectural theories of perfect form.

Francis built the Palaces and Their Sculptors in France 1. on the Loire. and luckily bay 8^' >' 29'6" . the Escorial it (fig." cut- out patterns that ambiguously seem to hold the 490. bare. with nudes twisting their small heads and feet in involuted fxises. but his pupil 488). At the same time the Italian Its builders simplified and neu- architect Sebastiano Serlio tralized current Italian fashions. (cornerstone near his Titians but probably nearer his Bosches. immensely heavy imitation of own devoutness and leadership of the CathoCounter Reformation. for builders (a series all Italian principles of order over Europe. Central projecting base of with an amusing frosting mannered decoration had Francis' son Henrv' Its II great appeal. Juan Bautista de Toledo Maria di Carignano (see fig. and thus of Bramante's plan for Saint Peter's. and near center of rule. or a square fort with immense bare walls. The king lived in some small rooms with a window looking down at the altar and at the tombs of his family. Pierre Lescot. it is and belated castle. widely diffused in fine engra\ ings. identified at Fontainebleau. 489). by Italian \'. Louvre. But his importance was through his illus- 209- trated handbooks begun in Their paintings set a standard for mannered eroticism. Madrid. 1548-d.i567) 40. but he and the interiors Rosso and Primaticcio. 224). and their decorative 1537).a capital. fig. 1563). But Philip also wanted it to be a monastery with a church at the center. ine de' Paris. had pictures but curl forward like leather. which spread a simplified Mannerism to fashionable mansions stucco framing designs likewise set a standard for of most original and influential elements (see pp. matching a swollen his lic Juan de Herrera he built his private It is a gray. and his queen Cather- Medici rebuilt the Louvre. 323). i559-d. were the (•475-'554) came to France in 1541 and was a consultant at Fontainebleau. the great French rival of Charles built grandly in his chateaux was fort Alessi's Santa at his grandest palace near Paris. Courtyard. In a sense 1597) built the church inside (1574-80. These two motifs. especially the tricky "strapwork. visitors. (docs. (docs. architects. 1546. his suburban the Fontainebleau style.

-Vnet reminded by the floor. 1533-d. that in the seventeenth century dominates intellectual Europe. ment But the austere rectangular orna- controls rather than hides the majestic pro- fMJrtions and the refined adjustments of slight n it is i curves with slow to abstract fill breathe with a gentle life. 491- other Symph. intri- The weight and impact of such forms theoretically impiv dvnamism. the chateau of Henry three-dimensional block relationships.i57«) the first fig. 490) is engraver's architecture.Anet. but. yet Paris is such asBouicellL artists it . sharp lined and classically neat. partly by is . its to 49'). from Fountain of the suavity. But Goujon's line Jean GoLjoN. by incised alluding to the nature of chiseled still The nymphs manage Renaissance architect in northern Europe with a personality of his own. carved in such low relief that outline. music room of the Louvre. Chateau of Anei. 1547-49. 1 seems to have worked out his own style tal- who by using the available engravings of Fontainebleau nudes. spent time in Italy. plain cubes Lescot had as collaborator a manelously is not agitated as It is recessions. women that support a gallery in a replacing columns. The greater architect (docs. whicli is realized bv De I'Orme's most 39 = . Height to highest cornice 37' in the caryatids (1550). Its gate and doorway get emphasis and even grandeur from exposition of clear logic.** him The one major surviving Here begins French work the slightly dry but heroically grand lis mistress Diane de Poitiers (fig. cate curves insistent as we are drawn on the The chapel at . His courtyard (from 1546. Gate. 2'6".Philibert de l'Orme. is a pure cylinder. to architecture. l'Orme contemplated materials in the having he approached them not througli engraving but through construction. Innocents. panels for the walls of Lescot's Fountain of the Innocents (1547-49. but stating a mood subordinated of grave classicism. 1 -. 1570) same Philibert dc serious. 340-1562). lives human^and never surrendering rhythm. and projections classicism. Marble. His greatest work. ented sculptor. fig.4i-d. just suitably their tall assigned rectangles. rather systematic way. 492).All his work most spectacularly alternating with voids. yet found in Pierre Lescot (docs. 492. stone. on which he wrote useful treatises. y'g" x The Louvre. Jean Goujon (dcKS. tiie borders being articulat- ed by columns and moldings.

1546-55. of Art. Harris Brisbane Dick Fund. The Lou. Pji .1544: Stone. relief Jean Dl vet. 13" x 64". of 396 Effigy. GiRMAiN I'lLij-. Seven Candleslieks. Metropolitan Museum on tomb of X'alentine Balbiani. height 69 ^4>^^ ". 1925 495. 12" x 8". series. St. Count Ren^ de Chalons (d. Pierre. Marble. 1572. New York. 494. tomb LiGIER RlCHIER. Bar-le-Duc re. The from the Apocalypse Engraving. Corpse.^ • 1-.

^'* in Metropolitan up imposing but natural like a surface. 13" of . last and which makes Bellange . are the . 1578). facing outward in a triangle. a mildly sweeping flow of organic naturalism. tighten their mastery of the body's flowing masses to mark a stress of feeling. in a gieater artist. 1531- ladies are seen in inflexible copies from Leo- nardo. Pilons later 496. Bullant (docs. They surrender Primaticfio's wittiness for a gentle mobility. different through drawings and large-scale etchings small towns of eastern France by a surprising series They of dissimilar artists. but in a rather learned way. reflects the wars of reli- gion that drowned France in the second half of the century. Its first major monuments. practiced in Later. The capacity of this series of artists to develop from limited local stimuli is extraordinary. ** buried separately by Il's made old ritual. with colossal units and vertical pressures. a very including the naked corpses (fig. elaborate rigidity. but then Pilon amended Goujon to be more sculptural. are provincial in their pious extremism more than with Pontormo. in a died (which was in 1544). 1540-d. Erotic painting court takes rather stodgy after Fontainebleau and provincial forms in nudes by the portraitist Frangois Clouet (docs. To amend Primaticcio's tone Goujon's was evoked. who was a painter and pageant designer for the dukes of Lorraine but is now only known tiny heads. Thi Three Marys 493). sho%ving smiling sinuous ladies with The artist is Jacques Bellange (docs. the (fig.Art. is hard to England to the know whether a similar development It in copying Bullant or responding similarly is better-known De I'Orme. 1575). 495). 391 . this ity strangely uses mordant Mannerism. crudely violent. religios- the vehicle of Fontainebleau it would look three years after a he Baroque generation. Its religious \ehemence. The (docs. at the Museum Harris Brisbane Dick Fund. Etching. 1530-1566). 1572) and by d. Primaticcio the general design and Pilon carved three Graces holding the urn. an astonishing ability to let which has convinced some observers that Bellange examined not needle line produce fluffy surfaces.Apocalypse engravings (1346-55. and thus sure of Other tomb figures. who breaks the rules of classicism. fig. Georges de la Tour). it is clear that snakily distorted people and perverse spatial measurements into tough. Still later. much (docs.notable follower. which rework Diirer and the tomb of body be shown as 496). Quentin Massys' son Jan long a French resident. so the sculptor shows him with scTaps of flesh clinging as he lifts an arm ihat produces other odd brilliant holds his heart Callot. LoiTaine artists invoked with printtnaking and religious vehemence (Jacques fervor. traditional in France Tomb. Here Pilons court art seems related to a very contemporary French art. or oddly sitting in baths. more independent work includes the bronze kneeling tomb figure of Chancellor Birague (d. 1600-1617). the finest sculptor of his time in northern Europe. (fig. count's will had ordered that his are intended to let formal whimsies assert emotional count by the Lorraine sculptor Ligier Richier The in their stylistic language. 1930 which the typical meditative seriousness exploits the soft cloak to set Jacques Bella. only Fontainebleau but Baroccis art. 1540-d. 494) of Jean Duvet (1485-1561). some- times taking archaic forms. For the tomb of Henry heart. Richer related effects mark Germain Pilon (1535-1590).nge. mound and downy in human dignity. either lying down. a single massive shape.Mannerist. New York. Here.1583). But they are urbane in their technical splendor.

*. 65. (docs. whose works in this Gothic context have a 498. Frans through Jerome Cocks shop Cu> a one diagonally above the other. The but were given . WiLHELM Vernucken. Cologne. Porch.*i WWBBHnWWW' T ' •" rT'^^j*^. became '*'i*ji^^ "^^ti. The dukes imported in Bavaria and the Habsburgs in Prague Italian artists. 37'6" x 53' startling effect of clear fteshness. The it is centralization balance of vertical and horizontal this the ancestor in the center at the be a giand tower.'- —* awkward patching became Diuch architecture for three cen- Ornainent also preoccupied the sonality in brother Cornelis to ridgepole 80'. this originally Floris' ' The silhouette. new m ii«i|| »tKEHlWJ A*. usual Italian trip he returned to .\ntwerp. Germany. at Torgau (see fig. 374) that major work larized Fontainebleau strapwork. is Hall. width 223' the basic type follows a long line of Late Gothic town halls in Flanders. entirely unoriginal in home terms. and England -^ About 1520 Renaissance fronts were applied to a few of the narrow houses in Bruges by simply coat- ? ing the posts between their neat square windows with fluted half columns. In eastern Germany from several the pioneer example of borrowing from France. the head of his guild. German buildings several sources modified imports and gradually worked up distinct traditions. led to the capable town halls of Leipzig (1556) and Altenburg (1562). Architecture in the Countries. but what seems to front gable. hall (1561-65. in both town at halls smooth octagonal towers are set over smooth squares. is 498) by 1559- . This Floris modifies toward heavy clarity wide and thus to dignity: four stories high. including steps and cornice.Albertian scrolls as a difficulty. where 497). Ant^^erp. fig. the building underlines its width with horizontal moldings beneath heavy colonnades and windows. steep gables offered steeper ones required several dashingly. His Height per- first Dutch Renaissance architecture. and published engravings Antwerp's town popu- (see p. and like earlier ones. the latter by a builder who had worked Torgau. The cially noticeable.Low 41. 1561 the After (1514-1575). A the sculptor is espe- rare native response to this the town hall porch at Cologne (1569. 1569 (restored 1866-81) Two main stories. with high belfries and gor- geous carvings. 398 balance of space in their measured porches and walls Wilhelm Vernucken fig. when treated the trademark of turies. placed is actually a false- and the calming is new and makes of a city-hall type long standard Netherlands and Germany. scrolls. Town Hall. 476).

1609).one of the century-old Alberti's Palazzo Rucellai. The flat pilasters. with vibrating ornament that speaks of Late Gothic feeling through Floris' or Serlio's oms. Built on water.ade of the same building.ade. built in Heidelberg by the ruler Otto Heinrich (fig. 1556-59. Height 57' is echoed in manv and houses. in red terracotta adds a refreshing These restrained effects contrast with the street fa^. Flemish in the ornameiual Floris vein. Heidelber?. 499). the fact that pilasters and moldings are note. Ottheinrichshau. studied through his followers in Ferrara. Its echo of Palladio's Basilica and its pendence on inembering rather than ornament its Renaissance effect overcome the upper-story arches are pointed. while the simplicity of VVismar develops most suggestively in the castle of Horst. Its fact that castle at defor the Wis- Italian patterns courtyard fagade is basically Johannsen and finished by V'ernucken. as there is of the measured simple kind. Horst is a huge square in plan with four corner towers. the supervision of the Flemish sculptor Alexander Colin (1527/29-1612). begun in brick (1559) by the Dutch architect . 55' X 20'^' . now is at the idi- The Ottheinrichs- a ruined palace. fig. Courtyard is still as complexly as a series with of Serlio fireplaces. from 1558. 1553. The walls are measured off only by the white stone window frames. its crawling sur- in the spirit of the Certosa of Pavia.Arndt This ornamental fashion city halls d.tdorfer. windows framed and Erhard Ai. 499- face Gabriel von Aken fa(. is squared off by wide moldings and with a window wall in each square. VVismar Castle. mar is a The more modest adoption of (from 1553. while the courtyard adds colonnades and rich voluted gables with linear CounvarrI farade. Carved under 500). most spectacular ornament bau. where hemis replace the pilasters. Indeed there is as much of this sort of designing.

but the tion not given a Gothic or a Renaissance label. but the outside walls of colored a fabulous pleasure in the this post-chivalric culture. and one of the great if so. to interior is Width 242' stire. and later buildings to such as we also know little of slighth Somerset House. with wide windows accompanied by no nearby had \' II with local tradition and his ornament had no fluence. become ornament. What selves often coordinated the masons' work. Dutch The contrast of plain typical of fortresses mansions. Florentine sculptor. in such (1538)^^ to in- Court. 1590. but (from 1312)*'- his figines compromised Hampton Wolsey. long. Unlike other countries. inherits enough of the plainness of castles to exclude ornament. Burgh- French buildings nal architecture then being produced. (1553)^' with large Horst is unusual is though windowed that the outside. The all first impressive results of the transition and mansion are in England.ttSi'SA Robert Smythson. England gave itself to the Refcastle ormation before which is why it ing or sculpture. all as a result it is by excep- ley House and others and Serlios books. most finest are the be sure. 1590. ^^ which Henry \III ex- propriated after he beheaded dome. each with orna- Their owners. such as the one in Stuttgart round corner towers and following century. which seem have copied Philibert de I'Orme and Bullant. let it has virtually no Renaissance paint- modeled the tomb of King Henry with old-fashioned skill. Width 202' 502. Queen Elizabeth's courtiers. in 1530. Facade. Henry himself then rival still Berry's at Poitiers. The mansions trary. on the con- inaugurate the countrs-house tradition that in the continued to a peak in the eighteenth century. them- mental Renaissance columns. courtyard three stories of loggias. Facade. Renaissance architecture its To any other. though and the the Gothic vaults even the coats of arms. clusters of The rectangular and low. suggests the future direction of the country house. brilliantly unlike ing the Renaissance take root. 1568. severely two-dimensional to be all producing a restrained finesse that suggests seventeenth-century building. and rich exterior changing Longleat. is fig. of the 1570s and later. Hardwick Hall. Derbyshire. suggest that was torn down it was in the origi- Longleat 501) and Hardwick Hall (begun 502) both seem to be designs of Robert Smythson (i535-'6!4). Some observers credit the designs to the owners of the houses. he must rank as architects of his century. tiles It fig. a wander- Pietro Torrigiani. patterns. at like a mansion. but (begun 1568. tradition of the now is a its builder. between reflect . Cardinal medieval mansion duke of interior walls copied fortifications 400 and built None- Fontainebleau. facades. symmetrical. and on the its strapwork and herms. are filled Robert Smythson. 501. but that is less plausible.

and no doubt viewed in traditional ways but their property not as a delightful outcome of briskly practical exertions. Panel. is antirealistic.Uaiimilian anj His Family.Augsburg revamped his style on the example of Burgkmair. non-Renaissance a there is effect. imperial city of . like a Madoinia. . Still another tantism. but it Europe that we in the style is only about 1525 in northern see slight indications of a difference with which portraits and other works are approached. notably in the beginning of the period a role by a minor who Bernhard Strigel. and thus a vehicle of formulas. the use of portrait images by the new absolutist dynasties of the Habsburgs. making the an ideological sign. the walls being articulated instead by very slight mixture of Cockneys and mythological people in Shakespeare's Midsummer \ighfi Dream. the absence of the big corner towers. such as the holiday more. clever ancestry. ornament. 28" x 23". but do not notice the ex- and the Renaissance were born clusion. Thf Emperor . which in various places as left is Protes- portraiture almost the only theme for painting. and hence portraits continue in isolation to use traditional northern modes of drawing. they glass the plain castle wall to arrive at The sense of fanciful pageant mixed with unomamented construction is much like some the queen. Bernhard late in life in the is Museum. and others.Another. paradoxically. In all newly rich beneficiaries of the exmen without propriation of monasteries. Tudors. Both situations have been mentioned in scanning the artists involved and in considering the begin- ning of theme specialties among .\t 503. the But here phases of Elizabethan drama. a glittering two-dimensional the owners' vast green lands. Several reasons for the shift at that date are possible. The projections of parts of the facade. since the houses were constructed to receive visits from The 42.\ntwerp artists (see pp. only As at Horst.a slight trace at the roof line. either in the same artists work or through the emergence of the portrait specialist. artist. had ion. and had success with vivacious paintings of families 401 . Kunsthistorisches England. 391-92).^n- we not only omit that nigoni from our surveys. . 1515. screen. since they had always played a lesser role in Italy than in the North. Portraits together. produces a flat owners were backdrop for non-Gothic. This effect of inviting display and lightness is perfectly to the point. portrait Medici. Phenomenon Portrait twentieth<eiuun culture the context of portrait painting is so remote from the painting we call art pwrtrait painters like . this One little effect is on the new Italian fash- portraits. Vienna played Strigel (1460/61-1528).

The Johann von Reidt. by Habsbmg became later artists. the otherwise obscure Jacob Seisenegger (1505-1567). Mayor of Cologne. in Amsterdam cantile center far from courts the group portrait of — — a rising members of a lodge (after Geertgen with children climbing about.\ntwerp Mannerism. ily It kinship. Rijksmuseum. Amsterdam mer- to the codifying of isolated experiments. He is paralleled by Pieter Pourbiis (docs. This coincided with Emperor Maxin celebrating in all media the and the result was the most famous image of its members at this period (fig. and Pourbus' grandson duke was the court portraitist of an Italian in 1610. 1525. expressed this situation. unpretentiously notes the unfortunate fam- nose and chin. 1562. Thus Bartel Bruyn position observer. Joos van Cleve in . he makes plain patterns and enamel surfaces support the serious faces of business- men. also in Holland. as records the citizens of Cologne as sharply individual but immobilized (fig. Panel. have clearly standardized the portrait com- %l¥ and given it a coolness remote from the it is from the artists' other works. The culmination came with Bronzino and who made a code of imagery match a code of manners. Members of a Gun Club. DiRCK Barends. the norm for Velazquez and even of portraiture leads.Austria. 56" x 72". The full-length portrait. . the Habsburgs. 504. and seems in more bourgeois than its homely charm lordly. They certainly used the occasional experiments of greater precursors who had Antonis Mor. Jean Clouet at the French court. 24" x 18". the Holy one or con- temporary ones. and Jan work all at by 1530. like Clouet. V'ermeyen with the Flemish Habsburgs. such as Raphael's Joanna of Arugon^^ and Michelangelo's Medici dukes (see fig. Berlin-Dahlem iinilian's delight poten- were immediately picked up by Titian. 503). had sons who painted portraits. Panel. 504).Bruges in his time.At the same time the opposite social end of the range Staatliche Museen. now becomes through official their favorite portraitist in . 253). seen earlier as a very limited German tradition. Ver meyen and Holbein were perhaps the first to paint royalty more abstractly than other people. were evi- dently the largest consumers of such portraits. Mor's patrons. tials inveterate user of handy compositions. the only painter in 402 k 505. although he paints altarpieces in the mode of . Bruyn and Pourbus. and froin the time of Strigel forth seem often inventive schemes from to have brought minor artists. that ^ . and Bartel Bruyn. i538-d.i584). yet in portraits of townsmen too at this time rigidity attacks traditional true reporting.Antwerp and the French court.

each 73'X3i". Panel.Nicolas in 1539-1567). visited Salviati's version . fig. all-over velvet texincisive identifications have almost equally and accomplished users Neufchatel (docs.\fter this Frans Hals and Rembrandt.likeavisualmembershiplist (1362. 1 564. only do such minor but NicoLAVs Nelfchatel. In his own ture. .Not 5o6. 40" x 36". time his discreet designs. whose artists have uniform and definite ambitions. formula becomes conuminated with a genre formula much later. . Kunstmuseum. Tobias Stimmer. rather ofmen. the old families (1561. the favorite of the dukes of Bavaria in Munich. Munich 1 56 1 fig. Canvas. Jacob SchwylztT and His Wife. and shinier costumes suggest he learned something Rome of the formula.Mors formula was the favorite one. Alte Pinakothek.and Dirck Barends (i534-'592) !>"« up awkward rows of thoroughly drawn heads Scorel). and Hans Muelich (1516-1573). some of their continuing that such a question as German fame "Who is due in most Indeed to the fact were the outstanding painters in the generations after Diirer's 507. artist among slightly drier patterns that from when he Johannes Meudorfer and His Son. Basel 403 . it will be worked on by . but each is cases the only painter of any sort in his town. an Antwerp painter who went to Nuremberg and became an entrancing recorder of intimate groups 506). 505).

and Italian. it seems that the modish kings in those courts liked to import Italian artists for to fall many back on the one tasks but found it natural local talent to record their In the late sixteenth century these lonely specialists. Madrid effect of social been described it as abstraction has rightly removing the sitters should be kept distinct from the from time. fig. 5 1/2" X Vicioria and London faces. another in the portraits by Passerotti (1529-1592). occupy a very large proportion of the stage. i557-d. as for Spain would call up Sanchez Coello or Milliard. i567-d.^' and Mor's heir in Spain. In Basel Tobias Stimmer (1539-1584) tan paint a husband and wife 404 509. Although 1579. death?" has to be answered somewhat apologetically by citing Muelich or Xeufchatel. more like Clouet than like anything 5o8. now strongly tending to the full-length formula. less extreme phase of Bronzino and Mor. Alonso Sanchez Coello. A Nicholas Milliard. artist. Youth Leaning on a Tree. When such a monopoly happens in a very Catholic context.^® but later paints the king as a costume man- nequin in silhouette. Following some visiting Flemish in court was England and later in freshest Ring the Younger (1496-1547). A suavity like Mor"s invades Italy and around 1550 sets the direction of the career of Moroni in Bergamo. Daughter of Philip in Rome in the tin-mold cardinals 11.\lonzo Sanchez Coello (docs. The Infanta Isabella. . town of few It affects Italy in artists. a Protestant brother to paint Antwerp-type Catholic torn who It and certainly a cause in Nuremberg of this monopoly by one in The the full-length portrait it 3". where Moroni er and the first is Italian town the only paint- Italian portrait specialist (see p. 255). 45 5/8" x 40 1/8". the near Switzerland. the frozen formula of the face as mask and the elaborate cos- tume now become and so puppet-like far from nature that they look medieval. The handbook he wrote on his technique^* also mentions the impor- left his altarpieces in their native first the miniature portrait determined the striking career of Ludger tiny rather than grand. Milliard (1547/48- greatest specialist in 509). 508). Protestantism las is in England Nicho- Cranachs Wittenberg and Basel.graphic notation of character that still remembers Holbein (1564. trans- forms his princes and princesses into hangers starched ruffs and rigid farthingales (fig. 507). as with Muelich in Bavaria or Sanchez Coello in Madrid (see below).i598). Bologna. as it and most surprising variant on portraitists. is England. Card. Canvas. Alben Museum. . But court portraits are the chief type. They are quite sharply split between courtly and bourgeois. for The most familiar images of Queen Elizabeth of England are of this type. Frangois Clouet uses the style of Salviati in his portrait of a botanist. Pulzones The Prado.i588). Nicholas became the 1618/19) town and moved to the Protestant town of Miinster to be a portrait specialist. full length with a and (fig. by Scipione Pulzone (docs.

. lords sonnets —another expression of feeling in tiny frame its .Master. both treat hence life as a comedy. the greatest artist of his time in all northern Europe.And as these earlier parallel to the Praise of Folly by Erasmus. labeled as the successor of Bosch. shown as the victim of evil forces or blind an antlike mass. Panel. condition. used almost as a technical meth- od. dignity. Hemessen's sermons contexts.taiice of the flicker cheek show to suggest this in of eyes and the shadow on a emotions The in a face. besides them from tlie traditionally human their context. yomig men who.\rts. published by Jerome Cock and at one time Bruegel's Bosch art. More fundamentally than these local sources. 1551-1569). 29" x 44".\ertsen's nionumentaliza- tion of lower-class people. and on social ills in Biblical especially . His paintings exploit slightly. with and make much more use of the and reduced fate.Antwerp just before his Hausbuch Baldung Grien. only widely familiar work. Tht Fall of Icarus. Bruegel 43. recalling the portraits pastoral (and both were exchanged as love tokens). and Lucas van Leyden. but on tel in These are the young who patronized playwrights and exchanged a tree or gaze into space. On his youthful trip to Italy 510. tradition of printmaking in the in which the individual Renaissance man loses his is satirized as amusingly silly. unread today but still great a name. This portrait art. Brussels 403 . closest precursor in space. time. is light- in his Coinienion major event an unnoticed small human crowd. Lucas van Leyden. Musics Royaux des Beaux-. Pieter Bruegel (docs. iransferred to canvas. . —the standard Pieter Bruegel. lean weight hedonism. supported by courtiers and expresses their suggestions of Giorgione's patricians in Venice. like the English country houses. His and own bumpy inci- time: Patinir's sweep of landscape with dents. But Bruegel's specific reflection of Bosch occurs consistently only in engia\ings from his draw-ings. Bruegel uses and glorifies the rich antiheroic detail in the artists seem its to had completely greatness. modern fame piquancy of extracting satire on is They share. Altdorfer. absurd and vulgar and zestful. Bruegel's reworking of them may be compared to Rabelais. of Paul. but Hilliard's variant airier and more is lyrical. prophesied one phase of Bruegel patterns current in . endlessly detailed and all part of a great stream.Nuremberg is it is not a court Neufcha- the most suggestive source of small-scale sensitivity.

1560. In first. 510). H. and sailing outweighs the extraordinary event of Icarus' ness had fell made fall hiin from the fly sky. but the second and most punishment is that his fall is is not noticed. \'ienna move — Biuegel tional supplied painted landscapes. In the . already showing Bruegel's elemental cylindrical modeling. but opposite and the pious. going aroinid the mul- is then revised by being given a slightly larger-scale central focus. This accumulative imagery fitting always attacks individual pride as egoism. a rather flat all-over pattern a out of very tlie actors in a pageant in a village square present combat. In the Triumph of Death ^°- on the horse. His great paintings of 1559-69 show almost annual revisions in figure coin posit ion.Meg. the subjects being approached like an inventory. and so on. In the was lean- same year he further reinforces iniity of aim. Only Boscii's images of these latter two paintings fires and squelchy monsters. the berry bush worldh — underline througli hard precision their meaningless and fated repetition. W. cardinal. and the figures seem some eigluy in same action in their aim of to repeat the over and over as proverbs do. 1553^^). Bruegel not the virtue of humility. Icarus' ambitious- impractically high. Children s Games. tiny equal units of trembling importance. 46" X63". Aiiden has admirably observed the point of the picture. Kunsthistorisches Museum. not titles conven- as Figures inserted in the corners most. Likewise Flemish I'roverbs^'^^ lets tiny figures act out sayings such as "Don't butt your head against a wall" or 'Blocking up the well after the calf is drowned. assisted by the 406 fig. a skeletal lovers. the traditionally posed Saint Michael coordinates the fantasy of swarming doomed creatures. it is The its the auto- hero here is plodding horse. while he leads a Holbein-like dance of skeletons seizing a mother and baby. scheme soon this evolved into the Fall of Icarus (fig. holds the center. and Dulle Griet (1562)"''' illustrates a folk tale about "Mad .iirtiival and Children's Games (1560. Panel.5 ! I PlETER BrUEGEL. In the second. fat and the thin. as noted. out of the skeleton Diirer. hair pulling. The first works. which may have seemed too high class. the endless games hoop rolling. But no other tiieme of Bruegel's comes from classical mythology. in this period of self-revision Bruegel ing on many models." all. matic continuum of nature's thus the plowman with his life. while yet retaining the suggestions of mechanistic behavior. constantly seeking greater and greater unity out of infinite details." a greedy giant scavenger followed by tumults of grasping copy and women.\pocalypse scene of the (1562)"'-* War in between angels and the dragon Heaven devil. make 511). many Bi'lxcccii C. and armies march through the open world. that the ordinary workaday life of plowing. so that he and drowned. . herding. while still being . as (Christ Appearing to the Apostles at and the Sea of Tiberias. the Buttle and Lent (1559""'). failing preventing man's tendency to do silly things.

who had li\ed in . in- I i hiding the unnoticed Christ at the center (an idea the unity latter more and moie. The Tower of Babil. In 1563 Bruegel. occurs during a snowfall. in the Suicide of King Srti/Z. The Pea. ^'^^anA Return of the Herd (all 1565). is 51. most relied on in the famous Hnnlrrs in the Snow (colorplate 59). and airy in after concentrated. forest.getting in line to be counted in Gothic tradition of at thecensusand pay their taxes. the mindless aiiiiheroic vail liei d of the spear tarrying army. 1563. The Adoration of the Magi (1567)"" thin color. Panel. Kunsthistorisches Museum. From 1566 on. Corn Harvesters.August. 407 . ligln structure. and No- calendar illustrations vember — i. In CinisI CunyingUif Cross (1564)""' the mourning group of color. unknown to them.\ntwerp. and suggestively expansive in spate..J). bonows Tintoretto's Supper composition with similar intent (see 301. while the king (whose >iiigle had insanity on also struck the attention of Lucas) falls his spear in a front corner. a drastic new metaphor of the nonindividual used long before bv the Master of Mary of Burgundy). and there- on painting only.\t once his work giows thin. compositions with large figures favored more and more. the three Marys. moved from there and from his publisher. 512) a meaningless object has the mes- human ambition to match God.'o^ Here the mass of men. '"^ which to us can is easily look like pure landscape views but are actually ^January. and we frozen ponds. . bluning our focus. 45"x6i". endlessly spiraling make pillars the lowfi of Babel (1563.!)- remodeled Its in the feasant Weitding diagonal feast table. As the lances in a line do there. again outlasts witii the thousands of other people. in Brussels. The emphatic in the Adoration of the Magi (156. . ripe wheat fields. along with is larger scale. and the Sumhering Bethlehem (1566)'" catches the barely visible Joseph and Man.e. — an old-fashioned demonstration of the automatism of nature's cycle. Feast (fig. many cases are from the back focus the and the made more as they more on The figures in typifying by being seen perform their jobs. with a long train of attendants as in the International this theme. Bruegel had traveled in Italy with Marten last fig.PlETER BrlECEL. stibtle. in larger scale in the corner. is funneled along a path across the center."" tile first work made out of big figures. caricatured peasants suggesting that they are Bottom his friends botching a diuiih play. but all are absorbed atmospherically into the deep sandy landscape and evoke the sense of an excursion into the country. soon pun- ished by the biith of confused babbling languages.\anl Wedding Dance. This sage of fig. this time from Lucas Leyden and from Altdorfei. 512. with big servants working in front of it.^^^ a crowd of bulky jingly hicks responding to a stimulus. lyrically celebrated by Bruegel's new- The most powerful unity of air is in two snow scenes. Vienna and still bonouiiig. Bruegel now pursues this kind of Weaver and Unity of air are life.

. Bruegel could make his unchanging point in a way that seems a denial of it. -. The Blind Leading the Blind. reviewed and remade himself. Naples de \'os. The Misanthrope (1568). "3 where fat men lie and wait for sweets to fall in their mouths. 1568. we know if totally is Bruegel each The tells us louder than ever. 34" x 61". and the complementary Crippled Lepers (1568). very an individual. world will not mitigate its force. a 14). but he does not see or know the small thief. an admirer of TintorettoV The crude powerful in Bruegel's only immobile creature. 408 Humanity compressed into one person is most hates every- thing. Canvas. where one parable does the work this . in ijfiH. Vienna PlETER BrIEGEL 314. that required hundred proverbs wlien Bruegel began. Kunsthistorisches Museum. '^^ the Peasant and uglv and pathetic creature repeats his predecessor. while a small figure robs him and confirms his judgment not his procedures. 45' x 64". hiding austerely in his black coat." Our hero walks along in the fresh weather and gives us hints of his knowledge.Monumental mobility realized in the Blind Leading the Blind (1568. much . At last. has it. fig. Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte. 513- Peasant Wedding Feasl. Panel. bv represeining a single monumental figure. comedy erb: is "He I lie that knows.\s that this will continue to the end.PlETER BrUEGEL."'' who beg on a day when it is permitted. he that AVi("* illustrates the provknows where the bird's nest is. The man who more imaginative in Cloud Cuckoo Ijind {1567). Bird's steals it. but also with a pity and sensi- livitv that have grown steadilv while he.

like the por- goldsmiths and jewelers in Nuremberg. altarpieces. as Stradanus. of metal traitists crafts. Marten de Vos (1532-1603). took care of tapestries hunting scenes (fig. with whom they share epoch. Jerome Cock. whose procedures could so easily be translated into formulas. \el despite this The Haarlem to Fioris ornament stimulated a whole school of still a town Wenzel Jamnitzer (1508-1585) and other makers of goblets and treasure chests were citizens of the merchant town but. line provided vast circulation also individual . popular religious prints. for obvious recurrent type in Model books figure smooth nude that echoes they also retain and are and luminous dramas. Camera d'Ercole. Ludwig Toe- put (docs. and he sent out quantities of illustrated books. maps. Jan VAX DER Strae (Giovanni Stradano). Thegreatest of them. they worked from drawings by painters. for the Calvaert Medici court at and 523- and Florence where ofcourse the sculptor Giambologna was the great model Cornells Fioris' ornamental patterns. worked for the were little dominate German to German art of this luxurious courts that next two for the life infusion of sensuousness into the anatomical com- centuries.-Vntwerp artists are less inter- esting than various reflections of their export trade. Tht Hunt. Fioris' and he Michelangelism by imitating Tintoretto. Palazzo Vecchio. He spent youth mainly visit to Italy as a modified his teacher Frans his standard in Venice. was renamed Pozzoserrato. Jan van der Straet ( 1 1605). Florence 1 who artists or two there. and after traveled to Italy from 550 some became permanent 1 They could supply demanding particular residents. The The young for such (1540-1619). employed a number of engravers at his shop. Denis with standard dominated painting in Floris-type Bologna along . interlocked technically splendid in surface. the Four Winds. and travel scenes. their w'ork is The most the Mannerist female Tintoretto and Fioris' flat Fontainebleau. 13' x i6'9". The key role of prints and especially the north often got commissions for an altarpiece print publishers is significant. 515). 515. jects genre — that Italian artists Italian patrons increasingly the specialized sub- realism —landscape. immigrants. Tapestry. positions of Antwerp.The Move from Antwerp 44- Antwerp inaiiuained status as the distiibiition its center for style in the next generation after the Fioris under the similar hegemony of the painter brothers. found insignificant but amusing. 1584-1603) painted landscapes as part of large palace schemes of decoration near X'enice. the formula grew more and more desiccated.

titillating smiles. During ten Italian vears. first in Prague. a favorite painters were . Hercules and Omphale. There at the end of the artifice. and erotic subjects (fig. of amusing it is More than Primaticcio's art at Fon- the criterion of this hothouse breed once had a whole school Munich. and a more Haarlem. From studying Parmigianino and Giambologna he had e\olved the perfectly Mannerist female nude. a High Renaissance formulas of community. Gift of Robert Hartshorne. 9 1/2" x 7 1/2". New 410 HeNDRIK GOLTZRS. The most interesting Antwerp emigrant was Bartolomeus Spranger (1546-1(111). 516). who lived exalted giandeur in Prague for the rest of his in life. mainly in Rome and Parma.\rcimboldo Milanese painter of trick pictures human heads or flowers. like and an engraving in its its precise. 1587. It at of imitators at the court of interesting one at century a Dutch variation on the . he was recommended by Giam bologna to the Habsburgs Vienna and then Emperor Rudolf in II as a court painter. the who moved from Bologna to Rome. and indeed late in the century the mood and situation among artists in Antwerp and Rome are very similar. The Italian Federigo Zuccaro is like Marten de \os CaiTacci. shiny. There the eccentric amused himself with alchemy (which by accident led him to support the great 517. I2"x8". tainebleau. once again. a more colorful and airy revi- sion of an official Flemish style. . 5i6.1593). Copper. igrS of Art. Metropolitan Museum York. in being a leader of an artists' mulgator of high-class theory. toylike His courts. Vienna with the Italian portraitist Passerotti. complex outline and with extraordinary in\oluted poses. brittle texture. w'ho went to Italy at nineteen and never returned home. and a very limited talent.astronomers Tycho Brahe and Kepler) and the most artificial. Kunsthistorisches Museum. Engraving. Calvaert and the younger landstapist Paul Brill are basic to the formation of the first Baroque gieat painters. Hendrick Goltzius (1558-16] 7) learned en- Bartolomeus Spranger. Obviously bright.\ntwerp formula suggests. (d. a proreworker of several figure drawing. court art even of Mannerist discoverable in arrangements of fruit and the like —and Spranger. The Standard Bearer. lie helped complete an inteniipted fiesco project which made him familiar with the work of Parmigianino.

E. incapable of a liberating gesture. Panel. moment. Germany. ironed in flat. it wipes away the overtones of wit and feeling. a smiling soldier long curve thai imperceptibly widens and then narrows.graving in Haarlem on Antwerp meiluxls. Nuno's porHenry the Navigator and others here of Prince (reminding us that this is Portugal's moment in world history) acquire a serious weightiness even more abstracted from the Flemish models than Fouquet's portraits are. which he at once reproduced in engravings His own originals are even surer and more sweeping. just as it did in many other places.Ant- more and hence worthy of the young Baroque artists. in the copy way a pattern cabinetmaker might a fine local from a center of fashion. and became the particular master of the swelling line. Mr. Copying the International Gothic or a later style. steely texture. 1448-1487). a of the local realism. revolt of the Painting and Sculpture in Spain before 45. Bernardo . it their presents in its Lisbon 519). his repressed. the expert gold tooling and contour drawing. George and the Dragon. It was his luck to see drawings by Spranger at the right position. and empha sizes the flat panel and the bright color areas. Danielson and Mrs. the altarpiece of Saint Vincent by Gongalves (docs. perhaps as Greco El courtly or International Gothic painting had its way out of medieval traditions in Spain 1440 and followed Franco-Flemish patterns. and thus is beautifully adapted to the sharp carrying a huge pennant. rows of figures inflexibly faces Nuno (fig. and the back hill provinces of Italy. result is the 317). Of the many worked after similar Spanish altarpieces the most attractive George and SainI I lie Dragon by Bernardo Martorell (docs. . Chicago. Discarding space. little earlier. The most famous Slandard Bearer (1587. alwavs on the edge of falling back out of Renaissance imagerv into the craftsmanship of medieval church furniture. Chauncev McCormick . angular people. 56" x 38". me Huguet A Spanish parallel is Jai- (docs. R. A image out of real Collection. Painters at this time were lucky to have Dirk Bouts' art available as their model.\ri Institute. a gleamingly flamboyant drawing of the human body in movement. Such is a relationship to Flemish Renaissance painting seen in the finest Iberian achievement of the century. St. toning down the elegaiu artifice with some infusion werp tradition were Thus life with a sufficiently stvlish com- Goltzius and Spranger demonstrated that in 1600 the Mannerist tradition so than a and the alive as ever.Martorfil ji8. and Mrs. fig. 1 is 518). trates a quality (fig. The Charles Dcering Gift of . 1450-1471). probably 't illus- 433-' 453)- long persistent in the painting of Spain. a painter of simple. lend them selves to this traits dehumanized draining.

. The continuing ers significance a likeness between these paint- of Spain and Italian ones of very secondary from remote areas. but then.American colonial portraits). In the Flemish. . analogy is with his contemporary Marco Palmezzano.lihsl's Descent into /^/m/^o'"' are the most emphatic dramas yet seen in Spanish painting. to 1483-d. and Spanish 519. a provincial follower of Melozzo da Forli. Renaissance space whose Still later (docs. Spanish painters learned of Flanders by travel. 1503). minor other masters. can continue only in ignorance of the urbane FlemisJ! the models which they were constantly emulat- There ing. Museu Nacional de Arte Amiga. and French craftsmen came to Spain to work. or through the arrival in Spain of paintings by Rogier van der case Weyden and of sculptors. his late Pietti (fig. admiration of these Spanish primitives for hard stylization. St.„»lnn. Lisbon strongly passive people in separate situations.and the belief that this had a sophisticated aesthetic purpose (as with . But the standard tech- nique of simple bright color areas continues for Pedro Berruguete (docs. . tendency it to give contrary to our instinctive as we turn to a Our spontaneous more weight different section of the world. and later to have evolved a kind of abstracted pattern of perspective lines strangely like 412 520. an art so committed to a standard set we admire of formulas. later 520) and C. NUNO GONQALVES. in of the widest aesthetic freedom.Pacher's (seep. with complex reaching gestures that introduce a startling "Baroque" pathos into the rectangular figures. Bartolome BtRMKjo. 74" x 6g". 82 Venerated by the Royal Family- "x 51". setting a Bouts type against a gold patterned ground. 331). Panel. Juan de Borgona ' #J&^ closest the French immigrant 1495-1553) designs open platforms for his altarpieces. affected perhaps by the importance of movement through space and shadow in the Bouts and Gerard David. Vincent Panel. name is also a problematic element when. 14741498). prompts the small space given here to Spanish art. paint spaceless and depthless copies from him. outside the scope of general overview. German. in a younger generation. seems to have assisted Joos van Gent in returned home to work who Italy. The widely traveled Bartolome Bermejo (docs.1 R. seems translating Memling to begin by into polished cubes. I'ltla.

They were still being built well into the sixteenth century. sophisticated and lacking German little contemporary thin figures assert their anguish by straining their 4i:< .\ full- even more spectacular. indeed suggesting pulled wax. whose portrait muscles through three dimensions.i56i). Nicolaus Gerhaert's imperial tomb at Vienna. The most remarkable single effigies tomb. and used the most impressive of models. 151 7-d. 1518. of Raphael's late (The reliefs can be directly compared with work of Lorenzetto. the talented Bartolome Ordonez (docs.\linonacid 1494-1527) for the constable De Luna and his wife. dislocated. After that the appearance of a truly original artist with continuously self-assured Berruguete (docs. blow thinly to one side like round group is sails. Having settled in the royal town of folk version of his of Valladolid. when In his youth. boxed in their frames on blank back- grounds. built onto the choir walls of churches. These emaciated grief-stricken figures with simplified Berruguete was not isolated style. consisting of dozens of little panels richly ornamented like Mcxjrish and plalrresio buildings. The Gothic in particular.\gain he simplifies and shifts to emphasizing a surface studded with craft patterns. enormous It altarpieces. but do not resemble anvihing of anticipating the Rococo. when the figures of the Tratisfiguralion seem tossed upward from a base of stormy ocean waves (fig. and are much stronger and more sweeping. and his later work in Spain style."** including a series of saints recalling his by Juan de \'almaseda (docs. the indicates a gradual loss of tension into a routinely nervous Raphaelesque 521. 522). 1516-1548).Michel Colombe. He spent most of his time in Naples and at the Carrara marble quarries. All of simply adapt Flemish realism with great geometric strength. but w'ith none of his Gothic trace elements. The French immigiant juan de Juni (dcKS. in is suggested by a kind the wooden Calvtin'-" Benedikt parallel folds in their robes suggest in theory a l^te Dreyer. Raphael's executant in sculpture. Gothic tradition. vi-idth inside frame 13" Cathedral. Barcelona line.\lonso not surprising.Renaissance sculpture had flourished quantitatively in a stronger growth. anywhere. carved in 1489 by Sebastian de . i504-d.San Benito. Gil de Siloe (docs. and elastic images are authentically sculptural. . he carved (1527-32) the altar of .\ greater personality. began in 1489 to carve the royal tombs at Burgos. carved jewels as an opeinvork outer layer.'" is a reduction of the French type by . is he is style. As the sculptors draw closer to their models in space and reduced time lag. 1486-1499). and at the same time their of the made a wax copy of the Laocodii. while holes of shadow further enrich the texture visually. Enlombmtnl 0/ Christ. . . 521) produced the first adequate transla- tion into sculpture. and this experience soft invertebrate medium and of the most melodramatic monument of classical prestige may wild religious tension and their sticky textures make them genuine foretastes of El Greco. VS'ood. . Bartolome Ord6nez. That have been decisive. 1520) in his Barcelona choir stalls (fig. in Florence. known to have these surprising. original sculpture was The most on tombs. with four large kneeling monks (docs. The figures of the Toledo Cathedral choir reliefs.) Ordonez can manipulate crowds that twine through depth with dramatic evocation and rhythm. set pyramidally at the corners in contrast with flour- ishing Gothic decoration.

He first worked and retains his clay-modeling effect in in grander works.522. a talent of equal authority bizarre indivitduality. 523.i577). worked in terracotta. time was again at this less rich. height of Christ 5'5". Dolorosa mon and (fig. Nuestra Seftora de Valladolid las Angustias. who Spanishowned Sicily. Juan's generally Michelangelesque background has close links to Michelangelo's assistant Montorsoli. with a High Renaissance softness and a religious firmness not equaled in his later work. Of these the most conspicuous was Pedro de Campatia (1503-1580). 1560. height including cornice i i'8". with painterly gradations of flowing surface and wriggling stormy undulations. . height 48". C'hnir of Cathedral. i536-d. . tells if less us that Berruguete was not an isolated sport as to quality either. She suggests that there a is Maler a com- factor in Juni. melodrama his in its heavy curling most expressive work is 523). painted a Madonna'^' in Italy that was a more than provincial rendering of Raphael. Transfiguration. Painted wood. folds in The grand manner in which the fleshy figures behave involves tearful pressures. Alonso Berrlguete. 414 Toledo Juan DE JuNi. before he became Emperor Charles \"s architect. the mystic Saint Theresa of . Pedro Machuca. .\vila. 1543-48.Mabasler. and King Philip Us fortress-monastery of the Escorial. the soldier-saint Ignatius Loyola. Berruguete.allstrongphenomena in thesixteenth-century Spain whose unique emphasis on Catholicism played so large a role in Painting Europe.Wfl(«r Do/oroja. nor by any other Spanish "Romanist " painters.

Luis de nerist anatomies. if 41. for in a revulsion much like that felt Sodoma. com'^pletely Bassanesque portrait of an older artist. El Greco renounced his native background for high mobility modern culture. when he was Catholic minority linked to the governing power. It yet is still finds the X'enetian There he worked under Titian (1567-70) but then evolving his all in terms of airy breathing motion and beauty. and greens of clothing emerging from shadowy spaces. that he imitated. have be- at twenty-five. hisii 524- DE Morales. too. Soon he tried out Rome. He kind of image. Badajoz. a Pteta. Jacopo Bassano's. longed to a Roman He may. . at this date colorlessly thin and brown. Accademia de S. he went to Venice. and candlelight. He was also remembered for his remark that. and over when most geometric and most most effective passively contempla- Christ gazing at the cross.\nd his spindly figures and otherworldly expressions make him. Madrid 46. however. learned of Byzantine icon types in Crete. as in him the religious accolade of "the divine Morales" from some and made him distasteful to others.i586). and the surviving token of his modest success there is a brilliant. liigh-keyed pinks and is opposed to them.^ . with sallow skin rapidly evolved and cheeks shadowed almost ghastly refinement of (fig. But Salviati. X'enetian in enjovment in its gleam rather pasty surfaces. Fernando. ofTered Spain a metallic. with a flickering smile and a landscape behind him. sheltered the one extraordinary Spanish painter of this century. a Morales (docs. part of the background of El Greco. El Greco used all these technical resources. but dancing action. Panel. El Greco Domenikos Theotokopoulos (1541-1614) was born and grew up in Crete. His style gained tive. which leans on own Parmigianinos long-limbed people who do not even pretend to be real. 49"/ 37". an island owned as a colony by Venice but Byzantine in culture and Greek Orthodox in religion. tight version of the who Man- an abstracted copy of Floris and remote and minor town near the Portuguese border. with w'hom he shares toward the a debt to style of Leonardo. immigiain from Flanders via north Italy. i546-d. throughout his career. a single Christ. Yet even though he seems "typically Spanish" in his single-minded piousness. The glowing color may well have reinforced what he had already a painter. no one around him created so distinctive a statement. and high coloristic charge. Bassano was richest style. he repeated this sickly pious type over in related compositions. a face of Mary or of the dead soft transitional in tones 524). if not their expressive implications. in adopting that. but the was not it Titian's style.

than to 3.. emaciated or dema- more terialized figures of hysteria are central to who even so have remained El Greco.. It may be that the Berruguete and . suggest sketchily a capricious shapes also modeled clay figures. preference for forms over representation. but only paint. than has sometimes of Robert Arnold Sprague could redo and part in our reaction Art Institute. or heads of — saints. as in Pontormo's. without that. vibrant power of his Venetian color has a larger Aisumption of the Virgin.. flavor 416 and the Spanish mystics of his century. Millet. 525) and the Slripping of Christ (i577-79)»" among others. so seems to suggest neither form nor light on The form. Conversely. to the just as well and with more moral decency. the place where foreign artists were most honored Catholic energies.3- Llo. an indication that he shared the strong piety of the Counter Reformation. The paintlike surface was probablv stimulated by Titian's last works. was equally marked but in them it is Fontainebleau Mannerists. in memorv been thought. They are like Bassano in color rhythm.He made statement in a series of rich his Virgin altarpieces. identity with at either Feelings do violent in his paintings. resi- soon is certainly a moderate compared Cross. He is often supposed to German expreswho quite have been rescued from neglect by sionists in the early twentieth century. and never He left. F. Pastiness that it is his. we record colorisiic achieving local success and the nickname El Greco frequent images ("the" in Spanish. leading to airless constructions. though the specific texture field is different. 1577. in the in the context of a court art.Morales. the Assumptioii of the (1577. who made pasty tions before by color a spark for motion.. He as well as the center of settled in Toledo. Saints Theresa and John of the Michelangelo's Last Judgnieut were destroyed. w-hen the theme demands them we —again are being proffered a sensitive concern with the exposition of assigned themes. "Greek" in Italian). but enhanced. soulful overtones a slighter one. We easily overstate the religious and emotional extremism of El Greco. and the figures are not more elongated than the texture has changed. clay figures were used as models by Tintoretto and by El Greco. But he had actually been admired several genera- Eugene Delacroix. but only Greco allows them to transmit the clayey The effect to the painting. Chicago. unrediscovered. It is not surpris- ing that he next tried Spain. El — find portraits. and by J. often made elongated figures a vehicle of anguish. not a of vibration but wide oily streaks. Gift of I'i'i" x 7'6". the dence of the chief archbishop. Nancy Atwood Sprague if . become pole of the process. a builder of clavey form. he it in Greco's art. But we can only emotional excitation in neutral themes Madonnas. fig. Canvas. The ornament than Greco's sketchy color far less interesting to us may be definition of El Greco's originality the effect of airless manipulation within the \'enetian vocabulary of airy life. and has little relation to their written imagery of very live flesh transmuted into God. Greco's most we supply an expressionist of our own.

3^ 52t). Canvas. hi Greco. The Bunat of the Counl of Orgaz. 158&-88. Sanlo Tome. i6' \ i ft iio. Toledo .

but then El Greco was a foreigner in Toledo. Vet remarkable well as ever. is it meandering over the most striking Burial of the Count of Orgaz (1586-88. John's Vision oj the Mysteriis of the Apocalypse. 7'3"x6'4". long inscription explaining that some landmarks had to size.biilliante steeped Bassanos Maniieii'it figuie in late especially years.\pocalypse. El Greco's landscapes also no longer seem extraneous to his at a time the this final assertion of an obsolete style is but an expert's reaffirmation that is celebrating it it. not the me- mentos of a traveler to Italy as those artists' views 527. masterpiece types. City views are in the tradition of Diirer and Heemskerck.\ an un- repealed theme. Visually landscapes depend on his the Giorgionesque landscape tradition of toned atmospheric flow of color. and lighting. a rare case of . in the fig. location. El Greco's later works build on the stylistic habits of the earlier ones. This seems to apply only to the 418 few works that he painted personally in his El Greco. mostly are. and repeated his saints and compositions over and over again. who had left a bequest to the church). Ever further from nature. It is we have to a statement from tiie artist method of work. modified to capricious shapes and shimmers. the He clearly attached himself to Church establishment. In altarpieces depthlessiiess much in Titian as in assist the action of his color. Canvas. as Pontormo. 526) among new those with these. be altered in the nearest about his El Greco was a great local success in church images. so that he can express pleasure in medieval miracle other Italian (saints traditions. Metropolitan New York Museum of Art. while the textures become softer and more gently brushed. If we link him strongly to \ enetian and masters of the Baroque had worked and died. He is his two the truest succes- gave the second the —building on the other Venetian tradition of Jacopo Barbari 229) —and form of a map'-'* de' (see a fig. whose puritanical reformism took him to prison. El Greco now when is insisting first modern which. shows Saint John. and the figures now are indeed more elongated than in any other Mannerist artist. except that El Greco is making records of the city he lived in. El Greco makes This relief surface. Opening of 527). 1956 not a fading working as . Si. with and dancing unreal its the Pifth glowing unreal Seal light angel. Indeed the more famous of views of Toledo (colorplate 60) sor of Giorgione's 'I'empest. and tliemes. bumpy is traditional. central concerns. like other isolated geniuses. on Michelangelo in just as in his Rome and comment his choice of the cathedral town of Toledo. In this he is unlike Saint John of the Cross. with proper ritual formality. fig. in the . watching the (1608-14. Rogers Fund. records a local on Mannerism came down from heaven to help bury the pious count.

des Beaux-Arts. Andre Beauneveu. Bruges. Paris. Cathedral. St. Paris. Paris. known Berry (also Les Tris Belles Heures of the as Les Trfs Belles Heures of Brussels Duke of . Philip VI Kingjean leBon. Biblio- thdque Royale. Berne. des Tapisseries. Maitre aux Boquetaux. Hugo van der Goes.Madeleine. 27. Beaune.Altarpiece. Berlin-Dahlem. 25. 10. School of . 37. Master of 1445. Marie . Shrine of St. Anthony and Paul. Museen.Supplementary Notes to Part Three Matteo Giovanetti. Dirk Bouts. Dresden. Nicolas Froment. 18. Beuningen Museum. Rogier van der Weyden. tombs in Abbey Church. Petit Palais. 22. Paris. Musee The Louvre. Hugo \an der Goes. Psalter of the DukeofBerry. W-. Cardinal Nicholas Albergatt. Hospital of St. to Paradise panels: center wings. Paris. 17. Braque triptych. 1695) . Musces Royaux des Bcaux-. silverpoini dvi ing. Works of in Guillaume de Mackaul. 14. Brussels. The Louvre. The Louvre. and Herkinbald. 26. Prague. Charles V. drawing. Queenjeannede Bourgogne: King .Valivilji. four panels of legends of Trajan 21. Rome. Boymaits-van 29. Fra Filippo Lippi. Hans Memling. Nationale. 8. Florence. Paris 35. 12. Historical Museum. Jean Fouquet. Adoration of the Magi and Visitation. Hell and Paradise. of the count and countess of Mortain. altarpiece with H'aj panel. Martial. The Louvre. Rogier van der We\den. Basel.-Innuncialton. Hessisches Landesmuseum. Petrus Christus. altarpiece 1 1. 33. altarpiece. Prague. Tournai. formerly Town Hall. two illuminations . side panel of Cominunion altar- piece (see colorplate 47. Bourges (from the Sainte Chapelle). Archiepisco- pal . des Vrsins. Last Judgment. panels of (now dismembered National Gallery. Madonna in Rose the Bower. Cologne. 16. St. 30. Paris. Adoration of Staatliche the Shepherds.Museum. now lost.i . Presentation in the Temple. Stefan Lochner. Kupferstichkabinelt. Jean Delemer and Robert C:ampin. rHoiel-Dieu. Berlin-Dahlem 2. Tris Belles Heures de Notre Dame. Madonna). Geertgen tot Sint Jans. supervisor of book illustrations. Utrecht. . Lochner. Andre Beauneveu. Brussels (destroyed by free copy preserved in tapestry. Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection. Rauing of Lazarus. Rogier van dcr Weyden. Joos van Gent. Tomb 9. Bladelin 19. Brussels. Dirk Bouts. on the (beside the Caihedralt. Paris). Nouans. Jacquemart de Hesdin. Cathedral of St. t3. Kunstntuseum. 20. Palace of the Popes. Adoration of the Magi (surviving portion of Monforte altarpiece). Bavo. Wallraf- Museum. Paris. fire. Jean de Cambrai. Denis: King 3. Crucifixion. 32. Ursula. Presentation in the Temple. Rogier \an der Weyden. Jean Bondol. Paris. Jacob and Rachel. Berlin-Dahlem.. Staatliche Muscen. Musce for tapestries of Book of Revelation. Bibliotheque 4. Utfizi Gallerv'. Porfraifn/. Hradiany St. Rotterdam. Stefan Richartz 15. Jean Fouquet. Last Supper. Berlin-Dahlem. Master of the 5. Berlin-Dahlem. Palazzo Barberini. Musee de . Kupferstich- kabincil. Boulbon altarpiece. Jacques Daret. The Lou\re. 31. Pteta. Martin and Gcorg von Klausenburg. Biblioth^que Naiionale. Bibliotheque Nationale. Martial. Galleria Nazionale. George. Angers. Chapel of St. 36. Staatliche 38. Jouvenel des Vrsins. tomb of Duke John of Berry. 23. in painting lost known Library of Christ Church. Christ Carrying the Cross. Annunaalwn. The Lou\re. John. Jouvenel 34. 1. Madonna and Child (formerU Tarquinia 5/^. Lugano. crypt of Hugo van from drawing der Goes. Master of the Tfebon Wittingaui . Rogier van der Weyden. Staatliche Museen.Ans. Darmstadt. Church. Muscen. design 6. 7. Ghent. frescoes of the life of St. . 28. Avignon. Pieta. Jean Fouquet. Madonna of the Rosary.\\'ignon. Geertgen tot Sim Jans. Oxford. Jan van Eyck. Last Judgment triptych. Lille {Hell on loan from 24.

from the Passion of Christ. thedral.Albrecht Durer. in 1528 55. 7 .Albertina. altarpiece for the convent at Zwetil. dam. Jerome Bosch. Moses Arts. This type of painting was produced by the dominant local 49.Museen. Gallery% London. Nordlingen. Veil Stoss.\iourned Thisbe. Hans Holbein. Pregnant Woman and Hanged Kunstmuseum. originally in abbey of St. Hans Holbein. Basel. nave of Cathedral.Albrechl Diirer. Berlin-Dahlem. woodcut. and trated by the 11' artists. 59. Assumption 52.\ntwerp: bronze effigy now in Antwerp Ca- 65. Nicolaus Gerhaert. Feast of the Rose Garlands National Gallery-. Gregor Erhart. Genoa. 46.Nativity. The 76. Wiener Neusiadt. Lucas van Leyden. Lucas van Leyden. [Manual Art of Measurement unth Compass and Ruler). Alte Pinakoihek. Czechoslovakia. Nuremberg). Kunstmuseum. Prague. Staatliche Museen. 67. tomb slab for Archbishop Jacob von 39- Sierck. Urs Graf. Erasmus of Rollerdam. Passion altarpiece. The Harbor at Antwerp. dr\points. The Chess Game. Apostles. executed by Procession of Maximilian. The Prado. Miihlhausen. Cathedral. Marienkirche. Notre. 1 . 57. George. Longford Barberini. 74. Jerome Bosch. Palazzo Bianco. Basel. Madrid. 420 Queniin Massys. Hans Holbein. 1525: Vier Biicher von Menschlicher Proportion (Four Books on Human Proportion). Schwaigern. Jerome Seven Deadly Sins. inner wing of Herrenberger chiaroscuro wood- cut. altarpiece of the Virgin (made for a Carmelite 50. 68. altarpiece of St. of the Christian Knight). Rijksmuseum. Barbara altarpiece. Busts from the hospital of St. Staatliche Museen. Hessisches also notably illus- altarpiece. 41.x. National Gerard Da\id. his Si. 77. many anonymous Hersbruck is with the Meyer Family. Museum. Christ. Mar. 80. 53. Berlin-Dahlem. Erasmus. Old Cemeter\-. The Garden of Earthly Delights. 58. . The Beheading of St. . Georg Gisze. X9' among whom (in 192 Triumphal numerous Burgkmair was woodcut. ctf the Virgin (Heller altarpiece.Albrechl Altdorfer. 62. Hans Baldung Grien. Basel. Statues of Charles Trier. 5!. Christ with Angels. Bischofliches Museum. Matthias Griinewald. . Crucifix. length over 177' (in important. The Prado. Resurrection. Florian (near Linz). Crucifixion. . 78. Blaubeuren altarpiece. Circumcision. The Conjurer. 60. 66. Flaying of Sisamnes. 64. woodcut. monastery. Bamberg. Basel. Peilazzo Rome. of Princess Isabel of Bourbon. 1729). .Municipal Saini- Germain-en-Laye.Musee . Madonna Landesmuseum. Munich. Crucifixion. Michel. Galleria Nazionale. Simon Lainbcrger 47. Frankfurt destroyed by fire. 4431.Damej Tomb 44. 1503.Altdorfer. Baden-Baden. . church of Adamsthal.. fig. altarpiece (see 42. 56. family of painters. Orpheus Playing to the Kunsimuseum.Amster- dam. formerly in Dominican Church. Amster- Nicolas Manuel Deutsch. Bruges. Blaubeuren. Staatliche . altarpiece of Si.Nicolaus Gerhaert. I. John. 63- Jerg Ratgeb. Durer's writings on perspective and 54. Benin. 72. the Katzheimers. . Madrid. Rothenburg. Darmstadt. blocks blocks center panel now in designed by Diirer. IV and Hans Baldung Grien. 75. executed by many artists. Judgment of Cambyses : Seizure of Groeninge Museum. Earl of Radnor. Museum of Fine . . Hans Leu. . 48. The Ambassadors.Albrecht . 43. Pelrus Aegidius. IVilches' Sabbath. Galleria di Gerard David. Kunstmtiseum. . Striking the Rock. Casile.\ian. -Andreas Morgenstern. Nicolas Manuel Deulsch. ten bronze portrait statuettes in Rijksmuseum. 69. Benedictine Mon- ? .Albrechl DiiTcr. 60 45. 73. Strasbourg (now in Musee de I'Oeuvre. astery. Florian. Enchiridion mtlitis christiani human proportion: Vnderweisung der Messung mit dem ^irckel und Richtscheyt [Course the Simon Marmion. Si. Jerg Ratgeb. 79. Boston. 70. Mocking of Bosch. Staatliche Museen. Berlin- Dahlem. Hausbuch Master. empress. the Judge. Monastery of St. Triumphal Arch of Maximilian. Berlin- Dahlem. . Animals. \'ienna. 61. 40. . Pyramus by .

Museo Nacional de Esculiura. New' York. Dullt Griel. kabinett. Jerome in His Study. de Tolentin. Middlesex near London Henry VIII added the chapel and great hall to the cardinals residence. Pieter Bruegel. family lombs St. The Prado. Peasant and the Bird's . Madrid. Surrey (demolished c. Musce Mayer \ an den Birah.9/. Marinus van Rovmerswaelc. Rotterdam. Pieter Bruegel. 91. Pietro Torrigiani. published until 19121. Eichstatt. Madrid. private collection. Calhedral. Pieter Bruegel. Primaticcio and The Louvre. Conrad Meit. -Munich.\lusees des Beaux-Arts. . Cathedral. 108. 112. Metropolitan Museum of .Abbey. Joanna of. his mother. Paris. Sketchbook. Old Palace.Alvaro dc Luna and Juana Pimentel. . Brussels. Museum. 1 22.ingels. Peasant Wedding Dance. Triumph 0/ Death. Suicide of King Saul.Mberlin Tretsch. Jan van The Schoolboy. 94. El Greco. Jan van Score!. 83. 88. Crippled Lepers.iragon. Germain Pilon. . Pieter Bruegel. . London. Pedro Machuca. . no. Margaret of Bourbon. in St. Christ's Descent into Limbo. Bartolome Bermejo. Calvary Crucifixion group . Chancellor Rene de Birague. 1 Hampton Court Palace. Tomb of the cardinals of Aniboise. Cloud Cuckoo Land.1600 not 19. Nonesuch. The Prado. Savoy: Pieter Bruegel. tombs of .Altar of S. 99.\esl. 111. Diocesan Barcelona. Philibcrt of 105. altar. Museum. Com Pieter Bruegel. Sacristy. 1 1 7. M usees the Rebel . Bruegel. Naples. Caihi-dral. Pieter Royaux 90. Cathedral. the Botanist Pierre Quthe. 96. Madrid. Paris. National Gallery. Berlin-Dahlem. Detroit. O^kar Ri-inhart Collection. Pieter Bruegel. The Louvre. 95. Philibert dc I'Orme. 89. Brussels. The Louvre. Francois Clouet. Palcncia. Bruegel. 113. Portrait 0/ Pieter Bruegel.Alonso Berruguete. Return the of Herd. El Greco. The Louxre.Arts. The Prado. . Museo del Greco.An. Hilgnms to Jerusalem. Kunst- historisches Museum. BerHn-Dahlem. Heaven 'Fall of It'or in Royaux dcs Beaux. Nicolas Brou: Margaret of Austria: her husband. tomb of Henry VTI. Vieu: of Toledo. Lev Hering. Paris. The Louvre.Magi.Almonacid. 121.Madonna. 84. Institute of . iorisches 116. Flemish Proverbs. . Vienna. Westminster . Paris. loi. written c. Raphael. Toledo. Kunsihistorische. Martin van Heemskerck. Juan de Valmaseda. Battle between Carnival and Lent. 87. 123. Toledo. Sebastian de . Kunsthis- V^ienna. The Misanthrope. Toledo. Pieter Bruegel. Pieter Bruegel. Major additions in seventeenth century by Sir Christopher Wren. Giulio Clovio. \TI.Arts. Paris. New to the Apostles at the Sea of 120. Winterthur. Utrecht. 93. 85. 106. Pieter Bruegel.Alte Pinakoihck. . tomb of Henry Us heart. 86. 421 . Rouen.Adoration nf thf Ma^i. Kupfersiich109. Willibald. 92. 124. Haarlem. Pieter Bruegel. 83. Christ Carrying the Cross. The I. Museum. Kunsthisiorisches X'ienna. 104. Paris. Valladolid. Nicholas Billiard. Harvesters. Benito. 14. Staatliche Museen. Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte.Antwerp. Boymans-van Bcuningcn Scorel.8i. Pieter Museum. Vienna. Vienna. London. 102. Pieter Bruegel. '567. Paris. : 115. Stripping of Christ. Francois Clouet.Adoration of the . . Pieter Bruegel. too. . 1 . Stuttgart. Francis 98. [03. The Louvre. Frans Hals Museum. KunMni-ton-cm-s . The Numbering at Brlhlthtm. 107. Chriit Appearing Tiberias. Chapel of Henry Pieter Bruegel. Naples. El Greco.Museum. high York. three similar sets in Centraal Museum. Le premier tome de l' architecture. Santiago Chapel. 118. Pieter Bruegel. Cathedral. his wife 97.s Museum.Art of Limning. Germain Pilon.1670'. Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte.


ind exdiides oihei wiiiings too. l(j lull .iil nooi line I lists book.m hindi. 1957 this one is cut (low n to wh.ginally i860) (also paperback) 10 New I in Italy. Geneva.. 2 vols. or the Renaissance outside general books. The Drawings vols..iis in the narrowest.LinF. Wilhclm von. Revival of Antique Goteborg. I host. 3 vols. 12 Burckhardt. 969 ing in Renaissance It subject belongs (wliollv.) not be (iled niidei Michelangelo whom so tew a\ail. York. The Age of Humanism: Europe i. 2 nsetul chapters in the hook on sixteenth-centurv sciilph on \Iic helangc lo and less on Ban- Bode.1 there l. New Architecture of the York. Ingvard. Oxford. 7 9 Florentine School.that are three siib- seem to m. London. Bronze Statuettes of the Renaissance.. ed. Andre. .it \\onld met el \ (onliise.ingelo. and flore limitfd lo uril- ot llicst- book. . most \ than (ki. Jakob. however. 1^20-1600.. Geneva. Arthur. Ins I hook.ike \ci : hetome ohsohie ollei k-ss no means h\ meet Its sni\e\ ol .. anil those whose inloi iiialion has a is lor the three l\ei\ enii\ .Sculptors of the Renaissance. In tor each ol tlie short sections.m\ it aif hooks.S I on the tlit'i omits those om ot tlie np. those that have no gi eatci hook his has. 1908 of the Renaissance : Venetian School.. Florentine .(8o-i^3g.i\ that bnt Bcrenson. J. 1420-15SO. \1)1\(.ible sonices. 1964 The . 1965 lori. of the Florentine Painters.isi. It \ ol list somew seem to he the most pi()babi\ henelu iai. 1957.i\e ma\ possihK be lower tontinned ahsirnse 1 List. seems citing enc 111 Surveys of the .imple.iie Wide Scope cd. in ltal\. 3 vols.i\c'r. But in the cases ot inaii\ minor artists xinu.. (The |)oinls.. i.m\ ol the sparse writings in Knglish High Renaissance would he so long th. 1963. its exclusions section. London.kIc'i Rl /. criteria.iids I ot h.1 Thus the st. he arianiiement con esponds General 1 these in appropi still general books are given selectivelv. I III more soiikcs jcils ol this I one hcis (iiiK lisi ic. 5th ed. lists. 1927 . or almost wholly) to se( tion the General helplnl wiitings on all d. in .. and London.1 Ceneial . main parts either the earlv Renaissance in Italy. 3 . 1966 42:? . Such leterences back 10 more It he welcome toa concerned reader. Crisis 968 lllusionislic Wall Paint- in Italy 2 . London. in a nuic s<i\s dinelli. ol the lu ion: l()gi\c thc. Renainance 2 2nd 3 W. Bernard. likch to \i-v\ broader application are In the small section-lists are look inconsistent.ilK \ii( it omit wiilings on to is List. of the Renaissance.ill \ 1 so \. Writings ol also cited hel. list specific place iginal points not loLincI elsewhere. about London. . or the . w. Chastel. Anthony. it at e mav toiind is and the like. The Myth of the Renaissance. 1963 (also Central Italian and North Italian Schools. Artistic Theory 1940 I also paperback) moie be tiinctional though same variation lo])edia articles. lot ex. 6 to be cited under Bandinclli. ina<Kei teniK is a it no donht it si Ills. . The Studios and Styles of the Renaissance : Italy 1460- ^00. Italian Pictures London. tor ease in looking whete same one mav appear in two or iliree ol die section-lists. The Civilization of the Renaissance London. 1928 Italian . .ippe. vols. 1938 Italian Painters when bus. 8 \c will il will there of the Renaissance. The ltal\. tme hnt small paperback) 4 1 to the di\ isions and Stratton./^o-i6oo. but bcvond that point will be cited instead in one ot ttie main lists if its it so that lhe\ help th.Bibliography TO KLRTHFR (. London.ige oI infonnatioii is ll and ings in English. 3 Chicago.\ge as a Whole and Studies of in Italy.\ndcr50n. 1968 (also paperback) 5 Bcrgstrdm.nue.

York. 30 The and Its Social Background.908 Bulletin. Florence. 1968 ofPainling B. Italian Florence. Still Life Painting.. 15 16 Art. New York. An Outline of European Architecture. 1936.. ed. 2 vols. . Robert. Lipman. trans. 1949 2nd also paperback) London. . Themes (also '938 York.C. Kenneth. Giorgio. and ed. Marco. Iconography of the Saints J I Iconography of . Early 424 Tuscany. and Architects. 18. The Survival of the Pagan Gods.... 48 Brown. 1913 Four Early Italian Engravers. 1924 originally 42 Sterling.. and Treves. . 1961 20 An . Carl. S. 1916 5 Sculpture. New York.. 1937 Whole and William." 7 Magnuson. London. 1969 27 Lowr>-. 10 of the Renaissance Edward B. Herbert.. 1970 Gombrich. Ernst H.Age as a London. New York. 21 1927 . 18 Mciss. B. . "Italian Vol. 1 A Fritz. G. vol. John. A 36 Corpus of Italian Medals of the Renaissance London. 1956 and Cavalcascllc. 1950 New York. Harmondsworih.\orth Italy. to '93' 1 Saxl. Lionello. London. 1945 34 Stockholm. 47 Venturi. Nikolaus. ed.1 History (originally 1864) 18 31 Vasari. T. Tuscan Sources before Baltimore. also York. Italian Painting. New- . Creighton. 1966 also paperback) 23 Essays Made 1939 Renaissance and Renascences in Western Art.. . Studies in .. 10 vols.. and Tietze-Conrat. New Ha\ Millard. The Drawings of and i6th Centuries. 1964 lalso paperback 38 Pope-Henncssy. Gilbert. 1944 Studies in Italian Renaissance Sculpture. Heritage of Images: a Selection of Lectures.. 1958 Cecchi. 1918 3' Oxford. ed. 1957 (paper- (paperback) Morelli.. Hans. (in York. Emilio.Architecture. i960 (also paperback) 1 before Cellini. Panofeky. 6th ed. 1959 Erica. 1952 Venetian Painting in America York. New York. 44 \'alentiner. 34. 22 from Brunel- Subject and not-Subject in Italian Renaissance Art (ed. Bates. London. Berenson. New Borenius. 25 paperback. 1925 Michelangelo. 3 vols. entitled (also 1947 A Documentary History of Keutner. Greenwich. and Gcymiiller. 202-216 Contemporan. Carii. G. Idea. Elizabeth. Wilhelm. ed. 1 New York. 32 1924) London. 1961 35 New Artists on . Kaftal. The York.New York. Illustrated Index. ." Art 16 Painting in Florence and . 1946. 6 ed. 1935 29 (i the Venetian Painters in the ijth vols. into 1 London. 1950- Watrous. . NewYork.Antal. Italian Primitives at Tale University. Early Renaissance in Italy: Sur\eys of the . 45 Vasari. Giovanni. 28. Richard. New York. Literary Sources of Art History. 1951 (also paperback) Offncr. 1912-15 46 On . Vol.). 1962 (also Cam- Works. 5 vols. Architecture of leschi to "On Renaissance Pictures.. AVis. Coluinbia. Italian Painting 19 Frey. "The Florentine Quattrocento. 39 York. The Craft of Old .. George F.. Tuscan Painting. On "3 14 . Sienrse Garrison. J. 1966 Florentine Frescoes. 3rd ed. the Renaissance. Florentine Painting 1 New- paperback Part One. . Renaissance to Rococo. 1952. 1965: also 5' Peter.. 26 Sculpture. James. G. Princeton. A. 17 A . London. Lives of the Most Eminent Painters. The Sienese Painters of the Trecento. Bernard. Italian Sculpture of the Renaissance. after the Princeton. Ji'ude. '930-67 949 Hind. i Primitives at Konopistc. London. Erwin. 1892-93 Murray. DeVVald. 1970 (also paperback) 40 Seznec.Clark. Jean. Madison. 43 Tietze. Crowe. 1930 Holt..\orm and Form : Studies London. Florence. Stockholm. bridge. . 1948 2 paperback) Pevsner. The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance.irt. 1903-1914 33 back) Hisloty of Painting in . 37 Goldwater. Technique. 16 in the Saints in Central Romanesque Panel Painting: Italian Engraving. Early Florentine Painting: Romanesque 4 and Early Medieval. in Studies in Iconology: Humanistic . Arthur M. New the Fifteenth Century . 1912 (originally 18711 1200-1600. New London. 12 New- Portrait in the Renaissance.Architecture 41 I Andrea del Sarto... i960 New York. 2 . 1963 originally (originally 15681 Eric.. 1965 Bologna. 3 vols. Jean H. i960 8 York. De Vere. Series). and South Italian Profile Portrait in the Vol. The Mural Painters of Tuscany from Cimabue 7 New Painting. paperback) (also in the Art of the Renaissance. L. Dagobert. 2 vols. 24 Hill. York. Essays in the Study of Sienese Painting.irt Bulletin. Douglas. Ernest... Hcinrich von. George. 1964 6 Art of in the paperback) Florence. Ferdinando. Frederick. 8 vols.Art. Section IV. Eve. A Critical and Historical Corpus of Florentine Painting. Torgil.'iiena Black Death. Index of Attributions Meaning . Sculptors.Master Drawings. 1961 (also paperback Stegmann. Renaissance paperback) MacLagen. 9 Enzo. 1 20 938-48 in 885. Tancred. Section 111. 1930 London. Italian Painters: Critical Studies of Their York. aUo London. 1965 Painting. Borsook. 28 Architecture.) New in the Visual Arts. Landscape 14 paperback The .. Conn. 1 Roman 54102 Quattrocento . the Renaissance The Hague. : Borenius.Studies of \Vide the Rationalization Scope of Sight. Princeton. . 2 vols. Charles. in Italy. vols.. Mass. London. 1939 Tomb . 7 vols." Art 21 New Bulletin. 1956 Italian Primitives. .

84-93 Institutes. The Birth and Rebirth of Pictorial Space. \ol. 89. James (cd. . "Martini. Valentincr. 21 Gilbert.234-302 Coor-. 1931. 1929." Art Bulletin. non-Giotto. 9. 1 1 Garrison. 38." Burlington Magazine. Florentine Painting of the Trecento. 26 Siren. N. New York.-Vlfred. 34 Fisher.Arts. Bulletin." and Part 6 Works of Simone Martini. 33 White menLs Relating Art Bulletin. 5 1 Battisti.d/ifAn/(/ir Kunstgeschichte. 9. 47 52 Gilbert. Offncr. Van Part The Peruzzi 1 8 DeVVald Part : I List. 1958 1400 to 27 Siren. 1946. 2 vols. John. 177 220 3 .i. 4 . Pietro. Luigi. Mcola Pisano and 1 Chapel Frescoes. Evelyn Sandberg. L'ni- \ersity Park. 33 White DUCCIO Valentincr." See also Part I List. 96-113 1959 New 1330 Italy 33 White Gnudi. London. F]oTence. Florence.irena Giotto Niaiterpicce. Italian Schools The Hague. Sienese Painting of the Trecento." Encyclopedia of World Art . "Nicola Pisano and the Tradition of Tuscan Pulpits. 77-98 Meiss. and Elsie R. 1940-41. the School New York. Giotto and Assisi. 4. 1949. 12. . ".. 59. 1956. York. Richard. 1964 Toesca. CAVALLINI. Vol. 28 Vol. Pietro Cavallini. 1958. and . Crcighton. Wilhelm. Raimond. 1939. 67 79 List. F. 1956. Guido da Siena. 3 Burlington DeWald: 18 Van Part I List.Vo]. Wilhelm. The Development of the 29 Vavala. Cesare. "Tino 116-133 White. England. 2. " 2 2 "A the . "Giotto. 1927 Popc-Hennessy. Charles.Modem. 302 308 7 Stubblebine. London. 21. 25 Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld 23 Pope-Hennessy. 239-268. R. 1500. ". 33 White . NICOLA PISANO SVf also Part and Borsook. 1932 1 Coletti. Croce. 7 Borsook. AND OTHER PAINTERS 1 Ottavio. Vol. 1966 2 '959. "The Decoration of the Baroncelli Chapel <. John. George H." 1 General Offncr. 4. i960 Nicholson. 1969 8 Suida. Osvald. 18 London. I Roy. 55. 197 1. John. .22 Studies in Florentine Painting. Ananda I 1 Padua. Gardner. 1936 New Chapel. '5 2. Paris. 2 "Four Panels.. 6 7. Vol. Mass. Patron Pre-Renaissance and ." See also 28 Florence. 17. "Obsenations on Sienese and Pisan 2 Trecento Sculpture. trans. Morisani. 129-146 5. Section 2 9 Burckhardt." Burlington . . Martin. Battisti. 33 White Cambridge. 19 vols. E\e. 23 Pope-Henncssy.. 3. Vol. Oflncr. Cimabue. Tino di Camaino. 1953 30 Eugenio." Essays in Honor of Walter Friedlaendrr. London. 1938 Weinberger. "The First Facade of the Cathedral of Warburg and Courlauld \ol. 233-247 3 Lothrop." General List. 1934. 2 Early Paccagnini.irt.14 S. 33 \Vhitc CIMABUE. 1939. Part GIOTTO 6. 118-193 Tintori. Vol. 1967. General SCULPTORS OF THE EARLY FOURTEENTH CENTURY Ayrton. 32 Weigelt." .Architecture in . Vol. Giotto and Some of His Followers. Giovanni Pisano. GIOVANNI PISANO . 74. New York. Vol. Vol. 28 in the Vol. 34. Martin. 23 24 . Baltimore.. Vol. James. 1953 Italian Gothic Sculpture. "The Quarterly. 19. Part I List. a Fresco and a Problem.4rt LLst. Vol. Seymour." Journal of the Warburg and Courlauld Institutes. 1964.Y. Locust of the Florentine School of Painting. Gertrude. 331-381 List. "Cavallini and the Lost Frescoes of San Paolo. 31 . 957 K. 29 \'aval4. 22 Marie. 8 Carli. Pa. Perkins. and G. Graham.\ \isual Basis for the Docuto Coppo di Marcovaldo and His Son Salerno. 1963. 22. Giotto: List. 1966 London. THE LIBERATION OF THE PAINTING General Tree.irtist: York. and the Boy 7 INTRODUCTION See also Cleveland. "Pietro Cavallini. Princeton. 34 Panofsky List. Offner. "The Reliefs on the Facade of the Duomo at Orvieto. 966 339 333 Stubblebine. i960. 8 White. \ol. Leonetto.. 80-86 Sienese Studies: the Development of L'£izi Studies: the Development 2 4 of Painting of Siena. 1923-38 of Painting. 10 Cecchi." 290-308 1 books cited from the General List List 425 . Pietro.Memoirs of American Academy 4 5 in Rome. in List. 1926-27. Vol." Journal of the Institutes. 1969 Weinberger. Van 9." Art Quarterly. 73. 1400. ig66 I Valley. "The Sequence of Execution in the 3 Arena Chapel. Vol. 1948 32 VVeigeh. World . .Maga- GIOTTO's PUPILS Revival of Sculpture in Italy. 1933 di Camaino in Florence. Giovanni. Sculpture in Italy London. Curt. 191 Toesca.irt Quarterly.irt." Gazette des Beaux-. "Tino di Camaino. Princeton.. Enggass.. Vol.\ND ARNOLFO I 1 ML Marie.\. 1 26 General See also Italian Renaissance Sculpture. SIMONE MARTINI the 1918. Marie.\L An 3 Studies in the Florentine Churches. . 10.Magazine. . and Carey. Vol." Encyclopedia of World 1962. 6. zine.. Eugenio. 224-243 Crichton. 34. 28. 201 I . Wilhelm. 1 and Giotto. Bernardo Daddi Corpus.New York. DcWald: List.Notes on Duccio's Space Concep- the tion. Giotto. New York. . Baltimore. i960 See also Section 8 List above. Florence." Enctclopedia of 109-112 14. 1965 . 1929 28 Van Marie. 18 DeWald. 1902 • I 1 Art. 8. "Giotto. Samuel K. Norton. "Assisi. Millard. Julian. Michael.'Xchenbach. to . 9 Carli. the Fourteenth Century. '93° 33 White. Cimabue. Richard. John. See also See Mason. Giotto: 9 Coomaraswamy.

2 Bulletin. Mirella. 6. Gustina. . London. 1970 3 Vol. 1914 1 . Oxford. 1955. Goldscheider. Luca della Robbta. 74. Bernard. C. 1 1971. 1941 426 2 THE LATER DONATELLO! LUCA DELLA ROBBIA Cruttwell. Pietro Lorenzetti.. 1955 Carii. 1952 of Paolo Uccello. Centur\'. 1934. 2 3 See also Section 8 List above. I Hanson.\ FILIPPO LIPPI Berenson. H. Fra Filippo. Cambridge. Vol. New York. and Krautheimer-Hess. The Life of Brurulleschi. "Political Ideas in Sienese Art.Marie Li>t. "Gentile da Fabriano. 1 2 Rubinsiein. THE LATER GHIBERTI ORCAGNA 12. 2 The Sculpture of Donatello. FLORENCE BAPTISTERY 2 Pan 33 White 3 \an Marie THE COMPETITION FOR THE DOORS OF THE 15. "Observations on Fresco in Santa Maria Novella. 1967. Pa. 2 Gra. 1 Lon- Architecture of Brunelleschi and the Origins of Perspective Theory in Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld 13. and Their Chronolog>. H. Ludwig. All the Paintings of Paolo Uccello.. Vol. 1963 Pope-Hennessy. 1932. 108-1 ' Encyclopedia of World Art. DI BANCO . London. "The Earliest Works of Lorenzo Monaco. All 7 Schlegel. 902 Princeton." .Arslan. Masaccio: Frescoes Greenwich. 1949 Krautheimer. "The Stylistic Development of Lorenzo Argan. 15.Antonio. FR. 2nd ed. "Some New Attributions to Lorenzo Monaco. 175-191 Pudelko. 2! Offner. Vol. ed. D. Richard. 73. 96. 14.\NGELICO. 1970 I List. 213-222 3 . Fra Filippo Lippi. "Domenico Veneziano Studies. Millard. 1 Trude. Bulletin." I 23 Pope-Hennessy. 3 Manetti. Vol. 16. Ind. Vol. Masaccio. Princeton.Marquand. George. 1958. 25 Seymour 23.VIPORARIES . 939: 7&-81 1 DOMENICO VENEZI. Enzo.I I THE LORENZETTI BROTHERS .. J. 1969 4 5 . New York. 24 Pope-Hennessy." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld See also "Tommaso da Modena." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Imlitules. Princeton.\ion Levi D'Ancona..\lberti. University Park. 1958. 4 Philip. I ERA .. 1967. 24 Pope-Hennessy.. Pudelko. 1956 5 Janson.S>r vols. 34 2 Berti. Mass. Ghiberti. 40. 6 Monaco. " Burlington Magazine.Art Bulletin. Kenneth. Luca and Andrea . Marx'in. Helmut. V'ol. University Park. Maud. Donatella's Relief of the don. 16. Mass. The Complete Work of Paolo Uccello. .New York. 9. 1951. "Era Angelico. Frank. Donatello. W. 802-805 See also Part : '953. 1 New York. Ursula. White MASACCIO Leon Battista. 1964. 1962 Masaccio's . 9." Burlington Magazine. 1970 See also Part Institutes.. 28 List. New York.. della Robbia. 1963. 93. Vol. Eisenberg..\ND THE YOUNG DONATELLO 1 1 Goldscheider. 1 of the Renaissance. . John. 45-49 4 Gronau.\ Crucifi.AND HIS CONTE. George. 97"' 73 World Art. NANNI 18. Bloom- 19-234 Edward C. 14. Giulio C. New 1 339-347 Hendy.ANO. 1956 falso paperback . 1949 . Enggass. and Scaglia. 27.." Encyclopedia of Arslan. Vol. I List. 1938. J. and Part Janson. the Paintings of Masaccio. 1 "The Problem 1 His Technology and Inventions. the Sam" 3 Egidio and Parenti Documents. All the Sculpture 2 Cambridge. Lane. 1962. London. Strutt. 13. 237-248.ssi. Nicholas. \'ol. Ambrogio Lorenzetii. of Francesco Traini. Vol. Luigi. Cleveland. 2 vols. . 1 1 Umberto. Ugo.\n Early Quattrocento Triptych from Santa Maria Maggiorc." Art Edoardo. George. Conn. I vols. 83-88 6 Procacci..1 2 Wittkower. Fra Angelico. Brunelleschi 2 Faison. Luciano. London.•\nne Jacopo delta Quercia's Fonte Gaia. 28 \"an . 4 Pope-Hennessy. H.AND 19. ""Barna and Bartolo di Fredi. Giulio C "The BARN A AND TRAINI Meiss. spective. Ludwig.Magazine. \o\. Rudolf. vols. trans. Studies of Encyclopedia oj 157-159 " Vitale da Bologna. 957 1 Pan \V. Princeton." Encyclopedia of World Art.. "Masolino. 2 3 574-578 and a Man of Sorrows by Lorenzo Monaco. 635-641 965 See also Pan I List. "Brunelleschi and Proportion in Per- THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY OUTSIDE TUSCANY 14. 20 Offner. 45." Burlington . . John. Alan." Art Quarterly.-irt Bulletin. Prager. (architectural tradition). THE LATER BRUNELLESCHI . 1930 Ernest. the Ambrogio Lorenretti and Taddeo Frescoes by di Bartolo in the Palazzo Pubblico." Burlington Magazine. 231-259 5 22. ". Vol. On Painlim Haven.\ 17. London. 1901 2 Wohl. 25 Seymour List.. 179-207 Rowley. 9-33 LATE GOTHIC PAINTERS 16. 1 . Vol. 1964 3 See also Part List I of Donatello. S. 1950. 1967. Vol.Argan. 1967 Clark. IN FLORENCE 2 1 2 Baldini. 21. DeWald. "Ground Plan and Elevation in Masaccio's Trinity Fresco." 25 Seymour in Florence. 1958 books cited from the General List 19 Meiss." 946. 285-315 Fifteenth the Institutes. UCCELLO Edoardo." Art "The Early Works Vol. Era Angelica." Essays in the History of Art Presenud to Rudolf Wittkower. 275-291 Vol. 1933. H. Spencer. Lorenzo Ghiberti. '. 183-188. Trinity Vol.\COPO DELLA QUERCI.." Art Bulletin. Saalman. C. 1970. Ascension. ARCHITECTURAL TRADITION. World Art. ' in his Homeless Paintings ington. 2 . Pa. 92. 14.

3 Fiocco. 1-46 The Painters of the School of Ferrara. Andrea . 1932 Passavant. 16. Locust Valley.Seymour. Ernest 2 . Creighton. 358-364 I List. Vol. A. 1967 Tietze-Conrat. 1962 ed. "." Institutes." Art Bulletin. Maud. New- 1 as Patrons of Art" List. \o\. Drawings.New I ANTONELLO DA MESSINA: FRANCESCO LAURANA Berenson. 45. and Carter. 20. .MICHELOZZO AND FLORENTINE ARCHITECTURE 28. Change in Piero della Francesca. "Piero della Francesca's Flagellation: the Figures in . 1937 2nd 2 at Pisloia. New- .. 1962 the Paintings of Pieru 35.Viccolo Forteguerri Northampton. Guntcr. En- gravings. VERROCCHIO 1 Unfinished del Verrocchio to the Cardinal . L. 1968 Longhi. 104. 25 Seymour FERRARA 33." Journal of the Warburg 3 I Burlington Hill. 1955 Desiderio. All York. Michelozzo. 4 Gilbert. S." Burlington .. . trans. Part I List. Creighton.. London. Tomb London. B. 98. 225-237 del Castagno. 1963 Exhibition. John.. London. Castagno. 1959 London. Dec. The Tabernacle of the Sacrament by Northampton. 1945. 1911 of Pope Sixtus IV. Wilhelm. 3 See also Part List. 5 New Haven. "Notes on the 4 MID-CENTURY Drawings by Pisanello. General New York. Piero 6 and Courtauld Crultwell. 1901 2 Cruttwell. 25. 27 Lowry. Clarence. Cossa. Bernard. Antonio Pollaiuolo." Burlington . Herbert Magazine.MUOLO 25.. London. Erica.. Van Marie 28 2 Drawing Books of Bellini. Philadelphia. 2 . 92-1 19 See also Section 18 List above Donatello Memorial Art Museum Bulletin. 1963. 1958 . della Francesca. Alesso Baidovinetti. 1909 Pope-Henncssy. 5-9 . trans.-Knionello da Messina. Part Pisanello. 1 Battista. 292-302 Institutes. "The Perspective of Piero della Francesca's 'Flagellation'. ." .Magazine. Giuseppe. "Tommaso Spinelli. The 1 Gardner." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians." AlUn Oberlin. Milan. 24. Rudolf. Cruttwell. Kenneth. 1911 . Roberto. 1929 Markham. Leoni. 1953.. 41. Verrocchio. FLORENTINE SCULPTURE 1938 York. 1947 PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA Bianconi. Vol. I ..Mantegna. Tura. Vol. Ben. London. 1959. Lon- don. London.^eitschrift fiir 1 Schifanoia . IN \V. 35-45 4 Valentiner." Bourges. Vol. Charles. 3rd London. Vol. Paris. Piero della Francesca. Ruth 4 List." . 1953. 3 FLORENTINE PAINTING AT George 2 Jacopo 26. 41 Siegmann and Gcymiiller SIENESE PAINTING IN THE EARLY FIFTEENTH CENTURY 1 34. . 5 Kunstgeschichtc Vol. 1905 Roethlisberger. . (also in the James Age of paperback) 2 Hartt. Ten Books on Archilrclure.Magazine. New York. "Andrea P.Mantegna. D'Ancona." Art Bulletin. Ernst H. Clarence. " . MANTEGNA 32. 1901 1 Frederick. A Sienese Painter of the Franciscan Legend. 1971.Andrea 4 London. Giovanni di Sassetta..\. ". 28. 1 London. Vol. 3 "The Frederick. Saalman. 43-32 Gilbert. 1939 3 2 Ettlinger. 1929 F. I Cruttwell. Andrew. Rudolf. York. 1959. Vol. the Foreground. Works of Andrea 159183. Marcel. 1907 1 New 7 CASTAGNO. Renata. Life. 1968 4 ALBERTI 24. 1964 6 New 7 Kennedy. N. 1956." Art Home. POLLAIUOLO.Mantegna: Paintings. 1951 3 Gilbert. 53. Anne. London. Sienese Quattrocento Painting. Gino. 2 vols. "The Palazzo Comunale in MonteUnknown Work by Michelozzo. 1969 See also Section 25 List above. Clarence. Leon Albert!. "The Mantegna New York. Mass. London. Sindona. Seymour Oxford.. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld ed. Earliest Bulletin. Piero.\'ews 24-26 42: . Enio. Tht . 1955 (originally 1485) VVittkower.. Bernard. Pirro della Francesca and the Early Renaissance.irt . 75-87 Gombrich. See also Femand. "Mino da Fiesole" (General List. "The Young Luca 3 della Robbia. TRENDS IN "The Archbishop on the Painters of Florence. Cipriani. The CompleU Paintings of . 1 24 Pope-Hennessy. 1961 43 Tieue and Tietze-Conrat . Strong. "Pollaiuolo's Verrocchio. Eberhard. R. Howard. Elizabeth. 1950 4 Ruhmer. 1956.\. 25 . "The Early Medici 3 (General TRENDS 27. See also 29.Months at Ferrara. 41. Vol. 1964 Maud. Paintings by . . Philip. and Kennedy. and Wilder. Creighton. 151-164 General List.Uantegna. 41-51 Hendy. Hartt. York.. D. 954 pulciano: an 3 Nicolson. Manetti and Rossellino. Pisanello. London.indrea Mantegna. 16.Annual." del della Francesca. Vol. The Painters of Ferrara. York. 1963. Vol. Paul. Paolo.Art Bulletin.\T 5 MID-CENTURY Kristeller. 44) 2 Marlindale. 1965. 3 Berenson.239- 271 Kennedy.Medici Chapel.Maud. POLL. Vol. Cardinal of Portugal at San Miniato in Florence. 222-231 7. Mass. . 1962. London.. 1930 Wiiikower.Y. 2 Clark. 1 1905. London. . PISANELLO AND JACOPO BELLINI . The Chapel of the Corti. 25. 23) Kennedy. Architectural Principles 2 Humanism. "Desiderio da Setiignano and the Workshop of Bernardo Rossellino. 1966.Monument by . Paolo. All the Paintings of Mantegna. 4 30.

New Bellini.AL ITALY. 1966. Wilhelm. York. Albrccht. Forii. Pasquale. Jan. 167-171 9.I 500 I 265-271 Williamson. 1955 Valentiner. . SIGNORELLi: MELOZZO 38. Teresio. New .A Signorelli. 129-139 New York. "Sangallo. 1962 3 Freedberg. 95." Journal of 8. The High Renaissance Alazard. 25 Seymour Surveys of the Age as a \Vhole and Studies of ^\'ide Scope paperback) . and Molmenti. 1966. I45O-I5OO Maria Novella. The Florentine Portrait." Encyclopedia of World Art^ Vol. 1963 High Renaissance and Baroque . 4 vols. Jean. See also Part Cruttwell. Sandro Herbert Botticelli. All the Paintings of Botticelli. Francesco. "Laurana's Portrait Busts ofWomen. "The Earliest Works of Era Bartolommeo. Balti- to more. York. 1907 " Burlington . 3 Magnuson of Brescia. Corrado. Waller F. Pe\sner.Modeme... Vol. Fahy. IN 1964. London. Frederick.. Gordon M. NORTH ITALY. Corrado. 12.." Encyclopedia of World Art. Cam- bridge. 320-325 Portraiture. London. 96 1. 682-686 BOTTICELLI AND GHIRLANDAIO Botticelli. Sources and Documents in the History of Art 1966 (also paperback] Letarouilly. Lionello.Mannerism and Rome and Florence. in the Choir of Santa Burlington Magaziru.ANNI BELLINI TO 2 Hendy. Pintoricchio. 1940 13 . 1957 (also paperback) Palaces of Morthem Klein. Vt Pictura Poesis. "The Development Gilbert. 16-138 Pope-Hennessy.Win/. College Art Journal. "Architecture in the Later Sixteenth 1 Haupi. Rensselaer." Tfe . Part SCULPTORS .irt Bulletin. Robert. 3 Vol. New York. Vol.\ND PINTURICCHIO 37- 2 Vol. 728-729 1 1 . "The . I Santi. 1969 Lee. See also Part I List. Rodolfo. 1 Argan. Wolfgang. 1945 Oxford. N. 33-38 6 See also 1 . Stefano. "Laurana. 1967 (also Century. The London. 47. 1969. Gustav. 1907 Pignatti. in Englewood vols. Luca 3rd ed. Francesco di Giorgio. 1969 Ox- ford.. Sculpture. Carpaccio. 1965 3 New Rotopdi. 220-228 Leuts.Art. 2 vols. 1 Two. Linda. Marchini.Art. Greenwich. 1909 3 2 List. L. Vincenzo Foppa of Gentile Bellini's Hartt. 1910 Crowe and Cavalcaselle C Lon- Maud. Allen 4 General See also 4 Gombrich. York. Henri. . 1900 Works 1 7 Crivelli. The High Renaissance. Tancred. 4 V^igni. England. 1909 9 1600.. Past and Present. 17 I PAINTERS IX NORTH ITALY. 1965. Lon- 1 Martindale. Edifices de London.Magazine. 9.Manncrism in York. Philadelphia. 1961. 2 Ettlinger.)3a-ij^o. London.. 1943 S. 1937 24 Pope-Hennessy Benedetto da Maiano) Botticelli. Conn. New 5 Hutton.2 Bottari. 1908 40. 1971 series Area: paperback) 2 6 dell' 335-344 24 Pope-Hennessy. 1 7 8 Chicago. Antonello da Messina. Giuseppe. 1465-1500 Vol. Giuliano. Pompeo." Encyclopedia of World Art. Italian 428 I List. Creighton. Curtis. 142-154 6 York. James. Giuseppe. "Botticelli's Institutes. Seymour 25 Marchini. Maltese. 17. Vol. 6 Murray. Edward. 1967 (also paperback) 12 Italy Rome . 1964. 1 945. 1962. 1902 II. Leipzig.. "Carpaccio's Meditation on 4 York.inti-. G." 3 273-298 Art Quarterly. London. Giorgio. i 24 Popc-Henness\ "Melozzo da Shell. List.. Perugino. Constance. All York. Vol. Italian Painting. GIOV. Mass. "Luca Signorelli and the Drawings Connected with the Orvieto Frescoes. 1962 of New York. A don. Vol. York. Giles. Ernst H. 5. 3 New CENTR." Art Bulletin. 216-220 4 Beck. Giovanni 8 1 Reexamination. Roberto. 6. . Everett. in Italy: S^w York. 41." I. Giuiio. 1961 Friedlaender. 7 List. 320-331 "Ghirlandaio." Encyclopedia of World Art." the PERUGIN'O . D. "Perugino. Nikolaus. Academies of Art. 7-60 Commonly Called Filipepi. 1929-30 {English text originally 1868-74) 10 Lotz. "Niccolo 42.. Giovanni Bellini. Borenius. 1930 Cliffs.. 1963 See also Part I List. \'o\. 15.. Vol. Pietro Vanucci. Vol.J. 27 Lowr\': Part Ffoulkes. Vol. London. 1958. IN Bulletin. Painting in Italy tjoo Painting of the High Renaissance in Cambridge. 1958 London. New 465. 22. the Paintings of Antonello da Messina. Paul Marie. Carpaccio. the Warburg and Courtauld 5 Home. 3 vols.." Encyclopedia of World General 4 don. and Majocchi.. Alessandro Mythologies.. Sydney J. 103. 1942. FORLI D.irte Veneta. Scaglia. 2 .ARCHITECTURE 39. and Zemer. 1 Passion. 1957 Weller. P." and ijOO-iSoo . The Ducai Palace of Urbino. 51.ARCHITECTS Vol. "The Frescoes . trans." Art 5OO Philip. Tfu Sistiru Chapel before Michelangelo. Italian London. 1 946. Andrew. 7 Rushforth. 1907 Ricci.\ND ." Salvini. The Painters of Vicenza i. John. 1940. 3 Robertson. 1968 (also Briganti. Renaissance Tuscany. Italian Mannerism. 1953. Called Perugino. George 5 Life and Vittore Carpaccio. New . 1965 9 Venturi.Architecture of Mannerism. New Ludwig. 2 36.

tgj2 "The Scientific : York. David. "Piero di Cosimo's An Bulletin. don." Mag- azine. 21.illen 1 . yew H. ArehiUclure and Decorative 1 and Late Renaissance in Italy. a Critical Catalogue. Palo Alto. 5 vols. 1903.. Raphael. 201-212 Douglas. Johannes. 2 . Charles. Philip. 1965. 1967 Smyth. Jens. 9. 1970. New paperback) Leonardo da Richter. Ettorc. ^ '954 Ludwig 6 MacMahon.. Creighton. . New York. Heinrich. G. 108-131 Discovery of Honey. 1 Huntley. 1963 FILIPPINO LIPPI . "The Maria Novella in Florence. 17 and Cavalcaselle Bramantino). 1961 Vision of Landscape in Renaissance Italy. 2nd cd. . London. 1952." 4 Mathews. Ludwig. 26c>-272 5OO I Encyclopedia of "Bramanie. Crowe. 1966 Tfe Art of the VVolfflin.. Kenneth. The Literary Works of 10 Vinci. 1916 London. . Vol. 45. 5 6 Human Body. 1 Turner. don." Bulletin of the Memorial Museum. .." Art Bulletin. M. 2 . London. Vinci on O^Malley.. Hobart. Miintz.zi in 3 Works.. 1882-85 vols. 1971.. Michelangelo.. Cambridge.. Neilson. Complete Poems and Selected Gilbert. Camesasca. 1948 York. 1963. E.New York. 2 York. Princeton. Gaudenzio Ferrari. 2 vols. New Gilbert. 1932 (originally Principles igijj (also paperback) 595-610 also General See I. fed). 17 Forster. A. G." Gazette des Beaux-Arts. Oberlin. Rudolf. Raphael's Drawings. Vol. A. trans. of Art History. Luitpold. R. Vol." Vol. 11 Siren. (in Condivi. 5th Letters. 1928. 10 1 9 1952.Michelangelo Drawings. Adolf. Mass. Arthur 9 da Vinci's Basis of Leonardo Paintings Sculpture. Fischel. The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti. 16 17 NY. Dusslcr. 2 vols. London. Thomas.. Hitherto Usually Styled "Sodoma". Raphael.." 27 Lowry 2 LEONARDO TO Cavalcaselle i960.. 1 YOUNG MICHELANGELO 6. 6 New B. Ufe of . 8 3rd ed. London.Michelangelo the Sculptor.... Leonardo da 4 5 Vinci.Ml the Paintings of Raphael. Havdn. "The Early Two C> cUs History of Man in General List. 1962 PAINTING IN MILAN AFTER LEONARDO 3. A. 3 Fahy. Friedman. 1 .John Addington. Filippino Lippi. Mannerism. 1913 (also paperback) (also Classic Art. Everett.\. 1956 Gilbert. 1 Williamson. "A Musical Canon of Leonardo da Xinci's Last Supper. 1946 2 and Cavalcaselle.. Crowe and List. Thiis. 357-360 Mass. . Charles. "Andrea Solario in the Light Vol. 1882 5 9 Oppc. and Gere. 1953 scries I talian 1 YOUNG RAPHAEL 7. 7 10 Raphael.. Mannerism and Maniera.. C. Croi : LEONARDO'S LAST YEARS Architect of Heydenreich. ERA BARTOLOMMEO 8. Paintings by Raphael. London. . Vol.See also Italian Renaissance. 1963 (also paperback/ 7 8 New Hartt. Corrado. Vol. Charles de. 52. Ludwig. 1945 London. 1963. Princeton. The 18 4 Proportion in Brachert. London.Michelangelo... (eds. ^ J Catalogue of the Drawings of Leonardo da A Clark. Theory of Perspective. 1945. 12 Tears. World . 1 Witlkower. 1965-71 C.Michelangelo. John . 1 -Some Later Works of Piero di Cosimo. Harmondsworth. 1956 Leonardo da Vinci: Treatise on Painting." 8."' L'-irte. Almon. Leonardo da Vinci: the Florentine '9'3 York. New York. 1968 Leonardo da Vinci. 1908 of Suida. Letters. Martin. Piero di Cosimo. 1939 New Haven. London. Halsey. 2 vols. 1959 Vinci.Andrea Sansorino. Chicago.. 169-185 Popham. Bernardino Luini. Ascanio. "Gianfrancesco Rustici. Ulrich.Michelangelo. and Saunders. paperback) General BRAMANTE 4.Sculpture of the High Ricci. The Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci. 94. John.New York. R. 1923 Shearman. 2 vols. 1900 . Thomas F. Creighton.. Vol. List. 1970 (originally Circle Pouncey.. His Life and 197' S. 4 Frccdberg 429 . and Architecture. G. Leonardo da Heydenreich. 1945 also E. Philip. Otto. New York. trans. . Ramsden. York. London. Raphael. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. Leonardo da Vinci.ill the New Frescoes of Raphael. Middcldorf. 1963 Symonds.. trans.^ND PIERO DI COSIMO 2. "Young Raphael. 53. 7 York. London.. Erwin. Jean P. 16-22 ANDREA SANSOVINO. 3 vols. London.Michelangelo and His Studio (in Drawings in the British Museum.. Vol.irt. 150-168 Cum. 2nd ed. Langton. Mass. Ethel. Bazzi. Cambridge. (in series Italian . i 79 (originally 15531 1 46 -466 1 Vinci at Windsor Castle. 2 vols.277285 1 Burlington Loescr. Katherine B. 1967 Wilde. Locust Valley. . 1906 2 3 Discovered Documents and Unpublished Works. 2nd ed. 1962 Michelangelo. 2. . "Leonardo da Vinci: Francis L" Burlington Magazine. York. Wilhelm. 1 vols. and Heydenreich. 2 2nd ed. . Holroyd Holroyd's Michelangelo). . Vol.. New 5 6 8 of Paintings by Piero di Cosimo" York. Eugene. 1 vols. John. 4 Burial Chapel of Filippo Stro/. 943-60 NewWeinberger.irt Newly Quarterly. New York. Raphael and His Drawings in the British Museum Lon- 2 vols. 2 vols. . Cambridge. 3.. 5. H.. Raphael. 1952 Goldscheider. 65. 2nd cd. 1966 London. 1893 Tolnay. Frederick. New York. 938 1909 Panofsky. Princeton. cd. London. 35 1 963 New York. Ludwig. Osvald. '935 See also Part 11 List. Oxford.). 2. Craig H. Leonardo da the Michelangelo . Oskar. Pirenne.. George. Ludwig. 1952 (originally 1899) 20 .. 1968 3 LonGoldscheider. J.

World Art. 192-196 The Sistine Ceiling) 2 Hind. "Raphael's Madonna della Sedia" Hartt.s and Their DOSSO AND HIS SUCCESSORS 18. "Raphaels Cartoons. "Pagan Sacrifice in the Italian Renaissance. The Life and Works of Baldassare Peruzzi of Siena.\ '7- 7 General See List. Terisio. 1904 Hadein. London. 1928 Kent.. 17 C H List. Edgar.A. Bellini 5 Wind. J. 4. Creighlon.. Francesco. and Cavalcaselle. 254-255 Kristeller. 1877 Gronau. .New York. 1954 Madama. "Right and 3 Raphael's Cartoons. Edgar. 2 vols..Arte Lombarda. New the Basilica of St.\NIN0 21." Jacob. Freedberg Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. "Milan and Savoldo." Print Collectors Quarterly. "The Chigi Chapel in S.. All New 1 giorgione Baldass. Vol. Bulletin." ." Art Bulletin.. . and Titian Campagnola:: Part See also I List.Var/o. 1964 Panofsky. "Giulio Cam5 pagnola's Engravings.. \'ol. Maria G. 1942. 1963 See also Part II List. 124-138 "Portraits by 1959. London. Paul. All the 3 Cook. Sterling. Engravings and Woodcuts." ." Journal of the Warburg and Courlauld Institutes. 3 Freedberg architecture 12. The Villa Rome." Left in " Encyclopedia of 858-862 12. John. 2 Vol. New York. 312- 327 . 2. Fritz. John.. "The Chigi Chapel in S. Paul Marie. 3 4 Letarouilly. f Tietze. 29. Maria del 8 Popolo. 2 vols. Charles.McGraw-Hill Dictionary of . James S. ferrara and bologn. Paintings of Titian. Small Renaissance Bronzes. 1896 vols. 1959. Coletti." . 2 4 Walker. 3 Freedberg CONTEMPORARIES OF GIORGIONE Gilbert. Greenwich. . Vol. Princeton. York..Art Bulletin. 1969 of Titian. Giorgio del Castetfranco Called Giorgione.All the Paintings of Lorenzo Lotto. Hans. Lowry 27 Morassi. Rome. B. 1963 Shearman. Bellini's Feast Wind.. 1925 Crowe. John. Part U List. Battista Dossi. 1971 Pignatti. Piero. Campagnola) Mayor. cd. Bernard. Frecdberg. 24. Er%vin. Vol. 43 Tietze Pope-Hennessy (Riccio D'Ancona. 5 Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. 271-275 See also 3 4 York. the SISTINE CEILING 1 I of 1948 Oxford. York. \'ol. Luitpold. in Titian. "Maccabean." 4 Journal of the Warburg Institute. 1957 970 in the Sistine Ceiling. Part 3 Freedberg 1961. .Metropolitan Saxl. 3 Raphael's last years (General Italian Engraving. 5 2 York. -New York. 2 SAVOLDO. Antonio. . William. Herbert. Titian. Vol. 189-506. Hirst. 161- Oppc. ed. Hans. 1959 Gods. 1969." Art 67-94 Michael.ANDREA DEL SARTO g. See also General List. in ROME YOUNG TITIAN 19. 17 •85 6 Dossier. 1904 Giorgione. "Giulio Campagnola. 1944. 2 14. Detlev von. "Sebastiano del Piombo. 24.-Inrfrca </?/ . Cambridge.New York. PORDENONE 20. 22. 1966. Titian. . Felton. London. 1962 Giorgione. Richter. G. The Famesina Frescoes at Rome. 1927 1 2 vols. 1. Badt. trans. London. 7." Museum of . Vol. A. Titian and His Times. 83-94 Pope-Hennessy. M." Frederick. Cortile del Belvedere. Jacopo de' Barbari. Mass.. 23) "Raphael and Giulio Romano. rev.. "Raphaels Incendio del Borgo. Crcighton. New York.. Still Life Painting. ROM. and Tictze-Conrat. 346-367 Riccio) 1 4 London. Vol. 1966. 3 Andrea del Sarlo. A. Chicago. See also Section 7 List Tapestrie.irt. E. Vol. 261-267 and near Romanino. Todd. London. Adolf. Conn. Maria della Pace. London. John. 1 Gilbert. \'o\. 129-160 9 . 1958. 1965 . John." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. 1964 Wethey.Art. London. Mass. . The Vatican and Peter. Erica. 1948 (Vol. "Peruzzi. Histories Ciardi Dupre.. Early 2 5. 1961. Kurt. i960. See also Section 6 List 3 London. 1950 Shearman. 35-59 179-207 General List. above lespecially 9 Tolnay. Sydney 1 J. \o\. 1 2 Ackerman. Lorenzo Lotto. GIULIO campagnola.New York. 2nd ed. Ernst H. Wurm. New York.Art Bulletin. Harold. Arthur M. 1 Crowe and Cavalcaselle. Luigi. Giorgione. 1955 Gombrich.. " Encyclopedia of World General List. Georg. Cambridge. New. The Raphael Cartoons. Vol. 1925 Heinrich. 1965 Paintings of Giorgione. Titian's Drawings. 5 11. and White.. 1950 7 Valcanover. 41.York. London. 1937. 27. 1937 "Bartolommeo Veneto. William The E. 1956 Bianconi. sebastiano del piombo 16.. 32. Vol. Paolo. Titian. Hyatt. . Greenwood. 1944. London. riccio 15. 2. 24 List. 1945. 2 THE 10. 26. 4 1 the Paintings 1969-71 Ludwig von. George M. 1968 nd Ca\'alcaseIIe. 430 1 2 Berenson.. LOTTO. 299-323 above Gibbons. Dosso and 1 See also Part II List. palma. 193-221. vols. Problems Tietze. 1 1 New at Ferrara. New 5 6 . 1938-39... Vol. Milan. The 8 13. in Italian Renaissance Studies. 4 New York.

"The Birth Date and a Destroyed Early Work Vol. 34. Correggio : The Frescoes in San Paolo.. Janet 4 York. Mass. W. The Iconography of Correggio'i Camera H List. 93-97 Valentiner. 1967. "Texts and Contexts in the Medici 245-268 Freedberg. 2 Murray. The Drawings of Pontormo. "Notes on Tribolo.. Giulw Romano. Sydney J.Y. Pope-Henncssy." 29- ORBIT S Art Quarterly. . His Life and Work. Section 23 General 12 List 2 New Haven. 4 Creighton. Bulletin. 52. 1966. Sanminiatelli. Freedberg. 3 MANNERIST PAINTERS IN NORTH ITALY in Painting. Berenice. Arthur E. i960. 1955. ROSSO to Two "Some Drawings by Rosso Carroll. 236-240 Hennessv 25. J. 1 New Correggio. 1963. London." Essays in the History of Art Presented Rudolf Wittkower. 3 2 New Haven.. Florence. 3 in i H3-'9o Rearick. 1961. sented 1 Burlington . Burlinglon Johnson. 3 1958 hondon. Wittkower. 14 Pope- 4 "Francesco Salviati's "Salviati's . James. Part above (Peruzzi). ziana. Vol." . 3 Freedberg. Correggio^s Drawings. "The Sketches of Domenico Beccafumi. 16.. Georg. Vol. See also Part II List. 1934. M Sef alio Part MANNERISM 27- 514-518 3 Freedberg List. Michael. London." Magazine. Arthur E. Fiorentino. 1966. Vol." Gazelle bridge. ." Art 3 The for Doria. 97. 1933 Pope-Hennessy List. 1955. Vol. Autobiography. 1961 Popham. 102. Chicago. ^eitschrifl fiir Kunslgeschichte..son." Art Bulletin. Vol.\." 5 PONTORMO. 1956. 3 "Romanino Kossoff. 1961-64 Chapel. 2 Blunt Fon- tainebleau! 32. Robert. Giovanni Decollato. Vol. His Works I vols.Anlhony Blunt. 1953."55 Rudolf. 1951. 337-349 . Davidson. 3 Freedberg BECCAFUMI. 1961. 13 List San London. an Introduction. Vol.. 7 Smyth. 1972 8 "The Earliest Works of Bronzino. 41. 1949. 2 vols. 3 "Primaiiccio Re\isiied. General List. Dora and Erwin.A.Magazine."Savoldo's Drawings Puc to Use. SCULPTURE 2 MICHELANGELO: THE MEDICI YEARS 23. 1560) (also paperback/ York. John Vaga. Section above (Michelangelo. V'ol. VVilhelm. "Bandinelli Rival of Michelangelo. 29. Vol. i960 [originally c. 1970. 41. 210 31." . Part III Lisi. Late Renaissance and Alannerism. PAR. C. Jacopo Carucci da Pontormo. Vol. 18. 1965. Gilbert. . Burlington Magazine.. 99.Ackerman. James. Vol." 146-165 Cambridge. Ma. VV'iles..Arthur." Burlington . 14 Holderbaum. Cambridge. New Haven. "The Beginnings of Domenico Beccafumi. 1957.irt Bulletin. Vol. 1916 2 Panofsky. "Perino del Vagas Decorations 1 New 2 S. The Drawings of Parmigianino. 197 4 and Baroque Art Pre- London. 98. "Perino del 5 Hartt. New "Francesco Salviati's North Italian Journey. The 1 Cheney. Vol. Freedberg. Locust Valley. Part III List. 8-19 Circle. Donato.. Cambridge. 401-410 3 . 1950 Popham.Magazine. Parmigianino.See Vaga and His Magazine. 123-218 . 1957.. 35-40 Freedberg See also Part II List. Bronzino . "Drawings by Perino del Vaga for the 3 Architecture of Michelangelo." Burlington Holderbaum. 4 Beren. 24. 2 Iris.. London.Magazine. 102. 315-326 Late Fresco Cycles by Perino del above See also Section 6 List 1 . Vol. The CORREGGIO Gronau. Part II List. Hirst. PERINO DEL VAGA.. in 145.'' Studies in Renaissance McComb. Eugene. 388-405 6 See also Part II List. Vol. Frederick. "Michelangelo's Biblioteca Lauren- SCULPTORS to 2 IN MICHELANGELO of Baccio Bandinelli. 16 Shearman 30. 241-262 . 1 Hartt. Quarterly.. Cellini. des Beaux-. "Two zine. Vol. ARCHITECTURE IN 5-26 Arls.." : General also Mass. The Fountains of Florentine Sculptors. 4 " Gazttle des Biaux- in Brescia. York. BRONZING AND HIS Garden. TITIAN S L. 1967 (also paperback. Magazine. 34-36 "Three Ceiling Decorations of Francesco 6 See t Burlington . FLORENTINE DECORATIVE 28. 26. Visitation. Pamela. 3 CONTEMPORARIES Life of Giorgio Vasari. 3 Francois '958.irts." Burlington . 27 Lowry." Art ." Burlinglon Mag- azint. 1964 Askew. 46-53 Palazzo Doria.Vlass. Linda. ed. Genoa. 2 vols. 1967. 369-372 BerthaH. Genoa. Craig H. vols.Maga- 336-343. Erwin. 108.. 1959. List. 391-409 "The Meaning of Michelangelo's Medici Honor of Georg Swarzenski.M1GIANINO 31. 99." Quarterly. 2 Blunt (Rosso MORETTO AND VENETLAN PAINTERS OF HIS GENERATION France) 26.ATER YEARS See Section 19 List above VM . 1928 as Draughtsman. at I "The Iconography of the Galeric Fontainebleau. Michael. Frederick M. lyi Apostles in the Oratorio of S. Cam- 1964 See also Part II List. 26 Keutner. Burlington . Frederick. Salviaii. 45. 107. 1921 di 4 Giovanni Evangelista at Parma. Vol. Panofsky. Jatnes 1 Pevsner. Part II List.! See also 22. 1957 Quinlavalle." 446-454 Clapp.." Essays 4 Gere. Augusta Ghidiglia. 184 See also Part II List.Art Bulletin.. McAllister. 1963. Angela Bronzino." Hirst. 2 Vol. New York. Palazzo Bcnvenuto.

1971. and Thuillier. Vol. 1969 "Girolamo Muziano and Taddeo Zuccaro. Copenhagen. 1938 Zevi. Evelyn. Part II List. Cecil.. 3 Pitti Burlington Magazine. Philipp. "Sanmicheli. "Two of Taddeo Zuccaro's Commissions. 21) Langenskjold. 1952. Section 6 List ! 35. 3 Freedberg.. 14 Pope-Hennessy (Leoni. Part List. "The Coolidge. 97-108 14.Xorthem Europe. Art and 2 2nd ed. Baltimore. Locust Valley.Magazine. \'ol. Villa Giulia: Mid A ." Encyclopedia of World An. ii^g^-iSSi. Berenice. Society of Architectural Historians. Vol. The Renaissance Benesch. 4 Tietze. 791-799 General List. The Art and Genius of London. .Study of Central 16th Century. Hans. Lotz II List. 5 Schuiz. Vol. 1 Italian Architecture in the 25. 109. St. Vol. Reginald. "Vignola. Otto. Vol. MORONI 41. VITTORIA 38. 5 . Francis." Journal of tht AMMANATI. 10 PALLADIO Ackerman. Vol. Vol. 1966. as a Whole and Studies of Wide Scope 4 Chatelet. 1948 PAINTERS 43. 3 '4-345 the Renaissance. Micheli Sanmicheli. Mass. 26 Keutner. John. 48. 1967 Sinding-Larsen. Vol. French Painting from Fouquel to Poussin.Northern Painting from Pucelle New York. C. . 1958. 1952 Osmaston. London. "The Palazzo 427-431 Pope-Hennessy. " Encyclopedia of World Arl. 1 2 12. 1968 CAMBIASO. 1962 Cam- biaso. 123-127 Harcourt-Smith." . Albert.irchiteclure in 1 to tyoo. John." Essays in the History of Art to Rudolf Witlkower. Chicago. 108. 344-366 14 Pope-Hennessy List..\ldi 42. 10 Lotz Berkeley. 1957 3 1 the outsitde Italy: London. 1966. Lotz II List." Burlington Magazine. VERONESE IN ROME AND FLORENCE AFTER I55O "Some Early Works of Girolamo da Sermoneta. Paul and Civilization. Roger.\. 6 Cuttler. Vol. Federico Barocci. 1 to. . 432 191 France 1^00 . "Daniele da Volterra and the Orsini Chapel. Part Three.. Eric.. 1 Rearick." Bur4 lington Magazine. JACOPO SANSOVINO 33- 2 "Jacopo Bas. The Art of Cambridge. 197-220 1968.. See Part II List. "Observations on the Role of Decoration in the Formation of Veronese's Art. Bulletin. 58. "Michelangelo and giambologna 40. 2 vols. 498-509. The Family of Darius before Alexander. 55-64 and Hirst.\nd tib. Vol. 53. "The Nocturnes of Luca Suneys of the Age Renaissance in . 191 New York. 1961. Com- pleted by Federico Zuccaro. 100." Art Bulletin. I. Jacques. 417-418 3 . Humanism. London." Art Bulletin. See also I'Vittoria) Michelangelo's late years 39. "Palladio's Redentore." 1 "Michelangelo and the Porta See also Part II List. Tinloret. 1967. 1966. Newton. Charles D.\LESSI . "Jacopo Bassano's Later Genre Paint- ings. .Y..sano: 1568-69. Elizabeth 1 Vm. in Renaissance Art. LEONE LEONI. 288-293. B. Davidson. Palladia. Vol. TINTORETTO 36. Peter's. Craig H. and 4 Berenson (Moroni 3 1. Michael. 4 Osmond. VIGNOLA 34. 325-354 Gould. Architectural London. 1965. Blomfield. above Heinrich. 1968 (ed. Millon. See also Part II List. B. 1945 . Mi/or)' o/frfnrA Olsen. MacDougall. "Veronese and the Inquisition. Harald. \'o\. Flanders in the Fifteenth Century: Art i960 to Bruegel. Bruno. Bertina. See General 2 "The Utz. Tintoretto. John A. Geneva. 1966 also paperback) Palladio's Villas. 10 Lotz London. Gilbert (General List." Gazette des Beaux-Arts. 1954 4 VVittkower. 943." Arl Quarterly. London." Arl feaiso General a Philistine Labors of Hercules by Giovanni and Other Works II List. Staale.4r<:Ai>f(ur« 2 Suida Manning. ed. and Smyth." Burlington . Drawings of Taddeo ^uccaro. Samson and 2 Bologna. 1947 Blunt. 1963 5 Coremans. N. Anthony. Works by Vincenzo Danti. 15. Siciolante 2 Fehl. W. BASSAXO.. 27 Lowry. 14 London. Tintoretto. Ste also 691-700 General 27 Lowry. 1 37. ed. Venetian Painted Ceilings of Percy.). 419-437 Keutner.. 19. 191 1 2 3 Phillips. i960. 10 Lotz. 1962 Principles (also in by Vincenzo Rossi. 553-561 Gere. Part List. London. Vol. Eric. 108. 1967." Art Butlelin.^ROCCI 44. Uppsala. Part 2 m. 3rd Rudolf.. Henry 2 . SANMICHELI. 26 Keutner (Leoni). Juergen." Burlington Magazine. Simon. 47. Vol. to Pope-Hennessy See also Part II List. 3 1 484-500 1969.FALCONETTO. Presented 3 Venus and Other Age of the paperback." Burlington Magazine. Herbert. Harmondsworth. Detroit. James S. Paolo Veronese. 1967. Tintoretto. 1927 1966. Hildegard.. 241-249 .177-226 2 Wurm.

." Matcjcek. \'ol. 6 Cuttler. O. 6 Cuttler. . Introduction to the History .Netherlands ijoo arul Sculpture 1600. Meiss. 1970 London. Hollstein. 76. Baltimore. Jaroslav.\etherlandish Painting. 79. 1950 Stechow. Kathleen. Early . 14 1967— Brussels. and Soria. Sculpture 2 HI THE DUKE OF BERRY AND THE LI. 1935 (also paperback) and Woodcuts. . Jean 4 Nordenfalk." JAN VAN eyck: THE OTHER WORKS 10. 1959 to Mander.\etherlanduh From Van Eyck paperback) 10 . 1961 New York. F. Erwin. Prague. Cam- paperback) Vol. Dutch and Flemish Etchings. . 1962 The Ghent . and Pesina. Jacques. ITS Vol. 253-256 (vol- contains related articles by others) 2 6 de Berry. Henri. Vol. Gene- Max. Jean. 356-364 Porcher. Millard. 22 Panofsky. Jan Conway." Encyclopedia of World Art.Uuseum of . '*Jean . The Rohan Book of Hours.. 1968 II. Brussels. and