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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

School of Petroleum Engineering

PTRL 4012 / 5012

Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery

COURSE OUTLINE

SESSION 1, 2015

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Contents
1.
2.

COURSE STAFF............................................................................................................3
COURSE INFORMATION............................................................................................3
a. Course Size..................................................................................................................3
b. Course overview..........................................................................................................3
c. Aims and Learning Outcomes / Graduate Attributes..................................................3
d. Student learning outcomes..........................................................................................3
e. Teaching strategies......................................................................................................4
f. Suggested approaches to learning...............................................................................4
g. Attendance...................................................................................................................4
3. ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS...................................................................................4
a. Expectations of Students.............................................................................................4
b. Examination procedures and advice concerning illness or misadventure...................4
c. Equity and diversity....................................................................................................5
d. Occupational Health and Safety..................................................................................5
e. Course evaluation and continual improvement...........................................................6
4. SUGGESTED STUDY SCHEDULE.............................................................................7
5. ASSESSMENT...............................................................................................................7
6. ACADEMIC HONESTY AND PLAGIARISM.............................................................8
7. RESOURCES AND SUPPORTS FOR STUDENTS.....................................................9
a. Text..............................................................................................................................9
b. Use of the web.............................................................................................................9
c. Other resources and supports......................................................................................9

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COURSE STAFF
INSTRUCTOR:

Lecture: Ryan Armstrong


Office: 243 - Tyree Energy Technology Building
Email: ryan.armstrong@unsw.edu.au
Office Hours: Wed 12:30 1:30 pm, Thursday 10 11 am
Office visits must be during office hours or appointment
only.

This is an UNSW-Moodle course, so all communication outside of consultation times will


be made through Moodle. It is strongly recommended that you check the course details on
Moodle daily so as not to miss important announcements concerning lectures, assignments,
marks, events and other related matters.

2.

COURSE INFORMATION
a

Course Size

Units of Credit: 6
b

Hours per week: 4

Course overview

Prerequisite:
PTRL 3001 Reservoir Engineering B
PRTL 3002 Reservoir Characterization and Simulation
Students who do not have this background knowledge need to consult with the lecturer.
a.

Aims and Learning Outcomes / Graduate Attributes

This course aims to introduce the student to the background knowledge in enhanced oil and
gas recovery (EOR/EGR) techniques that have been widely applied in petroleum industry
and research. The learning outcomes are for the student to (1) gain knowledge and skills
needed to solve reservoir engineering problems, (2) apply integrated knowledge of math
and basic sciences including physics, chemistry, and microbiology to the solution of
problems related to EOR/EGR performance predictions.
b.

Student learning outcomes

By successfully completing this course, you should understand:


A)
B)
C)

Petrophysical Properties Related To EOR: capillary pressure saturation curves, pore-scale


displacement, relative permeability, capillary pressure desaturation curves, wettability, ionic
exchange, and precipitation/dissolution.
Phase Behavior Related to EOR: fundamentals of phase-equilibrium, phase behavior of pure
components, phase behavior of mixtures, ternary diagrams, quantitative representation of two-phase
equilibrium.
Displacement and Sweep Efficiency: fractional flow theory, pore-scale multiphase flow,
immiscible displacement, dissipation in immiscible displacement, ideal miscible displacements,
dissipation in miscible displacements, generalization of fractional-flow theory, application to three3

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phase flow, modeling EOR processes with two-phase fractional-flow theory, areal sweep efficiency,
measures of heterogeneity, displacements with no vertical communication, vertical equilibrium,
special cases of vertical equilibrium, instability phenomena, gravity segregation in gas EOR.
D) Solvent Methods: solvent properties, solvent and crude-oil properties, solvent-water properties,
solvent phase-behavior experiments, dispersion and slug processes, two-phase flow in solvent
floods, solvent floods with viscous fingering, solvent flooding and residual oil saturation,
estimating field recovery.
E) Polymer Methods: polymer properties, profile control, polymer degradation, fractional flow in
polymer floods, elements of polymer-flood design, and field studies.
F) Surfactant Methods: surfactants and surfactant selection, surfactant/oil/bring phase behavior, nonideal effects, phase behavior and IFT, other phase properties, high-capillary-number relative
permeabilities, alkaline/surfactant flooding, surfactant formation, displacement mechanisms, rockfluid interactions, fractional-flow theory in SP and ASP floods, typical production responses, and
designing SP/ASP floods.
G) Thermal Methods: physical properties, fractional flow in thermal displacement, heat losses from
equipment and wellbores, heat losses to over-burden and under-burden, steam-drives, steam soak,
in-situ combustion, and SAGD.
H) Fractional Flow Theory: advanced fractional flow theory applied to EOR applications.
I) Coal Seam Gas: physics of gas recovery from coal seams and enhanced recovery methods using
gas injection.

c.

Learning and Teaching Strategies

The teaching approach to be employed will involve lectures and tutorials. Lecture
presentations cover theoretical and practical aspects, which are also described in the
supporting academic texts and teaching resources. A series of in-class exercises will be
employed to reinforce and build upon the concepts introduced during the lectures. You are
encouraged to ask questions and express feedback during classes. You are expected to read
prescribed materials in advance of classes to enable active participation.
d.

Suggested approaches to learning

As a guide, 1 UOC equates to approximately 30 hours of work per session, including


lectures, tutorials and private study. This course is worth 6 UOC, corresponding to 15
hours of work per week. Lectures and class meetings take 4 hours per week, leaving 11
hours per week for individual reading, research and working on problems. In periods
where you need to complete assignments or prepare for examinations, the workload may
be greater. You should take the required workload into account when planning how to
balance study with employment and other activities.
e.

Attendance

To pass this course it is expected that you will attend at least 80% of tutorials and lectures.
If your attendance is below 80% you will not be admitted to the final exam . Attendance
will be recorded when applicable. Normally, there is no make-up work for poor attendance.
If you have misadventure or ill-health, please speak with me as soon as possible. The
attendance requirement is not meant to be punitive. It is included because participation is
an important part of achieving the course outcomes.

3.

ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS
Take time to review the documentation on processes and procedures that you will have
received at enrolment and from your School. If School documentation is not available, the
UNSW-eLearning site has Administrative Matters documentation for this course.
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Expectations of Students

UNSW expects regular attendance at lectures and tutorials/laboratory classes/seminars.


Although exceptions may be made for special circumstances, we do expect University
commitments to take precedence over regular work activities, holidays etc.
UNSW has rules for computer use, for example, for email and online discussion forums.
You will have to agree to them when you first access the UNSW network.
We expect everyone staff and students to treat each other with respect.
b

Examination procedures and advice concerning illness or misadventure

If you believe that your performance in one of the assessment components for the course
has been significantly affected by illness or other unexpected circumstance, then you
should make an application for special consideration as soon as possible after the event by
visiting UNSW Student Central.
Applying for special consideration does not mean that you will be granted additional
assessment or that you will be awarded an amended result. The latter will be granted at the
discretion of teaching staff and will be considered only in exceptional circumstances. The
timing of any additional assessment is entirely at the discretion of teaching staff.
For additional clarification 1. Students who do not attend a written examination will fail unless they have a valid
doctors certificate proving that they are ill at the time of the examination.
2. Students who attend a written examination, but who fall ill during the examination will
be assessed on the examination paper they submit unless they have a valid doctors
certificate proving that they are ill at the time of that examination.
3. In the case of illness, the doctors certificate must be handed to the Student Centre and
copied to the course authority no later than 3 days after the date of the written examination.
4. If a student can prove illness with a doctors certificate, in extreme cases only the course
authority might give special consideration and arrange another examination before the
following UNSW semester. In such cases, the course authority either will arrange another
written examination or alternatively will arrange an oral examination attended by 2 or 3
academics. Whether or not the course authority arranges another examination and the form
and timing of such an arrangement are entirely at the discretion of the course authority,
whose decision is final.
5. The School keeps a register of special consideration applications. The history of a
students previous applications for special consideration is taken into account when
considering each case.
6. If special consideration is granted, the course authority will assess a student based on the
final examination and not any previous examination paper that the student might have
submitted (see 2 above).
c

Equity and diversity

Those students who have a disability that requires some adjustment in their teaching or
learning environment are encouraged to discuss their study needs with the course convener
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prior to, or at the commencement of, their course, or with the Equity Officer (Disability) in
the Equity and Diversity Unit (9385 4734 or http://www.studentequity.unsw.edu.au/).
Issues to be discussed may include access to materials, signers or note-takers, the provision
of services and additional exam and assessment arrangements. Early notification is
essential to enable any necessary adjustments to be made.
d

Occupational Health and Safety

Like the wider community, UNSW has strict policies and expectations on Occupational
Health and Safety and you should read these. They may be accessed on:
http://www.ohs.unsw.edu.au/ohs_policies/index.html
f.

Course evaluation and continual improvement

You will have opportunities to shape future development of this course quite substantially
via formal and informal course evaluation. I ask that you do this constructively, for the
benefits of subsequent years students. Your responses will not be used in any way other
than to provide inputs into improving this course. Your opinions really do make a
difference. I take your feedback and evaluation very seriously and seek to modify the
course in response to widely supported suggestions.

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COURSE SCHEDULE

A) Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties


Lecture 1 Wednesday (2 pm4 pm)

Lecture 2 Thursday (4 pm6 pm)

Location: Electrical Eng G24

Location: Colombo Theatre C

2 - March

3 - March

No Lecture

No Tutorial

9 - March

10 - March

Introduction to EOR

Decline Curve Analysis and Selection Criteria

16 - March

17 - March

Petrophysics and Phase Behaviour

CDC Curve and Phase Behaviour

23 - March

24 - March

Displacement and Sweep Efficiency

Areal Sweep Correlation and Sweep Efficiency

6 - April

7 - April

Chemical EOR

3 Component System and IFT Reduction with


Surfactant

13 - April

14 - April

Polymer Flooding

Shear Rates and Permeability Reduction

20 - April

21 - April

Thermal EOR

Enthalpy Content and Heat Losses

27 - April

28 April

EOR: Mass Balances

Conservation of Mass and Immiscible Displacement


Model

4 - May

5 - May

EOR: Fractional Flow

Fractional Flow and Polymer Flooding

11 - May

12 - May

Week

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Exam Week (date TBD, Weeks 2-7)

Exam Week (date TBD, Weeks 2-7)

18 - May

19 - May

Coal Seam Gas

Coal Permeability and Gas Sorption

25 - May

26 - May

PG Presentations

PG Presentation

1 - June

2 - June

PG Presentation

PG Presentation

Final Exam Period is 10- 27 June, exact data TBD.


5.

ASSESSMENT
The table below gives details of each assignment task and its subcomponents, whether it is
individual or teamwork, and the assessment criteria. Feedback will be given for each
submission. Late submissions will not be accepted. In team assignments, the contribution
of each member must be clearly stated.
Midterm Exam: one midterm exam will be given during the normal lecture period. The
scheduled date of this exam is 22 April. However the date may change depending on the
progress of the lectures. It is the responsibility of the student to attend lecture and note any
changes to the exam date.
Assignments are given periodically (approximately 1 per major topic of study) and the due
data will be announced when the assignment is given. Assignment Submissions will NOT
be accepted after the due date.
Participation is evaluated by attendance, which will be taken randomly during the
semester.
VERY IMPORTANT NOTICE
You must attend a minimum of 80% of all lectures/tutorials in order to be admitted to
the final exam of this course
Final Exam: will be given outside of the normal lecture schedule. More details will be
provided towards the end of the semester.
*Post-Graduate Project: groups of 5-6 students will conduct a research project on a given
EOR/IOR technique that is related to the lecture material. The project will be evaluated
through a 20-minute presentation given to the class during week 11 or 12. Details of the
evaluation will be given at a latter date.

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Task

Due
Date

Week Due

Marks

Midterm Exam

Week
10

30

Assignments

TBD

TBD

10

Participation

10

Final Exam

TBD

TBD

50

Post-Graduate Project*

TBD

TBD

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*pg, post- graduate students only.


IMPORTANT NOTICE
If you do not attend the midterm and/or the final exam on the date and time assigned
for the exam, justified or not justified, you will have to present an ORAL exam,
instead, in front of two members of the academic staff. The same rule will apply if you
are allowed to re-sit the exam in case of failure in the first attempt.

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1 ACADEMIC HONESTY AND PLAGIARISM


What is Plagiarism?
Plagiarism is the presentation of the thoughts or work of another as ones own.* Examples include:
direct duplication of the thoughts or work of another, including by copying material, ideas or
concepts from a book, article, report or other written document (whether published or
unpublished), composition, artwork, design, drawing, circuitry, computer program or software,
web site, Internet, other electronic resource, or another persons assignment without
appropriate acknowledgement;
paraphrasing another persons work with very minor changes keeping the meaning, form and/or
progression of ideas of the original;
piecing together sections of the work of others into a new whole;
presenting an assessment item as independent work when it has been produced in whole or part
in collusion with other people, for example, another student or a tutor; and
claiming credit for a proportion a work contributed to a group assessment item that is greater
than that actually contributed.
For the purposes of this policy, submitting an assessment item that has already been submitted for
academic credit elsewhere may be considered plagiarism.
Knowingly permitting your work to be copied by another student may also be considered to be
plagiarism.
Note that an assessment item produced in oral, not written, form, or involving live presentation,
may similarly contain plagiarised material.
The inclusion of the thoughts or work of another with attribution appropriate to the academic
discipline does not amount to plagiarism.
The Learning Centre website is main repository for resources for staff and students on
plagiarism and academic honesty. These resources can be located via:
www.lc.unsw.edu.au/plagiarism
The Learning Centre also provides substantial educational written materials, workshops, and
tutorials to aid students, for example, in:
correct referencing practices;
paraphrasing, summarising, essay writing, and time management;
appropriate use of, and attribution for, a range of materials including text, images, formulae and
concepts.
Individual assistance is available on request from The Learning Centre.
Students are also reminded that careful time management is an important part of study and one
of the identified causes of plagiarism is poor time management. Students should allow sufficient
time for research, drafting, and the proper referencing of sources in preparing all assessment items.

* Based on that proposed to the University of Newcastle by the St James Ethics Centre.

Used with kind permission from the University

of Newcastle
Adapted with kind permission from the University of Melbourne.

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RESOURCES AND SUPPORTS FOR STUDENTS


This course is based on the philosophy that as students you achieve superior academic
skills when you are required to demonstrate initiative and seek your own readings. The
following materials are a few sources you can use for gathering the latest research evidence
and theoretical propositions to help you in this course:
a

Recommended Reading

1.

Enhanced Oil Recovery, Larry W. Lake, Prentice Hall, 1996, ISBN 978 01328160143.

2.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering, L.P. Dake, Developments in Petroleum Science 8,


1978, Elsevier Science, ISBN 0-444-41830.

3.

Thermal Recovery, Michael Prats, SPE Henry L. Doherty Textbook Series Vol.7, 1985,
ISBN 9780895203250.

4.

Other readings will be posted on Moodle.

g.

Discipline-specific WWW Resources

www.appea.com.au
www.pesa.com.au www.spe.org www.api.org
(The Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association)
(The Petroleum Exploration Society of Australia)(Society of Petroleum Engineers)
(American Petroleum Institute For Petroleum Standards)
Students seeking resources can also obtain assistance from the UNSW Library. One
starting point for assistance is:
info.library.unsw.edu.au/web/services/services.html
h.

Other resources and supports

The University and the Faculty provide a wide range of support services for students,
including:

UNSW Learning Centre (http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au)


Counselling support - http://www.counselling.unsw.edu.au
Library training and support services - http://www.library.unsw.edu.au/
OnePetro (http://www.onepetro.org)

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