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Two-year Key Stage 3 Scheme of Work for Fusion

YEAR 2
FUSION 2 B2 ECOLOGY

Fusion 2: B2.2 Making Food.


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a, d.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Use a sequencing sheet to show flow through the
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Autumn leaves
stages of the practical.
Those plants can make their
Extension. Pupils to plan out a mini version of Van Helmonts
Show the pupils some photographs of autumn leaves then some bare winter
own food by photosynthesis.
experiment using cress seeds.
branches. Compare this with some pictures of palms and bananas from the
Learning styles.
tropics. (510 mins)
That plants need light to
Main
Visual: Observing the colour changes in the experiments.
make glucose and other
Auditory: Listening to the interviews with van Helmont in the plenary.
Testing leaves for starch: Discuss the potential hazards associated with this
carbon containing
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the practical investigations.
practical work. Ensure that the pupils do not confuse the instructions and pour
compounds.
Interpersonal: Working in groups to write a script for the interview in the
the ethanol with the leaf into the hot water. Use a glass rod to stir the ethanol
plenary.
while the leaf is in it and to remove the leaf when blanched. The colour change
How we can show the
Homework.
for a positive result can be demonstrated in advance by getting a pupil to squirt
presence of starch in the
Pupils could write up accounts of the practical work done in the lesson.
some iodine on to a slice of white bread.
leaves of plants and the
For the experiment Is light needed to make starch?, have the de-starched
need for light.
plants ready. Allowing pupils to cut out black paper or aluminium foil shapes
can add stimulus to this investigation. Use miniature clothes pegs (available
from craft stores) or paperclips to hold the paper or foil templates on to the
leaves.
Plenary - Interview with Van Helmont
Organise the pupils, in small groups, to write a script for an interview with Van
Helmont where he describes how he carried out his experiment. Groups could
either stage the interview as a news item and use our science correspondent
or a Newsnight-type interview. (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Autumn leaves equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to state that photosynthesis is the way in which plants make their
Photographs of leaves or real leaves and bare branches.
food.
Testing leaves for starch equipment and materials required
Most pupils should be able to describe the tests for the presence of starch in leaves and the
Geraniums or zonal pelargoniums illuminated, water baths, test tubes, ethanol, white
necessity for light.
tiles, dilute iodine solution, glass rods, forceps. Safety. Need eye protection. Pupils
Some pupils should also be able to explain why glucose is built up into starch for storage.
How Science Works
should be told to keep iodine solution off their clothes and hands. Iodine solution:
CLEAPSS Hazcard 54B. Careful with hot water and ethanol (no naked flames). Ethanol
Adapt the stylistic conventions of a range of genres for different audiences and purposes in
is highly flammable: CLEAPSS Hazcard 40A.
scientific writing (1.1c) (see Van Helmont plenary).
Is light needed to make starch? equipment and materials required
Learning Styles
Plants should be de-starched (keep in dark for at least 48 hours). Black paper,
paperclips, materials for the starch test as above. Safety. As above.

Fusion 2: B2.3 Photosynthesis


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a,d.
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Whats in a word?
That chlorophyll is needed
Write up the word Photosynthesis onto the board. Split it into two parts, using
for photosynthesis.
different colours to emphasise the photo bit and the synthesis bit. Ask the
pupils if any one can think of any words connected to either of the sub-units.
That carbon dioxide and
Illustrate each of these words and draw out the meaning of photosynthesis as
water are needed as raw
making new things using light. (510 mins)
materials for the process of
Main
photosynthesis.
Cut up some grass and place in the bottom of a mortar with a little sharp sand.
Add a few millilitres of ethanol (care: no naked flames) and grind to a pulp.
That glucose and oxygen
Filter the mixture into a test tube and show it in a bright light. Chlorophyll has
are produced.
been extracted and can been seen as an intense green colour.
Show the pupils a number of variegated plants and establish that the white
parts of the leaves do not contain chlorophyll. Carry out the practical Do plants
need chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
The activities Do plants need carbon dioxide for photosynthesis? and Making
oxygen in photosynthesis are best set up beforehand.
Plenary - Green cloze
Working in pairs, ask the pupils to write out a cloze passage or fill in the gaps
for their peer. Peer mark and read out some of the best ones. (1015 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to name the raw materials and the products of photosynthesis.
Most pupils should be able to describe the experiments to show that the raw materials are
needed and that the products are glucose and oxygen.
Some pupils should also be able to explain the results of the experiments in detail.
How Science Works
Describe an approach to answer a scientific question using sources of evidence, and where
appropriate, making relevant observations or measurements using appropriate apparatus
(1.2a).

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Using large diagrams of the apparatus used and
preformed labels, ask pupils to label the apparatus used in the
experiments.
Extension. If the Why are colours coloured? starter was used, ask the
pupils to think of what colour a plant would be if it developed a perfectly
efficient photosynthetic method [black] and to write creatively about an
invasion of black plants.
Learning styles.
Visual: Observing the results of the experiments.
Auditory: Listening to instructions about the practical.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the practical work.
Intrapersonal: Writing out the Green cloze passage.
Homework.
Using the word equation devised in the plenary, summarise the
experiments used to show the reactants, pre-requisites and products of
photosynthesis. This could either be a poster, as suggested in the pupil
book, or a spider diagram. Complete worksheets given out in the lesson.

Additional teachers notes


Demonstration: Extraction of chlorophyll equipment and materials required
Grass/spinach/watercress, ethanol, mortar and pestle, sharp sand, filter funnel, filter
paper, test tubes and stand, paint brushes or empty fountain pen ink cartridges.
Do plants need chlorophyll for photosynthesis? equipment and materials required
De-starched spider plant, materials for starch test.
Do plants need carbon dioxide for photosynthesis? equipment and materials
required De-starched potted plants, plastic bags, soda lime, materials for starch test.
Making oxygen in photosynthesis equipment and materials required
Elodea, large beaker, funnel, test tube, source of bright light, splint, matches. Safety.
Iodine solution: CLEAPSS Hazcard 54B. Ethanol is highly flammable, no naked flames:
CLEAPSS Hazcard 40A. Eye protection needed. CLEAPSS handbook section 15.5.1.
Soda lime is corrosive: CLEAPSS Hazcard 91.

Fusion 2: B2.4 Leaves and Photosynthesis.


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Give the pupils printed labels to place on large
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Captain Blackfingers cruelty to plants club
diagrams of leaf structure. This can be done for both the external
That the leaves of plants are
adaptations and the internal structure of the leaf.
Tell the pupils that you are Captain Blackfinger and that you have started a
where photosynthesis
Extension. Ask the pupils to investigate limiting factors, by making a
Cruelty to Plants club. As your first activity, you are going to pull all the leaves
occurs.
list and then working out what would be the best combination of factors
off a plant, one by one, without anaesthetic. Do so (make sure the plant is not
to set up in a glasshouse in order to produce crops all the year round.
toxic). When the leaves are all off, ask the pupils to write down what will
The ways in which leaves
Learning styles.
happen to this plant now and why. (510 mins)
are adapted for
Main
Visual: Observing stomata and leaf structure using microscopes.
photosynthesis.
Auditory: Listening to discussions and explanations of the different parts
Ask the pupils how the water gets into the leaves. Some pupils will probably
of the leaf.
answer through the leaves, but dispel this suggestion by demonstrating that
To plan an investigation into
Kinaesthetic: Using microscopes to look at leaf sections.
leaves can be waterproof. Ask a volunteer to hold running off. Show how a
the factors that can affect
Intrapersonal: Thinking up some more rules for the Captain Blackfingers
scoop can be made from most leaves that will hold water.
the rate at which
Hand out blank un-labelled leaf diagrams or use a projected blank diagram and cruelty to plants club for homework.
photosynthesis occurs.
Homework.
discuss the different structures of the leaf and allow the pupils to label their
Pupils could finish labelling diagrams and organise them to be stuck into
diagram.
notebooks.
Microscopic leaf structure: Well before the lesson, paint transparent nail
varnish on to the underside of Tradescantia leaves, enough for one between
two pupils. Get the pupils to peel a section of the varnish off and examine it
under a microscope on low magnification at first, and then on higher
magnification. Give the pupils a half A4 sheet of plain paper and tell them to
draw what they see, complete with magnification.
Plenary Captain Blackfingers rules
Pupils could draw up some more rules for Captain Blackfingers cruelty to
plants club. Suggest that such rules could apply to anything concerned with
preventing the plant from carrying out photosynthesis. (5-10 min)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Captain Blackfingers cruelty to plants club equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to state that the leaves are where photosynthesis occurs and to
plant.
describe their main adaptations.
Microscopic leaf structure equipment and materials required nail varnish,
Most pupils should be able to identify the internal tissues of a leaf and state their functions.
Tradescantia leaves and microscopes. Safety. Nail varnish might be flammable.
Some pupils should also be able to design an investigation and explain how environmental
factors may affect the rate of photosynthesis.
How Science Works
Describe and identify key variables in an investigation and assign appropriate values to these
(1.2b).

Fusion 2: B2.5 Food Chains.


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a, d.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
What is meant by a food
chain?

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. Play hangman with the key words. If necessary put in
Lesson structure
Starter -Food chains drag and drop
initial letters, or all the vowels.
Extension. Introduce the phrase trophic levels. Pupils should find out
Use a digital projected drag and drop exercise with the parts of a simple food
what the word trophic means and see how many words they can find
chain. Ask a volunteer to assemble the chain and explain their reasoning. As
which incorporate it. Using the Internet, ask the pupils to draw out as
above, sort out any unorthodox and draw out and record currently known
How organisms are
long a food chain as they can find, writing down the URLs (uniform
vocabulary associated with the topic. (510 mins)
classified in food chains.
Main
resource locator) of each site as evidence.
Learning styles.
Carry out a bookwork exercise, copying the correct key words, with the correct
Which groups of organisms
Interpersonal: Working in groups in the activities.
definitions, for producer, consumer, food chain, carnivore, herbivore, omnivore,
act as decomposers?
Intrapersonal: Unscrambling the key words.
predators, prey, scavengers, parasites and decomposers.
Homework.
Organise the pupils into pairs and give each pair an A3 sheet with the names
Pupils could write out a set of definitions of the key words which can be
of many organisms on it and a set of coloured highlighter pens. Explain that
used to test their peers knowledge at the beginning of the next lesson.
they have to make food chains by joining the organisms together using arrows,
Ask pupils to work out food chains for the meals they have eaten in one
and that they should then make a key showing which colour represents each
day. It is interesting for them to see how high up the food chain their food
one of the key words used in the previous exercise. They should highlight the
is.
words accordingly, going around them with more than one colour. When
finished, they can check out other groups sheets. As an extension, ask them to
add more examples of their own. Also see the activity Making food chains in
the pupil book.
Plenary - Unscramble key words
Give the pupils sheet with the key words scrambled up and get them to
unscramble them. Alternatively, write out the key words with either the vowels
or the consonants missing. As an extension, get them to make up some of their
own and try them out on other pupils. (510 mins.)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
A PowerPoint presentation of a food chain would be a useful reinforcement at this stage,
All pupils should be able to describe and construct simple food chains, using the correct
as would a section of video. Many widely known science video series have sections on
terminology.
food chains.
Most pupils should be able to describe the energy flow through a food chain and classify the
organisms in the food chain.
Some pupils should also be able to explain the importance of the decomposers.

Fusion 2: B2.6 Food Webs.


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
That food chains link
together to make food webs.

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. Use a simpler food web floor chart or give a printed
Lesson structure
Starter - Crossword race
model of what their floor chart should look like.
Extension. Give the pupils a list of websites and ask them to produce
Give the pupils a crossword puzzle of all the key words from the previous
a synopsis of the alien species problems which are currently in high
lesson. (1015 mins)
Main
profile internationally. Let the pupils choose one alien species, use the
Those populations can be
Floor food web activity: Arrange the pupils into groups of four or five. Give them Internet for research and produce a poster about it for display. For
affected by changes in
example, the impact of the different ladybird species from the continent
each a pack, containing the laminated words grass, corn, rabbit, sheep,
feeding relationships.
could be relevant.
cow, fox, hawk and human. Also include in each pack some much smaller
Learning styles.
labels, saying producer (2 of these), consumer (6), herbivore (3), carnivore
Those food webs can be
Visual: Observing the food webs.
(1) and omnivore (2). The packs should also contain paper arrows. The
upset by introducing
Auditory: Listening to discussions about changes in population numbers.
objective is to use a pack to construct a floor diagram of a food web, using the
organisms into a different
Kinaesthetic: Taking part in the Floor food web activity.
paper arrows to show feeding relationships. Tell the pupils to put the producers
habitat.
Interpersonal: Working in groups and pairs in the activities.
at the bottom, then the primary consumers in the next layer above, then the
Intrapersonal: Completing the crossword puzzle; completing the food
secondary consumers. When each group has completed the exercise, take a
web diagram.
digital photograph of the completed diagram to print out later as a record. Let
Homework.
the groups examine and assess each others work. Then, pick out an organism
Draw out another food web of your own.
and ask the pupils to discuss how other organisms would be affected if the
numbers of this organism (population) increased. Repeat this with the numbers
going down (population decreasing).
Give the pupils a written exercise to define a food web and give them a preprinted food web diagram to complete by filling in the arrows and missing
words.
Plenary - Net spotting
Give the pairs of pupils an A3 sheet with the names of lots of organisms on it,
but no links. Each pair should spend five minutes drawing in as many links as
they can and five minutes circulating the class to look at others, adding in any
extra links they have found in a different colour. If time permits, compare
sheets and keep as a record. (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
All pupils should be able to understand that food chains link together to make food webs.
Show the pupils a video clip of a food web if available.
Most pupils should be able to understand that a change in the size of a population of one
Use PowerPoint to illustrate the effect that introducing an alien species, such as those
species in a food web can affect other species.
mentioned in the pupil text, will have on the food web. There are a number of good
Some pupils should also be able to predict the effects of such changes on the other organisms
videos available about this. Try searching the BBC for their news report video The case
in a food web.
for culling grey squirrels.

Fusion 2: B2.7 Food Pyramids and Energy Flows


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. If available, have a magnetic balls model and get a
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter -Big fleas have little fleas
pupil to build a pyramid from it. Stick stickers on the balls to state which
What pyramids of numbers
layer represents which type of organism. Alternatively, use building
Tell the pupils about Ichneumon flies, which are wasp-like insects that lay their
are?
bricks and stick-on labels.
eggs in the bodies of butterfly and moth larvae (caterpillars). The caterpillar is
Extension. Research the use of dung as fuel and present as a
the host and the Ichneumon fly larvae feed parasitically inside the caterpillar.
How pyramids of numbers
PowerPoint.
The fly larvae are parasitised by the larvae of another group of wasp-like
can show energy flow
Learning styles.
insects. This second lot of parasites are called hyperparasites. Assuming that
through ecosystems.
Auditory: Discussing problems with pyramids.
each parasite has only one hyperparasite, ask the pupils to suggest what
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the practical activities.
How bioaccumulation occurs shape the pyramid of numbers would be (510 mins)
Intrapersonal: Drawing the answer to When is a pyramid not a pyramid?
Main
in ecosystems.
plenary.
Collect leaf litter from a 50 50 cm area of woodland (or other suitable habitat)
Homework.
and place in a bag for transport to the laboratory. Tip the litter out into a large
Pupils could complete pyramids of numbers activities.
tray. Get the pupils to catch any animals they can spot, using pooters, pipettes,
paintbrushes (emphasising that they need to be careful to separate out the
animals and keep them in specimen tubes). Classify the animals into
carnivores, herbivores and detritivores, and build a pyramid for the leaf litter. All
animals should be returned safely to their original habitat.
Show the pupils a PowerPoint presentation of the concept of pyramids of
numbers, building up each layer in turn, using all the terminology (consumers,
etc.). The pyramid should relate to a specific habitat or situation. Give them a
worksheet to complete as the presentation proceeds, with a table of numbers
to fill in and then plot a pyramid to scale on graph paper.
Plenary - When is a pyramid not a pyramid?
Ask the pupils to write this question on one half of a folded piece of A4 and on
the other side to draw out, in words and pictures, the answer to this riddle. [In a
pyramid of numbers where the bottom layer can be of smaller volume than the
ones above.] (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to construct a pyramid of numbers from given data and link it to
energy flow.
Leaf litter, bag, large tray or sheet of paper, specimen tubes, forceps, pooters, pipettes,
Most pupils should be able to interpret pyramids of numbers and describe how persistent
paint brush, identification keys.
Safety
chemicals accumulate in ecosystems.
Some pupils should also be able to explain why bioaccumulation occurs.
Follow local guidelines and risk assessments for outside activities.
CLEAPSS laboratory handbook/CDROM section 17.1.

Fusion 2: B2.8 Predators and Prey


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Provide differentiated worksheets to summarise the
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Predator, prey, both or neither?
information and use templates and clue sheets for recording the
How predators are adapted
adaptations.
Remind the pupils what the words predator and prey mean. Place the words
to catch prey.
Extension. Some predators hunt at night and some during the day. Ask
predator, prey, both and neither on to the board and assign them each a
the pupils to research and discuss any differences between the
letter: a, b, c, or d. Show the pupils a series of photographs of various
How plants and prey are
adaptations of those that hunt at night and those that hunt during the
animals, including some which are obviously predators, such as lions, hawks;
adapted to avoid being
daytime.
some which are obviously prey species, such as rabbits and deer; some which
eaten.
Learning styles.
could be both, such as small birds; and some which are neither, such as
Visual: Observing PowerPoint presentations and viewing pictures of
plants. Using small individual white boards, get the pupils to write the letter
How populations of
animals.
they think best sums up each organism in turn and, on a signal, hold them up.
predators and prey affect
Intrapersonal: Writing a harey story for the plenary.
Discuss the class views. (510 mins)
each other.
Homework. Pupils could continue with the plenary A harey story.
Main Ask the pupils to make the poster as described in the
Choose a pair of organisms in a feeding relationship and ask the class what
Predators and prey activity.
will happen to the number of the prey species if the number of predators
increases, and what will happen to the number of prey if the number of the
predator species decreases. In addition, if available, use modelling or
simulation software, such as the relevant tool in Multimedia science school,
and allow the pupils to interact with the system, changing variables and seeing
the effect on the numbers of predators and prey.
Carry out the exercise Predators and prey from the pupil book.
Plenary - A harey story
Ask the pupils to compose a piece of prose (or poetry if they prefer!) from a
hares point of view, to encapsulate the family history of a snowshoe hare.
Allow the pupils to anthropomorphise and tell dramatic tales of the fluctuating
fortunes of the family history, to include suitable references e.g. to lynx
numbers, predation, competition, food supply, disease. Read out some
examples, or encourage the pupils to do so themselves. This activity could be
started as a plenary and continued for homework. (1015 mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to describe how predators are adapted to catch prey and how plants
and prey avoid being eaten.
Photographs of various animals.
Most pupils should be able to describe how predators and prey affect each other.
Some pupils should also be able to explain the fluctuations in predator and prey populations.
Show a section of video, if available, of the inter-relationship of the populations of the
arctic fox and the snowshoe hare.

Fusion 2: B2.9 Habitats and Adaptations


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. You could use differentiated worksheets and have
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Creature features
simplified practical expectations during the fieldwork.
That a habitat is the place
Extension. As an extension, some individuals may wish to investigate
On the board, draw out a grid with five columns. Title the columns as follows:
where organisms live.
how the environmental conditions in a habitat have dictated the features
Name of organism, Food, Water, Shelter, Oxygen. Ask the pupils to
of the organisms which live there. This could lead to a consideration of
suggest the names of different organisms, ensuring that there is a variety of
That animals and plants are
evolution and natural selection. An information file (either electronic or
adapted to live in a particular both plants and animals. Taking each suggested organism in turn, discuss
paper) and a list of pertinent open-ended questions will be of assistance
where they get these necessities from and what feature they have that enables
habitat.
here.
them to do so. Get the pupils to fill in the table accordingly. (1015 mins)
Learning styles.
Main
Visual: Identifying and linking organisms to habitats.
Carry out the activity Adaptations for a habitat as described in the pupil book.
Auditory: Listening to the discussions and reports from other pupils and
The finished results could be displayed around the room.
groups.
If the weather is clement and the facilities are available, an alternative activity
Kinaesthetic: Taking part in the fieldwork or compiling the master sheets.
would be to look at a habitat by carrying out fieldwork. The class teaching
Interpersonal: Working in groups on the activities.
environment must be stable and positive to allow this type of work. For further
Intrapersonal: Making a personal contribution to the group activity
details see B2.11 and B2.12 later.
Another alternative is to use the Internet, providing a series of questions
relating to individual websites relating to a variety of habitats. The URLs for
these can be hyperlinked from a page of text in a Word document on the
schools intranet. Pupils could place their finished documents into a shared
area for their peers to review.
Plenary - What we found
If the habitat investigation fieldwork option has been taken in the main lesson,
groups can choose leaders to report back to the class on which organisms they
found, what their adaptations for survival are and the physical features of the
environment which make these a necessity. If the Internet trawl option is taken,
pupils can view each others work and collectively appraise it. (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to explain that different animals and plants live in different habitats.
It depends on the habitat, e.g. pond nets, dishes and specimen tubes for ponds.
Most pupils should be able to describe some adaptations of animals and plants to their
Safety
habitats.
Follow local guidelines and risk assessments for outside activities. CLEAPSS laboratory
Some pupils should also be able to explain how specific adaptations enable organisms to
handbook/CDROM section 17.1.
survive.

Fusion 2: B2.10 Habitats Changing


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Give the pupils a mind map of the key words, but give
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Clothes for thought
them all the key words in a box at the bottom of the map. Put in all the
How habitats change daily.
Give the pupils pictures of a large range of different types of clothing, to include arrow link phrases for them and, if necessary, put in initial letters and
correct numbers of spaces for the number of letters into the text boxes
pyjamas and slippers, school uniform, casual wear such as jeans, beachwear
How habitats change with
where the key words are to go. The colours of the empty boxes and their
and sunhats, high visibility jackets, woolly hats and scarves. You may choose
the seasons.
correct key words can also be correlated.
to bring in examples. Ask the pupils to state which time of day or year the
Extension. As an extension to the day and night and seasons recap at
clothes are for and draw out what the daily and seasonal changes are. (1015
The ways in which animals
the start of the lesson, higher-attaining pupils could envisage what
mins)
and plants cope with these
Main dramatically changing the rate of, and angle of, the Earths spin would
changes.
have. Get the pupils to come up with some extreme scenarios and
Recap, the reasons for day and night and for the seasons, emphasising that
describe the consequences of them in terms of the effects of the
the tilted angle of the Earths spin is what is responsible for these. Relate it to
changes and of how life would be constrained on such a planet.
the relative lengths of day and night time, the number of hours above the
Learning styles.
horizon, the elevation of the Sun in the sky and changes in the relative
Visual: Watching video clips and viewing slides.
concentration of the rays. Ask the pupils, in pairs or small groups, to discuss
Auditory: Listening to exposition on the reasons for the seasons and the
and list the changes which take place every day and every year.
tides.
Show a video clip from the film Ice Age if available, where the animals are
Kinaesthetic: Constructing a mind map of the key words in the plenary.
discussing, then setting off on the great migration. Discuss the reasons for
Intrapersonal: Completing their worksheets on key words and definitions.
migration and get the pupils, in small groups, to list as many animals as they
Homework.
can which migrate. Check their lists and provide a small motivational prize for
Ask pupils to choose one bird from a suggested list that migrates to the
the group which gets the most.
British Isles and to write a short account of its activities, entitled A year
Show some video footage of animals hibernating, defining the word. Draw out
in the life of . For reference see RSPB or BTO websites and good bird
through questioning what hibernation means, why some animals do it and
identification guides.
some examples. Pupils can then complete a concise worksheet summarising
migration and hibernation.
Plenary - Mind map key words
Ask the pupils to make a mind map joining together the key words used in the
lesson. Ask them to annotate the arrows so that they make complete
sentences. (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
All pupils should be able to describe how habitats can change daily and with the seasons.
Introduce the word nocturnal. A short video clip or some stills of nocturnal creatures
Most pupils should be able to describe ways in which animals and plants cope with daily and
would be helpful. Ask the pupils to write a brief definition, with some examples, in their
seasonal changes.
exercise books.
Some pupils should also be able to explain the adaptations of organisms to seasonal changes.

10

Fusion 2: B2.11 Investigating a Habitat (1)


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Picture keys could be used for identification and pupils
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Balls key
could be asked to look for specific organisms.
How to use keys to help
Extension. Pupils could be asked how such an investigation could be
Show the pupils a slide with eight types of ball with different characteristics.
identify living organisms.
made quantitative and could be introduced to the idea of random
Give one pupil a question-based key on a sheet of A4 and ask them to step
sampling techniques.
outside the room, while the rest of the class choose a ball for them to identify.
How to collect animals and
Give the pupils a selection of the plants in the habitat and ask them to
When the pupil returns, they must ask the series of questions, to which the
plants in a habitat.
devise a key to identify or separate them.
class answers either Yes or No. The pupil should soon arrive at the type of
Learning styles.
ball chosen by the class. (1015 mins)
Main Visual: Identifying organisms using keys.
Studying a habitat: Remind the pupils of the definition of a habitat and get them Auditory: Discussing the different techniques used.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the sampling methods.
to give some examples. Take identification keys into the field for use there and
Interpersonal: Collaborating in groups during the investigation.
prepare frameworks for recording the findings. Use graphs, tables, pie charts,
Intrapersonal: Telling others what was the best bit for them.
and so on to present the findings. Get the pupils to explain how each organism
Homework.
is adapted to the place in which it is found. Further research on the organisms
Ask pupils to write a full description of one technique they used in the
(what they eat, who eats them) could result in building up a food web for the
investigation of the habitat.
habitat studied.
Plenary - The best bit for me
Discuss the findings of the investigation. Ask pupils if the sampling methods
worked, whether they caught the organisms they expected and what were the
advantages and disadvantages of the methods used. Encourage the pupils to
share with each other what they found out and what they were enthused by or
found stimulating. (1015mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required pitfall traps, pooters, beakers of disinfectant and
All pupils should be able to identify a living organism using a simple key and to describe some
washing water, card or sheets for tree beating, sweep nets, plastic trays, hand lenses,
ways in which organisms can be collected in a habitat.
beakers, Petri dishes, digital camera, identification guide books and laminated key cards
Most pupils should be able to use equipment to collect and identify the organisms in a habitat.
appropriate to the area studied. Clipboards with writing frames for recording findings.
Some pupils should also be able to use more complex keys to identify organisms and to select
Safety. Risk assesses any outdoor work. See CLEAPSS laboratory handbook/CDROM
appropriate equipment for sampling specific habitats.
How Science Works
section 17.1. Caution regarding falling in or pushing in around ponds. Be aware of
allergies to plants and of any toxic stinging species in the habitat. Wash hands after
Describe an appropriate approach to answer a scientific question using sources of evidence
handling organisms and before eating. Make sure any cuts are covered by waterproof
and where appropriate, making relevant observations or measurements using appropriate
plasters. If using microscopes, beware of breaking slides.
apparatus (1.2a).

11

Fusion 2: B2.12 Investigating a Habitat (2)


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Give pupils a picture of the plant being investigated, so
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - It could be you!
that they can help locate them in the quadrats.
That there are physical
Extension. Introduce the pupils to the point frame for sampling
Ask the pupils to think about the National Lottery. Imagine that the numbers,
factors affecting the
vegetation and get them to work out what information it could provide
instead of being on balls, were written in large 1 1 m squares on the ground
organisms in a habitat.
about the nature of the vegetation in a habitat.
and that the person in charge of the lottery had to throw a series of bean bags
Learning styles.
How to measure some of the to choose the numbers. Ask: Would this be fair? How could they cheat? How
Auditory: Listening to discussions in starters and plenaries.
could you stop them cheating? Relate this to the distribution of quadrats in a
physical factors in a habitat.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the practical investigation.
plant survey. (1015 mins)
Main Interpersonal: Working in a group to do the sampling.
How to estimate the number
Intrapersonal: Writing description of random sampling for homework.
Put some quadrat frames around the room and discuss the need for random
of plants in a habitat.
Homework.
samples of plants in a habitat. Discuss methods of random sampling. Show
Each pupil could write a description of how to carry out random
students how to estimate percentage cover, as this is easier to assess than
sampling, including an explanation of its importance.
other ecological measures.
Choose a habitat to study and assign co-ordinates for each group of pupils.
Collect the data. As a class, carry out the investigation and collect individual
results. The physical factors can be measured by assigning one factor to each
group of pupils e.g. air temperature, soil temperature, and light intensity. On
return to the classroom, collect all the class data and calculate an average.
From the average percentage cover per quadrat and the total area, calculate
the total cover area.
Plenary - Results summary
Collectively pool results: ask each group of pupils to write a summary
sentence. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to list the physical factors in a habitat and describe a random
Quadrat frames, string to mark out area, pre-printed recording sheets, digital
sampling technique.
thermometers, light meter, plastic bag and trowel to collect soil samples, pH meters or
Most pupils should be able to describe how some physical factors are measured.
universal indicator papers.
Some pupils should also be able to explain how physical factors may affect the distribution of
Safety
organisms.
How Science Works
Usual risk assessments and precautions for outside work. See CLEAPSS laboratory
handbook/CDROM section 17.1.
Describe an appropriate approach to answer a scientific question using sources of evidence,
and where appropriate, make relevant observations or measurements using appropriate
apparatus (1.2a).

12

FUSION 2 C2 OUR PLANET

13

Fusion 2: C2.2 Igneous Rocks


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, b, c. 3.4a, c.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Concentrate on getting lower attaining pupils to
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Crunchie!
recognise the crystalline nature of igneous rock rather than crystal size.
What igneous rock is?
These pupils could also drop a droplet of liquid salol into a beaker of cold
Cut through a Cadburys Crunchie bar and observe the bubbles. [The bubbles
water during the Investigating crystal size practical, to model igneous
are largest in the centre where the cinder toffee cooled slowly, but you may
How igneous rock is formed.
rocks forming under the sea in pillow shapes.
choose not to reveal the reason at this stage of the lesson.] (5 mins)
Extension. Ask pupils to find out about pumice and why it has such a
Main
How to get reliable results.
low density. [It is effectively a solid foam. Hot gas created bubbles in the
Explain that geologists are people who study rocks and they divide rocks up
lava and the lava then set quickly.] This can be followed up by research
into three categories: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.
into the formation of obsidian.
Give pupils some pieces of igneous rock to observe with a hand lens, such as
Learning styles.
basalt, granite, gabbro, rhyolite or pumice. After they have looked at them,
Visual: Making observations of igneous rock.
establish that igneous rocks have crystals but that those crystals can vary in
Auditory: Describing their observations.
size. Explain to pupils how igneous rock forms. [It forms from magma from the
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out practical work on crystal sizes in igneous rock.
Earths mantle (the layer under the crust) which has cooled and solidified.
Interpersonal: Working with others during practical.
Magma which escapes from a volcano becomes known as lava.]
Intrapersonal: Linking crystal size to cooling rate.
Ask pupils to carry out the Investigating crystal size activity described in the
Homework.
pupil book. Establish that large crystals are formed when magma cools slowly.
Pupils could find out about some buildings which are made from granite.
This typically happens when magma cools inside the Earths crust where it is
insulated. The crystals are much smaller when the magma cools quickly as it
usually does when it cools on the surface.
Plenary - Sort it out
Give pupils some sentences describing how igneous rocks form but do not give
them the statements in the right order. The challenge is to sort them out
correctly. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Observing igneous rocks equipment and materials required per group: hand lens,
All pupils should be able to recognise igneous rock and to give an example of it.
samples of igneous rocks, such as basalt, granite, gabbro, rhyolite or pumice. Safety.
Most pupils should be able to recall the general properties of igneous rock and explain the
Large rock samples may cause damage if dropped.
concept of reliability.
Investigating crystal size equipment and materials required per group: microscope,
Some pupils should also be able to relate the properties of igneous rock to how it was formed
56 drops of liquid salol (melting point 42C; warm inside a boiling tube in a water bath at
and explain the concept of reliability and accuracy.
How Science Works
about 60C to melt it), a microscope slide at room temperature, a microscope slide which
has been kept in the freezer until just before use, a mounted needle, 2 microscope slide
Explain how the observation and recording methods are appropriate to the task (1.2d).
cover slips, dropping pipette. Safety. Normal laboratory rules, making sure pupils do not
Learning Styles
abuse the dropping pipette.
Salol is an irritant: CLEAPSS Hazcard 52.

14

Fusion 2: C2.3 Sedimentary Rocks


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, b, c. 3.4a, c.
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Fossilised
What a sedimentary rock is.
Ask pupils to describe what a fossil is. [Fossils are the mineralised remains or
impressions in rock of plants and animals.] (5 mins)
How sedimentary rock is
Main
formed.
Show pupils some samples of sedimentary rocks, such as sandstone,
limestone and chalk. Explain that they are made of grains of other rocks which
How to evaluate an
have been compressed and cemented together. Show pupils that some
investigation.
sedimentary rocks are quite soft, by scratching the rock with a nail.
Ask pupils to carry out Investigating sedimentary rock as described in the
pupil book. The emphasis here should be on getting pupils to consider the
validity of the tests and to evaluate the experiment. After they have completed
the practical, hold a class discussion to evaluate the experiment. [There are
several key areas of error; little consistency in the way the rock is made; it is
difficult to apply force onto the pillars]. Invite pupils to suggest how they could
make the experiment more reliable.
Plenary - Sort it out
Give pupils statements which describe how sedimentary rock forms, but in the
wrong order. Ask them to place the statements into the correct order. (5 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to recognise sedimentary rock and to give an example of it, as well as
giving some examples of errors.
Most pupils should be able to recall the general properties of sedimentary rock, as well as
classifying errors in their investigation.
Some pupils should also be able to explain how the properties of sedimentary rock relate to
how it was formed, as well as giving a detailed evaluation of their investigation.
How Science Works
Describe and suggest, with reasons, how planning and implementation could be improved
(1.2e).

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Concentrate on getting pupils to recall the names of
some sedimentary rocks and on identifying their key features. Pupils may
need prompts in order to be able to take part in evaluating the
investigation. Ask them why it would be better if three samples of the
same rock column were made at the same time. [It would allow the test
to be repeated.]
Extension. Allow pupils to repeat the investigation, putting into place all
their suggested improvements, to see if the outcome is improved. Invite
pupils to work out how the age of a rock can be determined by the fossils
found in it. [If we know when the fossilised animal was alive, we know
when the rock must have begun to form.]
Learning styles.
Visual: Observing the structure of sedimentary rock.
Auditory: Taking part in the class evaluation of the experiment.
Kinaesthetic: Making and testing the rock samples.
Interpersonal: Working with others to make and test the rock samples.
Intrapersonal: Reflecting on the idea that sedimentary rocks take millions
of years to form.
Homework.
Pupils could produce a poster about a particular geological period and
the fossils we find from that time, e.g. Cretaceous.

Additional teachers notes


Demonstration: Investigating sedimentary rocks equipment and materials
required: Samples of sedimentary rock (such as limestone, chalk and sandstone), hand
lens, nail, small amount of water and a watch glass. Optional: visualiser or camera
connected to a large display to allow class to see more easily.
Investigating sedimentary rock equipment and materials required per group:
syringe with nozzle end cut off, petroleum
jelly to grease syringe, 100 g of sand, 100 g of clay, 50 g of plaster of Paris, 34 beakers
(you may wish to use disposable cups), 3 spatulas (or plastic spoons), small sheet of
blotting or filter paper, 2 heat-proof mats, set of slotted masses, eye protection. Safety.
Care should be taken when testing the rock in case masses fall or the rock shatters. Eye
protection should be worn.

15

Fusion 2: C2.4 Metamorphic Rock


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a. 3.4a, c.
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Morph
What a metamorphic rock is.
Show pupils a video clip of the Morph animation. Ask them to explain what is
special about Morphs character. [Morph can change his shape at will. Use this
How a metamorphic rock
as a lever to explain that metamorphic refers to the fact that the rock has been
forms.
changed in some way.] (10 mins)
Main
How we can model rock
Explain that inside the Earth it is very hot and that very slowly, the continents
formation.
are moving around. Explain that the high temperatures and the forces involved
in the slow movement of the crust can change the rocks by softening and
putting them under immense pressure. Use the information in the pupil book to
help describe how rocks are metamorphosised. [It is a common misconception
that the rock fully melts during the process. It just softens as, despite the very
high temperatures involved, the high pressure prevents full melting.]
Show pupils some samples of metamorphic rocks, such as marble, slate,
gneiss and schist. You may wish to give them time to examine the samples.
Ask pupils to carry out the activity Modelling metamorphic rock which is
described in the pupil book. After they have done this, ask the class, in groups
or together, to consider how they could improve the model.
Plenary Sort it out
Give pupils statements which describe how metamorphic rock forms, but in the
wrong order. Ask them to place the statements into the correct order. (5 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to recognise metamorphic rock and to give an example of it, as well
as modelling how the rock was formed.
Most pupils should be able to recall the general properties of metamorphic rock and explain the
model of rock formation.
Some pupils should also be able to relate the properties of metamorphic rock to how it was
formed and evaluate the model of rock formation.
How Science Works
Describe how the use of a particular model or analogy supports an explanation (1.1a1).

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Give pupils a set of instructions to help them form the
model when undertaking Modelling metamorphic rock rather than them
having to develop the model by themselves.
Extension. Invite pupils to undertake the Stretch yourself section
described in the pupil book. [High-grade metamorphic rock, such as
gneiss, is formed by high temperature and pressure.]
Learning styles.
Visual: Observing metamorphic rocks and developing the formation
model.
Kinaesthetic: Developing the model showing how metamorphic rocks
form.
Interpersonal: Working with others to develop the model.
Intrapersonal: Understanding the concept that the process of forming
metamorphic rock is too slow to see.
Homework. Pupils could find out about the use of slate as a building
material. [Slate is mainly found in North Wales and the Lake District in
the UK. It can be split along the layers in the rock, allowing thin sheets to
be obtained. These were often used as roof tiles until they were replaced
by moulded tiles.]

Additional teachers notes


Main lesson (optional): Studying metamorphic rocks equipment and materials
required per group: samples of metaquartzite, marble, slate, gneiss, schist; hand lens.
Modelling metamorphic rock equipment and materials required per group: 50100
matchsticks, 2 laboratory spatulas. Safety. Normal laboratory rules. Use spent matches.

16

Fusion 2: C2.5 Which Rock?


National Curriculum Link up
3.4a, c.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
How to tell which type of
rock they have.

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. Allow pupils to build up to the task of preparing the rock
Lesson structure
Starter -What is it?
key by giving them some rock samples which they should sort into three
groups, each corresponding to the three rock types. Allow them to build
Show pupils a picture of a piece of rock (any sort). Ask them to decide whether
from there. Instead of preparing a key which identifies particular rock
they think it is igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic, giving reasons. (5 mins)
Main
samples, help lower attaining pupils create a key which just differentiates
How to identify rocks.
between igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.
Remind pupils of the work they have done on the three categories of rock.
Extension. Insist that the key prepared by higher attaining pupils
Explain that it is important that geologists can easily tell the difference between
doesnt just differentiate by the appearance of the rocks. They should
them. Ask pupils to recall the key features of the rock types, e.g. igneous rocks
include detail that, for example, identifies igneous rock as intrusive or
have crystals.
extrusive. [Intrusive: large crystals, cooled slowly; extrusive: small
Explain to pupils what an identification key is. There is an example in the pupil
crystals, fast cooling.]
book. You could, at this point get pupils to prepare a simple one of their own.
Learning styles.
For example, to identify sports equipment the first question might be: Is it
Visual: The key could be image-based, rather than text-based.
round? or Does it have strings?
Interpersonal: Checking the keys prepared by others and providing
Ask pupils to carry out Creating a key to identify rocks as described in the
feedback.
pupil book. You will need to make named rock samples available.
Homework.
Ask pupils to check each others keys once they have been prepared. Get
Pupils could find out about the work of Alfred Wegener in relation to
them to suggest corrections for any errors and, perhaps, to score each others
geology. [Wegener was the first man to propose the idea of drifting
work out of 10 for, say, usability.
Plenary - Sort it out
continents in 1915.]
Give pupils a description of the three rock types and ask them to match the
correct name to each: igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic. They should also
try to give an example of each. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required per group: selection of named rock samples from
All pupils should be able to use a key to identify rocks.
the last three lessons, hand lenses.
Most pupils should be able to develop a simple key to identify rocks.
Details
Some pupils should also be able to make a flow chart or couplet key to identify rocks.
How Science Works
Refer to pupil book. A good starter question for pupils who are struggling would be: Does
it have crystals?
Describe an appropriate approach to answer a scientific question, making relevant
Safety
observations [devising a key] (1.2a).
Normal laboratory rules.

17

Fusion 2: C2.6 Weathering


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a. 3.4a, c.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Give pupils a planning grid to help them plan the
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Whats happening?
experiment.
What weathering is?
Extension. Ask pupils to go out into the school site with a digital
Show pupils a photograph of tree roots disrupting a pavement. Ask them to
camera to record examples of biological weathering taking place. In each
explain what is happening. (5 mins)
How plants and animals can
Main
case they should try to explain what is happening.
change rocks.
Learning styles.
Remind pupils that sedimentary rock is made from grains of other rocks. Ask
Visual: Observing examples of biological weathering.
How to plan an investigation. pupils to suggest how that may happen. Establish that, somehow, other rocks
Auditory: Describing how rocks might be weathered.
get broken down over time.
Intrapersonal: Considering how to plan a fair investigation into
Ask pupils to think about how this may happen, allowing very broad responses.
weathering.
Collate responses into groups on the board, placing them into one of three
Homework.
groups: biological (caused by plants and animals), physical (caused by weather
Pupils could look for examples of biological weathering caused by plants
and other physical processes) and chemical (caused by chemical reaction).
and animals around the town.
Take care here over the difference between weathering and erosion.
Weathering is the breakdown of rock in situ whereas erosion is the wearing
way of rock by contact with abrasive material (usually transported pieces of
weathered rock).
Ask pupils to plan the Biological weathering investigation. They will not be
able to carry out the plan as it takes too long, but they need to consider how to
make their investigation as fair as possible.
Plenary - Txt spk
Ask pupils to explain, as if they were writing a text message to their friend,
what weathering of rocks is. You could make them stay within the limit of a
normal text message of 160 characters, including spaces. (5 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required for teacher: acorn, photo of a fully grown oak tree,
All pupils should be able to recognise when a rock has been weathered.
photo of a damaged road. Details. Refer to pupil book. Pupils need to use their
Most pupils should be able to recall the three main types of weathering and identify key
imagination for this. They must consider how they could set the investigation up fairly.
variables in an investigation.
The independent variable will be the road material, while the dependent variable is the
Some pupils should also be able to explain biological weathering and plan a detailed
amount of damage. Pupils will need to think of a way to measure this, such as the height
investigation into its effects.
How Science Works
the road surface is raised by the root. They must also plan how to get reliable results by
carefully considering the controlled variables, e.g. set each road surface up more than
Describe and identify key variables in an investigation and assign appropriate values to these
once, give each plant the same amount of water.
(1.2b).

18

Fusion 2: C2.7 Chemical Weathering


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, c. 3.4a, c.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Focus on the acid experiment rather than the oxidation
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter -Word up
investigation. The former provides instant and concrete results.
What chemical weathering
Extension. Ask pupils to devise a method of collecting the gas from
Ask pupils to make as many words as they can using the letters in chemical
is?
the Chemical weathering by acid experiment.
weathering. Longest list wins. (5 mins)
Main
[Pupils could carry out the experiment in a boiling tube with a delivery
How chemical weathering
tube attached, leading to another test tube.] Ask pupils to write word
Remind pupils of the work they did in the last lesson into different sorts of
changes rocks.
equations for the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric
weathering. Review what they can remember about biological weathering
acid.
(caused by animals and plants). Explain to pupils that rocks can also be
Learning styles.
weathered by the action of other chemicals upon them.
Visual: Observing the action of acid on rocks.
Explain that there are many acidic substances present in nature and that these
Auditory: Sharing the key things they have learnt this lesson.
can damage some rocks by reacting with minerals in the rock. Ask pupils to
Kinaesthetic: Investigating the action of acid and oxygen on rocks.
carry out the chemical weathering by acid investigation as described in the
Interpersonal: Sharing ideas in groups with other pupils.
pupil book.
Intrapersonal: Understanding that chemical weathering of rock is often a
Suggest that oxygen in the air also causes substances to degrade by oxidising
very slow process.
them. Ask pupils to set up the Chemical weathering oxidation investigation
Homework.
described in the pupil book.
Plenary - Share pair, square
Pupils could find some examples of weathered limestone and marble
buildings, such as old cathedrals.
Ask pupils to work in pairs to list the five most important things they have
learned in this lesson. Then get them to share their ideas with another pair to
refine their five points. If you have time, you could continue to broaden the
groups until the class agrees on a list of five points. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Chemical weathering by acid equipment and materials required per group: 3 watch
All pupils should be able to recognise chemical weathering.
3
3
glasses, a small piece each of limestone, chalk and marble, 10 cm of 1 mol/dm
Most pupils should be able to explain what chemical weathering is.
hydrochloric acid, dropping pipette, magnifying glass, mounted needle. Safety. Clear up
Some pupils should also be able to represent chemical weathering in word equations.
How Science Works
acid spillages immediately, hydrochloric CLEAPSS Hazcard 47A. Eye protection must be
Explain how the observation and recording methods are appropriate to the task (1.2d).
worn. Ensure pupils do not misuse pipettes.
Chemical weathering oxidation equipment and materials required per group: 250
3
3
3
3
cm beaker, walnut-sized piece of granite, 50 cm 1 mol/dm hydrochloric acid, 50 cm 20
vol. hydrogen peroxide, mounted needle, magnifying glass, watch glass or cling-film to
cover beaker, digital camera with time-lapse facility. Safety. Wear eye protection. Clean
up spills immediately. Hydrochloric acid: CLEAPSS Hazcard 47A. Hydrogen peroxide is
an irritant: CLEAPSS Hazcard 50.

19

Fusion 2: C2.8 Acid Rain


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a. 3.4a, c.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. During the debate, team lower attaining pupils up with
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Acid from the sky
higher attaining ones where you can, so that they may develop ideas
What acid rain is?
together. If this is not possible, you could try using the opinion line. Set
Give pupils some samples of rain water to test the pH. They should test the
up a rope or line across the room with the words Completely agree at
pH using universal indicator and decide how acidic each one is. (10 mins)
What causes acid rain?
Main one end and Completely disagree at the other. Read out and get pupils
to stand next to the rope in a position which reflects their opinion. You
Ask pupils to set up a longer term investigation into the effects of acid rain.
What the effects of acid rain
can then ask them to explain why they stood there.
They could grow cress seeds watered with various forms of acid rain to see
are.
Extension. Higher attaining pupils could lead the class debate.
what effects the rain has on plant growth. Please refer to Investigating the
Learning styles.
effects of acid rain.
Ways we could reduce acid
Visual: Observing the pH of rain water samples.
After giving the class a short time to prepare, hold a class debate on what
rain.
Auditory: Taking part in the class debate.
people could do to reduce the damage caused by acid rain. You could extend
Interpersonal: Allowing others to have their say during the class debate.
this to include the Great Debates described in the pupil book. Variations on a
Homework. Give pupils some pieces of universal indicator paper and
straightforward debate are suggested in the differentiation section. [Ultimately,
ask them to collect and test the pH of rain water where they live. (Safety:
the solution is to reduce fossil fuel usage. However, oil companies are going to
Universal indicator is flammable.)
great lengths to remove sulfur from fuels and catalytic converters on vehicles
break down nitrogen oxides so only nitrogen reaches the end of the exhaust.
Talk about the pressure to balance the damage caused by acid rain against
demand for energy.]
Plenary - Acid burn
Ask pupils to list 10 things which can be damaged by acid rain, based on what
they can remember from the lesson. (5 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
3
3
Acid from the sky equipment and materials required per group: 5 cm of 0.1 mol/dm
All pupils should be able to describe what causes acid rain.
3
3
Most pupils should be able to explain the difference between normal and acid rain.
sulfuric acid, labelled sulfur dioxide in rain water; 5 cm of 0.1 mol/dm nitric acid,
3
Some pupils should also be able to explain methods of reducing the effect of acid rain on the
labelled nitrogen oxide in rain water; 5 cm of sparkling water, labelled carbon dioxide in
environment.
rain water; 3 test tubes, test tube rack, universal indicator, solution or paper, eye
How Science Works
protection. Safety. Nitric acid is an irritant: CLEAPSS Hazcard 67. Universal indicator is
Explain some issues, benefits and drawbacks of scientific developments with which they are
flammable. Wear eye protection.
Investigating the effects of acid rain equipment and materials required per group:
familiar (1.1b).
3
cress seeds, 4 Petri dishes, filter paper or cotton wool to line Petri dishes, 0.1 mol/dm
3
sulfuric acid, labelled sulfur dioxide in rain water; 0.1 mol/dm nitric acid, labelled
nitrogen oxide in rain water; sparkling water, labelled carbon dioxide in rain water;
distilled water, 4 measuring cylinders. Safety. Nitric acid is an irritant: CLEAPSS Hazcard
67.

20

Fusion 2: C2.9 Physical Weathering


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, c. 3.4a, c.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. In Investigating freezethaw weathering lower
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Particles party
attaining pupils should concentrate on the qualitative results, rather than
What physical weathering
measuring the pieces. They could draw sketches of the pieces.
Ask pupils to recall from Year 7 work, and to sketch, the arrangement of
is?
Extension. Ask pupils to research why broken rock in mountains is
particles in a solid [regularly arranged and all touching], a liquid [mostly
usually sharp-edged, unlike beach pebbles. [The rock in mountains has
touching but not regularly arranged] and a gas [not touching, randomly
How physical weathering
not rubbed against other rock to round it and is more likely to have been
arranged]. (10 mins)
changes rocks.
Main
broken by freezethaw and fallen to its resting place.]
Learning styles.
Get the class to set up Investigating freezethaw weathering described in the
Visual: Observing the ways that rocks can be weathered.
pupil book. You may wish to have a frozen cylinder which you prepared earlier.
Auditory: Describing how weathering processes occur.
[The volume of ice is greater than the volume of liquid water which formed it,
Kinaesthetic: Investigating physical weathering.
owing to the way the molecules align in the solid. You could link this to particle
Interpersonal: Working with others during practicals.
arrangements in matter. The expansion in volume forces rocks to split.]
Intrapersonal: Understanding that the weathering processes are very
The instructions for Demonstrating onion-skin weathering are given in the
slow.
pupil book. Pupils must be very careful about broken glass during this
experiment as the glass rod will break and may shatter. For this reason, you
may wish to demonstrate rather than allow the pupils to carry it out. [The
surface and the centre of the rod expand when the rod is heated and contract
when it is cooled in the water. However, these processes happen much more
quickly on the surface and the two parts do not move at the same rate.]
Plenary - Sort it out?
Give pupils statements which describe how freezethaw weathering takes
place, but in the wrong order. Ask them to place the sentences into the correct
order. (5 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Investigating freezethaw weathering equipment and materials required per group:
All pupils should be able to recognise onion-skin and freeze-thaw weathering.
3
3
100 cm measuring cylinder, 100 cm water, access to a freezer in which the cylinder can
Most pupils should be able to list the processes involved in onion-skin and freeze-thaw
weathering.
sit upright.
Demonstrating onion-skin weathering equipment and materials required per group
Some pupils should be able to explain onion-skin and freezethaw weathering in terms of
(or for teacher): glass stirring rod (which
particles.
3
3
How Science Works
will get broken), Bunsen burner, heat mat, matches, 250 cm beaker, 150 cm cold water,
Explain how the observation and recording methods are appropriate to the task (1.2d).
eye protection. Safety. Pupils must be very careful not to burn themselves or each other
and to look out for glass shards fl ying off glass rod when reheated. Wear eye protection.

21

Fusion 2: C2.10 Erosion


National Curriculum Link up
2.1c. 3.4a, c.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Lower attaining pupils may need assistance in setting
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Tread carefully
up the investigation successfully. It is important that the flow rate is
What erosion is?
neither too slow (nothing moves) or too fast (all the rock moves). In either
Show pupils a photograph of a badly eroded footpath and ask them to suggest
case it will be impossible to observe what happens in nature. Give pupils
how it has happened. (5 mins)
What happens to weathered
Main a series of small diagrams showing rocks of different sizes. Ask pupils to
rock?
place the images in order of the ease with which they are moved by the
Ask pupils to carry out the Modelling a river investigation described in the
water, from fastest to slowest.
pupil book. They will need to set it up carefully and to observe closely what
Extension. Ask pupils to find out how lapidary is carried out using grits
happens to the sediment in the river. The water flow rate must not be too
and stones of different sizes to work and polish rocks.
great or all the sediment will wash down at once.
Learning styles.
Ask pupils to work in small groups to come up with a description of what they
Visual: Observing the movement of rock fragments in the transportation
saw happening. They should then share their ideas with another group, before
investigation.
the whole class comes together to decide how they think rocks are transported
Auditory: Sharing their observations with each other.
by rivers. [Small pieces are transported more easily. When the river slows the
Kinaesthetic: Investigating transportation.
bigger pieces are dropped first.]
Interpersonal: Working with others during the practical.
Ensure pupils are clear about the difference between weathering and
Homework.
erosion. [The former refers to breaking up of the original rock mass, where it
was formed. The latter refers to the breaking down of fragments of rock as they Pupils could find out what National Park authorities are doing to limit
footpath erosion on popular routes such as the Pennine Way. [Much of it
are transported. Together, weathering and erosion lead to denudation of the
is being laid with rock slabs which wear away much more slowly.
landscape.]
Plenary - Waterfall
However, some believe that this is damaging to the environment both
because of the helicopters which are often used to transport the stone
Show pupils a picture of a waterfall. Ask them to explain why waterfalls move
and because of the vastly altered appearance of the landscape.]
upstream over time. [The foot of the waterfall is continuously eroded and the
cliff breaks off, moving the waterfall upstream.] (5 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required per group: 80100 cm length of square guttering,
All pupils should be able to recall a definition for erosion.
3
water trough or sink, 20 cm ink, length of rubber tubing, access to a tap, rock fragments
Most pupils should be able to explain the size of particles in a river in terms of energy flow.
Some pupils should also be able to predict where different sizes of particle will be found in a
of different sizes stony soil would work well.
Details
river and to explain why.
How Science Works
Refer to pupil book. Pupils should run water down the guttering first, without any stones,
Describe how the use of a particular model or analogy supports an explanation
dripping some ink in to observe the flow rate better at different points. After putting in the
(1.1a1).
rock fragments they should gently wash them with water, observing the different flow
rates depending upon the size of the pieces. You may wish to fit traps to the sinks to
prevent soil and stones being washed down them. A fine sieve could be attached to the
end of the guttering. Safety. Normal laboratory rules.

22

Fusion 2: C2.11 Rock Cycle


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, b, c. 3.4a, c.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
How new rocks are made
from old ones.

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. You may wish to give pupils pre-written labels to add to
Lesson structure
Starter - Word Up
their rock cycle, rather than leaving them to write their own. They would
need to decide where to put the labels, rather than write their own text.
Give pupils anagrams of the key words from this unit, such as igneous,
Extension. Ask pupils to research a recent earthquake and to find out
metamorphic, sedimentary, weathering, transportation and erosion. They must
how severe it was. They may need to research the Richter scale first and
unravel the words. (5 mins)
What the rock cycle is.
Main they should also find out what causes earthquakes. [There are many
earthquakes every day around the world, though most are very minor.
Remind pupils of the work they have done in this unit, from the different types
Quakes occur along the boundaries of tectonic plates where, owing to
of rock to the work done on weathering and erosion.
the sliding of two plates, stresses occur in the rocks. These stresses can
Explain to the class that the minerals on Earth are recycled naturally over
release suddenly, shaking the ground. Common earthquake zones
millions of years. The weathered fragments of igneous rock can be transported
include the western coast of the USA and South America, Japan and
by rivers and eroded, eventually becoming sediments in the sea. These
Southern Europe. Developed in 1935 by Charles Richter, the Richter
sediments can be compressed and cemented, forming sedimentary rock over
scale describes, from 1 to 10, the severity of an earthquake. It is not,
time. Both igneous and sedimentary rock can be changed by heat and
however, a linear scale.]
pressure inside the Earth into metamorphic rock.
Learning styles.
Pupils could make a model of the rock cycle using wax crayons or candles.
Visual: Completing the diagram of the rock cycle.
They could use these to demonstrate each process within the rock cycle and
Auditory: Describing sections of the rock cycle to the group.
label a flow diagram.
Intrapersonal: Understanding that the processes in the rock cycle take
Give pupils an outline diagram of the rock cycle and ask them to annotate and
millions of years to occur.
complete it. They should add the names of any missing rock types and
Homework.
processes such as weathering and transportation. They should also, if they
Ask pupils to write a story about the life of a crystal in igneous rock. The
can, add details to summarise how each step takes place, such as how
story should give details of what happens to the rock after it has been
sedimentary rocks are formed.
weathered.
To complete the activity you could ask individual pupils to explain a section of
the cycle.
Plenary - Have I been asleep?
Ask pupils to imagine what Britain might look like after 100 million years of the
rock cycle have taken place. (5 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to describe that igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are
connected by a series of processes.
Most pupils should be able to recall the main parts of the rock cycle.
Some pupils should also be able to explain how new rocks are formed from old.

23

Fusion 2: C2.12 Rocks in the Universe


National Curriculum Link up
2.2a. 3.4a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Lower attaining pupils will need extra support for the
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Rock on!
research task. It may be best to concentrate on just Mars and Venus
That igneous, sedimentary
where there is plenty of evidence of a rock cycle and to find a reliable
Ask pupils to recall the key elements of the rock cycle. (10 mins)
and metamorphic rocks are
Main webpage before the lesson. The content on the Internet changes too fast
found elsewhere in the
for it to be worth including an address here.
Remind pupils about the rock cycle. Suggest that it might be possible for other
universe.
Extension. The key opportunity here is in the depth and quality of the
planets to have a rock cycle too. Gather suggestions as to what scientists
research carried out. Pupils could be encouraged to look for common
might look for when trying to ascertain whether other planets have a rock cycle
That other planets have rock
patterns in the geology of all the planets in the solar system, e.g. whether
and how they might obtain this evidence. [Evidence might include: the
cycles.
Earths minerals are found elsewhere. Pupils could also consider the
presence of volcanoes (as on Mars), images of lava flows (which may be
reliability of evidence found on meteorites, for example could the
visible on Venus) or the existence of mountain ranges which are often brought
bacteria which have been found on some actually have come from
about by the movement of tectonic plates. Evidence could be obtained by
contamination on Earth?
satellite pictures or from data sent back to Earth by probes.]
Learning styles.
If you have the resources available, give pupils some pieces of meteorite to
Auditory: Describing their research into other planets.
study. Explain that meteorites are pieces of rock which were not formed on
Kinaesthetic: Investigating meteorites.
Earth, but in other parts of space. Ask pupils to decide whether the meteorite
Intrapersonal: Understanding that other planets may have a rock cycle.
samples could be classified as one of the rock types found on Earth.
Give pupils the opportunity to research the possibility of rock cycles on other
planets. Good websites to begin research include:
http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets and
http://bbc.co.uk/science/space/solarsystem/earth
Ask members of the class to report back their findings.
Plenary - Sort it out
Give pupils the key words from this topic and ask them to match them to
definitions. (5 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required per group: access to several pieces of different
All pupils should be able to recall that rocks are found elsewhere in the universe.
meteorites. Samples may be loaned from the Schools and Education section of the
Most pupils should be able to explain that other planets have rock cycles.
Science and Technology Facilities Council website (www.stfc.ac.uk), hand lens, mounted
Some pupils should also be able to explain how evidence for what is happening in other parts
needle. Details. Study the meteorite samples and decide whether they can be classified
of the universe is gathered.
as igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic or none of these. Safety. Mounted needles are
How Science Works
sharp. Care must be taken when carrying or using them.
Describe what needs to be considered in the collection and manipulation of secondary
evidence to evaluate the conclusion or interpretation made (1.2f).
Recognise that the selection, ordering or rejection of secondary data could lead to different
conclusions (1.2f)

24

FUSION 2 P2 HEAT AND SOUND

25

Fusion 2: P2.2 Taking Temperatures


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a.
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Instrumental
That the temperature of an
Give the pupils a worksheet showing various scientific measuring instruments.
object can be measured
They must describe the property the instrument measures, the range of the
using a thermometer.
instrument and the precision. (510 mins)
Main
That there are a range of
The Getting warmer activity will show the pupils that we are fairly unreliable
different types of
judges of temperature.
thermometer and each type
The focus of the Looking at thermometers activity should be to discuss what is
is suitable for differing types
meant by accuracy, sensitivity and range of scientific instruments. An
of measurement.
accurate instrument gives a reading that is close to the true value. A sensitive
instrument can detect small changes. The range of the thermometer is the
difference between the highest and lowest temperature it can read.
The pupils could draw up a table showing the accuracy, sensitivity and range of
a few of the thermometers so that you can check that they clearly know the
difference between the terms.
Plenary - Temperature sorting
Give the pupils a set of cards containing temperature readings. They have to
match these to the objects at that temperature. (510 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to use a liquid-in-glass thermometer to measure the temperature of a
liquid.
Most pupils should be able to use a range of thermometers to measure the temperature of a
material.
Some pupils should also be able to select a thermometer for a particular measuring task taking
into account the range and precision of the thermometer.
How Science Works
Use a range of scientific vocabulary and terminology consistently in discussions and written
work (1.1c).
Learning Sty

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. You may want to limit the range of thermometers a
little. Some pupils will find digital thermometers far easier to read than
liquid-in-glass.
Extension. A clinical thermometer has a few features designed to
make it useful for measuring a persons temperature. What properties
should the thermometer have? The pupils should come up with
precision, limited range, robust (so it does not break), and responsive, so
you dont have to wait a long time to get a reading. What other
technologies are used to measure a patients temperature?
Learning styles.
Visual: Taking precise readings from thermometers.
Auditory: Listening to explanation of the difference between range,
sensitivity and accuracy.
Kinaesthetic: Measuring the temperature of water.
Interpersonal: Discussing which thermometer is most appropriate for a
particular type of measurement.
Intrapersonal: Thinking about what a good scientific measurement is.
Homework.
The pupils can find out about some temperature records and values. For
example, the highest and lowest recorded temperatures in the UK. What
temperature do ovens operate at and so on?

Additional teachers notes


Getting warmer equipment and materials required:
Three bowls of water: one cold, one room temperature and one warm. A towel to dry
hands. Safety. Test the temperature of the water carefully and make sure that the pupils
do not leave their hands in for too long; one minute should do.
Looking at thermometers equipment and materials required:
As wide a range of thermometers as possible; try to include a clinical thermometer and
high temperature thermometer. Each group will also require a beaker for the water.
Safety. Watch out for breakages. Mercury-based thermometers will leak mercury if
broken so a clean up kit is required. See CLEAPSS handbook/CD-Rom sections 12.13
and 7.7.

26

Fusion 2: P2.3 Warming up, Cooling down


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a.
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Yuck, its gone cold
That an object warms up
when it gains thermal energy Bring a cold cup of tea to the lab. Ask the pupil to explain why it has gone
cold. What processes have happened? Do the pupils know of any way you
from its
could have kept your tea warm for longer? (510 mins)
surroundings and cools
Main
down when it loses energy
Start by completing the Patterns of cooling activity, as detailed in the pupil
to its surroundings.
book.
The pupils should design their own graph where possible, choosing the
That the temperature of an
appropriate scales. Ideally this should be a line graph and the pupils should
object is a measure of the
draw a clear curve through their data points. This will show rapid cooling at the
average thermal energy of a
start, slowing down at the end. Discuss why the rate of cooling changed,
particle in the object and the
making sure that the pupils understand that it is the difference between the
total thermal energy
depends on this and the size temperature of the water and the room that is important. They should
appreciate that the cooling will stop when the water has reached room
of the object.
temperature; the curve becomes flat.
Make sure that the pupils have a good grasp of the idea of thermal energy.
Temperature is actually related to the kinetic energy of one of the particles in a
substance, whereas the thermal energy has to take into account all of the
particles; the mass. This means that more massive objects have more thermal
energy than small ones, when they are at the same temperature.
Plenary - Spotting anomalous results
Show the pupils a table with a large set of data including several repeat
measurements. They have to spot the anomalous results and calculate the
average readings. (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to explain cooling in terms of energy loss to the surroundings.
Most pupils should be able to carry out an experiment to measure the rate of cooling of a
liquid.
Some pupils should also be able to describe the difference between temperature and thermal
energy.
How Science Works
Describe ways in which the presentation of experimental results through the routine use of
tables and line graphs makes it easier to see patterns and trends (1.2d).

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Provide supportive instruction for the cooling water
task. This can include a table for the results and some pre-prepared axes
for the graph plotting if required.
Extension. Discuss thermal energy in more depth with these pupils. An
object reaches thermal equilibrium with its surroundings when the energy
it is emitting is matched by the energy that it is absorbing from the
surroundings.
Learning styles.
Visual: Drawing accurate graphs.
Auditory: Discussing patterns in results.
Kinaesthetic: Recording measurements.
Interpersonal: Working in groups during experiments.
Intrapersonal: Imagining the flow of energy from one object to another.
Homework.
Constructive criticism
Give the pupils a set of graphs that all show the same data but all are
flawed. The pupils have to explain the problems with the graphs and
construct an improved graph from the raw data. (1015 mins)

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required:
3
Kettles to heat the water. Per group: a 250 cm beaker, a thermometer (0100C with
0.5 sensitivity). Data-logging equipment can also be used; a retort stand, boss and
clamp, can be useful to hold the sensor in place, use pieces of rubber or polystyrene to
protect thermometers when clamping. The pupils will also need graph drawing
equipment. Safety. The starting water does not have to be boiling, but take care; 70
80C should be adequate to show a cooling pattern.

27

Fusion 2: P2.4 Thermal Conduction and Insulation


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a. 3.2a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Extension. Measuring temperature by placing something in contact
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Siberian survival
with the object has a few problems. The contact causes cooling and
That a thermal conductor is
sometimes we cannot touch the object. How can we measure the
The pupils have unfortunately become stranded in coldest Siberia during a
a material that transfers
temperature using just the light (or infra-red radiation) coming from the
badly planned field trip. Give them a list of materials that are available and ask
thermal energy quickly and
object? The pupils can find some thermal images and explain how they
them to design clothing and a shelter. (1015 mins)
metals are good thermal
Main
are made.
conductors.
Learning styles.
Demonstrate the Comparing metals experiment to show the flow of energy
Visual: Watching the Comparing metals demonstration.
though a material.
That a thermal insulator is a
Auditory: Listening to definitions of insulators and conductors.
Use the same materials as you did for P2.1 again. You can discuss the
material that transfers
Kinaesthetic: Handling and describing different materials.
properties of these materials paying particular attention to the trapped air in the
thermal energy slowly and
Interpersonal: Discussing what we mean by the terms hot and cold in
wool and other fibres. You could see if the pupils know anything special about
that examples include wool,
relation to materials.
metals. Bring out a metal ruler and a similar plastic one from a refrigerator (as
plastics and wood.
you may have in an earlier lesson). The metal ruler will feel very cold compared Homework. The pupils can look for objects that are designed to
transfer heat or reduce heat flow around their home. They can make a
to the plastic ruler, but placing them both on thermocolour film or using a
list of conductors and insulators from this information.
temperature sensor should show that they are the same temperature.
Alternatively they can research information about which materials are the
Use this to discuss why one feels cold; it is the loss of energy from our bodies
best conductors and which are the best insulators.
that our senses detect. A material that feels warm is simply not allowing
thermal energy to pass through.
Plenary Natural or artificial
The pupils can design a test to see which material is the best thermal insulator,
a natural fibre like wool or an artificial one like nylon. They should focus on
making the test as fair as possible. (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Comparing metals (demonstration) equipment and materials required: Two metal
All pupils should be able to give examples of thermal conductors and thermal insulators.
rods of the same length and diameter. A Bunsen burner, two (or four) retort stands, boss
Most pupils should be able to describe an experiment to compare a range of thermal
and clamps, and two temperature sensors. Safety. The metal bars will become very hot;
conductors.
allow time for them to cool before touching.
Some pupils should also be able to explain why materials at the same temperature can feel
warm or cool in terms of their thermal conductivity.
How Science Works
Describe and identify key variables in an investigation and assign appropriate values to these
(1.2b).

28

Fusion 2: P2.5 Expansion and Contraction


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a. 3.2a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Provide the pupils with a set of diagrams showing the
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter -Safety first
particle behaviour during expansion and conduction so that they can
That when materials are
concentrate on adding brief notes.
The pupils should draw up a table to note down the hazards and safety
heated the particles in the
Extension. Why are metals particularly good thermal conductors? The
precautions that are taken through the lesson. They should start by noting any
material gain energy and
pupils can find out about the role that electrons play in the conduction
unnecessary risks already present in the laboratory; for example trip hazards.
move further apart.
process. How is expansion and contraction taken into account when
At the end they will give you a safety rating for the lesson. (510 mins)
Main
designing large structures such as bridges?
That thermal energy can be
Learning styles.
Demonstrate the Observing expansion and contraction activity. Discuss the
transferred through a
Visual: Drawing diagrams of the particle model.
demonstrations again and ask the pupils what they think is happening inside
material by conduction
Auditory: Describing the behaviour of particles in detail.
the materials; why do they expand when they get hotter? This should lead to
processes.
Kinaesthetic: Examining the apparatus before use.
two main ideas: the particles expand or they move further apart.
Interpersonal: Discussing what can be concluded from the
There are a number of useful simulations of particle behaviour you can use to
demonstrations.
reinforce the idea of expansion. Use one if you have it. The pupils should be
Intrapersonal: Imagining the behaviour of particles in a material.
able to see that the particles vibrate more as the material heats up and so they
Homework. Can the pupils think up any models that are similar to the
take up more space.
way conduction or expansion in solids work? They should try to think up
You now need to move on to using the particle model to explain thermal
ideas to explain the concepts to Year 6 pupils. A typical one for
conduction. The description should explain why it takes some time for energy
conduction involves packing pupils together and pushing one, creating a
to be passed through a material. The key idea is that energy is passed from
one particle to its near neighbours. The energy is transferred slowly because of sort of chain reaction of energy that is passed on. (510 mins)
this.
Plenary - Cartoon conductor
The pupils must draw a short cartoon showing clearly what happens to the
particles in a metal rod when it is heated at one end. No words are allowed in
the cartoon. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required: A bimetallic strip, model Archimedes thermometer
All pupils should be able to state that materials expand when they are heated.
(round-bottomed fl ask filled with coloured liquid as shown in the pupil book), ball and ring
Most pupils should be able to describe expansion in terms of a particle model.
expansion apparatus, bar and gauge apparatus. Safety. All of the metal objects will
Some pupils should also be able to describe thermal conduction in terms of a particle model.
How Science Works
become very hot, do not allow pupils to touch them. Use safety screens and eye
protection.
Describe how the use of a particular model or analogy supports an explanation
(1.1a1).

29

Fusion 2: P2.6 Radiation and Convection


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a. 3.2a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Provide a diagram of a convection current for the pupils
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Light refreshment
to label with key phrases.
That thermal energy can be
Extension. You may wish to use the term electromagnetic radiation
What are the properties of light? The pupils have five minutes to make a
transferred by radiation and
when discussing light and infra-red radiation. The pupils could look at
summary diagram of what they remember from P1 earlier. (10 mins)
this is the only way thermal
Main
other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Alternatively they could
energy can travel through a
make a plan to see which surfaces are the best absorbers or emitters of
A Leslies cube filled with freshly boiled water can be used to let the pupils feel
vacuum.
IR radiation.
the radiation being emitted by a hot object. Once you have established that
Learning styles.
infra-red radiation exists you can try to detect it with a camera using Seeing
That convection currents
Visual: Watching the action of a convection current.
infrared radiation.
carry thermal energy
Auditory: Listening to or describing a convection current in detail.
Allow the pupils to carry out the A model convection current experiment. Give
through fluids owing to
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out practical activity.
the pupils a hazard card for the potassium manganate(VII) before they start
changes in density.
Interpersonal: Carrying out group work.
and ask them to note down two hazards and how they will be avoided.
Intrapersonal: Recalling previous work.
Convection currents in gases can be shown by using a smoke chimney. The
Homework.
smoke particles are dragged downwards from one chimney and then back up
Knowledge of thermal energy transfer is essential in fire fighting. The
another.
pupils could produce a report showing how fire fighters need to
It is again important that the particle model is used to explain these changes.
understand radiation and convection currents. Areas that could be
The pupils will need to picture the material expanding when it is heated; and
covered include shiny suits, flashover, backdrafts and so on.
becomes less dense and so the material rises upwards. As the material cools
down it contracts, becomes denser and sinks again.
Plenary - Risk management
Ask the pupils to match up a set of risks with the action or action taken to
control the risk. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Seeing infra-red radiation equipment and materials required: Video camera sensitive
All pupils should be able to state that heat can only pass through a vacuum by radiation and
to infra-red radiation. Safety. The pupils must not be able to touch the hot objects.
that fluids (liquids and gases) can transfer energy by convection.
A model convection current equipment and materials required for each group: a
Most pupils should be able to describe how infra-red radiation can be detected.
3
Some pupils should also be able to describe a convection current in terms of particle behaviour large beaker (at least 500 cm ), Bunsen burner, heat-resistant mat, tripod, gauze,
forceps, water and a small potassium manganate (VII) crystal. Safety. Potassium
and density changes.
How Science Works
manganate (VII) is an oxidising agent and harmful. Handle crystals with forceps or
Describe how the use of a particular model or analogy supports an explanation
tweezers. See CLEAPSS Hazcard 81. The pink solution is low hazard. The pupils do not
(1.1a1).
need to boil the water so the Bunsen should be turned off once the concept has been
demonstrated.

30

Fusion 2: P2.7 Seeing Sounds.


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a. 3.2a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Extension. The pupils can find out more about the connection
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter -Music maestro please
between music and the waveforms instruments produce. Is there are
That the amplitude of a
connection between the frequency and the scales used in music?
Borrow a range of instruments from the music department, e.g. guitar, drum,
sound is its loudness.
Learning styles.
flute and so on. Play a note on each of them and ask the pupils to describe
Visual: Making detailed observations about waves.
what is happening. Lead them to the idea that a part of the instrument is
That the pitch of a sound
Auditory: Listening to musical instruments.
vibrating. Ask how a louder note can be played and what this does to the
wave is related to its
Kinaesthetic: Drawing waveforms.
vibration. (10 mins)
frequency; the number of
Main
Interpersonal: Collaborating in collection of sounds.
vibrations each second.
Intrapersonal: Relating sound wave patterns to the actual sounds.
Demonstrate the Sounds on screen activity. The pupils must understand the
Homework.
relationship between the pitch and the frequency (vibration per second) and
The pupils can find out about how various musical instruments operate,
also amplitude and volume.
The pupils can then attempt to capture the waveforms from some sounds in the from the obvious drum and piano to the Theremin.
Capturing sounds activity. They should find that simple instruments can
produce fairly simple patterns, but a voice is very complex in its waveform.
They can sketch these waves and see if they can make a link between the
shapes and the way instruments sound.
You can also provide some tuning forks for the pupils to use; these should be
struck gently to prevent damage to them. They should give a simple waveform.
After the experiments you can discuss the findings. Try to find some images of
traces in advance, just in case the pupils do not have clear ones.
Plenary - Noted
Can the pupils match up the waveforms with the instrument that created it?
Show a set of six instruments and six waves and get the pupils to match them
up. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Sounds on screen equipment and materials required: Signal generator, cathode ray
All pupils should be able to state that the larger the amplitude a sound wave has the louder it
oscilloscope and loudspeaker. Safety. Do not let the pupils listen to loud noises for too
will be.
long.
Most pupils should be able to compare oscilloscope traces to determine which sound has the
Capturing sound equipment and materials required: Data-logging software, computer
highest amplitude and frequency.
and microphone.
Some pupils should also be able to describe the patterns they find in waveforms produced in
Wobble equipment and materials required: A rectangular sheet of flexible material
musical instruments.
measuring approximately 80 cm by 50 cm. Thin hardboard (high density fibreboard)
works best. Safety. Make sure the edges are not sharp.

31

Fusion 2: P2.8 How Sound Travels.


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a. 3.2a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Pupils can be provided with a plan for the Sound and
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Moving through solids
solids task so that they can focus on gathering and analysing results.
That sound will travel
Extension. With some pupils you might want to describe the sound
The pupils need to explain, or draw a set of diagrams showing how thermal
through all materials but it
wave in more detail using terms like longitudinal wave, compression and
energy is conducted through a solid material. (510 mins)
cannot travel through a
Main rarefaction. You could mention the idea of pressure and emphasise that
vacuum.
Demonstrate In space no-one can hear the doorbell. You now need to discuss particles in gases are already moving randomly; the sound wave is
super-imposed on top of this random movement.
the wave nature of sound. The pupils need to be able to imagine the behaviour
That sound travels as a
Learning styles.
of the particles in the material. These oscillate and push other particles and so
wave of compressions
Visual: Watching simulations or demonstrations of wave movement.
on.
through a medium.
Auditory: Listening to sound waves through materials.
Traditionally you can use a Slinky spring. Stretch this out a bit and place a
Kinaesthetic: Measuring sound levels with a sensor.
sticker on one of the coils half way along. If you move one end in and out you
That sound travels more
Interpersonal: Working in groups and discussing plans of action.
will produce a longitudinal wave and the pupils will be able to see the
quickly through dense
Intrapersonal: Understanding how sound travels through a medium.
materials as the particles are compressions. They should also note that while the sticker waves back and
Homework. Summary question 5 works well as a homework task.
forth it doesnt actually go anywhere; this shows that while energy is being
closer together.
transferred there is no material transferred.
Once the pupils have a firm grasp of the movement of sound you can move on
to the Sound and solids activity. The pupils have to consider how to make the
experiment fair.
Plenary - Evaluation time
Give the pupils a plan for comparing the insulation properties of three materials
along with the results produced. The pupils must work in pairs, spot problems
and suggest improvements. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
In space, no-one can hear the doorbell (demonstration) equipment and materials
All pupils should be able to state that sound requires a medium (material) to travel through.
required: An electric bell in a bell jar, a vacuum pump and power supply. Safety. Use
Most pupils should be able to describe how sound travels as a wave through materials.
safety screens and keep pupils well back. Risk of implosion and flying glass.
Some pupils should also be able to explain why sound travels faster through solid materials
Sound and solids equipment and materials required: A sound source, this could be a
than gases in terms of particle movement.
How Science Works
loudspeaker connected to a signal generator or any other source that can produce a
reasonably constant loudness. A decibel meter or other sound meter. A range of test
Describe and identify key variables in an investigation and assign values to these (1.2b).
materials: expanded polystyrene, metal sheets, cotton wool, wool, plywood and so on.
Describe and suggest, with reasons, how planning and implementation could be improved
Safety. Avoid loud sounds.
(1.2e).

32

Fusion 2: P2.9 Noise Annoys


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a. 3.2a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Provide the pupils with a help sheet showing the parts
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Stop, children whats that sound?
of the ear for them to label.
That the ear can detect only
Let the pupils take part in a mystery noise quiz. Play ten sample noises and get Extension. The pupils could plan and carry out a full investigation into
a limited range of
which materials provide the best sound insulation for a particular job.
them to write down what they think the noise is. (1015 mins)
frequencies and can be
Main
This could be focussed on how many layers of glass it is economical to
damaged by loud sounds.
Take part in the Hearing Test activity; your hearing range should be a bit more use for windows, or which material is the best for reducing echoes from
walls in sound studios.
limited than that of the pupils. Some pupils may not want to take part in the
That sound intensity is
Learning styles.
hearing test so dont make it compulsory. You might find a few pupils can still
measured in decibels.
Visual: Looking at the parts of a model ear.
hear the sound even with the equipment turned off!
Auditory: Taking part in a range of listening activities.
A large model ear or diagram is essential to explain how we hear. Point out
That sound levels can be
Kinaesthetic: Operating a sound meter.
how sensitive and fragile the parts of the ear are and give some ideas about
reduced by insulation.
Interpersonal: Discussing the importance of noise reduction.
how they can be damaged.
Intrapersonal: Thinking about the effects of hearing loss.
The pupils will generally be able to put sounds in order of loudness. You may
Homework. Does listening to music on personal music players and
not want to use the dB abbreviation for decibel with the pupils.
mobile phones cause ear damage? The pupils can find recent articles or
To show how annoying noise can be, you can play a background noise for a
newspaper stories and write a short report on the issue.
few minutes while the pupils are trying to concentrate. The pupils can have a
look at a sound meter again with Keep that noise down. They should notice
that the readings can be erratic, and that to get an accurate picture of noise
levels they would need to take a series of measurements over a period of time.
Plenary - Sound off
Question students about how the particle model can be used to explain thermal
energy transfer and sound. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Hearing test equipment and materials required: Signal generator and loudspeaker.
All pupils should be able to state that humans can only detect a limited range of frequencies
Safety. Do not use overly loud sounds, particularly at frequencies the ear is most
and other animals can detect different ranges.
sensitive to.
Most pupils should be able to explain how the loudness of sound is measured and describe
Keep that noise down! equipment and materials required: A sound-level meter.
measures to reduce noise pollution.
Safety. Do not use very loud sounds.
Some pupils should also be able to describe how the ear detects sound.
How Science Works
Recognise that decisions about the use and application of science and technology are
influenced by society and individuals, and how these could impact on people and the
environment (1.1b).
Describe an appropriate approach to answer a scientific question (1.2a).

33

FUSION 3 B1 HEALTH

34

Fusion 3: B1.2 Balanced diet


National Curriculum Link up
3.3c
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Pupils could be provided with appropriately
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Starvation symptoms
sized strips
Which nutrients are needed
to enable them to build up a bar chart on a large grid of the
Let the pupils imagine that a situation at school has become so extreme that they have
in a healthy, balanced diet?
daily energy needs as shown in the pupil book.
decided to barricade themselves in the gym and go on hunger strike. Ask them to
Extension. Pupils could research the structure, function and
describe what would happen to them over time and to list the reasons why. You may
Which foods are used as a
source of omega-3 fatty acids, using the internet and any
choose to let the pupils do this as a piece of drama, in which case they could break up
source of energy?
available textbooks.
into groups of four or five. Build up a list of why we need food and what happens if we do
Learning styles
not get any. (1015 mins)
Why our bodies need
Visual: Reading temperatures on the thermometers in the
Main
protein.
Remind the pupils that the unit for energy is joules (symbol J) and that 1000 joules makes practical activities and observing the
photographs in the PowerPoint presentations.
a kilojoule (kJ).
How to evaluate an
Auditory: Listening to the opinions of others in the
As energy values on packaged foods and many diets still use calories, it might be worth
investigation.
discussions.
explaining here about the calorie and its relationship to the joule (1 calorie = 4.186 J).
Kinaesthetic: Taking part in the practical activity.
Using the data in the pupil book, draw a bar chart of the information describing what your
Interpersonal: Working in groups during the practical.
body needs energy for. You may choose to use a graphing programme to draw out
Intrapersonal: Writing up the evaluation of the practical work.
projected images of the bar chart produced. Discuss why a bar chart is used rather than
Homework. If the pupils carry out the practical activity to
a line graph (How Science Works).
measure the energy content of foods, they could complete
Discuss the energy requirements of people from different age groups carrying out a
their results tables and answer the questions printed in the
range of activities.
pupil book.
Measuring the energy in food: Ask the pupils to suggest how the energy in food can be
measured. If time permits, the pupils could carry out this practical activity in small groups.
Provide them with a range of foodstuffs. Provide the pupils with pre-printed results tables
(see pupil book) that they can stick in their notebooks. Discuss the layout of the table and
how to display the results graphically, followed by the conclusion. Finally stress the
evaluation.
Plenary - Superfoods
Ask the pupils what the term superfoods means to them. Have they heard of it? If so,
what foods have they heard of which come into this category. Build up a list on the board
and try to draw out from the pupils whether they think the claims are justified. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to describe the functions of the nutrients needed in a healthy,
A range of suitable foods, such as bread, biscuits etc., boiling tubes, racks,
balanced diet.
thermometers, Bunsen burners, suitable receptacles for the burning food.
Most pupils should be able to explain why our bodies need sources of energy and protein.
Safety
Some pupils should also be able to explain why a balanced diet changes with age and
Wear eye protection.
occupation.
How Science Works
Check for allergies if considering using nuts.
Explain how improvements to the planning and implementation would have led to the collection
of more valid and reliable evidence and a more secure conclusion (1.2e)

35

Fusion 3: B1.3 - Malnutrition


National Curriculum Link up
3.3c
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Eat yourself ill competition
The meaning of the
Imagine a TV show where you had to make yourself as ill as could be in order to win a prize. Some pupils may have
term malnutrition.
seen the TV programme where someone ate junk food for a fortnight and other programmes where participants have
swapped diets. What options for bad diet plans could you have? Break the class into groups and ask each group to
What causes
come up with a specific diet plan to win the competition. Be aware of any potential eating disorders that may be
malnutrition?
present among pupils in the class. Get the groups to report to the rest of the class. (10-15 mins)
Main
How malnutrition is
Begin with a general revision discussion on healthy diets, collecting appropriate suggestions on the board, organising
associated with
them into groups as they emerge. Then give the pupils a concise briefing on the topic of malnutrition through
problems such as
exposition, board work and selected PowerPoint and video clips.
obesity and heart
Break the pupils into small groups and allocate to each a topic from the following list: famine, kwashiorkor, anorexia,
disease.
obesity, atheroma, coronary thrombosis, stroke, arthritis, diabetes, salt, importance of fibre. You will need to be
careful with health issues within the class, especially with respect to anorexia and obesity. The pupils are asked to
investigate their selected topic and prepare to report back their findings to the whole class. They may decide to make
a written report or present it as a radio article or a PowerPoint presentation. You will need to work out the timings, so
that there is time for them to assemble their material and time for each groups presentation. The resources for this
will need to be organised well in advance. Give the pupils a chance to peer assess the various offerings.
Balancing diets: The pupils should be asked to keep records of what they eat and what their activities were over a 24hour period, and to bring these with them to the lesson. Discuss the value of such an exercise by asking pupils to
show their results and compare with each other. Is it a fair assessment of their life-style? Was the day they kept the
records a typical day? How would their intake and expenditure vary from day to day? From week to week? Or at
different times of the year?
Plenary - Diet diamond nines
Arrange the pupils into small groups and give each group a set of nine statements concerning diet and health, written
on small square cards. Ask each group to arrange the cards into a diamond pattern, with the most important ones at
the top and the least important at the bottom. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to describe some causes and effects of a poor diet.
Safety
Most pupils should be able to explain how malnutrition can be caused by too much as well as not
enough food.
Some pupils should also be able to give more detailed explanations of the effects of malnutrition.
How Science Works
Use and apply qualitative and quantitative methods to obtain and record sufficient data systematically
(1.2d)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Prepare some
sentences into which pupils can place
the key words (on laminated cards) of
the topic.
Extension. Ask the pupils to find out
what is meant by good cholesterol and
bad cholesterol.
Learning styles
Visual: Recognising the signs of
malnutrition from pictures.
Auditory: Learning the pronunciation
and derivation of the term malnutrition.
Kinaesthetic: Preparing the
presentation of the topic.
Interpersonal: Working together on the
project.
Intrapersonal: Working out a personal
energy intake and energy expenditure
balance sheet.
Homework. Ask pupils to write a
paragraph on why malnutrition can be a
condition associated with affluence as
well as poverty.

36

Fusion 3: B1.4 Vitamins and minerals


National Curriculum Link up
3.3c
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Pupils could use the snap
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
cards to do a matching exercise with the
Starter - Funky stuff!
Why we need vitamins
Introduce the origin of the word vitamins through the story of the biologist, Casimir Funk, who tried to find a cure nutrients and the deficiency diseases. This
and minerals in our
could be extended by making additional sets
for the disease beriberi (show some slides of victims). Discuss his discovery of what he considered to be vital
diet.
of cards to include uses in the body and
amines (tie in that amines are chemically related to amino acids). (510 mins)
Main
sources of the nutrients.
Which foods are good
Extension. Pupils could investigate the
Through discussion and board work, find out the current state of the pupils knowledge regarding vitamins and
sources of vitamins
recommended daily amounts (RDA) of the
minerals. There are some good video clips available on the deficiency disease scurvy, including a cartoon
and minerals?
major vitamins and minerals and find out
version from the TV series Scientific Eye, which is in common use. Show some grizzly photographs, and go
which foods are best to supply these.
through the material in the pupil book.
How the importance of
Learning styles
Carry out the practical Testing foods for vitamin C described in the pupil book, using DCPIP to detect levels of
vitamins were
Visual: Recognising the symptoms of the
the vitamin in a variety of juices. It would be useful to have a solution of vitamin C of known concentration (say
discovered.
various deficiency diseases.
1%) to use as a standard. Pupils could find out how much vitamin C solution is required to decolourise 1 cm3 of
Auditory: Listening to the opinions of others
DCPIP before trying out the juices. Alternatively, they could be provided with this information. If time is short,
in the discussions.
then this can be done as a demonstration; or show a video of the experiments, providing a worksheet for the
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the practical
pupils to follow.
activity on determining vitamin C content.
A general discussion of how minerals are supplied in diets could follow this. For example, the use of iron cooking
Interpersonal: Working in groups in any
pots in the developed world and the practice, in the developing world, of putting a piece of iron in the bottom of a
of the described activities.
cooking pot to avoid anaemia. The presence of iron particles in Kelloggs Special K breakfast cereal can be
Intrapersonal: Forming own opinions on the
demonstrated. Grind up some of the breakfast cereal and extract the metal particles using a magnetic stirrer in a
ethical issues.
beaker.
Homework. Pupils could write up the
Great debates: Within this topic, there is an opportunity to discuss the ethics of animal experimentation. A crossexperiment on testing foods
curricular link may be possible with PSHE, ethics or RE lessons. Ensure a balanced and rational approach
for vitamin C.
prevails, such as in an organised formal debate where each side can present a case before discussion.
Plenary - Symptom snap
Make up sets of cards that show the six vitamins and minerals mentioned in the pupil book, along with cards
showing the symptoms of their deficiency. In pairs, the pupils are to play Snap, where the vitamin or mineral
must be followed, or preceded, by its deficiency symptoms. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to name and suggest a source of the major vitamins and minerals needed in Equipment and materials required
DCPIP solution, a selection of fruit juices and/or vegetable juices, test tubes; racks,
the diet.
plastic syringes, a
Most pupils should be able to describe how the major vitamins and minerals are used in the body
solution of vitamin C of known concentration (glass pipette, burette, stand).
and some of the symptoms caused
Safety
Some pupils should also be able to explain the links between the functions of a vitamin and the
Make sure pupils behave with plastic syringes.
deficiency disease caused by a lack of that vitamin in the diet.
How Science Works
Use and apply qualitative and quantitative methods to obtain and record sufficient data systematically
(1.2d)

37

Fusion 3: B1.5 - Smoking


National Curriculum Link up
3.3c
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Supply pupils with a
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
large diagram of the respiratory
Starter - Word association
What tobacco smoke
tract and some labelled Post-it notes,
Divide the class into small groups and give each group a sheet of A3 paper. Ask them to write, in large letters, the
contains.
so that they can show where the cilia
word smoking in the centre of the paper. Emphasise that the lesson is about smoking tobacco, not other substances,
are, the passage of the smoke and
and give them a short time to take turns and suggest a word that they associate with smoking. The words suggested
How the substances in
where the chemicals from an inhaled
should be written around the sheet of paper. Collate the results from all the groups and lead into the discussion at the
tobacco smoke affect
cigarette end up.
start of the main lesson. (10 mins)
our bodies.
Extension. Pupils to do an internet
Main
search to find out why nicotine is
Hold a short, open discussion on tobacco, following on from the starter activity. Establish the range of attitudes
How the harmful
addictive and what effects it has.
towards tobacco-use. Emphasise that the core of the lesson is to do with clarifying facts, and that people will then be
effects of smoking
Learning styles
well-informed with regard to their choice of whether to smoke or not.
were discovered.
Visual: Viewing the images and
Revise respiratory tract structure briefly. Show the structure of cilia on a diagram and, if available, show their motion
video footage of the action of cilia and
through a video clip of cilia in action. Describe the function of the cilia in terms of moving mucus up the airways.
Investigating cigarette smoke: This demonstration must be carried out in a fume cupboard. Consult your
the effects of smoking.
Auditory: Listening to other pupils
departmental and county safety policies. Discuss why the temperature, the colour of the limewater and the
opinions on the use of tobacco.
appearance of the glass wool are observed before and after the cigarette is in the machine. Establish the toxic
Kinaesthetic: Taking part in the
contents of the cigarette smoke.
cilia demonstration.
Show video footage or PowerPoint slides of sufferers from lung cancer (including a dissected smokers lung complete
Interpersonal: Working in a
with tumour), emphysema (an interview with a sufferer may be effective), bronchitis, smokers cough and low birth
group with the word association
weight. Also inform the pupils that smoking reduces circulation, which can lead to amputations of various extremities
activity.
and, as it affects blood pressure, it can be a contributory factor in impotence.
Get the pupils to use calculators to find out how much an average 20 per day smoker spends on their habit per week, Intrapersonal: Writing the article
about the recreational uses of
per year and in a lifetime (say 40 smoking years).
tobacco.
Discuss how links were made between smoking and ill health. There is a BBC timeline available on smoking
Homework. Finish the article from the
and disease. It documents the events from the first paper published in 1951 by Richard Doll et al. to the
history book of AD 2200, suggested in
introduction of the ban on smoking in public places.
Plenary - Future history
the plenary.
Write an article from a history book from AD 2200 on the rise and fall of the recreational use of tobacco. This could be
completed as homework. (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to list the harmful constituents of tobacco smoke and know why smoking is bad for us.
The smoking machine apparatus needs to be set up, with
Most pupils should be able to explain why smoking causes a number of diseases and health problems.
thermometer, limewater, glass wool, hand pump.
Some pupils should also be able to explain in detail how the links between smoking and health problems have been
Safety
made.
How Science Works
School and LEA regulations on safety. Must be carried out in a
fume cupboard. Follow CLEAPSS guidance in Guide L195 and
Explain whether the collection and manipulation of secondary evidence is sufficient or insufficient to support the
Hazcard 03. Avoid skin contact with tars.
conclusion or interpretation made (1.2f)

38

Fusion 3: B1.6 - Alcohol


National Curriculum Link up
3.3c
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Adapt the exercise
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
described in the pupil book on the
Starter - Human bar chart
How alcohol affects the
Effects of alcohol. Pupils could be
This activity needs a good bit of space and can work well outside. Draw five lines in chalk on the ground and label
body.
them 15. Read out to the class a series of statements about alcohol, and for each statement ask the pupils to move given pre-printed labels to place on the
picture in the appropriate places.
onto one of the lines. Explain that you move onto line 1 if you strongly agree with the statement, down to line 5 if you
How alcohol affects
Extension. How much alcohol is there
strongly disagree with it, and onto one of the lines in between if your feeling is in-between these extremes. Appoint a
behaviour.
in a unit? What is the safe limit for
pair of pupils to record the numbers on each line for each statement. Use the results as a starting point for
driving? Pupils to find out what over the
discussion. (1015 mins)
What constitutes a unit
Main
limit means in terms of blood alcohol
of alcohol?
levels.
Hold a general discussion on why people drink alcohol, summarising the points made on the board. Compile a list of
Learning styles
synonyms for alcohol and for being drunk (Caution, as this could lead to swearing). Tell the pupils that the more
interest a society has in a subject, the more words they invest in it. The classic example of this being the Inuit people Visual: Creating the piece of artwork.
Auditory: Listening to the comments
with their many names for different types of snow.
on the Boozy T-shirts.
Compile PowerPoint slides showing some statistics about alcohol: 2.9 million people in the UK are dependent on
alcohol; that is 1 in 13 of the adult population, two or three in the average secondary school class; averaging one per Kinaesthetic: Using the reaction timers
in the activity on how alcohol affects
second, day and night, seven days a week, it would take you over 34 days to count them all. Six thousand deaths a
reaction times.
year are directly alcohol-related.
Interpersonal: Working together to
Reaction time: There are many internet-based reaction timers available. Browse until you find a suitable one and
produce a human bar chart.
then try out the timer with the pupils. Let them keep their individual scores and also find an average (mean) value for
Intrapersonal: Writing the letter to a
the class. Add 33% to the figures to allow for the effects of alcohol on reaction times. Run the internet software
friend.
again, but this time add 33% to each figure achieved, setting an accident threshold at the original average level. See
Homework. Pupils could write a letter
how many pupils fail and cause accidents.
to a friend, persuading them that
Following a study of the pupil text and teacher exposition, get the pupils to produce a piece of artwork summarising
drinking too much alcohol is not good
the major effects of alcohol on the human body. This can be done in groups or individually and the results pinned
for them, by pointing out the harmful
around the room for peer review.
Plenary - One for the road or the morning after the night before
effects that alcohol has on the body.
Remind the pupils that the average human body metabolises alcohol at 1 unit (1/3 pint of beer) per hour. Get the
pupils to imagine that it is someones birthday party. Write up a list of (hypothetical) names on the board and
alongside each name write the number of drinks they had and at what times. Get the pupils to calculate at what time
it would be safe for each one of the people in the scenario to drive again without being over the limit. Remind pupils
that this is just a guideline for the average human, some people would still not be safe after this time. (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to describe some of the effects of alcohol on the body and its effects on behaviour.
Safety
Most pupils should be able to understand and explain the effects of alcohol on the body.
Some pupils should also be able to explain in detail the effects of alcohol on different organs of the body.

39

Fusion 3: B1.7 - Drugs


National Curriculum Link up
3.3c
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Ask pupils to write down
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
the names of all the drugs they can think
Starter - Drug or no drug?
What is meant by the
of. Then they have to show their list to
Show the pupils a series of PowerPoint slides, some of which are obviously drugs such as smoking a spliff, injecting
term drug?
their group and score points for which
heroin with a hypodermic needle and snorting white powder, some which are ambiguous and some which are not of
ones no-one else in the group has got.
drugs at all. Get the pupils to record whether they think each one is a drug or not. Use the responses from the
The ways in which
Extension. Carry out an internet survey
exercise as a stimulus to spark off a discussion as to what is and is not a drug. (1015 mins)
drugs are used.
Main
of drug advice. A good site to start at is
www.talktofrank.com. Produce a summary
Starting with a dictionary definition of drug, summarise the different categories into which we put drugs: prescription
How drugs affect the
of succinct advice to younger pupils.
(therapeutic), recreational, socially acceptable, addictive. Point out to the pupils that a drug can be put into more
body.
Learning styles
than one category. It would also be beneficial here to flag up the hazards of some, especially the over-the-counter
Visual: Recognising drugs from
therapeutic drugs such as paracetamol (liver toxicity and can easily kill in overdose after a period of apparent
To plan an
pictures and watching the
recovery) and aspirin (stomach complications).
investigation into the
Caffeine and reaction time: This activity can be done as a demonstration or the class can work in pairs or small
demonstrations.
effect of caffeine on
Auditory: Listening to explanations about
groups and design their own investigation as described in the pupil book. Reaction times can be measured by the
reaction time.
drugs.
stick drop test or by using a reaction timer from the
Kinaesthetic: Taking part in the activities
internet, as described in the previous spread. As an alternative, the link between caffeine and heart rate level can be
to determine the effect of caffeine on
demonstrated, using a heart rate monitor. Failing that, use the simple method of recording the pulse rate. Give a
pupil a piece of chocolate or a sugary drink containing caffeine and show that the heart rate increases. This could be reaction times.
Interpersonal: Working together in the
done as a class activity if time and the conditions permit.
reaction times activity.
Create four stations around the room (or eight, with two duplicates, if the class is large) labelled depressants,
Intrapersonal: Writing their own notes on
stimulants, hallucinogens and analgesics. Next to each station, display material about the drug type and a set of
the details of the drugs.
questions to be answered. Pupils are to circulate around the stations and fill in the question sheets.
Homework. As a follow-up to the
Plenary - Holiday destinations
Show some attractive slides of America and ask the class if anyone has already been there. Ask the rest of the class plenary, ask the pupils to write down their
feelings as if they had to explain to their
who would like to go there and what they would like to see. Show some slides of attractive professions: lawyers,
children why they cannot take them on
doctors, actors, etc. Emphasise to the pupils that a conviction of any kind, including possession of small amounts of
holiday to Disneyland Florida.
cannabis for personal use, may result in you being denied entry to the USA and many other countries. In addition, it
might severely limit your employment prospects. Discuss as a group. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to understand what is meant by the term drug and to distinguish between therapeutic and recreational
Caffeine containing substance (drink or chocolate),
drugs.
heart rate monitor or stop-watch.
Most pupils should be able to describe the ways in which drugs are used and some of the effects they have on the body.
Safety
Some pupils should also be able to explain the effects of drugs on the body.
How Science Works
Not to be done in the laboratory; use a food technology
room. See CLEAPSS Handbook/CD-Rom section
Use and apply independent and dependent variables in an investigation by choosing an appropriate range, number and value for
11.8.1.
each one. (1.2b)

40

Fusion 3: B1.8 Healthy living


National Curriculum Link up
3.3c
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
How exercise can improve
health.

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. Pupils can be given
Lesson structure
the parts of the equation for respiration
Starter - My exercise week
to put together.
Give each pupil a blank sheet with the days of the week broken down into hourly slots. Give them highlighters
Extension.Pupils could investigate
and get them to colour in the times at which they carried out exercise of some sort, colour coding the types and
the differences between training
giving a key. Let them show the results to each other in small groups of about four. Discuss the different
How exercise can help to
programmes for sprinters and those for
opportunities for exercise within the school framework and as leisure activities in the area. (10 mins)
develop muscles.
Main
long-distance runners.
Learning styles
Get a volunteer to carry out some exercise at the front of the room, such as stepping on and off a bench or box
That inappropriate exercise
Visual: Putting together the
[beware of slipping]. Get the class to observe carefully the changes which take place in the volunteer. Most
can cause damage to the
equation for respiration.
classes will come up with: increased breathing rate, increased heart rate, raised temperature, flushed skin
body.
Auditory: Listening to class
colour and sweating. Draw these out on to the board and ask the class to explain them in as much depth as
discussion and explanations as to
they can. For each change in turn, carry out a questioning session to try to draw out the underlying reasons
how energy is lost from the body.
why these changes take place [just stating because she is exercising is not sufficient!]. Use questioning
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the
strategies to unpick their
thinking. Ask what would happen if the volunteer carried out the exercise for a long time without eating, drawing practical activity on designing
exercise programmes.
out suggestions of weight loss. Ask why the volunteer would lose weight and where the weight would leave the
Interpersonal: Working in groups
body how would the mass get out?
at the activities.
Follow this with drawing out the equation for respiration. Divide the class into groups and provide each group
Intrapersonal: Sorting out their
with a set of cards which, when assembled correctly, will give the equation for respiration. Let the pupils
own exercise week.
practise putting this together correctly, timing with stop-watches.
Homework. Ask pupils to write a
Exercise for health activity. Carry out the practical described in the pupil book to design exercise programmes
paragraph on Keeping healthy, using
for fitness. It is probably best to let the pupils work in groups, allocating one of the exercise programmes per
the knowledge gained so far in this
group so that all are covered. If necessary, add some more categories, such as a retired person.
Plenary - Aerobic benefits
topic. Indicate to them that they should
include reference to smoking, alcohol,
Using the pupil book and the lesson content as sources, produce a slogan for use as a jingle on the radio to
promote the health giving benefits of aerobic exercise. Pick on some pupils to read out examples or share them drugs, good diet and the benefits of
exercise.
with the class in other ways. (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to describe some of the benefits of exercise to health.
Sets of cards with parts of the respiration equation written on them.
Most pupils should be able to explain how exercise can help to develop muscles
Sheets of A3 paper.
and benefit health.
Safety
Some pupils should also be able to explain the dangers of inappropriate exercise.
How Science Works
Adapt the stylistic conventions of a wider range of genres for different audiences
and purposes in scientific writing. (1.1c)

41

Fusion 3: B1.9 Too small to see


National Curriculum Link up
3.3c
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Microbes I have known
The different types of
Briefly discuss what microbes are in terms of being organisms too small to see with the naked eye. Break
microbe.
into small groups and collectively compile a list of all the microbes you know. Discuss the findings,
separating names of diseases and names of the microbes themselves. Have a small reward for groups
How microbes can be
which work particularly well, not necessarily just for the one which names the most microbes. (1015 mins)
useful.
Main
Show the pupils a PowerPoint summary of the main types of microbe. Discuss each type, asking questions
How microbes can be
to maintain attention and check understanding. Video footage, if available, is valuable to emphasise the
grown.
different forms and their various uses in the food industry and in breaking down sewage.
Set up demonstrations of mouldy pieces of bread, rotting strawberries or other fruit (mouldy lemons with
blue-green mould are good) in deep Petri dishes or similar.
Water bacteria: Carry out this activity according to the instructions given in the pupil book. You will need to
allow time in another lesson to count the colonies. Alternatively, inoculate agar plates a few days before the
lesson and give each group of pupils a set to count. Collate the class results and find a mean. Show the
pupils a still photograph of some rod-shaped bacteria. Note that they are not all the same size and that some
of the smaller ones appear to be joined in pairs. Ask the pupils to come up with reasons for this.
Show the pupils a short video clip of binary fission taking place and then get them to write up how this
happens.
Consider whether viruses are alive or not.
Plenary - Do the flashcard flip
Use an internet-based Java game generation programme, such as Quia or Hot Potatoes, to generate a set
of interactive flappable flashcards with words and phrases related to the lesson content. Pupils may use
these individually, if a class set of laptops or a computer suite is available, or collectively when projected to
the front of the class. (1015 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to name the different types of microbe and describe some
ways in which they are useful to us.
Most pupils should be able to describe and distinguish between the different types
of microbe and their uses.
Some pupils should also be able to explain how microbes grow and reproduce.
How Science Works
Explain how approaches to practical work were adapted to control risk. (1.2c)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Give the pupils a
set of diagrams of the stages of binary fission in
a mixed up order. Get the pupils to number
them in the correct order.
Extension. Provide the pupils with the list of
microbes compiled at the beginning of the
lesson and ask them to find out the sizes of the
organisms. They can draw up a chart, showing
the ranges of the sizes of the different types of
microbe, and include a human body cell for
comparison.
Learning styles
Visual: Distinguishing between the different
types of microbe.
Auditory: Listening to discussions about
whether viruses are alive.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out practical.
Interpersonal: Working in a group at the
practical activities.
Intrapersonal: Creating their mind-map.
Homework. The mind-map summary in the
pupil book would enable pupils to consolidate
the knowledge gained on this topic and prepare
them for next lesson.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required (Main lesson: Decaying food)
Mouldy bread, decaying fruit, deep dishes, Clingfilm,
Safety
Refer to regulations for the disposal of decaying material. Do not uncover mouldy items.
Equipment and materials required (Water bacteria practical)
3
Agar plates, water samples, 1 cm pipette, sterile spreader, Sellotape, incubator.
Safety
Strict observance of sterile procedures. Do not seal dishes. Do not remove lids after incubation.
Refer to CLEAPSS handbook/CD-Rom section 15.2. Refer to regulations for the temperature of the
incubator and the sealing and disposal of any microorganisms.

42

Fusion 3: B1.10 Microbes and diseases


National Curriculum Link up
3.3c
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Teaching suggestions
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Special needs. Pupils could
Starter - Causal organisms quiz
Which diseases are
choose a disease and make a poster
Show the pupils a PowerPoint presentation of the different types of microbe and some examples of the diseases they
caused by
illustrating the symptoms and the
cause. Give the pupils a short list of other diseases and the organisms that cause them, either to stick in or to copy
different types of
method of transmission.
Extension. Pupils could use books
down. Get the pupils to close their books, erase any lists on the board or AV and mute the projector. Read out a list of
microbe.
diseases that have been covered (mix them up so that you do not get all the viral ones together) and get the pupils to
and the internet to research the life
write onto Show me boards the initial letter of the type of microbe causing the disease. (1015 mins)
How microbes are
cycle of the mosquito and find out
Main
spread from
about the relationship between it and
Go over the methods of transmission. A short video on the methods of transmission, if available, would be useful here,
person to person.
the malarial parasite.
Learning styles
or a PowerPoint summary based on the table in the pupil book.
Visual: Recognising the organisms
Show a short video, cartoon or PowerPoint presentation of the work of John Snow in combating cholera. There is a
good cross-curricular link here with a History topic The History of Medicine. Carry out a short written exercise
that cause diseases or watching the
summarising John Snows work.
mimes in the plenary.
Auditory: Listening to the
Discuss the spread of disease from faeces contaminating water supplies. Link this to why it is important to wash your
hands after going to the toilet. Also link the contamination of water supplies with the problems facing communities after
explanations of the methods of
major disasters such as earthquakes.
transmission.
Does soap remove bacteria? Carry out this practical as outlined in the pupil book. In order to make it clear that
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the
anything that grows on the agar plates has come from washed or unwashed hands and not from the air or their clothes, practical activity.
Interpersonal: Working in a
instruct the pupils in the correct method of opening their Petri dishes just slightly. As a control, expose one agar plate
to the air in the room and incubate with the rest, so that a comparison can be made. The agar plates should be
group in practical work.
o
Intrapersonal: Writing own
incubated at no more than 25 C. They should be sealed, but not airtight, not opened by the pupils and disposed of
account of the work of John Snow.
appropriately.
Homework. Pupils could write up
Plenary - Transmission charades
the method and results of the
Get a volunteer pupil to choose a method of transmission from a list (do not include sexual transmission). The
practical Does soap remove
volunteer should not tell the class what the method is but should mime it. When pupils think they know what the
bacteria?
method is, they should put up their hands and the person miming can choose who answers. If they get it right, they
become the next one to choose another method; if not the mimer continues until a right answer emerges. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to give some examples of diseases caused by microbes and to name the major methods of
Petri dishes containing nutrient agar, markers for
transmission of diseases from person to person.
labelling dishes, soap, water, paper towels,
Most pupils should be able to relate common diseases to their causative organisms and to explain how transmission occurs from
Sellotape, incubator.
person to person.
Safety
Some pupils should also be able to use their knowledge of the methods of transmission to suggest how some diseases can be
o
Temperature of incubator must be less than 25 C.
avoided.
How Science Works
Ensure proper sealing of Petri dishes and
Describe how bias, a lack of evidence or misconceptions can give rise to inappropriate theories and the role of scientists in
appropriate disposal, see CLEAPSS
questioning these. (1.1a2) The role of John Snow in fighting cholera.
handbook/CD-Rom section 15.2.

43

Fusion 3: B1.11 - |Keeping microbes out


National Curriculum Link up
3.3b
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Jabs What immunisations have I had?
How microbes can be kept
Discuss the injections pupils have had over their lives and what age they were when they had them.
out of the body.
Get some volunteers to recount their experiences and build up a list on the board. Distinguish
between those that most children are given and those that are needed for visiting special areas of the
How we develop immunity
world. The parents or grandparents of some pupils may have scars from inoculations in their
to
childhood. Ask what pupils think is injected into the body in jabs and what purpose it serves. Get
diseases.
them to discuss this in pairs and write down a response. (1015 mins)
Main
Show the pupils some pictures of smallpox victims. Discuss the disease and its effects on the
victims. Show a video, animation or PowerPoint presentation of the work of Edward Jenner, linking to
the Jabs starter if it was used. Using exposition, go over the immune system. A video clip of
phagocytosis would be useful during the explanation.
Ask the class to devise a role play in which pupils (with suitable props) play the parts of lymphocytes,
some as phagocytes and lots as different types of microbe. If time try out their ideas.
Ask what would happen if an antigen got into the body but there was no matching antibody. Link to
the Spanish invasion of South America and the drastic disease consequences for the natives. Get a
pupil to draw on the computer an antibody card to go with the new antigen. When done, get the pupil
to quickly use copy and paste to produce many more. Draw out this analogy to link to
the collection of antibodies we build up over the years and which can be replicated quickly because
we have the originals. Carry out written work to summarise the process as appropriate to the pupils
ability (differentiated worksheets through to independent prose).
Plenary - MMR highlights
Give the pupils an appropriate summary of the MMR controversy, such as that on CBBC News
Round. Get them to highlight the terms used in the lesson and be prepared to read appropriate
sections out loud. (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to describe the ways in which microbes are kept out of the body.
Most pupils should be able to describe the functions of the immune system and the roles of the white blood cells.
Some pupils should also be able to explain how immunisation helps to prevent diseases.

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Pupils could play a matching
game with the antigenantibody cards.
Extension. Following some research on the
internet and information gained during the lesson,
pupils could write a letter to a friend about the
merits of allowing their children to be given the
MMR vaccine.
Learning styles
Visual: Viewing pictures of smallpox victims and
presentation
on Edward Jenner.
Auditory: Listening to exposition of the immune
system.
Kinaesthetic: Taking part in the class activity on
the immune system.
Interpersonal: Working with a partner on the Jabs
starter.
Intrapersonal: Writing the piece about James
Phipps for
homework.
Homework. Using the story of Edward Jenner
and his experiments with cowpox and James
Phipps, pupils could write an article for the local
paper about what happened, with appropriate
headlines. The article could feature the milkmaid,
Sarah Nelmes, the experiences of James himself,
or the reactions of his parents.
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
Safety

44

Fusion 3: B1.12 Helping the immune system


National Curriculum Link up
3.3c
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Bacteria killing scramble
The differences between
Give the pupils the three main key words for the lesson antiseptic, disinfectant and antibiotic. In small groups,
antiseptics and
get them to see how many different words the can make from each one. Give points for the total number of words,
disinfectants.
for words no one else has got and for the longest word. Allow this to lead into a discussion of what the given key
words might mean and what the differences are between them. (510 mins)
The meaning of the term
Main
antibiotic and how
Introduce the three key words antiseptic, disinfectant and antibiotic carefully and distinctly, as pupils often find
antibiotics were
them confusing. Emphasise that the first two can cause damage to living cells.
discovered.
Antiseptics: Show them a packet of antiseptic wipes, a bottle of Listerine mouthwash and a cake of carbolic soap (if
available). Discuss what a septic wound would look like (show a slide if possible), and what it might smell like. Talk
How the effectiveness of
over the situation in hospitals in the 1800s when many people died of sepsis. Link with wars, such as the Crimean
antimicrobial substances
War, where so many soldiers died because of infected wounds.
can be tested.
Disinfectants: Show a TV advertisement for a type of bleach or other disinfectant (the sort you put down the toilet).
Emphasise that you would not put undiluted
bleach on or in your body, because it would damage you. This makes it very different from antiseptics. Show a slide
or photocopies of a label, from a disinfectant product, listing the contents and the warnings on it.
Antibiotics: Show a video, if available, or alternatively a series of PowerPoint slides on the work of Alexander
Fleming and Florey and Chain. Summarise the work on the discovery of penicillin.
Testing antibiotics: Carry out the practical described in the pupil book. The pupils will be provided with Petri
dishes filled with agar that has had bacteria mixed with it. The plates will probably look cloudy. The paper discs
containing bacteria should be labelled A, B, C etc. The usual precautions should be taken.
Plenary - Drag and drop in the pharmacy
Get the pupils to carry out a drag and drop exercise, either individually on laptops, collectively on an interactive
whiteboard or on a projected PC. This would consist of three bins labelled Antiseptics, Disinfectants and
Antibiotics. Products, descriptions and phrases are to be dragged to the correct box as they appear. (510 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to distinguish between antiseptics, disinfectants and antibiotics.
Most pupils should be able to describe the properties of an antibiotic and how antibiotics were discovered.
Some pupils should also be able to explain the differences between broad spectrum and narrow spectrum anti-microbial
substances.
How Science Works
Describe how bias, a lack of evidence or misconceptions can give rise to inappropriate theories and the role of scientists in
questioning these. (1.1a2)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Provide pictures of a
number of anti-microbial products and
get pupils to sort them out into the
various categories under the headings
antiseptics, disinfectants and
antibiotics.
Extension. Research, using texts and
the internet, the difference between the
terms bactericidal and bacteriostatic.
Learning styles
Visual: Carrying out the drag and drop
exercise.
Auditory: Listening to the explanations
of the three key words..
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the practical
activity.
Interpersonal: Working together in the
practical activity.
Intrapersonal: Writing the account of
discovery of penicillin.
Homework. Pupils could write up an
account of the practical activity, taking
care to mention all the safety
precautions, leaving space, if
necessary, to record the results and
draw some conclusions about the
action of the antibiotics.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required
Petri dishes filled with agar containing bacteria (check for
right species to use), paper discs impregnated with
antibiotics, tweezers, sterile paper discs, markers, Sellotape,
incubator set at 25C.
o
Safety. Temperature of incubator must be less than 25 C.
Ensure proper sealing of Petri dishes and appropriate
disposal. See CLEAPSS handbook/CD-Rom section 15.2.

45

Fusion 3: B2.2 Putting living things into groups


National Curriculum Link up
3.3d
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Write the separate
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
words of the definitions on cards and
Starter - When is a dog not a dog?
What is meant by the terms
get the pupils to arrange these in the
Get the pupils to write down the names of pairs of types of dogs which are very different from each other
species and hybrid?
correct order.
e.g. Chihuahua and Great Dane. Say you are going to choose some pupils to give their examples and do
Extension. Get the pupils to
so. Share the recent true story of a shaved lamb being sold for a large amount of money in Japan, as it
That living organisms are classified
research the names of the taxonomic
was taken to be a rare and expensive type of dog (probably a Bedlington!). The lamb definitely wasnt a
into five main groups called
levels in order i.e. kingdom. phylum,
dog but looked like one, and many dogs look very different indeed from each other. What makes a dog a
kingdoms.
class, order, family, genus and
dog? Discuss in small groups and feed back to the class, leading into the main lesson. (510 mins)
Main
species.
How the kingdoms are subdivided
Learning styles
Show the pupils a plastic model of a lion and one of a tiger. Tell the class that it is possible for a lion and
into smaller groups.
Visual: Viewing PowerPoint
tiger to mate. From the internet, show the pupils a picture of a Liger or Tigron and ask why we dont often
presentation or video.
see these in zoos. Establish that they are closely related and can produce offspring, but that the offspring
Auditory: Listening to an explanation
are sterile. Repeat the example this time with a horse and a mule. Introduce the concept of a species and
of Linnaeus system of classification.
get the pupils to write down the definition of a species from the pupil text.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the
Remind the pupils of the previous lesson and the need for a system of classification. Introduce the pupils
to the work of Linnaeus and the conventions of nomenclature, such as capitalisation of genus name, lower Sorting and describing activity.
Interpersonal: Discussing in the
case species name and use of italics or underlining. Explain that the organisation of Linnaeuss taxonomy
starter and in the main lesson.
is hierarchical in nature.
Intrapersonal: Making their own notes
Show the pupils a video or PowerPoint, if available, of the five kingdoms and give the pupils a blank
on the five kingdoms.
writing frame in which to enter the names and some features of the groups. As an alternative to the video
Homework. Pupils could do their
or PowerPoint, liaise with the library to have sets of books referring to the different kingdoms and split the
own research, using the internet
class to carry out text-based research and collectively report on features and examples of the kingdom
and/or libraries, to find out about as
they have studied to share with the rest of the class.
many hybrids as they can (at least
Carry out the Sorting and describing activity described in the pupil book. This activity can be done in
three). Some have been mentioned in
small groups or individually. It could also be set as a homework exercise.
Plenary - Spot the blots
the lesson, but there are others.
Give the pupils a sheet with a messed-up version of the notes from the lesson or definitions of terms such
as key, species, hybrid and kingdom. Explain that someone wrote this and got loads of it wrong, and
that your job is to spot the blots and to put them right. (5 10 mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
All pupils should be able to define a species and describe the main features of each of the five kingdoms.
Equipment and materials required
Most pupils should be able to describe how a hybrid is formed and understand the need for a universal system of
Animal pictures and models.
Safety
classification.
Some pupils should also be able to explain the hierarchical nature of classification.

46

Fusion 3: B2.3 - Vertebrates


National Curriculum Link up
3.3d
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Special needs. Make an enlarged version
Lesson structure
Objectives
of the pre-printed grid and give pupils cards
Starter - Odd one out
Pupils should
learn:
with the relevant features written on them, so
Show the pupils pictures of five vertebrates (one of each type) and an invertebrate. Ask them to write down the
that they can complete the grid of features
features some of these organisms share and then to identify which is the odd one out and why this is so. Discuss
The characteristic
for the groups of vertebrates.
the class findings, acknowledging and valuing all sensible suggestions, whether they fit with the currently accepted
features of
Extension. Using the features of the
scientific classification system or not. Move on from this to the main lesson, looking at the main features of
vertebrates.
different groups and the
vertebrates. (510 mins)
Main
basic principles involved in a good key, ask
The names of the
Have available from the library a set of several books relating to each of the types of vertebrate. Divide the class into the pupils to devise a key which can be used
major groups of
to identify which group a vertebrate belongs
five groups of about five or six pupils. Explain that each group is going to produce a poster based on one of the
vertebrates.
to.
types. Give each group a large A2 sheet of coloured sugar paper, some plain white A3, some lined A4, glue,
Learning styles
scissors and colouring materials. Having internet access can also be very valuable, so some of the pupils can be
How vertebrates
Visual: Looking at vertebrae and
given access on a rota basis to select and print out appropriate material. A section can usually be set up on the
are classified into
features of vertebrates.
school intranet, with appropriate web pages on it, to speed up the process and avoid distraction. Give the pupils a
their groups.
Auditory: Listening to the
specific set of targets to hit when producing the poster, e.g. they must have at least three named examples, they
exposition on the features of the
must have a section on the features which are used to categorise them as belonging to this type,
different groups.
they must have illustrations and be clearly legible, and so on. On completion of the exercise, the pupils are then to
Kinaesthetic: Producing a poster
go around the other groups work and assess their sheets against the same specific target sheet they were given.
on the different types of vertebrate.
Encourage constructive criticism and the use of praise.
Interpersonal: Working within a
As a piece of bookwork, give the pupils a pre-printed grid with five rows (labelled fish, amphibians,
group in the starter Odd one out.
reptiles, birds and mammals) and four columns (labelled reproduction, gas exchange, skin and body
Intrapersonal: Carrying out the
temperature). Pupils should then use the information from the posters, the discussion and the pupil text to fill in the
word exercise on the advantages
table. On completion, go over the correct answers.
Plenary - The tricky ones
of being a vertebrate.
Homework. Get the pupils to carry out a
Divide the pupils into groups of about four or five and give them each a sheet of pictures and details of some of the
limited word exercise, where they summarise
vertebrates which are the more difficult to identify and those that are most commonly placed in the wrong groups.
the advantages of being a vertebrate in 10
This should include penguins, whales and dolphins, snakes (pupils often think they dont have a backbone at all)
words only. This can be extended to similar
and bats. As an interesting exception, show photographs of the duck-billed platypus. Mention that, as well as being
summaries
an egg laying mammal, it has poisonous thumb spikes. Get the pupils to try to identify which groups the various
of the advantages of being a fish, an
animals belong to. They should write them on their photo sheets with reasons, then swap the sheets between
amphibian, a reptile, a bird or a mammal.
groups to gain consensus. (1015 mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to describe the characteristic features of vertebrates and name the five major
groups.
Each group: a large A2 sheet of coloured sugar paper, some plain white
Most pupils should be able to describe the features of each major group of vertebrates.
A3, some lined A4, glue, scissors and colouring materials. Having internet
Some pupils should also be able to describe/explain similarities and differences between the different groups access can also be very valuable.
of vertebrates.

47

Fusion 3: B2.4 - Invertebrates


National Curriculum Link up
3.3d
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
The meaning of the term
invertebrate.

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Extension. Invertebrates may be terrestrial or aquatic. Pupils could find
Lesson structure
Starter - Spine or no spine?
out how the land living members of a major group or sub-group differ
from the aquatic ones. Good groups to investigate would be molluscs,
Using projected images, show the pupils a number of organisms, including
about equal numbers of ones which have a spine and ones which do not. Make annelids or arthropods.
it clear that when we mention a spine, we are referring to a spinal
The names and
Learning styles
column of connected vertebrae, not a spine as in a spike or thorny structure.
characteristic
Visual: Viewing the illustrations of
Get the pupils to note down which they think have spines and which do not. On
features of the major groups
the different types of invertebrate.
completion, go over the pictures again and decide as a group which have
of
Auditory: Listening to the
spines and which do not. Some X-ray exposures of problem cases, such as
invertebrates.
snakes, may make some minds up. Introduce, or remind the pupils of, the word opinions of others in acivities.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the activity Classifying invertebrates
How to sort the invertebrates invertebrates. Start to guide the conversation towards how the invertebrates
or pond dipping.
could be broken up into smaller groups. (1015 mins)
into groups.
Interpersonal: Working as a team in research activity.
Main
Intrapersonal: Reflecting on the importance of classification.
Using PowerPoint, give the pupils an illustrated overview of the invertebrates,
Homework. The Classifying invertebrates activity could be done as a
showing representatives of all the groups, giving them the correct names.
homework exercise.
Then, separate the arthropods from the rest and sub-divide them into their four
sub sections of insects, crustaceans, arachnids and myriapods.
Explain that the sub-divisions of Arthropoda depend on the number of legs (6
for insects, 8 for arachnids, 1014 for crustaceans and lots of pairs for
myriapods).
There is some very engaging video footage of parasites, such as roundworms
and flatworms, available, such as on the BBCs series Animal Planet.
Classifying invertebrates: Carry out the activity described in the pupil book.
This could be modified by supplying the pupils with photocopied pictures of
invertebrates for them to use for their presentation. This activity can either be
done individually or in small groups.
Plenary - Grid fill
Give each pupil an empty grid with the names of the different type of organism
they have been studying in the rows and their characteristic features in the
columns. Get them to fill in the table. As differentiation, have some lists of
types of organism and of features, and have some with some initial letters filled
in for the lower attaining. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to explain what an invertebrate is and name the major groups of
Books and the internet; pictures of invertebrates and a large sheet of paper each for the
invertebrates.
presentation.
Most pupils should be able to describe the characteristic features of the major groups of
invertebrates.
Some pupils should also be able to use branching diagrams and Venn diagrams to classify the
major groups.

48

Fusion 3: B2.5 - Plants


National Curriculum Link up
3.3d
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
The characteristics of plants.

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. Using the scheme in
Lesson structure
the pupil book, give pupils the
Starter - Mouthless in the sunshine
names of the groups, some small
Show the pupils a series of images of a range of organisms and ask them if they have a mouth or not. Get
pictures and some of the characteristic
them to respond by writing a Y for Yes or an N for No on an individual whiteboard (or any other suitable
The names of the major groups
features on cards and get them to make
method of response). For the ones which get a No, ask what would happen to them if they were in total
of the plant kingdom.
their own charts or a poster.
darkness. Plants are the ones which have no mouth and need light to survive. (510 mins)
Extension. Using reference books
Main
How plants are classified into
and the internet, pupils could research
In advance, around the room, set up a display of plants from the different taxonomic groups (but not yet
groups.
one of the lesser known groups, such
labelled as such). These should be identified by cards with letters on them. Get the pupils to circulate
as the mosses, liverworts or ferns.
around the laboratory and fill in a work sheet, where they describe the plant as best they can, naming it if
Learning styles
possible. At the start of the activity, select a plant as an example and carry out
Visual: Viewing images of the different
a descriptive exercise to show the pupils the kind of observations they should make. When everyone has
types of plant and their characteristics.
had a chance to circulate and make their observations, pool the observations and comment on them. Ask
Auditory: Listening to other pupils
the pupils if they if they can suggest any groupings.
ideas about What is a plant?.
Discuss the importance of having a single internationally agreed system of classification.
Interpersonal: Sorting out plants in
Classifying plants: Carry out the activity suggested in the pupil book. The pictures in the book can be
pairs.
supplemented with additional pictures. Use could be made of the scheme shown in the pupil book, adding
Homework. Plants are useful to
pictures to the descriptions given in the boxes for each group.
humans in many ways. Pupils could
If available, show some video footage of the various types of plant as well as having specimens. Chris
Beardshaw covered a lot of the ancient plant types in his Flying gardener TV series. For a good website try either make a list with examples, as
suggested in the pupil book, or
searching for Plants of Jurassic Park.
Plenary - Key word splat
investigate one aspect, such as building
materials, finding out more details and
Place all of the key words from the lesson on a board at the front of the class. Give two volunteer pupils flypresenting their findings as a written
swats of different colours and, when asked a question relating to the material, have them whack the correct
account.
key word on the board. Whoever gets their swat down first on the correct answer wins and stays on. The
loser chooses the next contestant. (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to describe the characteristics of plants and name the major groups.
Pictures and living specimens of the different plant types; need leaves,
Most pupils should be able to describe the characteristics of the major groups of plants.
fruits, flowers as appropriate.
Some pupils should also be able to classify plants into their groups.
How Science Works
Communicate effectively and use appropriate scientific terminology and conventions in discussion and written
work. (1.1c)

49

Fusion 3: B2.6 - Variation


National Curriculum Link up
3.3d
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Difference list
Pupils should
learn:
Give the pupils a short, set time limit (decide this on the ability of the particular class). Working in pairs, get each pupil to
Why we look similar
make a list of ways in which they differ from each other. Establish that these must be physical differences, such as hair
to our parents.
colour, ear shape, eye colour or height, and draw lines of decency on the allowable comments. At the end of the time limit,
What is meant by
inherited and
environmental
variation?
The differences
between continuous
and discontinuous
variation.

nominate a pair of scribes to write the ideas down on the board and, through questioning, draw out the various differences.
(510 mins)
Main
Draw out the meanings of the words inherited (link this to inheriting money or property from deceased relatives) and
environmental (link to environmental action groups). Get the pupils to write down the meanings in their books.
Measuring variation: Investigate the range of variation of pupils in the class by carrying out the activity suggested in the
pupil book. Arrange a circus of apparatus around the room to measure different types of variation, being aware that some
pupils may be sensitive about personal data. The circus could include several of each of the following: Height stations:
Ideally use proper height determination apparatus, otherwise use pairs of metre rulers, end on end, Blu-tacked to the wall.
Show the pupils how to use these by placing a ruler horizontal across the head of a pupil and having them walk away.
Weight stations: Use several sets of bathroom scales. Some pupils may feel self conscious about their weight and so make
this measurement optional. Strength stations: Have several sets of bathroom-type scales, but with the scale in newtons.
Demonstrate to the pupils how to squeeze the scales with both hands. Have a companion read their highest continuously
held force (hold for a count to 3 if there is argument). Various body part measurements such as head circumference, arm
length can be carried out using tape measures. Body temperature can be most easily quickly and hygienically measured
using liquid crystal forehead thermometers. Eye colour can be assessed by peer opinion. Some anomalies may arise so
the teacher may have to discern between different types or produce a pre-prepared colour chart. Quinine tasting: Some
pupils may lack the gene which allows them to taste quinine. Have a supply of quinine impregnated slips of filter paper and
get pupils to place one on their tongue. Draw the group together again and discuss the findings.

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Give pupils
definitions of the key words as
sentences with gaps, into which they
have to put the correct term.
Extension. Pupils could use height
ranges, as suggested in the pupil
book, and produce a normal
distribution curve for the class.
Learning styles
Visual: Making observations.
Auditory: Listening to the
explanations and definitions.
Kinaesthetic: Measuring the
variation.
Interpersonal: Working in a
group gathering data.
Intrapersonal: Writing out the
meanings of the terms.
Homework. Each pupil is to choose
one of the physical features which
shows continuous variation (height,
mass, strength or body part size) and
design an investigation which would
accurately reflect the variation in their
year group.

Plenary - I, E, C or D?
Give the pupils a set of Show me individual white boards. Show some slides of different examples of variation, or
alternatively just describe them. Get the pupils to decide whether they are inherited, environmental, continuous or
discontinuous and write the initial letters of the appropriate word or words on their boards. (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to understand why we look similar to our parents and what is meant by inherited variation.
Most pupils should be able to distinguish between inherited and environmental variation.
Some pupils should also be able to explain the differences between continuous and discontinuous variation.
How Science Works
Explain how the presentation of experimental results through the routine use of tables, charts and line graphs makes it easier to see
patterns and trends. (1.2d)

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required
Apparatus for measuring the different types
of
variation. Most of this is described in the
notes for the lesson above.

50

Fusion 3: B2.7 Genes and inheritance


National Curriculum Link up
3.3d
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Genes means . . .?
What is meant by the term
gene?
Get the pupils to complete this sentence for themselves, either by telling a fellow pupil
How genes are linked to
inherited characteristics.
How inherited characteristics
are passed from parents to
their offspring.

what their idea is, writing it down (choose some individuals to read theirs out) or by
interviewing pupils using a hand-held digital voice recorder, which can quickly capture
pupils offerings to be played back to the class for discussion. Give all sensible
suggestions acknowledgement (although, correct false ones by drawing out better
versions) and introduce the aims of the lesson. (1015 mins)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Put key words and definitions from the lesson
on laminated cards and get pupils to match them up.
Extension. Pupils could research the occurrence of conditions,
other than Downs syndrome, that are attributed to an extra
chromosome or the lack of a chromosome. There are several
associated with the sex chromosomes (XXY etc.).
Learning styles
Visual: Observing the animation of meiosis.
Auditory: Listening to the
discussion on how twins are formed.
Kinaesthetic: Working at the surgery leaflet activity.
Interpersonal: Co-operating in a group on the Scene of Crime
Officer plenary.
Intrapersonal: Completing the
sentence in the Genes means starter.
Homework. In preparation for the next topic, ask the pupils to
make a list of ways in which they are similar to and different from
other members of their family.

Main
Show a simple animation of meiosis, without naming the process or the stages. There
should be just a few pairs of chromosomes, differently coloured and shaped. The
animation should show the formation of sperm, the formation of eggs and finally the
joining of the two together to form a zygote with the same number of chromosomes as
the parent cells. Get the pupils to count the number of chromosomes on each cell at
each stage. Get them to think what would happen if the sperm and egg cells had the
same number of chromosomes as their parent cells. Show a karyotype of human
chromosomes
and identify that there are 46 in total, 23 pairs.
Starting with a group discussion as to how different types of twins are formed, hold an
open questions session about inheritance, siblings and twins. It is a good idea to have
previously prepared some ways of visualising the answers to expected questions, such
as those in the pupil text.
Twins surgery leaflet activity: The objective is to produce a leaflet for a doctors surgery
giving basic information about how twins are formed.
Plenary - Scene of Crime Officer
Allow the pupils to work in small groups and tell them that each group is investigating a
crime scene.
Ask them to compile a list of suitable genetic material from the scene that might help to
identify a criminal. For each type of material, they should say what precautions they
need to take to make sure that the material is not contaminated. (1015 mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
All pupils should be able to describe genes and know that they are responsible for inherited
Equipment and materials required
Safety
characteristics.
Most pupils should be able to describe how inherited characteristics are passed from parents
to their offspring.
Some pupils should also be able to explain how we get one set of genes from each parent.

51

Fusion 3: B2.8 Passing on the genes


National Curriculum Link up
3.3d
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Cause of gender (before)
What determines whether
In small groups, or individually, get the pupils to write down their own ideas on what causes some
we are male or female?
babies to be born as boys and some as girls. On completion, hold a class discussion and draw out
any current sets of ideas among the pupils. (1015 mins)
How we inherit a particular
Main
feature.
Explain that genes are sections of DNA coding for a particular characteristic. Give examples of what
is meant by a characteristic. Explain that in each body cell we have two genes for each
What we can learn from
characteristic, one which came from our father and one from our mother. Explain that when we make
looking at family trees.
gametes, only one characteristic is placed inside the sperm or egg, otherwise we would finish up with
four copies in the fertilised egg cell. What would happen if the father has blue eyes and the mother
has brown ones? Introduce the word alleles as being alternative versions of a gene. Show a short
animation or PowerPoint presentation to introduce the terms dominant and recessive, where one
allele dominates another one.
Introduce the conventions that dominant alleles are shown by capital letters and recessive ones by
lower case versions of the dominant allele letter. Working in couples, get them to write out some
pairs of dominant and recessive alleles which they choose and decide on the letters themselves.
Briefly get some to share with the class.
Introduce Punnet squares, either by PowerPoint or by moving lettered transparencies on an OHP.
Give the pupils some pre-printed empty examples, so that they dont have to waste time drawing
them. Get them to go through a series of exercises completing Punnet squares for homozygous
dominant vs. homozygous recessive, homozygous dominant vs. heterozygous, homozygous
recessive vs. heterozygous and heterozygous vs. heterozygous. Introduce the conventions of family
trees (e.g. circles for females, squares for males).
Plenary - Cause of gender (after)
Refer back to the class set of ideas at the start of the lesson. Hold a discussion and see which pupils
have changed their minds as to the causes of gender, or who can explain it now when they couldnt
at the start of the lesson. Summarise formally the cause of gender and memorise it. (5-10 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to describe how their gender is decided and how particular features are inherited.
Most pupils should be able to explain the inheritance of a particular feature such as hair colour, using the correct terminology.
Some pupils should also be able to explain how the chances of inheriting a particular characteristic are calculated.

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Draw out a large Punnet square on
a piece of thin card, make cards with different alleles
on them and some with the characteristics, so that
the pupils can
fill in the squares for different combinations of
alleles.
Extension. In addition to the determination of
gender, the sex chromosomes carry genes for other
characteristics.
Pupils could research this and find out more about
sex-linked conditions. What are the differences
between the
X and the Y chromosomes? Why is the Y
chromosome sometimes referred to as genetically
empty?
Learning styles
Visual: Viewing family trees.
Auditory: Listening to explanations of the key words
and ideas.
Kinaesthetic: Working out the Punnet squares.
Interpersonal: Working in pairs on Punnet squares.
Intrapersonal: Reflecting on the inheritance of
chromosomes.
Homework. Pupils could draw their own eye colour
family tree (beware of possible social complications).
This could be broadened to include tongue rolling,
dimples, dangly ear lobes, straight thumbs or any
other characteristic that the individual pupils choose.
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
Some pre-printed Punnet squares.
Safety

52

Fusion 3: B2.9 Breeding animals


National Curriculum Link up
3.3d
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
What characteristics are
required in domestic animals?
What is meant by selective
breeding?
How selective breeding can
produce animals with the
required characteristics.

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Pupils could be given
pictures of different breeds of working
dogs to match with the names of the jobs
they do. This could be extended to other
groups of animals, such as horses and
cattle.
Extension. Pupils could draw up a flow
chart to summarise the stages of the
selective breeding of cattle that would
increase milk production in the herds in an
African country.
Learning styles
Visual: Viewing the different examples of
selective breeding.
Auditory: Listening to the explanations of
how selective breeding occurs.
Kinaesthetic: Working out the selected
features from the examples displayed.
Interpersonal: Working together to
discuss issues.
Intrapersonal: Considering their own
views on the ethical problems of selective
breeding.
Homework. Pupils could write a short
account explaining the purpose of the
domestication of animals. They could be
encouraged to consider why some
animals, such as dogs and horses, were
chosen for domestication and not others,
such as bears.
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
Safety

Teaching / Learning activities


Lesson structure
Starter - Dogs jobs
Show the pupils pictures of half a dozen or more types of dog. Give them a list of descriptions of the jobs
the dogs have to do and get them to match the type of dog to the job description. This could be either a
small group task or an individual one. Hold a discussion on the findings and get the pupils to speculate
as to how the dogs became suited for their various tasks over time. Lead this into the main lesson
content. (1015 mins)
Main
Place around the room a range of photographs of animals which have features which may have been
developed or enhanced through selection. In a circus, starting at any point but all going around in the
same direction, get the pupils to look at the pictures and fill in a worksheet naming the animals and
describing the features which human beings would have deliberately bred into them. Give a short fixed
time limit and conclude by drawing out from them the agreed selected features of the animals and
speculating as to how this may have been done.
Hold a gut responses session where you show a picture of a highly selected animal such as the Belgian
Blue cattle mentioned in the pupil text (you could point out the double buttocks it appears to have four
cheeks) and get them to discuss how they feel about this, without leading opinion. Give examples of
difficulties which are associated with pedigree breeding in certain varieties of dogs, such as the
hereditary hip problems, breathing and eye defects. Give the pupils Show me individual white boards
and get them to draw horizontal line across the centre. Put a capital A (for Agree) on the left of the line
and a capital D (for Disagree) on the right hand end. Display or read out a number of statements
concerning the benefits and ethical problems which can arise from selective breeding. Get the pupils to
draw a cross on their line to show to what extent they agree or disagree with each statement. Pick on
some pupils to explain their choice of position, especially those who chose extreme ends of the
statement line.
Plenary - Selection of the ant people
Show a number of castes of ants with various features and specialists such as soldier ants, queens,
workers. Get the pupils to imagine what would happen to the human race if they were artificially selected
for particular purposes. Discuss this in small groups and feed-back imaginative ideas. (510 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to describe some of the characteristics required in domestic animals and how selective breeding occurs.
Most pupils should be able to describe how to select suitable animals with the required characteristics for breeding.
Some pupils should also be able to explain the advantages and disadvantages of selective breeding with specific examples.
How Science Works.
Explain some issues, benefits and drawbacks of scientific developments with which they are familiar. (1.1b) See Great debates.

53

Fusion 3: B2.10 Selective breeding in plants


National Curriculum Link up
3.3d
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. There is a great deal in
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
this lesson which is accessible to all
Starter - Cave man diet
What characteristics are
abilities, but, if appropriate, pupils could
selected for breeding in plants. Take the pupils on an imaginary time machine trip to the Stone Age. Ask them what they would find to eat
be given pre-printed labels for pictures of
and how it would be different from their food today. Hand around some grass seeds, but do not let the
the brassicas, to carry out a matching
pupils eat them. You could show a PowerPoint slide show giving examples of how plants have been
How selective breeding is
exercise.
changed by humans over the centuries. As examples, show sloes and plums, crab apples and modern
carried out in plants.
Extension. Pupils to find out what a
varieties, ancient wheat and modern varieties. Summarise the differences in a few written sentences. (510
seed bank is. Ask: Why are seed banks
mins)
Main
important?
Learning styles
Versatile brassicas: Bring in a range of brassica plants such as various types of cabbage, including red
Visual: Viewing the slide show or circus of
cabbage (cut across the grain to show its beautiful internal patterning), sprouts (on the stem if possible),
brassicas.
kohlrabi, cauliflower (including coloured varieties and the fractal patterned Romanesque), cress, rape,
Auditory: Listening to explanations of
broccoli and some of the more exotic brassicas. Have them arranged in a circus around the room. As an
plant selection.
alternative, if the plants themselves are not available, use photographs. As an observation exercise, get the
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the hand
pupils to describe the
pollination.
similarities and differences between the plants and to make notes on these which they can compare with
Interpersonal: Discussing plant selection.
those of their peers. In his series Jamie at Home, the TV chef Jamie Oliver grows brassicas and
Intrapersonal: Describing how to set up
demonstrates some interesting recipes using them. (If relevant, show a video of a recipe or Jamie
the
explaining the different types, or link with Food Technology.)
Competition for homework.
If your school has a greenhouse, consider carrying out some hand pollination exercises. Instead of a fine
Homework. Pupils could write an
paint brush, some plant scientists use a dead bee glued to a stick to transfer the pollen from the anthers to
account of how they would organise a
the stigmas. (If you choose to use this method, beware of allergies and potential for adverse pupil
sunflower growing (or any other
response.) If no practical is to be carried out, some video footage of the process taking place would be
vegetable) competition for a Year 7 class,
appropriate here.
making it as fair as possible and
If a computer suite or a class set of laptops is available, look on the internet for selective breeding
establishing the judging criteria. Height is
simulation programmes. Allow the pupils to work their way through, supplying a prompt sheet if required.
Plenary - The pollinator
not the only criterion it could be
suggested to them that there are other
Search the Planet Science website for an interactive game called The pollinator. The objective is to
ways of assessing growth and productivity
produce a black flower by hand pollinating a sequence of flowers with the pollen from other ones. Try this
[weight of seed produced, numbers of
first and work out the combination of alleles, so that you can guide the pupils before the exercise becomes
seeds produced, diameter of flower head].
too time consuming. (1015 mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to describe some desirable characteristics of crops and other plants.
Most pupils should be able to describe the principles of the selective breeding process.
Grass seeds for Cave man starter.
Some pupils should also be able to describe in detail and explain the process of selective
A range of brassicas as listed in the notes.
breeding.
For hand pollination activity:
Suitable plants with flowers, paint brushes, scalpels, polythene bags, rubber bands.

54

Fusion 3: B2.11 - Evolution


National Curriculum Link up
3.3d
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Whats in a word?
About the life and work of
Ask the pupils to write down what they understand by the word evolution. Emphasise that there
Charles Darwin.
is not going to be any judgement of whether their understanding agrees with the official
scientific meaning of the word. Tell them that you are interested in their current understanding of
What is meant by the
the word. Ask some pupils to read out what they have written and follow this with a discussion,
term
which then leads into the main lesson. (510 mins)
evolution.
Main
Show a video summarising the work of Darwin (David Attenboroughs 1998 The Origin of
How some animals, such
Species: An Illustrated Guide is particularly good but there are many worthy others). A set of
as
questions, appropriate to your class, can be prepared in advance to accompany the chosen
giraffes, have evolved.
video. Flag up the keywords and their meanings as the video progresses, pausing as need be
to allow the pupils to answer the questions. Pay particular attention to the evolution of beak
How we can use
types in the finches and relate this to the appropriate sections of the pupil text.
evidence to support or
Divide the class into groups and, using packs of large paper cut-outs with relevant phrases
disprove a theory.
printed on them, get the pupils to assemble the sequence of events which result in evolution.
On completion, allow the pupils to circulate and check each others orders and to suggest
corrections if necessary. It is important to establish that a large amount of time is needed for the
events of evolution to occur.
Get the pupils to research the evidence for evolution themselves, citing evidence from fossils,
DNA as well as anatomical evidence, such as the evolution of the horse.
Plenary Whats the sequence
A sequencing exercise of horse precursors could be provided for pupils to reinforce the ideas in
the lesson. (5 10 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to describe some of the contributions made by Charles Darwin to the theory of evolution.
Most pupils should be able to explain how giraffes have evolved.
Some pupils should also be able to summarise the evidence for evolution.
How Science Works.
Use criteria to select relevant scientific data and other sources of evidence to support or negate an argument. (1.1a3)
Explain how scientific evidence from a range of sources can be used to support or disprove theories. (1.1a3) See Great
debates.

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Key words and their meanings could be
written on
separate strips of paper, so that a matching exercise can
be carried out.
Extension. Charles Darwin was not the only person to
develop a theory of evolution. Pupils could research other
ideas on evolution, including those of Lamarck, Aristotle,
William Paley, James Hutton, Charles Lyall, Georges
Cuvier, Georges-Louis Buffon and Erasmus Darwin. Any
pupils interested in geology could research how influential
knowledge of fossils has been to the ideas on evolution.
Learning styles
Visual: Viewing the picture and videos of Charles Darwin.
Auditory: Listening to the views of others in the
discussions about
evolution.
Kinaesthetic: Assembling the sequence of events in the
evolutionary process.
Interpersonal: Working in a group to sort out the meaning
of evolution.
Intrapersonal: Carrying out individual research on
evolution.
Homework. Great debates: Pupils could write a short
speech in favour of Darwins theory or against it, in
preparation for a debate on the subject. They should be
encouraged to use as much evidence as they can in
support of their views. In order to get a balanced view from
the class, you could suggest that half the pupils write a
speech in support of the idea and half take the opposite
view.
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
Safety

55

Fusion 3: B2.12 Cloning and gene therapy


National Curriculum Link up
1.2b, 3.3d
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Get the pupils to design
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
and make a poster to show how to take
Starter - Cloning
What is meant by
successful cuttings. The pupils could be
Using PowerPoint, establish what is meant by a clone, showing examples of organisms with identical genes.
cloning?
supplied with pictures and/or with text that
Examples could include identical twins (discuss any examples which are present in the school or known to the
pupils), Spider plant runners and plants which reproduce using bulbils, such as the Mexican hat plant Bryophyllum has to be arranged in the correct order.
How cloning can be
Extension. Using the internet and any
diagremontiana or various species of Kalanchoe, a picture of Dolly the sheep. (510 mins)
carried out.
Main
other resources available, pupils could find
out about the possibilities of gene
Cuttings activity: Pupils will have carried out a cuttings practical during Year 7, but may be interested in doing
How gene therapy
therapy for conditions other than cystic
another one, especially if they can use a different type of plant. If they have already taken cuttings of geraniums,
works.
fibrosis.
try using a very attractive and varied plant, such as flame nettles (Coleus). Bulbils from the previously mentioned
Learning styles
plants (Spider plant and Mexican hat plant) are also easily set up as an asexual reproduction exercise.
The ethical issues
Emphasise that some animals can carry out asexual reproduction as a method of increasing their numbers rapidly Visual: Watching videos/PowerPoints.
involved in human
Auditory: Listening to the
during favourable environmental conditions. Aphids are a good example. Another example is the simple aquatic
cloning.
discussions on ideas about cloning.
organism Hydra viridis, which can be found in many school ponds or it can be purchased from biological supplies
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the cuttings
companies such as Blades.
practical activity.
Other examples of asexual reproduction could include flatworms which, when their head is partially cut in two in
Interpersonal: Working in a
the right way, will successfully separate.
group in practical.
Get the pupils to carry out a bookwork or worksheet exercise to reinforce and record the coverage. This should
Intrapersonal: Reflecting on the ethics of
include a table of advantages and disadvantages of using cloning. This could be finished off for homework.
human cloning.
Discuss the ethical issues involved in the Great Debates box. Compassion in World Farming will supply free
Homework. Pupils to carry out, or
videos on GM (genetic modification) and cloning to schools. They are very well put together and have good
complete, the bookwork or worksheet
support material, but they adopt a negative standpoint. For a positive view, the public information from the
exercise suggested in the main lesson.
Monsanto website could be used as a counterbalance.
Plenary - Copy cat
The particular emphasis here should be
on the advantages and disadvantages of
On an interactive white board or on stand-alone computers, either singly or in groups, play the Flash game
cloning.
Copycat on the Museum of Canada website (search for The Geee! in Genome then try it! then online games).
The objective is to identify the cloned kittens from a litter using DNA analysis in a fun way. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to describe a clone, give some examples of clones and how to carry out the process.
Suitable plants as suggested in the lesson
Most pupils should be able to explain what a clone is and to describe an example of gene therapy, listing some ethical issues involved in
notes, knives, rooting powder, pots, compost,
human cloning.
polythene bags.
Some pupils should also be able to explain how genetic engineering is linked to gene therapy, and produce a balanced view of the
Safety
ethical issues involved in human cloning.
How Science Works.
Care with scalpels or knives.
Recognise that different decisions on the use and application of scientific and technological developments may be made in different
economic, cultural and social contexts. (1.1b) See Great Debates.

56

FUSION 3 C1 Marvellous metals

57

Fusion 3: C1.2 Metals and oxygen


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, 3.2b
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Wheres the shine?
What happens when a metal
Show pupils a picture of a piece of rusty metal and some tarnished silver. Ask them to suggest what might
reacts with oxygen.
have happened. Give them time in groups to discuss their ideas. [The metals react with oxygen in the air.] (10
mins)
Whether all metals react with
Main
oxygen.
Remind pupils of the range of metal elements which are listed on the Periodic Table. It might be a good
opportunity here to do a quick verbal test on the typical properties of metals. Remind pupils about the amount
of oxygen in our atmosphere [21%] and explain that this oxygen can react with metals which are exposed to it.
Ask pupils if they can remember what some of the signs of a chemical reaction are [e.g. colour change,
fizzing, heat given off] and then invite them to carry out the Investigating the reaction of metals and
oxygen activity described in the pupil book.
Establish that the metals have reacted with oxygen in the air; they have been oxidised and the magnesium is
much more reactive than the iron.
Remind pupils that we can describe the progress of a chemical reaction using a word equation. Ask pupils to
write word equations for the reactions they have seen, based on the general equation: metal + oxygen metal
oxide.
Plenary - Whats the pattern?
Extend the word equation writing from the main lesson to include metals not seen in the lesson. This is an
ideal opportunity to teach pupils about the idea that chemical reactions follow patterns. (10 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to state that when a metal reacts with oxygen a metal oxide is formed.
Most pupils should be able to write word equations for the reactions and observe differences in reactivity.
Some pupils should also be able to write balanced symbol equations for the reactions.
How Science Works
Use and apply qualitative and quantitative methods to obtain and record sufficient data systematically. (1.2d)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Give pupils cards
with the names of products and
reactants on to help them build up
the work equations.
Extension. Ask pupils to write
balanced symbol equations for the
reactions after they have completed
the word equations.
Learning styles
Visual: Observing chemical
reactions.
Auditory: Describing their
observations.
Kinaesthetic: Reacting the metal
with oxygen.
Intrapersonal: Understanding the
concept of word and symbol
equations.
Homework. Gold will only react
with oxygen plasma. Ask pupils to
find out what plasma is [very high
energy gas].

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required Apparatus per group: 2 gas
jars of oxygen (plus some
spares available in case the reaction doesnt work first time), two
3 cm long strips of magnesium ribbon, 2 marble sized balls of
iron wool (must not be tightly squashed or it wont ignite), 2
deflagrating spoons, tongs, Bunsen Burner, heat mat, matches,
blue cobalt glass, eye protection. Optional: piece of copper foil.
Safety Eye protection must be worn. Pupils must observe the
burning magnesium through blue glass. Magnesium ribbon:
CLEAPSS Hazcard 59A. Oxygen: CLEAPSS Hazcard 69.

58

Fusion 3: C1.3 Metals and water


National Curriculum Link up
1.1b, 3.2b, 3.2c
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Special needs. Concentrate on making
Lesson structure
Objectives
observations of the reactions and using this
Starter - Its a gas?
Pupils should
learn:
Ask pupils to correctly match up statements which give the name of a gas (hydrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide), the information to establish the order of reactivity
of the metals.
test for that gas and the positive outcome of the test. (5 mins)
What happens
Extension. Ask pupils to convert the word
Main
when a metal
equations into balanced symbol equations.
reacts with water? Remind pupils of the work they have done about metals so far, especially about their properties. Remind them of the
Learning styles
idea they met last lesson that some metals are more reactive than others.
Visual: Observing the reactions between
Suggest to them that some metals are so reactive that they will react with cold water. Then demonstrate the reaction
That there are
metals and water.
of the first three elements in Group 1 of the Periodic Table; lithium, sodium and potassium. Once you have shown
differences in the
Auditory: Describing their observations.
these to the pupils, you may wish to show them videos of the next two elements in the group reacting with water;
ways different
Kinaesthetic: Reacting metals with acids.
rubidium and caesium. [If you have time, this is an ideal opportunity to introduce the concept of groups to pupils.]
metals react with
Intrapersonal: Understanding that some
Before showing pupils videos of rubidium and caesium ask them to predict what they think will happen based on the
water.
metals are more reactive than others and
reactivity of the first three elements in the group.]
Get pupils to carry out the Reactions of metals with water investigation described in the pupil book.
that there are patterns in reactivity.
Homework. If you havent shown them
Based on the evidence seen in the two experiments, establish that hydrogen gas is given off, and build up word
video clips in the lesson, ask pupils to find
equations of the general form:
out about the reactions of rubidium and
metal + water metal hydroxide + hydrogen.
caesium with water.
Ask pupils to write the metals in a league table. in order of reactivity. They will meet the reactivity series formally in a
later lesson, but this is an opportunity to start to build up the idea of one. Place metals in order from most to least
reactive. Potassium (or caesium if shown) should be at the top.
Plenary - Spot the pattern
Invite pupils to write word equations for the reaction with water of metals not shown to them in the lesson. (5 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required. Demo Group 1 metals + water - rice grain sized piece of lithium
All pupils should be able to explain that, when
metal, rice grain sized piece of sodium metal, rice grain sized piece of potassium metal, filter paper, large glass bowl, one-third filled with
a metal reacts with water, hydrogen gas is
water, safety screens, tweezers, universal
released.
indicator solution, eye protection (or full face shield), Optional: visualiser, scalpel for cutting metals, white tile to cut on, matches and
Most pupils should be able to write word
splints, filter paper (to absorb oil).
equations for the reactions and observe
Safety - Do not react large pieces. Hold the metal with tweezers rather than tongs.
differences in the reactivity.
Ensure pupils are viewing the reaction through, rather than round, the safety screen. A glass or Perspex sheet over the top of the safety
Some pupils should also be able to write
screens stops hot metal spitting over the top. Keep pupils well away. Lithium metal is highly flammable and corrosive: CLEAPSS Hazcard
balanced symbol equations for the reactions.
How Science Works.
58. Sodium metal is highly flammable and corrosive: CLEAPSS Hazcard 88. Potassium metal is highly flammable and corrosive:
CLEAPSS Hazcard 76.
Use and apply qualitative and quantitative
Metals + water - Apparatus per group: 23 small pieces of calcium, 12 cm strip of magnesium ribbon, a small piece of copper foil, 3
methods to obtain and record sufficient data
small beakers or boiling tubes, 3 test tubes, measuring cylinder (5 cm3), tweezers, matches and a splint, spatula, emery cloth, eye
systematically. (1.2d)
protection.
Safety - Do not react large pieces of calcium. Hold calcium with tweezers. Wear eye protection.
Magnesium ribbon: CLEAPSS Hazcard 59A. Calcium metal is highly flammable: CLEAPSS Hazcard 16.

59

Fusion 3: C1.4 Metals and acid


National Curriculum Link up
1.1b, 3.2b, 3.2c
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - pHancy that!
What happens when a
Read out statements about the pH scale. Pupils must decide if they are true or false. (5 mins)
metal
Main
reacts with an acid.
Remind pupils of the work they have done on pH in the last few lessons. Also remind them of the
differences in reactivity seen last lesson. Explain that in this lesson they are going to be reacting metals with
That not all metals react
acids.
with acids.
Ask the pupils to carry out Reacting metals with acids as described in the pupil book. While doing the
experiment ask pupils to consider which metal is the most reactive.
Give pupils the general equation for the reaction:
metal + acid metal salt + hydrogen gas
Build up, with pupils help, the word equation for the magnesium reaction:
magnesium + hydrochloric acid magnesium chloride + hydrogen
Establish that there is no trickery in chemical reactions; whatever is there at the start is there at the end
and if it isnt there at the start, it cant be there at the end. In these reactions, the hydrogen in the acid
swaps places with the metal. The name of the salt will always be: name of metal, followed by the salt-type
formed from the acid. When hydrochloric acid is used a chloride is made, when nitric acid is used a nitrate
is made and when sulfuric acid is used a sulfate is made.
Ask pupils to predict the salt made when a given metal and acid react and perhaps to write the word
equations.
Plenary - Safety matters
Ask pupils to suggest why many of the metals seen last lesson, such as potassium, should not be added to
acid. [The reaction is much more violent than with water.] (5 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to state that when a metal reacts with an acid, a metal salt and
hydrogen gas are formed.
Most pupils should be able to write word equations and describe differences in reactivity.
Some pupils should also be able to write balanced symbol equations and to predict the products
of unseen reactions.
How Science Works
Use and apply qualitative and quantitative methods to obtain and record sufficient data
systematically. (1.2d)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Writing word equations is a
relatively high level skill. It can be simplified by
using molecular model sets to represent parts
of molecules. The colours used are not really
relevant but an acid should be made of two
different coloured parts: one for the hydrogen
and one for the rest. Pupils can then model the
metal replacing the hydrogen.
Extension. Ask pupils to write balanced
symbol equations for the reactions they have
seen in the lesson.
Learning styles
Visual: Observing the reactions between
metals and acid.
Auditory: Writing word equations.
Kinaesthetic: Reacting the acids with the
metals.
Intrapersonal: Understanding that, in a
reaction, nothing is created or destroyed.
Homework. Ask pupils to find out what table
salt, sodium chloride, is used to make. [There
are many substances which rely on sodium
chloride as the raw material, e.g. we obtain
hydrogen for use as a fuel, chlorine for making
PVC and bleach, sodium hydroxide for making
soaps and cleaners.]

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required
3
3
Per group: 9 cm of 0.4 mol/dm hydrochloric acid, 1 small piece each of magnesium
ribbon, zinc foil, copper (or silver) foil, small piece of sandpaper to remove dirt/corrosion
from metal, 3 test tubes, test tube rack, eye protection.
Safety
Eye protection must be worn.
Hydrochloric acid: CLEAPSS Hazcard 47A.
Magnesium ribbon: CLEAPSS Hazcard 59A.

60

Fusion 3: C1.5 Reactivity Series


National Curriculum Link up
1.1b, 3.2b, 3.2c
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Give students preLesson structure
Pupils should learn:
prepared cards, with some basic reaction
Starter - What a state
That some metals are
data about metals they have seen in
At this stage in Key Stage 3 science, it is worth trying to get the pupils to recall previous work. Show pupils
more
previous lessons, to sort during the main
diagrams of the particles in solids, liquids and gases and ask them to say which is which and to justify their
reactive than others.
pupil activity.
answers. (5 mins)
Extension. Challenge pupils to explain why
Main
What the reactivity
ships often have a large block of a reactive
Remind pupils of the experiments they have carried out over recent lessons. Discuss the fact that they have
series is.
metal such as magnesium bolted to them.
looked at metals reacting with different substances and that some reacted more readily than others.
[The magnesium is much more reactive than
Introduce the idea of a reactivity league table, with very reactive metals at the top and less reactive ones near
the iron in the steel hull of most ships. The
the bottom.
Ask pupils to carry out the activity in the pupil book; The reactivity series. This activity may work better if pupils
magnesium reacts with the seawater and
oxidises instead of the hull. The hull stays
have not seen the text book first, so they cant cheat by looking at the reactivity series printed there. A good way
undamaged by corrosion for much longer.
for pupils to do this activity is to ask them to write the name of each metal they have met in this topic on a square
The magnesium block will dissolve but is
of paper. Alongside the name they could note down any reactions they have seen it undergo. They can then sort
easily replaced.]
the metals into order according to their reactivity, with the most reactive at the top. Once they have completed
Learning styles
their series they could compare it with other pupils before checking against the one in the book.
Auditory: Justifying their reactivity series.
Explain to pupils that the reactivity series is very important as it can be used to predict whether reactions are
Kinaesthetic: Sorting their reactivity series.
possible or not. They will be looking at this in future lessons. You may also like to say that, if we wanted to, we
Homework. Ask pupils to find out where
could include every element in the reactivity series. Mostly, however, we only include about 15 metals and,
other metals should fit into the reactivity
perhaps carbon and hydrogen.
Plenary - That cant be right?
series.
By dipping a piece in some acid, show pupils that aluminium is difficult to place in the reactivity series as it
appears unreactive. Sand the surface and then dip it in again. [Aluminium reacts quickly with oxygen to form a
tough layer of oxide on the surface which prevents it from reacting. Sand the coating off and it will react.
Aluminium is self protecting in this respect. Rust forms a loose layer on the surface of iron which does not prevent
metal underneath from corroding.] (10 mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required Plenary: That cant be right?
All pupils should be able to describe how some metals are more reactive than others.
Most pupils should be able to explain the sequence of the metals in the reactivity
Demonstration apparatus: 1 piece of aluminium, not fresh and shiny, small beaker, containing 50
3
series.
cm3 of 1 mol/dm hydrochloric acid, sand paper, paper towels (to wipe dry
Some pupils should also be able to explain how sacrificial protection works.
the aluminium), eye protection.
Safety Wear eye protection.
Rinse hands immediately if you get acid on them; hydrochloric acid: CLEAPSS Hazcard 47A.

61

Fusion 3: C1.6 Solid displacement


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b, 3.2c
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Missing words
What displacement is?
Show pupils a reactivity series with some of the elements missing from it. Ask them to add the missing
ones. To support lower attainers, you could give them elements from which to select the missing ones.
When a metal will
(5 mins)
displace
Main
another from a
Remind pupils of the work they have done on the reactivity series and explain that we can use the
compound.
reactivity series to predict whether a reaction will happen or not.
Explain the idea of displacement: that one metal can push another out of a compound if it is reactive
enough. It can be helpful to conjure up the image of a tug of war, with the two metals pulling on the
rope from either end. The most reactive metal will win. Be aware that with this analogy some pupils
like to suggest that one metal is stronger than the other, which is not the case: formal explanations
should use the term more reactive.
Demonstrate the thermite reaction to pupils, with great care. Explain that aluminium is more reactive
than iron so it can take the oxygen away from it.
Ask pupils to predict whether there would be a reaction between zinc and potassium oxide [there
wouldnt, zinc is lower in the reactivity series than potassium] and magnesium and copper oxide [there
will magnesium is much higher than copper].
Demonstrate that magnesium will react with copper oxide.
Plenary - Will it, wont it?
Suggest some other possible displacement reactions to pupils and ask for their predictions. (5 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to state that a more reactive metal will
displace a less reactive one.
Most pupils should be able to write word equations to describe
displacement reactions.
Some pupils should also be able to use the reactivity series to
predict whether or not a displacement reaction will take place.

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Predicting whether a reaction will
happen using the reactivity series is quite
conceptual. It can be made easier by giving pupils
the word oxide on a piece of card. They can place
the card next to the element which has the oxygen
on the periodic table and then see much more easily
whether the element which is trying to steal it is
able to.
Extension. Ask pupils to consider why a vigorous
reaction is not seen when a metal at the top of the
reactivity series tries to displace one below it, but
also near the top of the series.
Learning styles
Visual: Observing the displacement reactions.
Intrapersonal: Using the reactivity series to decide
whether a reaction will happen or not.
Homework. Pupils could find out what the thermite
reaction is used for, apart from joining railway lines.
[It has been used in many situations where using
traditional welding machinery would be problematic.
It has been used to weld metal underwater.]

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required - Demonstration thermite apparatus: 9 g iron oxide powder, 3 g
aluminium powder, 0.2 g magnesium powder and 2 g barium nitrate powder, mixed carefully to make the igniter, 10
cm magnesium ribbon, eye protection, safety screens. See pupil book for apparatus.
Safety Wear eye protection and a lab coat. Pupils must also wear eye protection. Use safety screens.
If carried out correctly, this reaction is exciting but safe. CLEAPSS guide L195 provides the latest advice for setting up
this reaction. Aluminium powder is highly fl ammable: CLEAPSS Hazcard 01. Magnesium powder is highly flammable:
CLEAPSS
Hazcard 59A. Barium nitrate is oxidising and harmful: CLEAPSS Hazcard 11.
Reaction between copper oxide and Magnesium - Equipment and materials required
Demonstration apparatus: 0.5 g copper oxide, 0.5 g magnesium powder, 2 bottle tops (with plastic liner removed by
burning), Bunsen burner and tripod, pipeclay triangle, matches, eye protection, safety screens.
Safety - Wear eye protection or a face shield. Use safety screens. The room should be well-ventilated to remove the
smoke. Protect the bench with hardboard or heat-proof mats. Pupils should stand towards the back of the room.
Magnesium powder is highly flammable: CLEAPSS Hazcard 59A. Copper oxide is harmful: CLEAPSS Hazcard 26.

62

Fusion 3: C1.7 Solution displacement


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b, 3.2c
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - (Dis)Solve it!
Whether or not a metal can
Ask pupils to match up solution key words, such as solvent, solute, solution, dissolve, soluble, insoluble, with
displace another metal from
their definition. (10 mins)
its solution.
Main
Whether or not the reactivity Remind pupils about the work they completed last lesson on solid displacement and using the reactivity to
predict the outcome of displacement reactions.
series can be used to
Explain that in this lesson they are going to see if the same principles can be applied when one of the metals is
predict the outcome of a
solid and one is in solution.
reaction.
Ask pupils to carry out the Solution displacement investigation described in the pupil book. They will need to
follow the instructions carefully and, perhaps, to label the spotting tile to avoid confusion. A good way to record
the results is to prepare a grid with the names of the metals down the side and the sulfates across the top. The
pupils can then record whether a reaction happened or not in the grid with a simple tick or cross; half the
reactions should work while the others will not.
Once they have completed the experiment, ask pupils to list the metals in order of reactivity, according to their
results. The principle is similar to that of solid displacement (last lesson); a more reactive metal will go into
solution, forcing the less reactive one out of solution where it will appear as a solid.
Ask pupils to prepare word equations for the reactions which do work.
Plenary Modelling displacement
Ask students why the cartoon model of a displacement reaction on page 66 can be useful. What are its
strengths and weaknesses as a model for displacement in solution? (5 10 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to state that a more reactive metal will displace a less
reactive one from its solution.
Most pupils should be able to write word equations for displacement reactions.
Some pupils should also be able to predict the outcome of a displacement reaction
using the reactivity series.
How Science Works
Explain why the manipulation of a model or analogy might be needed to clarify an
explanation. (1.1a1)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. There is ample room
for confusion and opportunity to get
solutions mixed up with the pupil
investigation into solution displacement.
It may be helpful to do the experiment in
stages.
Extension. Before undertaking the
pupil activity, ask pupils to predict the
outcome of all the reactions and hand in
their predictions. After completing the
experiment, they can check whether they
were correct or not.
Learning styles
Visual: Observing whether a
displacement reaction has occurred or
not.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the
displacement reactions.
Intrapersonal: Using the reactivity series
to decide whether reactions will happen
or not.
Homework. Complete some word (or
symbol) equations for displacement
reactions of some metal nitrate solutions.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required
12 cell spotting tile (dimple dish), 3 cm3 of 0.5 mol/dm3 magnesium sulfate, 3 cm3 of 0.5 mol/dm3
copper sulfate, 3 cm3 of 0.5 mol/dm3 zinc sulfate, 3 cm3 of 0.5 mol/dm3 iron(II) sulfate; three small
pieces each of copper foil, magnesium ribbon, zinc foil; 3 pinches of iron filings, eye protection.
Safety
Wear eye protection.
Zinc sulphate is an irritant: CLEAPSS Hazcard 108B.

63

Fusion 3: C1.8 Extraction of metals


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
In what form metals are found Starter - Gold rush
Show pupils a video or a photo of people panning for gold. Challenge them to explain why no-one bothers
in the Earths crust.
to pan for sodium. (5 mins)
Main
How metals can be extracted
Remind pupils of the work they have done on the reactivity series and displacement reactions. Explain
for our use.
that many metals are obtained by displacement reactions.
Ask them to guess (if you havent already shown them the pupil book) which metals they think might be
found as pure metals. [The metals at the bottom of the reactivity series often have not reacted with
anything, since they
were formed early in the Earths existence: platinum, gold and silver. Copper too can sometimes be found
native, though it often has to be extracted from minerals.]
Introduce the idea that most metals have reacted with something, usually oxygen, since they came into
existence on Earth, and that means we have to displace the metal from the compound in which it is found.
Compounds we can dig up which are rich in metals are called ores.
Ask pupils to carry out the Smelting activity described in the pupil book. Explain that this will only work
for metals which are less reactive than carbon; the carbon displaces metals like lead and iron from their
oxides. The method they have used is applied on an industrial scale to several metals, including lead and
iron.
Explain that any metal more reactive than carbon must be extracted by electrolysis. This applies to all
metals from aluminium upwards.
Plenary - Extraction conundrum
Read out names of metals from the periodic table, randomly. The pupils must try to remember where the
metals are in the reactivity series and to then say how they are likely to be extracted: native, smelting or
electrolysis. An electronic resource is available for this. (5 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to state that all metals are found in and extracted from the Earths
crust.
Most pupils should be able to recognise that unreactive metals are found native and explain
why carbon can be used to extract iron.
Some pupils should also be able to explain why electrolysis must be used to extract
aluminium.

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Electrolysis is a very hard
concept to grasp and may be best avoided
with lower attaining pupils. Concentrate
instead on dividing up the reactivity series.
Pupils do not need to be able to explain
electrolysis, only that metals from aluminium
upwards cannot be extracted by carbon.
Extension. There is a Stretch yourself
section in the pupil book about the use of
electrolysis to extract highly reactive metals
such as aluminium. Electrolysis is very
expensive as it uses so much electrical
energy. Ask pupils to find out how aluminium
is electrolysed industrially.
Learning styles
Visual: Observing the formation of lead by
smelting.
Kinaesthetic: Smelting lead.
Interpersonal: Working with others during
the practical.
Intrapersonal: Understanding that rocks
contain many metal compounds from which
we can extract our metal.
Homework. Pupils could find out about the
Iron Age: when it happened and how it
changed life for people.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required
Per group: 1 spatula of powdered charcoal, 1 spatula of lead oxide, boiling tube, small piece
of mineral wool to plug Pyrex boiling tube, test tube holder, heat-proof mat, Bunsen burner,
matches, eye protection.
Safety
Wear eye protection.
Take extra care if pregnant.
Ensure boiling tube is not pointing at anyone. Care must be taken when tipping out the
boiling tubes to ensure that molten lead and red hot charcoal do not spill. Lead oxide is
toxic: CLEAPSS Hazcard 56.

64

Fusion 3: C1.9 Whats the damage?


National Curriculum Link up
1.2b, 3.4b
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - World without metal
To consider whether metal
Make a list of all the items in the room which would disappear if we had no metal. Longest list wins.
extraction is ethical.
(5 mins)
Main
To consider whether we
Remind pupils about the work they did on metal extraction last lesson. Recap the general process;
should continue to refine
metal
metals.
ore and fuel must be extracted from the ground, ore is smelted or electrolysed, crude metal
processed to improve its properties using more energy, and finally products can be made from it and
distributed.
Give the class some stimulus material to help them think about the issues involved in these
processes by showing them photographs and videos of the main stages in metal production. You
could, at this point, divide the class into groups and get them to think about the issues of one aspect,
with one pupil leading each group. Give pupils time to consider some of the ideas and the
advantages and disadvantages.
Once the pupils have had a chance to consider the issues hold a class debate. You, or an appointed
pupil, could chair it, or you could hold the debate in the form of an open meeting; pupils representing
different viewpoints must sit at the front of the room. They should have the chance to make a brief
speech and then they must answer questions.
Once the debate has been allowed to run for some time, you could ask pupils to vote on whether we
should continue to extract new metal. You could, at this point, introduce the idea of recycling metal
rather than producing fresh metal and ask pupils whether they think this is viable for every metal
item.
Plenary - What do you know?
Ask pupils to write an answer to the aims in the pupil book at the start of the spread. (5 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to explain why metals are important to our lives but that extraction damages the
environment.
Most pupils should be able to explain how mining and energy use affect our environment.
Some pupils should also be able to prepare their own case for or against a mineral mine.
How Science Works
Evaluate the issues, benefits and drawbacks of scientific developments with which they are familiar. (1.1b)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Instead of holding a debate, you
could ask pupils to research the impact of a mine
on the internet. You could also ask more closed
questions to convey the key points. For example,
you could ask pupils to list all the people who
might like a mine to open in the local area or ask
them why an unemployed person might be keen
on it.
Extension. This is an ideal opportunity for
higher attaining pupils to lead the class
discussion. You could give these pupils particular
roles to adopt, such as the owner of the mining
company, the local resident, the leader of the
local council, the manager of the local job centre,
an unemployed local or a local wildlife enthusiast.
Pupils would then have to make a case in that
role and prepare
a speech for the class discussion.
Learning styles
Visual: Observing pictures of metal extraction
processes.
Auditory: Taking part in the class debate, while
speaking and listening to others.
Interpersonal: Understanding the viewpoints of
others.
Intrapersonal: Considering their own standpoint
on the extraction of metals.
Homework. Pupils to find out about the impact a
real mine, preferably one local to the school, has
had on the environment and the changes it has
caused.
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
Safety

65

Fusion 3: C1.10 Metal corrosion


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, 3.2b
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Most of this lesson is
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
very accessible to all pupils. You may
Starter - Going, going, gone
What metal corrosion is?
wish to miss out the discussion about
Show pupils a picture of a really rusty piece of metal. Ask them to explain what is happening. (5 mins)
Main
fair testing
What rusting is and what
for some pupils.
Remind pupils of the work they have done on the reactivity series, especially about the Group 1 metals which have
causes it.
Extension. If you didnt use the That
to be kept in oil to prevent them from reacting with oxygen in the air. Refer also to the extraction of metals; we have
cant be right plenary in C1.5, you
to extract metals from their ores as, over time, they react with other substances.
How to evaluate an
could ask pupils to research why
Introduce the idea that metal objects wont last forever and hold a short class debate about why. You may need to
investigation.
aluminium does not corrode quickly.
correct a common misconception here, as pupils often talk about metals rusting. Rust is the common name for the
Learning styles
compound iron oxide, hence only iron can rust. Rusting is a form of corrosion which most metals are susceptible to.
Auditory: Describing observations of
Ask pupils to set up the Rusting experiment described in the pupil book. This is a very good opportunity to talk
the rusting experiment.
about the variables in an experiment and how we can make the test fair (How Science Works). In this case, the nails
Visual: Observing the results of the
should all be the same and the tubes should be left in the same place to ensure that air circulation and temperature
rusting experiment.
are as similar as possible (apart from the sealed tubes). The length of time the tubes are left for should also be the
Intrapersonal: Understanding that
same. You may also wish to ask the pupils to set up a control; an iron nail in a dry test tube. [The control can be
rusting is the opposite chemical
used as a comparison at the end of the experiment.]
process
Especially if you plan to leave the tubes and return to them in a few days, you could ask the pupils to predict what
they think will happen. You may need to discuss with pupils what is present/absent from each tube; oxygen, water or to smelting.
Homework. Pupils could look for
salt, so that they dont get distracted by the chemicals added. Give pupils the word equation for
rusty items at home and suggest
rusting: iron + oxygen iron oxide, to help them make their predictions.
Plenary - Slow lane
how the rusting could be slowed or
prevented.
Ask pupils to consider why cars in hot countries, such as Saudi Arabia, tend to last longer than in colder, damp
ones, like the UK. [The dry air in hot countries does not have enough moisture in it for rusting to happen quickly.] (5
mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to state that metals corrode, iron rusts and that this weakens the metal.
Per group: 4 or 5 test tubes (depending on whether you wish pupils to set up
Most pupils should be able to describe how iron rusts most rapidly when oxygen, water and salt are
3
3
a control), 4 or 5 iron nails (3750 mm in length), 10 cm boiled water, 3 cm
present.
3
Some pupils should also be able to balance a symbol equation by themselves.
tap water, 10 cm salt water (10% solution), 1 cm3 paraffin or cooking oil, 1
How Science Works
spatula of anhydrous calcium chloride, spatula, bung for test tube, test tube
Explain how improvements to the planning and implementation would have led to the collection of more
rack.
Safety
valid and reliable evidence and a more secure conclusion. (1.2e)
Calcium chloride is an irritant: CLEAPSS Hazcard 19A.

66

Fusion 3: C1.11 Whats the use?


National Curriculum Link up
3.2a, 3.2b
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. A sorting activity
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
could be used to help pupils consider
Starter - Particles
Why certain metals are
why metals are used for a particular
Ask pupils to sketch the arrangement of the particles in solids, liquids and gases. [Solids: all particles touching,
chosen for particular
purpose.
neatly arranged. Liquids: most particles touching, not neatly arranged. Gases: particles not touching and randomly
purposes.
Extension. Ask pupils to find out
arranged.] (10 mins)
Main
about the function of a catalytic
How we can change the
converter in a car exhaust.
Ask pupils to list the key properties of metals. [Shiny, conduct heat and electricity, malleable, ductile, sonorous,
properties of a metal by
Learning styles
strong, high melting and boiling points]. Explain that, while these properties are typical, they do vary from metal to
making an alloy.
Visual: Making observations of
metal.
the arrangements of the bubbles
Ask pupils to recall the uses of some of the metals and then to work in small groups to come up with a list of
in the alloy modelling.
properties of that metal which make it suitable for that use, e.g. copper is used to make electrical wires as it is a very
Auditory: Describing their
good conductor of electricity and fl exible so the wires will bend.
observations.
Introduce the idea that sometimes we would like to change and improve the properties of a metal. By mixing metals
Kinaesthetic: Modelling alloys.
together, we can make an alloy which may have better properties for a particular use than the original
Interpersonal: Working with
metal. For example, solder has a low melting point.
others during practical work.
Ask pupils to carry out the Alloys investigation described in the pupil book. You may wish to discuss the idea that
Homework. Pupils could find out
pupils will be using bubbles to model the behaviour of atoms in metals.
about the material Memoflex.
Regroup to assess the pupils findings. The presence of a small quantity of atoms of another metal (the large
[This alloy is often used to make
bubbles) disrupts the arrangement of the particles. It may be a good time to review the arrangement of particles in a
spectacle frames which can be badly
solid. The metal atoms are not able to slide around so easily which generally makes alloys harder than pure metals.
deformed and still return to their original
Alloy wheels on a car are mostly aluminium. If they were pure aluminium they would be too soft and would buckle
shape. The most common alloy used is
easily.
nitinol, a mixture of nickel and titanium,
You could introduce pupils to the idea that steel, while mostly iron, has other metals (and often carbon) added to
though there are variations.]
alter its properties. [Adding chromium makes steel more rust-proof, adding manganese makes it more springy as in
paperclips.]
Plenary - Designer metal
Ask pupils to design the properties an alloy must have to be suitable for a particular use, for example, a space
rocket. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to state that metals have some similar properties and some different ones.
Most pupils should be able to explain that an alloy is a mixture of metals and that copper is used for wires as it is a good Per group: Petri dish, 15 cm3 of soap solution (strong enough
conductor of electricity; aluminium is light which makes it good for making vehicles and planes; and iron (steel) is strong, for bubbles to persist when blown), pipette, spatula (to push
bubbles).
making it good for building structures.
Safety
Some pupils should also be able to
How Science Works
Normal laboratory rules.
Explain why the manipulation of a model or analogy might be needed to clarify an explanation. (1.1a1)

67

FUSION 3 C2 Chemical reactions

68

Fusion 3: C2.2 - Combustion


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Teaching suggestions
Lesson structure
Objectives
Special needs. The derivation of the word
Starter - Fire, fire
Pupils should
equation may be above the level of some pupils.
learn:
Ask pupils to recall and sketch the fire triangle and explain its significance [The sides of the fire triangle are:
However, the word equation for combustion can be
fuel, oxygen and heat. Removing one of the sides will cause the fire to go out.] (5 mins)
What combustion
learned by rote.
Main
Extension. Ask pupils to research the causes of
is?
Remind pupils of the work they have done in the past on burning and the fire triangle. Establish combustion
incomplete combustion and why it is dangerous.
Learning styles
is the reaction between a fuel and oxygen. Some pupils may say that air is needed for combustion so this is
What the
Visual: Observing combustion and the visual tests
an ideal opportunity to discuss the fact that air is a mixture gases, including oxygen.
combustion
Burn a candle in front of pupils. Explain that the wax is the fuel for the candle and that it is a hydrocarbon
products
for carbon dioxide and water.
fuel which contains the elements hydrogen and carbon. Ask pupils for evidence that a chemical reaction is
of wax are.
Auditory: Describing the outcomes of the tests for
taking place. [Light and heat and the fact that it is not easily reversed.] Remind pupils that if a chemical
water and carbon dioxide.
Homework. Pupils to find out about the safety
reaction is taking place, new substances must be formed.
Demonstrate the collection and testing of the products of combustion. Establish that both water and carbon
suggestions for gas appliances in the home,
dioxide are formed during the combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel. Explain that gas, petrol and diesel are other
especially those which guard against incomplete
examples of hydrocarbon fuels. Explain how carbon dioxide and water (hydrogen oxide)
combustion.
are formed when carbon and hydrogen in the fuel react with oxygen. Help pupils to build up the word
equation for combustion [hydrocarbon fuel + oxygen carbon dioxide and water]. You could represent the
changes using molecular models if you have them available, showing the fuel molecule breaking up and the
carbon dioxide and water forming. [CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O, methane (CH4) is the main compound in
natural gas.] You could also extend higher attaining pupils by using the models to develop symbol equations.
Plenary - Burning question
Ask pupils to consider how the products of combustion would be different when charcoal is burned. They
should explain their answer. [Charcoal is almost pure carbon so the only product would be carbon dioxide.]
(10 mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to state that combustion is the burning of a fuel in oxygen.
Most pupils should be able to state that the products of the combustion of a hydrocarbon are
Demonstration apparatus: candle, sand tray, glass funnel, side-arm U tube with two onecarbon dioxide and water.
holed bungs in the top, cobalt chloride paper or anhydrous copper sulfate powder, beaker
Some pupils should also be able to explain how cobalt chloride paper indicates the presence of of ice, boiling tube and two-holed bung, limewater, tap suction pump, delivery tubing to
water.
link the system together, eye protection.
Safety
Wear eye protection. Avoid skin contact with cobalt chloride paper if possible.
Cobalt chloride: CLEAPSS Hazcard 25. Limewater is an irritant: CLEAPSS Hazcard 18.

69

Fusion 3: C2.3 Energy from fuels


National Curriculum Link up
1.1b, 2.1a, 3.2b
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Special needs. The fuels can be
Lesson structure
Objectives
compared at a very simple level by looking
Starter - Lets investigate
Pupils should
learn:
Give pupils some key words related to investigations, such as dependent variable, independent variable, fair test or at the temperature rise and making the
assumption that the same amount of fuel
anomalous result, and ask them to write definitions for them. (10 mins)
What a fuel is.
Main
is used if the burners are alight for the
same amount of time.
Remind pupils of the work they did about fuels last lesson. Remind them that when a hydrocarbon fuel burns it reacts
How to find out how
Extension. You can extend higher
with oxygen to produce water and carbon dioxide. Ask them why we burn fuels and establish that burning fuels
much energy a fuel
attaining pupils by asking them to
transfers energy which we can use.
can transfer.
calculate accurately the amount of energy
Ask pupils to suggest how we could measure the amount of energy released by a fuel. They will often suggest
transferred to the water.
measuring the temperature of the flame, but this is not a measure of the total energy released as much of the energy
Learning styles
will not be transferred to the thermometer. You could explain that you are far more likely to get a burn from a cup of
Visual: Observing data-logging graphs, if
hot tea than from a spark, to dispel this misconception. Even though a fire spark has a very high temperature, it does
loggers are used for the experiment.
not have much energy.
Auditory: Describing the sources of error
Establish that to measure the heat transferred in burning a fuel, the energy must be transferred to something, like
in the fuels experiment.
water, before it can be measured.
Ask pupils to carry out the How much energy is in the fuel? experiment, described in the pupil book. You may wish Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the fuels
investigation.
to have a discussion about fair testing before the pupils make a start, especially if you plan to share results to save
Interpersonal: Evaluating the experiment
time. The method given is a sound suggestion. However, if you have time you may wish to give pupils more freedom
in groups.
to alter the variables, particularly the amount of water, the time and temperature rise. [Too little water and/or too long
Intrapersonal: Understanding the idea
a time period and there is more chance of the water boiling. As the water boils, its temperature will stop rising and we
that some of the energy from the fuel is
cannot easily establish how much energy has been transferred. Large temperature rises lead to greater energy loss
lost.
from the water. It is losing energy to the surroundings throughout the experiment; the greater the temperature
Homework. Complete the write-up of the
differences between the water and the surroundings, the faster the loss. If the amount of water is too large or the time
fuels investigation.
too short, the water temperature will not change very much making it very difficult to compare fuels.]
Plenary - Fuel for thought
Give pupils data about the energy released by other fuels and ask them to consider which one is best. You could
include some solid, liquid and gaseous fuels and ask pupils to define what best means. (5 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required - Per group: 3 spirit burners, each containing a different liquid fuel,
All pupils should be able to state that burning fuels releases energy.
such as ethanol, propanol and butanol, retort stand, boss and clamp, 250 cm3 beaker, 150 cm3 of cold
Most pupils should be able to describe how burning some fuels releases more
water per run (may need to adjust depending upon heat output of your spirit burners, balance,
energy than others and how to measure this using the temperature rise of water.
measuring cylinder for water, thermometer, matches, stopwatch, electronic balance (optional for
Some pupils should also be able to explain how to make a detailed comparison
extension if pupils are to consider mass of fuel burned), eye protection.
of energy transferred using energy gained by water against mass of fuel used.
Safety - Wear eye protection.
How Science Works
The fuels are highly flammable. See CLEAPSS laboratory handbook/CD-Rom section 9.4.3 and Guide
Explain how the planned approach to answer a scientific question was informed
L195. Ethanol is harmful and highly flammable: CLEAPSS Hazcard 40A. Propanol is highly flammable
by scientific knowledge, understanding or other sources of evidence. (1.2a)
and an irritant: CLEAPSS Hazcard 84A. Butanol is harmful: CLEAPSS Hazcard 84B.

70

Fusion 3: C2.4 Whats the damage? (2)


National Curriculum Link up
1.2b, 3.2b, 3.4c
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - What global warming anyway?
How the combustion of
Ask pupils to describe what they think global warming is all about. Dont give them any clues at this stage.
fuels might affect the
It will allow you to note any misconceptions they have learned from the media. (5 mins)
environment.
Main
A good way to start this lesson is to suggest to pupils that scientists cant yet explain everything (How
The difference
Science Works). There are many things which happen naturally which people cannot yet explain. We cant
between the
even cure the common cold! Pupils may well have studied the health effects of smoking and be aware
greenhouse effect and
that, initially, nobody realised that smoking was dangerous.
global warming.
Introduce the idea that many human activities can have consequences later on. Pose the question about
what happens to the products of combustion in our atmosphere.
Ask pupils to set up the investigation Effects of carbon dioxide and methane on temperature, described in
the pupil book. This experiment could be data-logged, as the pupil book suggests, or you could use
manual thermometers. The experiment needs to be left for a while. During that period, discuss the fact
that that some acidic gases are released by the burning of fossil fuels.
Explain that, when acidic gases dissolve into the water droplets that make up clouds, they make the rain
that falls acidic. This can damage the environment. Show pupils photographs of the damage acid rain can
cause.
When you return to the gas experiment, pupils should find that the methane and carbon dioxide fl asks
have a higher temperature than the air-filled flask, because they retain more of the heat energy absorbed
from the Sun.
Plenary - Can we fix it?
Ask pupils to work in small groups to suggest ways of reducing the effects of acid rain and the human
contribution to global warming. (10 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to state that many scientists believe that carbon dioxide is causing global warming.
Most pupils should be able to explain that carbon dioxide traps heat energy in our atmosphere and increasing the
amount of carbon dioxide might lead to global warming.
Some pupils should also be able to explain whether or not they think global warming is caused by carbon dioxide or
something else.
How Science Works
Evaluate the issues, benefits and drawbacks of scientific developments with which they are familiar. (1.1b)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Give pupils cards with facts about
global warming and acid rain on to sort into two
groups. The many stages in both global warming
and acid rain make the process quite conceptual.
You may wish to stick to the concrete aspects of
both, such as their effects.
Extension. Pupils could be asked to investigate
the effects of acid rain. They could test rain water
with different gases in to establish which is the
most acidic. They could then investigate how
oxides of nitrogen and sulfur get into the
atmosphere.
Learning styles
Visual: Looking at pictures of the damage caused
by acid rain.
Auditory: Describing the greenhouse effect and
acid rain.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the investigation into
the greenhouse effect.
Intrapersonal: Understanding that the side-effects
of chemical reactions are not always immediately
apparent, nor do they always occur locally.
Homework. Ask pupils to write a newspaper
article for the future, after the Earths temperature
has risen by 10C.

Additional teachers notes


3
Equipment and materials required. Per group: three 200 cm
conical flasks, 3 temperature
probes and data-logger or 3 thermometers, 3 bungs with single
hole to accept temperature probe or thermometer (must seal
around it). Access to supply of carbon dioxide. Access to supply
of methane, for example laboratory gas supply which is
approximately 75% methane.
Safety.
Methane is extremely flammable: CLEAPSS Hazcard 45A.

71

Fusion 3: C2.5 - Oxidation


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Shelf life
Pupils should
learn:
Show pupils a selection of food packets. Ask them to sort the foods into groups based on their shelf life. At its
simplest, this could be just two groups: foods with a very short shelf life and those with a long shelf life. You
What oxidation is?
could also ask pupils to suggest why those foods have short or long shelf lives. (10 mins)
Main
What the product of
Remind pupils of the work they have done on oxidation reactions in the past. Remind them that, at its simplest
oxidation is.
level, oxidation is the reaction of something with oxygen.
Review some of the word equations for oxidation reactions met in recent lessons, such as the reaction of
carbon, iron or sulfur with oxygen. Establish that an oxide is always formed.
General equation: element + oxygen oxide
Suggest to pupils that the same thing might happen to foods. This is a good opportunity to remind pupils that
the air is about 21% oxygen.
Ask pupils to carry out the Oxidation investigation described in the pupil book. You may wish to point out to
pupils that the vinegars used are produced by leaving wine exposed to the air for a long period of time. There
is an excellent opportunity to discuss the idea of a control in an experiment. [It is an idea which is often used in
experiments where it is impossible to control all the variables and ensures that the scientist has something to
compare their results to.]
When reviewing the results of the experiment, establish that oxidation of food usually makes it acidic. You
could ask pupils how they might find out if food always became acidic.
Plenary - Living longer
Advanced preparation needed. Show pupils a bottle of cooking oil which is about one-third filled with oil and
has been left in a warm light place for about 2 weeks, with the lid sealed. Ask them to explain what might have
happened and then lead on to ways in which foods can be protected from this. [The sides of the bottle will
start to collapse as the oxygen in the air above the oil reacts and oxidises the oil. The oxides formed are not
gases and so take up less space in the bottle, the pressure inside drops and the bottle sides collapse in. Fatty
foods, such as crisps and nuts are often packed in bags filled with pure nitrogen instead of air. Nitrogen is very
unreactive.] (5 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to state that oxidation is the reaction of a substance with oxygen.
Most pupils should be able to write word equations for oxidation reactions.
Some pupils should also be able to explain how oxidation and reduction can be considered as chemical opposites,
giving examples.
How Science Works
Use and apply qualitative and quantitative methods to obtain and record sufficient data systematically. (1.2d)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Ask pupils to think about ways
we can keep food fresh at home, such as keeping
things in the fridge or by keeping lids on jars and
cereal packs closed up.
Though some of these methods are about slowing
the reproduction of microbes, they also restrict
oxygen access and the rate of reaction with
oxygen if it is present.
Extension. Ask pupils to consider redox
reactions, as suggested in the Stretch yourself
section of the pupil book.
Most metals are extracted by a redox reaction.
For example, iron ore consists mostly of iron
oxide. It is smelted with carbon to remove the
oxygen from the
iron (it is reduced) and the carbon gains the
oxygen (it is oxidised).
Learning styles
Visual: Observing the pH of substances.
Auditory: Describing their observations.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the
investigation into oxidised foods
and sorting foods into groups.
Intrapersonal: Understanding
that food oxidation can affect our health.
Homework. Pupils to find out if there are fresh
foods at home which go brown when exposed to
oxygen. Pupils could also test if lemon juice
prevents it.
[Apples, potatoes and avocado are examples.]
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required - Per group: 1 cm3 of a
range of drinks and their vinegar counterparts, such as white
wine, red wine, sherry, white wine vinegar, red wine vinegar,
sherry vinegar, cider and cider vinegar. Universal indicator or a
pH probe, spotting tile/dimple dish, dropping pipettes.
Safety - Universal indicator is flammable: CLEAPSS Hazcard 32.
Pupils must not taste any of the chemicals.

72

Fusion 3: C2.6 Acid and metal carbonate


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b, 3.2c, 3.4c
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Preparing word equations
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
from scratch is quite a high level skill.
Starter - One planet
What happens when an
Concentrate instead on assembling word
Give pupils statements about acid rain, global warming and the greenhouse effect. They must decide if
acid
equations from limited list of parts. Perhaps
the phrases are true or false. (5 mins)
reacts with a metal
Main
just consider one acid and vary the metal
carbonate.
carbonate.
Remind pupils of the work they have done on acid reactions so far. It may also be a good time to remind
Extension. Ask pupils to prepare balanced
them about oxidation reactions.
That all metal carbonates
Ask them to carry out the Metal carbonates and acids investigation described in the pupil book. Ask
symbol equations for the reactions they have
produce similar products
seen in the lesson.
pupils to make careful observations of what happens during the
when they react with acid.
Learning styles
reactions. [The main observation is fizzing.]
Establish that all the acid/carbonate combinations behave in the same way. Demonstrate to the pupils that Visual: Observing the effects of acid on metal
carbonates.
the gas released is carbon dioxide. This could be carried out quite simply by the pupils themselves if you
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the practical work
have the time available.
involving acids and metal carbonates.
Use the information gained to build up the general word equation for the reactions:
Intrapersonal: Understanding the rules for
acid + metal carbonate a salt + water + carbon dioxide
acidmetal carbonate equations.
Remind them that the salt formed depends upon the metal part of the carbonate and the acid used. Pupils
often think there is some sort of mystery surrounding chemical equations. Reassure them that there is not; Homework. Pupils to find out why sherbet is
fizzy. They could even buy and taste some
if an element is not there at the start, it cant be there at the end. Begin to assemble some word equations
sherbet as part of the work. [Sherbet contains
for acidmetal carbonate reactions, using the pupil book to help. Pupils should be familiar with salts
a solid acid and a carbonate. When they get
formed by the three main mineral acids; hydrochloric acid (forms chlorides), nitric acid (nitrates) and
wet they react, producing carbon dioxide.]
sulfuric acid (sulfates).
Higher attaining pupils could consider other acids; ethanoic acid forms ethanoates, phosphoric acid would
form a phosphate. Some pupils may need to spend some time identifying the name of the metal in the
carbonate, though it is always written first.
Plenary - Rules is rules
Give pupils random acidmetal carbonate combinations, including ones not seen in the lesson and ask
them to complete the word equations. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to recall that acids react with metal carbonates to produce a salt, water and carbon
Per group: Pieces of carbonate rocks, such as calcium carbonate
dioxide.
(marble), magnesium carbonate and malachite (copper carbonate). 3
Most pupils should be able to complete word equations for the reactions, including predicting the salt formed.
3
watch glasses, a few drops of 0.5 mol/dm sulfuric acid, a few drops of 0.5
Some pupils should also be able to write balanced symbol equations for the reactions.
3
3
How Science Works.
mol/dm nitric acid, a few drops of 0.5 mol/ dm carbonic acid, 3 dropping
Use and apply qualitative and quantitative methods to obtain and record sufficient data systematically. (1.2d)
pipettes.
Safety. Wear eye protection (chemical splash-proof). Sulfuric acid is an
irritant: CLEAPSS Hazcard 98A. Nitric acid is corrosive: CLEAPSS
Hazcard 67.

73

Fusion 3: C2.7 Making salts


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b, 3.2c
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Pupils may well need
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
help in planning the investigation. A
Starter - pH mania
The difference
suggested method that needs sorting
Ask pupils to sketch out the pH scale and label it where they can. You could simplify the task by giving them an outline
between an acid and
into the correct order could be used.
and a list of possible labels. (10 mins)
a base.
Extension. Encourage pupils to think
Main
Remind pupils of the work they have done on acids and making salts, particularly the work from last lesson on acid and of all the possible ways to make the
What neutralisation
same salt, from a metal, a base or a
metal carbonates. Remind pupils how changing the acid affects the salt formed. (Hydrochloric acid makes a chloride,
is?
carbonate. Ask them to explain why
nitric acid a nitrate, sulfuric acid a sulfate, etc.) Use the materials in the pupil book to support this.
Ask pupils to plan, and if you have time, carry out the Investigating neutralisation activity described in the pupil
using a metal element is not a common
How to make a salt.
choice. [Metals can react dangerously
book. Encourage them to think of all the ways in which they know to make salts. Pupils will need to choose a suitable
fast or too slowly.]
acid to use and then the right metal substance to react it with. They could use elemental metal, a base, alkali or
Learning styles
carbonate. However, many elemental metals react very slowly with acid or dangerously fast. You could discuss the
Auditory: Planning the investigation.
reactivity series at this point (see C1.4).
Kinaesthetic: Card sort for
There are myriad ways in which pupils could make the salts suggested so you will probably want to restrict their
investigation method (SEN) and
planning. The Practical Support section contains a plan for two examples. Pupils may not recall how to obtain salt
carrying out the investigation.
crystals from a solution of the salt and may require help with this. It should be done by evaporation over a water bath.
Intrapersonal: Understanding that
[Evaporation is never carried out by heating the salt solution directly as the crystals, when they begin to form, may be
there are several ways to make a
decomposed by the heat of a Bunsen burner
particular salt.
flame causing them to decompose. The decomposition products could be toxic.] Whichever reactants pupils choose to
Homework. Pupils could find out
use, the basic process is the same: add a metal oxide or hydroxide to an acid until no more will react, filter out the
which salts make good fertilisers and
excess oxide (if its a solid) and then evaporate the salt solution to obtain salt crystals. You could ask pupils to make a
why. [Fertilisers are often used to
particular salt, but provide a range of chemicals they could use and ask them to pick the correct combination.
Plenary - Whats in a name?
supply extra nitrogen, phosphorus and
potassium to plants. Potassium nitrate
Give pupils the names and formulae of some common acid, bases and salts. They must match the name to the correct
could, therefore, be used as a fertiliser.]
formula. (5 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to carry out a neutralisation reaction and Equipment and materials required. Neutralisation by alkali - Per group, to make sodium chloride: small beaker,
3
3
3
25 cm of 1 mol/dm hydrochloric acid + some spare in case of missing the point of neutralisation, 40 cm of 1 mol/dm3
to be able to make a sample of a salt.
Most pupils should be able to explain that an acid is the chemical
sodium hydroxide, glass rod, 2 dropping pipettes, universal indicator, 1 spatula charcoal powder, filter funnel and
opposite of a base and that one can neutralise the other.
paper, fl ask, evaporating dish, beaker for water bath, Bunsen burner, tripod and gauze, matches, chemical splashSome pupils should also be able to explain, chemically, what
proof eye protection. Neutralisation by base or carbonate - Per group, to make copper sulfate: small beaker, 25
3
3
happens during neutralisation and plan to make a salt safely.
cm of 2 mol/dm sulfuric acid, 10 g copper oxide powder, spatula, glass rod, filter funnel and paper, fl ask, evaporating
How Science Works
dish, beaker for water bath, Bunsen burner, tripod and gauze, matches, chemical splash-proof eye protection.
Safety. Wear chemical splash-proof eye protection. Sodium hydroxide is corrosive: CLEAPSS Hazcard 91. Universal
Communicate effectively and use appropriate scientific
terminology and conventions in discussion and written work.
indicator is flammable: CLEAPSS Hazcard 32. Copper oxide is harmful: CLEAPSS Hazcard 26.
(1.1c)Explain how approaches to practical work were adapted to
Sulfuric acid is corrosive: CLEAPSS Hazcard 98A. Copper sulfate: CLEAPSS Hazcard 27C. Do not allow the water
control risk. (1.2c)
bath to boil dry.

74

Fusion 3: C2.8 Exothermic and endothermic reactions


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Special needs. Showing
Lesson structure
Objectives
pupils a Bunsen burner flame could provide
Starter - Energy, energy
Pupils should
learn:
a more concrete experience of an
Show pupils a picture or video of a firework or bonfire. Ask them to list all the forms of energy they can see evidence
exothermic reaction; they can feel the heat
of. [Energy is transferred out as sound, light, thermal and, for a firework, kinetic energy.] (5 mins)
What an
Main
energy being transferred.
exothermic
Extension. The idea of energy being
Explain that, during a chemical reaction, energy can be either transferred into or away from the reactants. If energy is
change is.
transferred out causing the temperature of
transferred out, the change is said to be exothermic (out-heat). If it is transferred in, the change is endothermic (inthe reaction mixture to increase can initially
heat).
What an
Ask pupils to carry out the Classifying reactions investigation described in the pupil book. You may wish to discuss
sound contradictory. An explanation is
endothermic
included in the Main lesson section, but you
with them in advance the reasons for using polystyrene beakers rather than the usual glassware for the reactions. You
change is.
could ask pupils to explain it for themselves.
could refer back to the experiments into energy release from fuels. [Expanded polystyrene is a thermal insulator.]
Learning styles
Once pupils have collected their results, establish as a class which reactions resulted in an increase in temperature
Auditory: Describing the results of the
and which resulted in a decrease in temperature. You could invite pupils to guess whether an increase in temperature
Classifying reactions practical.
indicates an exothermic or an endothermic reaction. [This can be confusing. The thermometer does not measure the
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the investigation
energy of the reacting chemicals. Instead it measures the temperature of the water that the chemicals are dissolved in.
into exothermic and endothermic reactions.
When the reaction gives out energy, it is transferred to the water. Thus in an exothermic reaction the temperature
Interpersonal: Discussing ideas with other
increases. The opposite is true for an endothermic reaction.]
pupils about whether a reaction is
Establish which reactions are exothermic and which are endothermic. Explain to pupils that the vast majority of
endothermic or exothermic.
reactions are exothermic as the general trend is for substances to lose energy. An analogy might be something losing
Intrapersonal: Understanding that all
gravitational potential energy by rolling down a hill; objects never roll up a hill. Lead into the plenary by pointing out to
chemical changes involve energy transfer.
pupils that although the words endothermic and exothermic are used, the energy transfer may not be in the form of
Homework. Pupils could find out what
heat.
Plenary - Light fantastic
chemicals are in hand-warmers, self-heating
coffee cups and first-aid cold packs.
Show pupils a glow stick (a chemical-filled plastic tube which, when activated, transfers out light energy). Challenge
pupils to explain how, even though little heat is generated, the glow stick is still a clear example of an exothermic
reaction. (5 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required. Per group: 3 polystyrene beakers (coffee cups), 3
All pupils should be able to state that during an exothermic change the temperature
3
3
thermometers, 3 10 cm measuring cylinders, 25 cm measuring cylinder, 2 spatulas, 10
measured increases and in an endothermic change it decreases.
3
3
3
3
3
Most pupils should be able to explain that exothermic changes give out energy and
cm of 0.5 mol/dm hydrochloric acid, 10 cm of 0.5 mol/dm sodium hydroxide, 10 cm of
3
endothermic changes take in energy, often as heat.
0.5 mol/dm copper sulfate solution, access to water, spatula of magnesium powder, 3
Some pupils should also be able to explain why giving out energy makes the temperature
spatulas of potassium nitrate, chemical splash-proof eye protection.
Safety Wear chemical splash-proof eye protection. Check pupils do not use too much
increase.
How Science Works
magnesium powder as the reaction may boil over. Sodium hydroxide is corrosive:
Use and apply qualitative and quantitative methods to obtain and record sufficient data
CLEAPSS Hazcard 91. Hydrochloric acid: CLEAPSS Hazcard 47A. Copper sulfate:
systematically. (1.2d)
CLEAPSS Hazcard 27C. Magnesium powder is highly flammable: CLEAPSS Hazcard
59A. Potassium nitrate is oxidising: CLEAPSS Hazcard 82.

75

Fusion 3: C2.9 Conservation of mass


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Stick to the basic fact
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
that mass does not change during a
Starter - Whats the mass?
That mass is conserved
chemical reaction. You could use
Ask pupils what the mass of solution formed from 100 g of water and 10 g of sodium chloride would be.
during a chemical
molecular models to demonstrate this.
Demonstrate that it is 110 g, and ask them to explain why. (5 mins)
reaction.
Extension. Invite pupils to devise a way
Main
to prove that mass is conserved during
Remind pupils of the differences between elements (substances made up of only one type of atom) and
The difference between
the Mass changes in a chemical
compounds (atoms of more than one element, chemically joined together). Challenge the class to suggest what
an open and a closed
reaction experiments.
happens to mass when a chemical reaction occurs.
system.
Learning styles
Ask pupils to carry out the Conservation of mass experiment described in the pupil book. Establish that mass
Visual: Observing the chemical reactions
is conserved.
to confirm that they have taken place.
Explain to pupils that you are now going to show them some reactions where the mass does change, or at least
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out mass
appears to. Their challenge is to try to explain why.
Get the class to carry out the Mass changes in a chemical reaction experiments described in the pupil book.
conservation reactions.
Interpersonal: Working with others
Establish that, in the Conservation of mass experiment the system was closed and the other experiments
during the practicals.
involved open systems. Explain that in an open system, atoms can enter and leave. The balance is recording the
Intrapersonal: Understanding that initial
mass of atoms which have left or joined the system. To prove this we would need to capture the extra atoms and
evidence may require closer inspection,
to record their mass. In the oxidation of magnesium, oxygen atoms from the air join with the magnesium, causing
such as in mass changes in an open
its mass to increase. Before the discovery of oxygen, scientists like Lavoisier and Priestly observed this
system.
happening but could not, initially explain it. The phlogiston theory was one early way to explain the phenomenon.
Plenary - What happened?
Ask pupils to write word, or even symbol, equations for all the reactions they have seen in the lesson. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
3
Equipment and materials required. Starter - Demonstration apparatus: 250 cm
All pupils should be able to state that mass is conserved during a chemical reaction.
Most pupils should be able to explain that, if a system is open and a gas given off, that mass may
beaker, 1 decimal place balance, 100 g of water, 10 g of sodium chloride, glass
3
rod, weighing bottle. Conservation of mass - Apparatus per group: 20 cm of 0.1
appear to decrease.
3
3
Some pupils should also be able to explain how, in an open system oxidation reaction, mass appears mol/dm3 magnesium sulfate solution, 20 cm of 0.1 mol/dm barium chloride
3
to increase.
solution, 100 cm beaker, 1 decimal place balance (2 decimal place balance may
How Science Works
show a mass change), 2 measuring cylinders. Mass changes - Apparatus per
3
3
Use and apply qualitative and quantitative methods to obtain and record sufficient data
group: small beaker, 25 cm of 1 mol/dm hydrochloric acid, 2 spatulas of small
systematically. (1.2d)
marble chips, 510 cm piece of magnesium ribbon, nickel crucible and lid, tongs,
pipe-clay triangle, Bunsen burner, tripod and heat-proof mat, matches, electronic
balance (2 decimal places is good).
Safety. Barium chloride is harmful: CLEAPSS Hazcard 10A. Eye protection must
be worn. Pupils must not look into crucible while lifting the lid in case the
magnesium ignites; it burns with a very bright flame. Be careful with hot equipment.

76

FUSION 3 P1 Energy and Electricity

77

Fusion 3: P1.2 Energy in store


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a, 3.1c
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Partially completed
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
energy transfer diagrams can be
Starter - Its a wind-up
That moving objects
used to help describe the energy
Wind-up and release an elastic powered aeroplane so that it travels across the lab. Ask the pupils to describe the
have
transfer processes.
energy transfers that have taken place. Where has the energy that you stored in the elastic gone once the plane has
kinetic energy.
Extension. The pupils could look at
landed?
nuclear energy in more depth, finding
(510 mins)
That energy can be
Main
out about the changes inside a
stored as gravitational
nucleus that release energy and
In this lesson the pupils get to grips with two concepts that often cause difficulty: kinetic and potential energy. Be
potential energy, elastic
produce new elements.
careful with the term potential energy, as it is a term that covers a range of situations where the energy isnt being
potential energy and
Learning styles
actively transferred such as nuclear energy, elastic potential energy and chemical potential energy.
chemical potential
Visual: Observing how toys operate.
Let the pupils try to list the factors that affect the amount of kinetic energy that an object has; most will realise that the
energy.
Auditory: Explaining how energy
faster an object is moving the more energy it has and the larger (more massive) it is the more energy there is too.
is transferred in a range of devices.
The pupils should also try to think of the factors that affect the potential energy an object has. They should realise that
Kinaesthetic: Examining toys.
the higher up the object is, the more energy it has. Some will also realise that heavier objects will have more potential
Intrapersonal: Imagining energy
energy too.
transfers taking place.
Demonstrate some masses oscillating on elastic bands to show exchanges of elastic and gravitational potential. Make
Interpersonal: Discussing the
sure that you show some masses on springs to show that elastic potential energy is not only stored in elastic; it is in
possible energy transfers.
any stretched material.
Homework. The pupils can design
You can demonstrate some simple chemical stores of energy. A fuel can be burnt with obvious energy release, a
their own toy, or other device, that
neutralisation reaction will be exothermic or a chemical light stick can be broken to produce light energy.
operates using stored energy.
It isnt really possible to demonstrate nuclear energy at this point; the pupils just need to know that some elements
store large amounts of energy that can be released in some power stations.
The pupils can now examine the set of toys in Energy toys. They should be allowed to explore how they operate and
make notes of diagrams of the energy transfers taking place.
Plenary - Toy racers
The pupils can use the wind-up toys from earlier in the lesson and see which will travel the furthest when fully wound
up. They may need to design a track that will keep the toys travelling in a straight line. (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required. Starter Wind-up elastic,
All pupils should be able to state that moving objects have kinetic energy and that energy can be stored in
different ways.
aeroplane. Demo in main lesson - Various masses, elastic cord,
Most pupils should be able to describe the energy transfers that take place in simple toys.
springs, retort stand, boss and clamp, G-clamp. Spirit burner, light stick,
hand warmer. Energy toys - As wide a range of small battery-powered,
Some pupils should also be able to state the factors that affect the amount of kinetic energy or gravitational
potential energy an object has.
wind-up, spring or elastic-powered toys as possible. Most of the wind-up
toys will be movement based but the battery operated ones can have a
range of effects.
Safety
Individual toys may present hazards. Mobile toys could present trip
hazards if used on the floor.

78

Fusion 3: P1.3 Electricity from chemicals


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a, 3.1c
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Provide the pupils with
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Circuit sense
worksheets showing the physical and circuit
That cells can be
diagrams of the combinations of cells that
Show the pupils a set of the common circuit symbols that they will be using during this topic. They need to match
combined into
they are going to test. The students should
these up with real components that you have provided and explain what each one is used for. (510 mins)
batteries to produce a
Main
be encouraged to compare the two different
higher potential
ways of representing the circuits and decide
The pupils should have already encountered a range of models for describing electric circuits and you should ask
difference.
which is best.
them for their ideas before starting this lesson. This information can be used to inform your teaching during this
Extension. Which is best, a zinc carbon
and later lessons.
That cells transfer
Show the pupils the two terminals of the cell, positive and negative, and ask them which way the current will travel battery or an alkaline one? The pupils should
chemical energy in
design a test to see how much better the
in a circuit. There may be some pupils who describe the electrons travelling from the negative to the positive
electrical circuits.
alkaline one is in a range of different
terminal. Explain to them that this is correct in metal wires but that, due to an unfortunate assumption made in the
applications, including ones that draw a
19th century, we always describe a current as travelling from the positive terminal to the negative.
small current and ones that draw a large
Voltage is described here as the push that causes a current. A single cell causes a small push, whereas a
one. They can then decide if the extra cost is
battery produces a larger push and mains supply can produce a much greater push. This is a sufficient level of
worthwhile.
understanding for pupils at KS3.
The pupils should have used a voltmeter before, but demonstrate how to measure a voltage again before allowing Learning styles
Visual: Examining the structure of electric
them to carry out the One (volt) plus one (volt) makes . . .? task. This is a fairly simple exercise but it is
cells.
important that the pupils get to handle a range of cells and familiarise themselves with electrical meters once
Auditory: Listening to a description about
more.
You can show the pupils the internal structure of a cell with the Locked in a cell demonstration. They should be
how a cell operates.
Kinaesthetic: Measuring the output voltages
made aware that different cells contain a range of toxic materials including acids, alkalis, lead, cadmium and even
of cell combinations.
mercury. Because of this, most batteries should not be disposed of with normal household waste.
Intrapersonal: Considering the advantages
Make a simple chemical cell using zinc and copper in acid with the Locked in a cell demonstration. Add more
cells explaining that each one is able to add to the total voltage and so you have made a battery. You may want to and limitations of different types of cell.
Interpersonal: Collaborating on circuit
light a low power bulb with the set-up to demonstrate that the cell can provide energy.
Plenary - Hazard matching
building.
Homework. Pupils could also look into the
The pupils can use a list of the chemicals present in a range of cells and batteries and find out the hazards
history of the battery starting with Alessandro
associated with them from hazard sheets or the internet. These chemicals can include zinc chloride, ammonium
Volta up to the more modern, lithium ion
chloride, lead, sulfuric acid, cadmium and lithium compounds. Ask: How are the chemicals disposed of or
polymer batteries developed in the 1990s.
recycled? (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required. Per group: four 1.5 or 1.2 V cells in holders, a
All pupils should be able to state that a cell releases electrical energy because a chemical
voltmeter and connecting leads. Demo - A D sized zinc carbon cell and an alkaline (zinc
reaction takes place within it.
and manganese dioxide) cell (opened). Two zinc and copper electrodes, four crocodile
Most pupils should be able to measure the output voltage of different cell combinations.
3
3
clips, two 250 cm beakers, 1.0 mol/dm hydrochloric acid, a voltmeter and connecting
Some pupils should also be able to explain why a cell or battery becomes exhausted in terms
of reactions within it.
leads, bulb.
How Science Works
Safety. Short circuited batteries can overheat. Wear eye protection and plastic gloves
Communicate effectively and use appropriate scientific terminology and conventions in
when handling the opened cells. Pupils must not handle the open cells. Hydrochloric
discussion and written work. (1.1c)
acid: CLEAPSS Hazcard 47A.

79

Fusion 3: P1.4 Electricity from movement


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a, 3.1c
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Wind farms in action
That kinetic energy from the
There are many high quality video clips on the internet or from science TV programmes showing wind farms
wind can be used to generate
in action. These will help the pupils appreciate the concepts later in the lesson. (1015 mins).
electricity using a turbine
Main
attached to a windmill.
The Turbine testing task serves as an introduction to using the equipment for the proper investigation later.
Make sure that the pupils are able to set up the equipment safely and stably and that they can take
The larger the turbine or faster
measurements with the voltmeter. The output will not be sufficient to light a bulb.
the wind the more energy can
Discuss the energy transfers taking place in the wind turbine. Be sure to point out the energy losses in the
be transferred.
system; friction causes heating and (as the pupils will see in P1.6) the current heats the wires. The pupils
should realise that the greater the wind speed, the faster the turbine turns and the more electricity is
generated. Link this to increased kinetic energy in the wind. The relationship is not linear, however, doubling
the wind speed should double the kinetic energy but the energy output will not double. This is because the
blades are more efficient at capturing energy at certain wind speeds. The pupils may be able to find the
optimum speed for their blades.
The activity Investigating wind power takes up a significant amount of time. You should assign different
groups different variables to investigate and then get them to share their conclusions with the rest of the
class at the end of the practical activity. The pupils need to
develop skills in taking repeat readings to improve the reliability of their data in experiments where individual
readings may be suspect like this one (HSW).
Plenary - Location, location, location
Provide the pupils with a map of the UK (or northern Europe) marked with the average wind speeds. Several
can be found online. They should choose a location for a large wind farm and explain the advantages and
disadvantages of these choices. (5-10 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to state that a wind turbine transfers kinetic energy to electrical energy.
Most pupils should be able to carry out an investigation into the most efficient design for a model wind turbine.
Some pupils should also be able to evaluate the investigation into wind turbines.
How Science Works
Recognise that different decisions on the use and application of scientific and technological developments may be made
in different economic, cultural and social contexts. (1.1b)
Use and apply independent and dependent variables in an investigation by choosing an appropriate range, number and
value for each one. (1.2b)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Pupils should perform
the simplest investigations, e.g. testing if
wind speed affects output voltage. The
students could test the output voltage
produced when
the wind setting is high, medium and low
(a variable speed hairdryer at a fixed
distance should be suitable).
Extension. In the Investigating wind
power activity, the pupils should be
asked to look at the area the blades
sweep out (the whole circle) and see if
this is related to the output voltage.
Learning styles
Visual: Designing (and improving) wind
turbines.
Auditory: Explaining the patterns in their
results.
Kinaesthetic: Testing and constructing
wind turbines.
Intrapersonal: Researching information
on wind turbines.
Interpersonal: Working in groups.
Homework. Summary question 3 can
be the basis for a report on wind farms.
The pupils could also write a letter of
support or objection to a proposal for a
local wind farm.
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
Turbine testing and Investigating wind power - Model wind
power kit and voltmeter.
Safety
If a hairdryer is used, it should be set on cool to avoid the
possibility of causing burns.

80

Fusion 3: P1.5 Electricity from fuels


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a, 3.1c
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Limitless supplies
The stages involved in
generating electricity in a fossil Ask the pupils to explain the difference between renewable energy resources and non-renewable ones. Ask:
Are nuclear and wood renewable or not? The pupils should explain their answers. (510 mins)
fuel power station.
Main
There are many simulations of power stations available and these will be very useful in showing the pupils
That electricity generation
what is happening inside. It will be difficult for some to grasp the scale of the equipment used inside a real
wastes energy as heat.
power station; try to find some images of the equipment with people in them to show scale. Steam turbines
dont really resemble windmill blades very much, even though they are often compared to them by pupils.
They are large, highly engineered sets of steel plates designed to be as efficient as possible at transferring
the kinetic energy of the steam into rotation of the generator shaft.
Once the pupils are clear about the stages in a power station, they can focus on the range of energy
transfers taking place. They should be made aware that there is
energy wasted at each stage and that it is important to minimise this loss.
Some pupils will find handling percentages difficult, you may want to translate them into fractions to see if
this helps out. The most important thing is that they understand that we lose a lot of energy because a power
station is not very efficient.
A significant amount of energy is wasted when the steam is condensed back into water so that it can be
easily pumped back to the boiler. This energy is dumped into the atmosphere in the cooling towers creating
artificial clouds. Some power stations provide some of this excess thermal energy to heat greenhouses
nearby.
Fossil fuel power stations are a significant source of carbon dioxide and the lesson provides an opportunity
to discuss global warming issues if you wish.
Plenary - Ask: What pollution problems are associated with burning fossil fuels? The pupils should try to
describe the chemical processes that cause production of carbon dioxide and
sulfur dioxide before describing why these two gases are a problem for the environment. (1015 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to describe the structure of a fossil fuel power station and name the important parts.
Most pupils should be able to describe the action of each part of a fuel burning power station.
Some pupils should also be able to describe how energy is wasted in a power station and the measures used to reduce
this waste.

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Provide a power station
diagram for the pupils to annotate with
the details they learn. This should include
all of the key parts (furnace, boiler,
turbines and generator) and possibly an
indication of the energy loss to the
surroundings at each stage.
Extension. The pupils can look more
closely at the design of generators. How
are they made to give a maximum
output? Is the output voltage constant as
they rotate? Connecting one to a CRO
should give a better picture.
Learning styles
Visual: Exploring a model of a power
station.
Auditory: Describing how a
steam generator can be made to spin.
Intrapersonal: Considering the
environmental impact of power stations.
Interpersonal: Discussing the energy
loss in power stations.
Homework. The pupils can find out
about the nearest power station. Ask:
What fuel does it use, how much fuel,
how much energy is produced and how
many people work at the plant?
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
Safety

81

Fusion 3: P1.6 - From electricity to heat


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a, 3.1c
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Special needs. Allowing the pupils to
Lesson structure
Objectives
use data-logging equipment will make the
Starter - Warm as toast
Pupils should
learn:
practical task and analysis of results
The pupils should make a list of as many electrical devices as possible that produce heat. Which are deliberately
more straightforward.
designed to do so? Which produce the most heat and why? (510 mins).
That whenever
Extension. Find out what
Main
there is an electric
superconductors are and where they are
Demonstrate a range of electrical devices, including those designed to provide heating (a kettle, radiant heater) and
current there is a
used.
some that produce heat as a side effect (TV, data projector). The pupils should soon grasp the idea that all electric
heating effect.
Learning styles
currents produce a heating effect.
Visual: Making detailed measurements of
You can demonstrate the dangers of the heating effect with the Hot stuff activity. The pupils need to understand the
The heating effect
temperature.
larger current produces more heating.
is caused by the
Auditory: Listening to explanations of the
At this point you can discuss the dangers of the heating effect, such as overloaded plug sockets causing fires. You
resistance of the
heating effect.
might want to mention some less obvious uses too. For example, hot wires can be used to cut plastics.
material.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out an
This can sometimes be seen on modern laboratory work surfaces where the chemical- and wear-resistant surfaces
(often Corian or similar) show grooves when hot wires have marked the desk where heat-resistant mats were not used. investigation.
Intrapersonal: Making deductions about
The pupils should now carry out the Water heater experiment. During the experiment the focus should be on
the cause of electrical heating.
collecting accurate data by keeping the current constant and recording the temperature accurately at precise intervals.
Interpersonal: Working in teams during
Data-logging equipment is ideal for this type of experiment.
practical investigations.
Once the results are gathered, the pupils should analyse them by plotting a line graph choosing the axes and scales
Homework. Ask: Who invented the light
for themselves (HSW). Theoretically, this should show a linear relationship between the time the water was heated for
bulb? The pupils can look at the history of
and the rise in temperature. You can discuss with the pupils reasons why the correlation is not exact [this is due to
the filament lamp from its early
energy loss to the surroundings].
development to its imminent demise due
The pupils now move on to explaining the heating effect in terms of resistance and electron movement and collision
to newer, less wasteful, alternatives. Why
with atoms. With higher attaining, pupils you may wish to discuss and use the term ions. Resistance can be a difficult
is tungsten used for the filament?
concept for pupils to understand; the key point for all pupils is that the higher the resistance, the more heating there is.
Plenary - Experimental improvements
Can the pupils improve the water heater experiment so that it produces more accurate results? Their ideas should
include ways of insulating and reducing evaporation. This covers aspects of How Science Works. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required. A range of electrical devices, e.g. kettles,
All pupils should be able to state that a wire will heat up when a current passes through it because of
heaters, lamps, etc. A low voltage power supply, connecting leads, 5 cm length thin
electrical resistance.
Nichrome (or similar high resistance) wire, heat-resistant mat, wire wool, 2
Most pupils should be able to describe situations where the heating effect is useful and some where
crocodile clips.
it is not.
Water heater - Sealed water heating element (i.e. immersion heater), d.c. power
Some pupils should also be able to describe resistance in terms of electron collisions with metal
3
supply, ammeter, 250 cm beaker, connecting leads, thermometer (ideally 0.5C
atoms (ions) in a wire.
How Science Works
precision) and stop-clock. Datalogging equipment and temperature sensors work
Use and apply qualitative and quantitative methods to obtain and record sufficient data
very well.
Safety. Take care with hot wire and clips. Make sure that the water is not heated to
systematically. (1.2d)
anywhere near boiling point. Keep power supplies away from water.

82

Fusion 3: P1.7 Paying the price


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a, 3.1c
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Extra support may
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
be needed with some calculations.
That amounts of energy Starter - Energy in the news
Extension. The pupils can
Show the pupils some recent newspaper (or web-based) stories about energy prices. These can include price rises for
can be measured in
incorporate the standing charges
fuels too. Ask: What affects the price of fuel? The pupils can discuss the reasons for recent changes. (1015 mins)
joules, but larger
Main
from bills into some calculations.
amounts are often
Learning styles
The pupils will be aware that electricity is not free and most of them will have seen the electricity meter in their house. Do
measured in kilowattVisual: Recording precise readings
not encourage the pupils to seek this out at home. They should ask where it is but not test out any of its functions.
hours or Units.
from meters.
You can demonstrate that two different brightnesses of lamp are using different amounts of electricity by connecting them
Auditory: Discussing the types of
to an energy meter. Alternatively, use an ammeter and voltmeter combination to calculate the power input (see the
Electricity supply
device that use most electricity.
practical task).
companies charge
Kinaesthetic: Measuring energyThe pupils can now try to make an energy reading of their own with the Using an energy meter activity. If you dont
people for each Unit
use.
have enough it is still worth trying the task using ammeters and voltmeters to make measurements; provide a worksheet
used in their homes.
Intrapersonal: Appreciating that
showing how to convert these measurements into energy readings.
the more electricity we use, the
The kilowatt-hour can cause considerable confusion, especially as it is called a Unit. You can explain that the kW h is
more we have to pay for it and the
used because a single joule is too small an amount and people may be confused if they receive a bill for 288 000 000
more it affects the environment.
joules at 0.000 004 pence each. It is more sensible to have a bill for 80 Units (80 kW h) at 15 pence each.
Interpersonal: Discussing ways to
You can show an electricity bill and explain what the parts mean. A copy of the school bill always impresses the pupils
reduce electricity bills.
with the cost of running a large building. All of the computers and data projectors, and so on, have pushed these even
Homework. The pupils can find
higher.
out the power ratings of the devices
Real bills can have a standing charge added too, so you should mention that this is basically a service charge for the
used at home. Ask: How wasteful
electricity company to maintain the cables and other parts of the network.
is their TV in standby mode?
If you have an energy meter capable of measuring the energy supplied to mains operated devices, it is useful to show it
in operation so that the pupils can appreciate the differing amounts of energy required by different devices. Show some
light bulbs, a radio, a small TV, heating element and a kettle. It should be obvious that the devices designed to cause
heating require the largest amounts of energy.
Plenary - It costs more than money
Environmental groups believe that reducing our electricity-use is not just about reducing our bills; in fact some groups
want us to pay more for using less. Let the pupils discuss what they think the ideas behind these opinions are. Do they
agree? (1015 mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to state that an electricity meter measures the Units used in a house over a period
of time so that the user can be charged.
Per group: An energy meter, power supply connecting leads, water heating
3
Most pupils should be able to calculate the cost of electricity used from meter readings.
element, 250 cm beaker, lamp (2 W and 6 W)
Safety
Some pupils should also be able to make comparisons about the amount of energy different devices require.
Pupils should not be measuring mains voltages in this experiment.

83

Fusion 3: P1.8 Seeking sustainability


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Fact, falsehood or opinion?
That unsustainable
Give the pupils a set of statements about energy resources: some of which are fact, some of which are false and some
energy
of which are opinions. The pupils need to sort them into the three groups. They can then decide which opinions they
resources are in
agree with and which they disagree with. (5-10 mins)
limited supply
Main
or can cause
In this lesson, the pupils will assess the sustainability of the techniques used for energy production. There are two
significant
aspects of sustainability to consider. Is the resource limited?
environmental
Unless new reserves of oil and gas are discovered these resources will become unrealistic to extract during the pupils
damage.
lifetimes. Occasionally pupils will ask why no new fossil fuels are being made; point out that they are but at too slow a
rate.
Sustainable energy
The second problem with fossil fuels is the carbon dioxide emissions. Pupils will readily link this to global warming and
resources
climate change. The two points show that the use of fossil fuels is unsustainable.
have less
Biofuels are often said to be sustainable and carbon neutral, but some studies cast doubt on their long-term future. The
environmental impact
land required for growing some fuel crops is enormous; fertilisers and pesticides are often used and the processing of
and will not run out,
the fuel can be quite expensive. The pupils should think about these issues and the idea that the land may be needed
but they may have
to grow food for rising populations instead.
other disadvantages
Now point out some of the ideas that have been covered:, wind power, wave power and solar power. Ask the pupils
that limit their
about the sustainability. Are there any other resources that are sustainable in this way? The pupils may mention
usefulness.
geothermal or hydroelectric resources.
The Nuclear question debate can be handled in a range of ways depending on the time and resources at your
disposal. You might like to set aside an additional lesson for extra research time or presentations. The debate can
extend into the alternative resources that may be used instead of nuclear power.
The final idea here is about reducing the demand for resources so that they can last longer. Throughout this topic the
pupils have been encouraged to think about their energy-use. Recap some of the ideas that they have had and revisit
the commitments they made to reduce their electricity bills.
Plenary - Nuclear lobby
The pupils can produce a placard for or against nuclear power. Its more challenging to have to do a two-sided one
where one side is pro-nuclear and the other side is anti-nuclear. (1015 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to give examples of energy reserves that are sustainable or unsustainable.
Most pupils should be able to describe how fossil fuel reserves are limited and their continued use may significantly threaten the
environment.
Some pupils should also be able to make arguments for and against nuclear power as a replacement to fossil fuel power stations.
How Science Works.
Evaluate the issues, benefits and drawbacks of scientific developments with which they are familiar. (1.1b)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Limit the range of
resources available for the nuclear
debate. You may need to edit some of
the information to make it an
appropriate level.
Extension. Most scientists accept that
fuel-use produces CO2 and this is a
major cause of global warming. What
do the others think? Should we wait
until all scientists accept the idea; will
this ever happen? The pupils can
discuss the fact scientists on both sides
have vested interests in their positions
and evaluate which opinion can best be
trusted.
Learning styles
Visual: Designing presentations.
Auditory: Discussing the issues
associated with sustainable electricity
production.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out active
research.
Intrapersonal: Forming personal
opinions based on evidence.
Interpersonal: Debating issues in
groups.
Homework. If you choose to extend
the nuclear debate activity, then some
pupils can work on their resources at
home.
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
Access to library and internet.

84

Fusion 3: P1.9 Around the circuit


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a, 3.1c
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. You can provide
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
the circuit diagrams or even
Starter - Energy transfer
That in a series circuit
pictures to help with the circuit
Give the pupils a set of symbols for different electrical components (lamp, buzzer, motor, heater) and ask them to draw
the current is the same
construction.
energy transfer diagrams for them all. They should remember to include the energy wasted as heat. (1015 mins)
at all points and the
Main
voltage is divided
Extension. The pupils could
Describe the behaviour of current in a series circuit. If you have a computer simulation, use it to reinforce the idea that
across components.
explore the behaviour of a circuit
there is only one path for the current to take so all of the current must pass through each component in turn. Check that
that has series and parallel parts.
That in a parallel circuit the pupils do not think that the current is used up or gets less as it travels.
They place two bulbs in series and
the voltage is the same Voltage is more difficult to picture. The pupils will be trying to imagine a model of current and voltage in circuits during the
then a third in parallel with them
next lesson but you will need some analogies to help them through this bit. A voltage or potential difference can be
across each branch
and measure the current through
thought of as a bit like a height change. When a current (actually charge) moves around a circuit you can imagine it falling
and the current divides
each branch and voltage across
through a height. As it passes through each component its height (voltage) drops a bit until it reaches the bottom. The
between each branch.
each bulb. Ask: Do the results
battery pushes the current back to the starting voltage (height). Some pupils wont grasp the idea, they will re-visit this
match their predictions?
next lesson but for now they will have to accept that the voltage is shared across the components.
The pupils can test the ideas about series circuits with the Try it with meters task. This is relatively straightforward, but
Learning styles
the pupils should attempt to design a suitable circuit on their own (to develop their HSW skills) and then take accurate
Visual: Drawing circuit diagrams.
readings with the meters.
Auditory: Describing circuit
Current in parallel circuits is understandable once the pupils accept that the total current cant change. You can say that
behaviour.
some of the current goes one way while the rest goes the other; just like a river dividing and rejoining. This is true at any
Kinaesthetic: Constructing
junction in the circuit.
circuits.
Voltage is a bit trickier yet again, as it isnt as easy to imagine. In a river-based analogy, the voltage is a bit like the drop in
Intrapersonal: Understanding the
height that the water goes through (as before). The river splits and rejoins but the water must have gone downhill by the
behaviour of current in circuits.
same amount when the river rejoins.
The pupils test the theory out with the More with meters task. As before, they should focus on
Interpersonal: Working in groups
designing their own circuits to confirm the ideas.
to investigate circuits.
Plenary - Circuit analysis
Use a set of circuit diagrams of components in series and parallel. The pupils need to determine the values missing from
the various meters positioned around the circuits (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to describe the behaviour of current in a series and parallel circuit.
Try it with meters - Per group: battery pack or low voltage power supply, two 3 V
Most pupils should be able to describe how a voltage acts in series and parallel circuits.
bulbs, three ammeters, three voltmeters, connecting leads. More with meters - As
Some pupils should also be able to use abstract ideas and models to describe current and voltage.
How Science Works
for the previous experiment.
Safety
Explain how the planned approach to answer a scientific question was informed by scientific
No obvious hazards.
knowledge, understanding or other sources of evidence. (1.2a)

85

Fusion 3: P1.10
National Curriculum Link up
3.1a, 3.1c
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. A simple model using a
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
factory (battery) and delivery lorries (the
Starter - Its only a model
That the amount of
current) that carry milk (energy) along
Can the pupils think of any models that have been used in their science course (particle model, model of an
energy transferred in
roads (wires) or similar can be used.
atom, model of a cell, etc.)? They should describe this model and what it means. Ask: Are there any problems
an electrical circuit is
Extension. Ask: Why do we use such high
with the model? (1015 mins)
dependent on the
Main
voltages in the national grid? Couldnt we
current and the
use higher currents instead? The pupils
In the final lesson of this topic, the pupils look at the connection between the voltage and energy that can be
potential difference it
should find out why it is more energy efficient
transferred. They should be aware that high voltages are considered dangerous; you can now connect the idea
moves between.
to have very low currents
of danger to the heating effect they saw in lesson P1.6 and their knowledge of the nervous system.
[reducing the heating effect] and very high
One interesting effect of electrocution thats worth pointing out is a grasping effect. During electrocution muscles
That there are a
voltages [maintaining a high power level].
contract in the arms and legs. This means that if you touch a high voltage electrical cable you will tend to grab it
number of ways of
Learning styles
and be unable to let go, because you cant make your muscles relax. Instead of receiving a short shock and
modelling a circuit to
Visual: Imagining circuit behaviour.
leaping away, as portrayed in several films, you are more likely to grasp the cable and fall to the ground.
help explain its
Auditory: Listening to descriptions of circuit
Move on to the idea of transferring electrical energy using very high voltages. The pupils will have seen pylons
behaviour.
behaviour.
and be aware of local sub-stations (and their gentle hum) but may not appreciate the scale of the grid. Show
Kinaesthetic: Manipulating physics models
them a map, there are many available online, and ask them to locate their town and the nearest power stations.
Different models have
of circuits.
You can mention that the reason that high voltages are used is to transfer the electrical energy as efficiently as
different advantages.
Intrapersonal: Thinking about the dangers
possible.
involved with high voltage electricity.
The term potential difference is an important one in Key Stage 4. Try to link the idea loosely to gravitational
Interpersonal: Discussing how appropriate
potential energy; as a current (actually charge) travels through a potential difference it transfers energy in a
different models are.
similar way to a mass moving through gravitational potential (changing height). Only a few will really grasp this
Homework. Make a model: the pupils can
comparison, but it is worth seeing the ideas in preparation for later study.
design and make/draw a model for electric
The pupils now have to think about ways that electrical circuits and electrical energy can be modelled. They will
current.
have thought about some of the ideas before, but now is the time for them to put everything together as best
they can. This is one of the key processes that need to be addressed in Key Stage 3. In the pupil book, a waterlike model has been described; this is similar to the log flume idea they will have encountered in Book 1. You can
choose to look at a number of models appropriate to the ability of the groups as described in the
Understanding the model task.
Plenary - Summative diagram
The pupils should produce a summary diagram or concept map of the material covered in the topic. They should
indicate the areas where they have limited understanding so that you can revisit these for revision later. (10 15
mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to explain why high voltages can be dangerous.
Safety
Most pupils should be able to compare the behaviour of an electrical circuit to a physical model.
Some pupils should also be able to develop their own models to help explain circuits.
How Science Works
Describe the strengths and weaknesses of a range of available models and select the most appropriate.
(1.1a1)

86

FUSION 3 P2 Forces and Motion

87

Fusion 3: P2.2 Measuring speed


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. The experimental equipment can
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Quick estimates
be set up in advance
That average speed
by your technicians with appropriate distances
Ask the pupils to make a list of six moving objects and estimate their speeds. They should put the list into
can be
marked out with tape or erasable marker. This
order from the fastest to the slowest. Use their ideas to discuss what is needed to work out speed
calculated by
allows the pupils to focus on timing and reliability.
(distances and times), the units that speed can be measured in and to give them some insight into how
measuring the
Extension. How accurately do the pupils think that
fast some objects actually move. (1015 mins)
distance an object
Main
the 100 metre track or the 50 metre swimming pools
covers in a set period
are constructed? If the pool expanded a bit when it
Most pupils will be vaguely aware of measuring speed; this will often be in miles per hour (mph) as
of time.
was filled with water, would this matter for world
opposed to a more appropriate unit. During the quick estimates starter many pupils will probably make
records?
estimates in this unit.
How to use the
Learning styles
Tell them that this unit is not commonly used in scientific measurement in a laboratory, even though is
equation
Visual: Observing the motion of
used for road travel. They will probably want to know a conversion factor (1 mph = 1.61 km/h = 0.45 m/s).
average speed =
objects along tracks.
Some of the pupils will need support with the calculations, even though they are relatively simple.
distance time to
Auditory: Discussing precision in measurements.
Encourage them to lay out the calculations as clearly and formally as possible so that they get into a
calculate the speed of
Kinaesthetic: Experimental task.
routine; this will help them to learn the equation and ensure that they reach the correct answer. Some will
an object.
Intrapersonal: Thinking about the limitations of
not be comfortable with the way division is laid out here; you can use the symbol as an alternative.
The pupils can now carry out the Speed check practical task. Focus on the need to repeat
measurements.
What we mean by
Interpersonal: Collaborating in group work.
measurements, as there will be quite a bit of variation between runs. Use this to discuss the reliability of
precision in timings.
Homework. What is the pupils average speed
the data (How Science Works). The pupils should use an average time to calculate the average speed.
when travelling home? They can use a local map to
During the experiment they should notice the problems with starting and stopping the stopwatch (e.g.
estimate the distance and time of their journey.
reaction times). Discuss this problem at the end of the practical; the pupils will come up with the idea that
Compare the results in a range of ways during next
electronic timing would give more accurate results; a proposition they should be testing in the next lesson.
lesson.
There is no point in using a stopwatch that measures to the nearest one-hundredth of a second if reaction
times are, at best, one-tenth of a second. The early records mentioned in Summary question 3 can be
used to get over the ideas of increasing precision being linked with newer, automatic, timing systems.
Plenary - Reaction time
Can the pupils come up with a reliable method of measuring somebodys reaction time? They need to
ensure that they are measuring the genuine reaction time, so the subject cant be anticipating when the
clock is started or stopped.
(1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to calculate the speed of an object using the equation.
Per group: toy car or dynamics trolley, cardboard box to catch car, stopwatch, a long
Most pupils should be able to describe an experiment that can be used to measure the
adjustable slope, blocks or retort stands to support slope, tape measure or metre rule.
average speed of an object.
Safety
Some pupils should also be able to make judgements about the precision required in a speed
Avoid objects falling to the floor. Use foam or a box to stop the car.
measurement.
How Science Works
Use and apply qualitative and quantitative methods to obtain and record sufficient data
systematically. (1.2d)

88

Fusion 3: P2.3 Going electronic


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Special needs. The experimental
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Choosing the right instrument
Pupils should
equipment can be set up in advance by
learn:
your technician and the light gates set
Show the pupils a range of measuring instruments with different precisions and ranges and a list of tasks that could be
at appropriate distances.
done with them. For example, large and small measuring cylinders, thermometers with different scales, normal clock and
Those different
stopwatches, different rulers and so on. The pupils must match the instruments to the jobs and explain their choices. (10 Extension. With some pupils you can
sensors can be
look at the concept of
15 mins)
used to measure
Main
acceleration using the different speed
the speed of an
measurements along the ramp.
Speed cameras are always going to be controversial and you can discuss their social implication during the lesson. Many
object.
Learning styles
pupils will think that all speed cameras use radar to measure the speed of a moving car. Point out that there are a range
Visual: Watching demonstration about
of methods that can be used, some which are similar to the experiments you will be carrying out during the lesson.
Electronic sensors
speed cameras.
As you are describing the operation of the speed camera in the pupil book, you can show the equipment that will be used
are more accurate
Auditory: Discussing the usefulness
during the practical task and compare it. The pupils should grasp the idea that the equipment is merely measuring the
and precise than
and fairness of speed cameras.
time it takes to move between two points, a fixed distance apart, and calculating speed from this.
stopwatches.
Kinaesthetic: Measurement of
Sensors are available that measure speed using ultrasound pulses. These can be used as alternative equipment for
distances and times.
some of the practical tasks during this lesson. Use the manual that comes with the sensors to find out how to set them
How to check the
Intrapersonal: Thinking about
up.
reliability of
The pupils can now carry out the Speed check activity. It may be necessary for only a few groups to do this at a time,
the social implications of being
measurements.
monitored.
depending on how limited your equipment is. A worksheet based around speed calculations, or similar, can be used to
Interpersonal: Debating the fairness of
occupy other groups until their turn. Using and understanding how the equipment works can be quite demanding at first,
speed cameras.
but success will demonstrate the pupils ability to measure precisely using quite advanced techniques.
Homework. Do speed cameras save
During the practical, the pupils need to understand that they will not get a precise speed measurement unless both the
lives or are they just designed to make
time and distance are measured precisely. They should measure the separation of the light gates in millimetres if
money? The pupils can prepare a brief
possible. Repeat readings to calculate an average should be used again (How Science Works).
report on this topic.
From the results of the experiment, the pupils should notice that the car is getting faster the further down the slope it is
and that the car slows when moving along the bench. You should ask them to link this to the idea of forces acting on the
car using some force diagrams. They will study this idea in more depth during lesson P2.5.
Plenary - Watching from on high
It has been suggested that all cars should be linked to a satellite tracking system so that their road-use can be monitored.
This would allow the government to charge road tax based on how much, and at what times you use the road. It would
allow speed checks too. The pupils should put forward some arguments for and against this system. (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required. Per group: toy car or dynamics trolley,
All pupils should be able to measure the speed of an object using a sensor.
piece of foam or cardboard box, an adjustable slope, some stiff card and BluMost pupils should be able to describe how to make precise and reliable measurements of the speed of a
tak, tape measure or metre rule. They will also need a pair of light gates
moving object.
connected to a timer or data-logger and some stands to hold the light gates in
Some pupils should also be able to obtain reliable data, including making systematic observations and
place. The cars will need stiff card fins mounted on top of them to break the
measurements with precision, using a range of apparatus.
How Science Works
light beam.
Safety. Avoid falling objects. Use foam or a box to stop the car.
Use and apply qualitative and quantitative methods to obtain and record sufficient data systematically.
(1.2d)

89

Fusion 3: P2.4 Going steady


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Provide some print-outs of
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Understanding graphs
graphs so that the pupils can add on descriptions
That the motion of an
of the motion next to the relevant parts of the
Show the pupils some simple line graphs and ask them what the parts of the graph are called. Can they
object can be
graph.
describe the patterns that the graphs are showing? Make sure that they are actually describing what the
represented graphically.
Extension. The pupils should consider
information shows and not just the shape of the line on the graph. (510 mins)
Main
distancetime graphs that are showing some
How to interpret
acceleration.
This lesson introduces the graphical representation of motion. Only distancetime graphs are covered
distancetime graphs.
Learning styles
here, but a large number of lower attaining pupils struggle to
Visual: Interpreting graphs.
interpret graphs correctly. They will often say things like the line goes up or the line stays straight
Auditory: Describing the motion of an object.
instead of describing the relationship shown. Use the lesson to get the pupils to practise their descriptions
Kinaesthetic: Drawing or sketching graphs.
of relationships between variables (How Science Works).
Intrapersonal: Understanding how a graph can
Take time with the horizontal and vertical axis descriptions of the first graph; point out that during each
describe the movement of a real object.
hour the distance covered is the same so the car must be travelling at a steady speed. This gives a
Interpersonal: Discussing the meaning of parts
straight line sloping upwards on the graph.
of a graph in groups.
When you move onto the more complex graph in the Different speeds section you should break down
Homework. During the next lesson the pupils
and explain each part of the motion separately.
will be preparing a presentation about forces and
The pupils now move on to analysing the graphs numerically; taking distance and time values to calculate
sport; they can find suitable material to bring in for
the speed. Depending on the groups you might want to challenge them to find the speed during different
parts of the motion of an object from a graph. It is important that they understand that they need to use the this lesson.
amount that the distance has changed (not the total distance so far) and the amount that the time has
changed to calculate the speed during a particular section. Watch out for pupils being unable to calculate
the speed during sections where the distance has not changed at all (when the object is stationary); they
may become confused when trying to divide zero by something.
In this final part of the lesson you can discuss the slope in more detail. The steeper the line (you might
want to use the term gradient with higher attaining pupils) the faster the object is moving. If you asked the
pupils to calculate the speed of an object during different parts of its motion then this will be fairly obvious
to them. Conclude with a bit more graphical analysis or by developing the pupils graph plotting skills.
Plenary - The journey
Show the pupils a range of distancetime graphs and ask them to describe, in detail, what they show. (5
10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to use a distancetime graph to identify when an object is moving or not moving.
Squared paper or graph paper.
Most pupils should be able to describe the motion of an object by interpreting a distancetime graph
including a comparison of the speed during different sections of the journey.
Some pupils should also be able to calculate the speed of an object using information read from a
distancetime graph.
How Science Works
Explain how the presentation of experimental results through the routine use of tables, charts and line
graphs makes it easier to see patterns and trends. (1.2d)

90

Fusion 3: P2.5 Changing speed, changing direction


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. You should provide templates or partially completed
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
presentation for the Forces and sports research task. These should
Starter - Forces and their effects
That unbalanced
provide guidance and some links to suitable websites.
Ask the pupils to summarise what they already know about forces and their effects,
forces cause an
Extension. The pupils may be able to move further into their
specifically they should focus on how the forces affect the movement of an object. Use
object to accelerate;
appreciation of the link between an unbalanced force by looking at the
this information to check for misconceptions that still remain about forces. (1015 mins)
this can be a change
Main
relationship:
in speed or direction.
Force = mass acceleration.
Some pupils will already know that the correct term for speeding up is accelerating.
They can use this to explain why larger vehicles need
They need to link acceleration to unbalanced forces acting on an object. The forces are
That balanced forces
powerful engines to accelerate in the same way as smaller vehicles
not always obvious to pupils, so use force diagrams whenever you can.
have no effect on the
with less powerful engines.
You should be able to find a video clip of an ice speed-skating race. During this you can
motion of an object.
Learning styles
pause and point out the starting positions; the skates are turned at right angles to
Visual: Drawing force diagrams.
increase friction. When the skater is skating the blades are pointed in the direction of
Auditory: Discussing the effect of forces in sport.
travel to reduce friction. You can take the opportunity to point out the exotic shapes of
Intrapersonal: Reviewing sources of information for research.
the costumes; the idea of streamlining will be covered more next lesson.
Interpersonal: Working in groups on the project.
The pupils can now complete the Forces and sports task, where they make a
Homework. The research project lends itself well to homework if it
presentation about how forces are used in sport to change the movement of objects.
cannot be completed in lesson time.
This can be completed on computers with a presentation package or could be a paperbased task where posters are produced. The pupils can work individually or in small
groups. At the end you can ask some pupils to report their ideas back to the class.
Move on to the different effects that balanced and unbalanced forces have on objects,
then get the pupils to give accurate descriptions of what the forces are doing. It can be
difficult to get the pupils to accept that an object can still be moving even though the
forces on it are balanced. An example that can be used is a car moving at constant
speed, the engine force is needed to balance the drag and the car would slow down if
the engine was switched off. You can revisit this point during the next lesson when
describing terminal velocity during parachute jumps.
Plenary - Motorway
Why are motorway entrance ramps usually down a slope, while motorway exit ramps
are upwards? Can the pupils explain the reasons behind this design in terms of forces
and energy? (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to describe how the speed of an object is affected by balanced and
The pupils will need access to computers, a range of books, magazines and the internet.
unbalanced forces.
The book can be borrowed from the school library or perhaps the physical education
Most pupils should be able to explain how forces can affect both the speed and direction that
department.
an object is moving.
Some pupils should also be able to explain why an object moving in a straight line cannot have
unbalanced forces acting on it.

91

Fusion 3: P2.6 Its a drag


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Extension. The pupils could look into the problems of
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Drag racers
travelling at very high speed through the atmosphere.
That air resistance acts
The frictional forces become so large that they heat up
Show the pupils a drag race: one where the cars use parachutes to slow down. Ask them to explain
against a moving object
the aeroplane. Ask: How have scientists tried to
how the cars speed up and slow down. What features make a car a good dragster? (510 mins)
and increases as the
Main
overcome this heating problem in ultra-fast jets and the
speed of the object
space shuttle?
The pupils should all be familiar with the general idea of an object being streamlined, especially cars,
increases.
Learning styles
but they may not be aware of the extent that some athletes go to. You
Visual: Describing the shape of streamlined objects.
could discuss whether they think that these measures really make any difference.
That drag can be
Auditory: Discussing the design of cars and other
Car efficiency is an important topic and the pupils need to be made aware just how inefficient it is to
reduced by streamlining
objects.
drive at very high speeds. This uses petrol up far more rapidly and increases the strain on an engine,
an object.
Kinaesthetic: Practical task.
potentially shortening its useful life.
Intrapersonal: Imagining the flow of air past a
Designing a streamlined object is not merely a matter of adding curves to it. A huge amount of
streamlined object.
computer simulation and wind tunnel experimentation is used. You could show the pupils some
Interpersonal: Sharing results and suggesting
photographs of a wind tunnel in use, pointing out the smooth flow of air and the regions of
improvements.
turbulence.
Homework. The pupils can prepare a report of car
Discuss the way vehicles have to push air out of the way in order to move through it; the faster they
evolution, selecting a typical car design from each of
go the greater the force acting against them. Ask the pupils to imagine trying to walk through water;
the last ten decades to show how the shape has
most should have done this in a swimming pool. They should appreciate that it is far more difficult
changed. Is efficiency or taste the driving force behind
than pushing themselves through the air: a process they hardly notice. Explain that they need to
the improvements?
move a lot more water particles out of the way to go forwards and this needs a larger force.
The practical task Controlling drag can be a brief investigation. It is difficult to get anything but
general results, because the pupils cannot really make anything but a general comparison about the
shape of the objects that they drop. It is also difficult to time accurately when the drop distance is
short.
The pupils can pool their conclusions and then discuss the limitations of the experiment. How could
they make a comparison that is less general? Could they measure the cross-sectional area of the
object falling? (How Science Works: evaluation)
Plenary - Streamline my ride
The pupils need to improve the streamlining of a very old car. Give them a drawing of the oldest
design you can find and ask them to adapt the car using the most modern ideas. (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to identify streamlined and unstreamlined objects.
Each group: A long transparent cylinder, Plasticine and a stopwatch. Access to a top-pan
Most pupils should be able to describe how streamlining reduces the drag on an object in
balance. The tall glass container could be a large measuring cylinder or a clear Perspex
terms of moving material out of the way.
tube sealed at one end. Tubes that are one metre long work well, but will need
Some pupils should also be able to explain why it is more difficult to move through a liquid,
supporting.
relating this to the density of the liquid and other possible factors.
Safety
How Science Works
Plastic containers should be used where possible to avoid breaking glass.
Use and apply independent and dependent variables in an investigation by choosing an
appropriate range, number and value for each one. (1.2b)

92

Fusion 3: P2.7 Going up, coming down


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. The pupils should be given some hints
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Sentence
for the investigation. They should investigate one vehicle
That objects fall towards
each using just one area, focussing on making the force
Give each pupil a different key word used in the topic so far (you may have to use each word
the
measurement as reliable as possible. The groups can
twice) and ask the pupils to write a sentence using each one. The pupils can read out their
centre of the Earth due
then share the data and reach a conclusion together.
sentences and you can see which are the most informative and scientific. (510 mins)
to the
Extension. If you could make a balloon that has
Main
gravitational attraction
absolutely nothing inside it (a vacuum) then you could
You should discuss the idea of density when describing why a hot air balloon floats. This will help
causing an objects
enhance the pupils understanding of the particle model of matter and can help with the idea of gas rise up to the top of the atmosphere. The pupils can
weight.
discuss the possibility of this vacuum balloon working.
pressure later. The pupils need to understand that the balloon rises because there is a larger force
Could we every build such a device? Search the internet
pushing upwards than the weight. This upwards force is an upthrust: the same type of force that
That a falling object
to find out some proposals.
acts on objects in water.
accelerates until the
Learning styles
drag matches the weight When discussing parachute drops, it is very useful to show video clips to demonstrate the ideas.
Visual: Watching video clips of parachutists.
There are a large number available on the internet. There are also several simulations or
of the object.
Kinaesthetic: Measuring the force required to move
animations that show how the forces acting on a diver change throughout the fall. These make the
objects.
explanations a lot easier to understand so use them if you can.
Intrapersonal: Understanding
Describe the detail of the first graph to the pupils; this is a simplified picture of a parachute drop. It
the information on a speedtime graph.
shows how the height changes and the pupils should be able to see that the parachutist is falling a
Homework. The pupils can find out about record sky
lot slower near the end because the gradient of the graph is shallower.
dives. Ask: What was the longest fall? What is the fastest
When a parachute is opened a large upward force decelerates the parachutist. Some pupils will
think that the parachutist actually moves upwards during this phase, because this is what seems to speed achieved, the largest group? and so on.
happen in video clips. The illusion is due to the cameraperson continuing to fall rapidly. If you
actually did get pulled upwards the forces involved would be fatal.
The second parachute graph is a speedtime graph. Many of the pupils will think that this is the
same as the earlier graph; however it actually shows different information. Make sure
that the pupils see the difference; the y-axis now shows the speed that the object is travelling and
the slope no longer shows the speed (its the acceleration). Get the pupils to describe what is
happening during each phase of the motion, to make sure that they understand what is happening.
Plenary - Recipe for disaster
Hydrogen gas is much less dense than air and much cheaper than helium, so why dont balloons
use it? Let the pupils discuss the reasons. (5 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to state that the motion of a falling object is affected by the weight of
Dynamics trolleys, a range of forcemeters, metre rules, stopwatches, cardboard, tape,
the object and the air resistance acting on it.
bags or cloth to make parachutes from and string.
Most pupils should be able to describe how the forces involved in falling change during the fall.
Safety
Some pupils should also be able to interpret a graph showing an object falling through a fluid
Beware of falling objects.
and describe the causes of the changes in speed in terms of the forces acting on the object.
How Science Works
Use and apply independent and dependent variables in an investigation by choosing an
appropriate range, number and value for each one. (1.2b)

93

Fusion 3: P2.8 High pressure, low pressure


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Provide a detailed plan or set of
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Define
instructions for the investigation, so that the pupils
That a force produces
can focus on collecting results. Different groups can
Ask the pupils to give their definitions of the words pressure and force on mini-whiteboards. Ask them to
pressure when it acts
work on different aspects and share their
hold the boards up and then discuss the range of definitions. (510 mins)
over an area.
Main
conclusions.
Extension. The pupils should work on more
Throughout this lesson, it is important to try to make sure that the pupils understand the difference
The size of the
demanding questions that include rearrangement of
between a force and the pressure it exerts on a surface. Many pupils think that the words are
pressure is equal to
the pressure equation.
interchangeable and that pressure is just another type of force (like friction).
the force divided by
Learning styles
You can demonstrate pushing a drawing pin into a wooden block (or your wall). The point will easily
the area it acts over.
Visual: Drawing tables and graphs of results.
penetrate wood, while the flat surface cant push through your skin even though the force is exactly the
2
Auditory: Discussing approaches to a task.
same in both cases. The area of the point is around 1 mm2, while your thumb is approximately 1 cm (100
2
Kinaesthetic: Measuring compression.
mm ). This means that the pressure is about 100 times greater at the sharp end.
Intrapersonal: Imagining the action of a force acting
The calculations are relatively straightforward, but some pupils will need support with them nevertheless.
over an area.
Let the pupils have plenty of practice by measuring the pressure that a few objects exert on the floor.
Interpersonal: Sharing results and conclusions.
The pupils could measure the pressure exerted by a range of basic objects by measuring their weight and
Homework. The pupils could analyse the results of
the contact area between the object and a surface. Forcemeters can be used to measure the weight,
their investigation (or you could provide them with
while the area can be measured by drawing around the object while it rests on paper marked with 1 cm
some suitable results), producing a graph and
squares. These squares can then be counted to find the total area.
Once the pupils have mastered the calculation they can move on to the Piling on the pressure
reaching a scientific conclusion, followed by an
evaluation.
investigation. They should see patterns between the amount of compression and the pressure acting on a
particular piece of foam fairly easily. Allow the pupils some freedom to choose exactly what they
investigate and how they gather their results, in order to develop their planning skills. They should also
focus on collecting the data in an organised manner, so that they can analyse it easily (How Science
Works; planning, recording results and analysing data).
Plenary - Testing to destruction
Can the pupils plan a test to find out which material is the most resistant to being crushed, even though
the samples they have are different sizes? They should outline a rough plan of their ideas. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to compare the pressures produced by different forces acting over
A range of foam blocks, thin wooden boards, 50 g masses, mass holders and rulers.
different areas qualitatively.
Safety
Most pupils should be able to calculate the pressure exerted on an area due to a force using
Take care: masses and wood may fall onto pupils feet.
the pressure equation (pressure = force/area).
Some pupils should also be able to use the pressure equation to solve a range of problems,
including some that require rearrangement.
How Science Works.
Use and apply qualitative and quantitative methods to obtain and record sufficient data
systematically. (1.2d)

94

Fusion 3: P2.9 Pressure in liquids and gases


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Use animation or simulation
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
to reinforce the explanation of how fluids
Starter - Fluidity
That deeper into a liquid (or
behave using the particle model.
The pupils need to explain why gases and liquids are fluids but a solid isnt. What do they think a fluid is
gas) the higher the pressure
Extension. There is an opportunity here for
and why do they think that fluids can flow? (510 mins)
inside that liquid.
Main
the pupils to look at how particle theory has
developed in science. They could be asked to
Start with a demonstration of inflating a balloon. You could ask a pupil to blow up a particularly difficult
That liquids and gases exert
look into the development of the ideas over
balloon and then use a pump to get the job done. Dont forget to pop it with a pin; linking back to the
pressure due to their particles
the last two thousand years and see if they
previous lesson, ask: Why can the balloon be popped with a pin but not your thumb?
hitting the sides of a container
can find any proof that there are particles at
Pupils will know that some people are concerned about their blood pressure. You can show what
producing forces.
all.
happens when the pressure gets too high using two plastic syringes full of water connected by rubber
Learning styles
tubing. Wear a weak spot in the tubing beforehand (scrape most of the way through with a scalpel) and
Visual: Imagining particle behaviour in fluids.
then push the liquid back and forth. Pushing both ends will increase the pressure and hopefully get the
Auditory: Listening to explanations of how the
tube to rupture. Dont use red ink though.
particle
You should be able to find some pictures of submarines, or even some video footage of them diving.
model explains pressure.
The deeper the subs have to go, the stronger their structure needs to be and this is apparent in the
Kinaesthetic: Popping balloons in a quiz.
design of small, deep-sea submersibles. These have spherical shaped windows to spread the forces
Intrapersonal: Understanding the behaviour
evenly.
of particles in a fluid.
You can now demonstrate some of the effects of pressure in fluids. Make sure that the pupils know
what you mean by a fluid though. The demonstrations are straightforward and during them you need to Homework. When divers rise too quickly
from deep dives they can be affected by The
be describing particle behaviour to lead on to the next part.
bends. The pupils can find out what this is
Remind the pupils about the particles in a liquid and gas by asking them to sketch them. Check the
and how it can be avoided.
liquid diagrams carefully, as many pupils leave gaps that are too large between the particles in a liquid.
Plenary - Balloon in space
What would happen if a balloon was pulled higher and higher into the atmosphere, eventually reaching
space? The pupils could describe (or draw) their ideas and explain them using the particle model. (510
mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required 2 demos - Balloons for inflating, balloon pump,
All pupils should be able to state that the pressure (in a fluid) increases with depth.
pin. Two plastic syringes, rubber tubing (weakened in the centre). Pressure in fluids - A
Most pupils should be able to describe the cause of pressure in terms of particle behaviour.
Some pupils should also be able to use the particle model to explain why pressure increases
water pressure demonstration cylinder (or improvised version). Collapsing can: A metal
with depth in a fluid.
can (these are specifically designed for the demonstration), vacuum pump and connecting
tubes or heating apparatus and access to water.
Safety. Demonstrate the can behind a safety screen and be very careful not to burn
yourself. Water uring out the canister can spill onto the floor and create a slipping hazard.

95

Fusion 3: P2.10 Levers everywhere


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Extension. The pupils will find it
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
easier to label a set of diagrams of
Starter - Nailed it
That a lever is a simple
Show the pupils a nail hammered most of the way into a block of wood and demonstrate how difficult it is to pull levers if they are provided with them
machine that can be used to
during the practical task.
out by hand. Ask them to come up with some ideas about how to remove the nail with the minimum of effort.
magnify the size of a force.
Learning styles
Finally demonstrate how simple it can be using a claw hammer. (510 mins)
Visual: Labelling diagrams of levers.
Main
That a lever requires a pivot
Auditory: Discussing how the levers
You can start the lesson by showing a range of simple levers in action. This should show that levers can be
and an effort force to operate.
work.
more than just simple bars and they are extremely useful. Emphasise that the levers are helping you increase
Kinaesthetic: Examining levers and
the force that you can apply to an object.
lever-based devices.
During the lesson you should use the generic terms effort, pivot and load as often as possible, so that the
Intrapersonal: Thinking about the
pupils become used to using the terms automatically instead of using phrases like the push and hinge.
Once you have covered these points, you can let the pupils examine some simple levers using the A look at
action of a force around a pivot.
Interpersonal: Giving feedback about
levers task. When they look at scissors, ask them about which bit of the blade it is easiest to cut with; they
the levers that have been investigated.
should find that this is near the pivot.
Homework. Can the pupils find out
Some pupils may want to talk about the levers in the human body, such as the arm. If you have time, you can
more about human joints and how
show them the actions using models or some simulation software. The human arm is not a lever that actually
makes it very easy to lift heavy objects. If you hold a heavy object with your arm horizontal, the load is about 50 muscles are used to move our body?
Their report should include mention of
centimetres from the pivot (your elbow), while the effort is only 1 centimetre or so away. This means that the
antagonistic pairs of muscles and the
muscle has to produce a force 50 times greater than the weight you are holding. Holding an object at arms
fact that muscles can only contract.
length is very tiring. On the other hand, the advantage is that a small contraction
of the muscle produces a large movement.
The final part of the lesson moves on to the turning effect of a force. This will be the focus of the next lesson
when the pupils calculate the size of this effect and look into balancing, but for now they need to be aware that
you can increase the amount of this turn by pushing further
away from the pivot.
Plenary - Invention
The pupils can design their own invention that uses levers to complete some task. This could be picking an
object up at a distance, opening a door automatically and so on. (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required Starter - Hammer, nail, wood, claw
All pupils should be able to give examples of simple levers.
hammer.
Most pupils should be able to label the location of the pivot, effort force and load force on a simple lever in
A look at levers - Some example levers and objects that use the lever
action.
principle (scissors, claw hammer etc.).
Some pupils should also be able to use the concept of a turning effect to explain how a larger force can be
Safety. This depends on the levers used. Take care with cutting and
produced from a smaller one.
crushing tools.

96

Fusion 3: P2.11 Getting balanced


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. The calculations can
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
be extremely challenging to some
Starter - A balancing act
That the moment of a force
pupils. Provide them with a detailed
Show the pupils photographs or video of a tightrope walk or gymnast on the beam. Ask them how the
is the force multiplied by the
step-by-step method and only use
participants manage to balance on such thin objects and discuss the level of skill involved. (510 mins)
(perpendicular) distance to the
Main
problems with simple numbers.
pivot?
Extension. The pupils should be
Although see-saws are the most common examples used to describe moments, and the easiest way to
challenged to solve more complex
introduce the calculations, the ideas and calculations are valid for any pivoted object. Make sure the pupils
That a lever is balanced when
moment questions. These can involve
think about other situations, for example car park barriers, cranes, gymnasts on a beam and so on.
the
multiple masses on each side of a seeThe calculation of a moment is not difficult, but the pupils should be shown how to write down the calculation
moments in one direction are
saw or the rearrangement of the
carefully as shown in the pupil book. This is particularly important if the pupils are dealing with several forces
equal to the moments in the
equations. They can also tackle
acting on a ruler where they need to add the individual moments.
other direction (clockwise and
see-saws that are not balanced
When describing turning effects it is best to use the terms clockwise and anticlockwise instead of alternatives
anticlockwise)
beneath their centre of gravity so they
such as left and right. The pupils need to recognise the phrase principle of moments and link it to the idea that
have to take this into account.
an object is balanced because the clockwise and anticlockwise moments are the same.
Learning styles
The pupils can now try the practical task Testing the principle of moments. They will need to calculate the
Visual: Examining and drawing seemoment on each side of the ruler to see if they match; a well-designed results table makes this process much
saw diagrams to solve problems.
easier, so make sure that the pupils plan it properly (How
Auditory: Discussing when objects
Science Works: recording results).
will be balanced.
The pupils will probably measure the distances in centimetres during the experiment. You can ask them to
Kinaesthetic: Balancing levers.
convert the distances into metres before their calculations or explain that it is OK to measure the turning effect
Intrapersonal: Understanding the
in newton centimetres as long as they do this for all the distances.
conditions for an object to be
At the end of the task, ask the pupils to discuss their results and conclusions. They should point out the
balanced.
difficulties they had getting the objects to balance exactly and positioning the masses accurately. You can ask
Interpersonal: Collaborating in group
them to design an improved experiment or a simple list of a few possible improvements. (How Science Works:
practical work.
evaluation)
Plenary - Final force
The pupils have reached the end of the physics-based topics. Give them a set of summary questions to check
for weak points in their understanding, so that these can be revisited. (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to state that the turning effect of a force is called its moment.
Half-metre rulers (ones with holes drilled every 5 cm are best), 50 g masses, bench
Most pupils should be able to calculate the moment due to a force acting around a pivot.
protector, a method of pivoting the ruler (see below).
Some pupils should also be able to use the principle of moments to decide if an object is
Safety
balanced or in which direction it would rotate.
How Science Works.
The pupils should take care not to drop heavy weights onto their feet.
Use and apply qualitative and quantitative methods to obtain and record sufficient data
systematically. (1.2d)

97