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Two-year Key Stage 3 Scheme of Work for Fusion

YEAR 1
FUSION 1 B1 CELLS, TISSUES AND ORGANS

Fusion 1: B1.2 Using a Microscope


National Curriculum Link up
2.1c. 3.3a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. A series of Can you tell what it is yet? cards showing
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Cells sentences.
small details of larger objects could be made. Alternatively, a sheet with a
How to focus a microscope.
small round hole in it could be placed over a series of photographs and the
Pupils should write down a sentence which contains the word cells. They then
To calculate by how much a
pupils have to work out what it is by looking at a small part. This could be
discuss their sentences, drawing out the common meanings of the word and
microscope magnifies.
geared to the ability of the pupils by changing the nature of the photograph.
separate this from the scientific meaning. (5 mins)
To record what they see
Extension. Pupils should be given an opportunity to look at the
Main
through a microscope.
range of miniature sculptures made from grains of rice and sugar recently
Show the pupils a microscope. If possible use a Flexicam and digital projector
to display details. Name each part in turn, explaining the name and giving ways sold for 11.2 million, by the sculptor Willard Wigan, as reported by the
BBC on 11 May 2007. A report could be drawn up of how he made his
of remembering them; e.g. the eyepiece is the piece next to the
sculptures.
eye.
Learning styles.
Use a PowerPoint sequence to describe the safe use of the microscope in
Visual: Looking at microscope slides and projected images.
terms of focussing up to an object after looking from the side, and adjusting the
Kinaesthetic: Interacting with microscope and specimens.
height of the objective lens to just above the specimen. Check by questioning.
Interpersonal: Working as part of a group to set up slides for observation.
Pupils are to fill in a worksheet to label the parts of the microscope and match
the parts with their descriptions on a paired sheet. Explain the magnification
system in terms of eyepiece power objective power. Carry out a simple
exercise on the board or on a PowerPoint to reinforce this.
Plenary - Drag and drop labels.
Pupils are to drag and drop the correct labels onto the correct places on a
projected microscope diagram. To add competition the exercise can be timed.
(510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Pupils are to use microscopes to examine a wide range of common objects such as salt crystals and hair.
All pupils should be able to use a microscope effectively and safely and label
If available, have a number of prepared slides of interesting specimens to look at such as flys wings,
some parts.
insect mouthparts, bees legs and stings. If time allows, pupils may make diagrams of what they see and
Most pupils should be able to perform simple calculations regarding
state the magnification.
magnification.
During the practical, circulate and ensure that all pupils are able to focus their microscopes. Many pupils
Some pupils should also be able to link the structure of microscopes with that of
have difficulty in using a microscope for the first time. Try getting them to look with both eyes open and
early models.
How Science Works
focus their slide yourself, ask them to look at it and then defocus it either down or up and ask them to put
it back into focus. Tell the pupils not to put fingers on lenses.
Describe and record observations and evidence systematically. (1.2d)
Safety
Demonstrate safe handling using body and base.

Fusion 1: B1.3 Looking at Animals Cells


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Play snap using cards with arrowed diagrams of the parts
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Cell parts functions.
of animal cells, descriptions of their functions and their names.
The parts of an animal cell
Extension. Provide computer access and ask the pupils to find
Show the class a small piece of paper and tell them you have a set of plans on
we can see through a
Out more about the structure of the cell membrane, the cytoplasm and the
how to build a new organism. Roll it up and place it inside a plastic film
microscope.
container, then place inside an un-inflated wide necked balloon. Using a funnel, contents of the nucleus, linking this to function.
The jobs of the parts of an
Learning styles
partially fill the balloon with gooey liquid and tie off the top. Tell the class that
animal cell.
Visual: Observing cells.
the liquid contains the substances needed for life. Ask them to write down what
each bit does the plans, the container, the life sustaining goo and the balloon. Auditory: Discussing the features.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the practical.
(1015 mins)
Interpersonal: Group involvement in setting up the practical.
Main
Demonstrate how to make the slides. Each pupil should have half a cotton bud. Intrapersonal: Contemplating the large number of cells we are made up of.
They should be instructed to wipe the inside of their mouth, then wipe the bud
onto the slide, then immediately place the bud into a beaker of disinfectant.
The slides should be placed in a beaker of disinfectant on completion of the
practical. Students should record their observations as a labelled diagram
including the magnification of the microscope.
Plenary - Pin the label on the cell
Fill in a worksheet relating parts to functions. Many may be able to copy and
complete the table in Summary question 1. Blindfold a pupil and, with a helper
to stop them from bumping into things, play a game of Pin the label on the cell
using key word cards and a big drawing on the board. (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils will be able to examine cheek cells and with help label an animal cell.
Cotton buds (cut in half), microscope slides, cover slips, seeker (or pencil), small pots of
Most pupils will be able to label an animal cell and describe the functions of the parts and state
disinfectant (sodium chlorate(I)), microscopes, dilute methylene blue, digital
which parts are only in animal cells.
microscope and Flexicam (if available).
Some pupils will also be able to draw links between the structures of cell organelles and their
Safety
functions.
How Science Works
Eye protection should be worn at all times. According to your local authority guidelines, you
may wish the pupils to wear disposable gloves. Take care with dilute methylene blue as it
Describe and record observations and evidence.
will permanently stain skin and eye tissues. Follow CLEAPSS guidance in handbook/CDROM section 14.4.2. Sodium chlorate(I): CLEAPSS Hazcard 89, Recipe card 62,
handbook/CD-ROM 15.12.3. Dilute methylene blue: CLEAPSS Hazcard 32.

Fusion 1: B1.4 Looking at Plant Cells


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Physical assistance may be needed for the practical. Give
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Boneless Bertie
the pupils laminated large A4 diagrams with sets of labels of each part to
The parts of a plant cell they
place on repeatedly for reinforcement.
Bring in an herbaceous (non-woody) plant such a geranium, about 20cm high.
can see through a
Extension. Get the pupils to draw out a list of job descriptions
Hold it next to a pupils upright arm. Ask the pupils to discuss what would
microscope.
For each of the plant parts. Make them humorous and inventive and as
happen if you took all of the bones out of the volunteers forearm. Share ideas
How to make a slide of a
detailed as possible. They could also dehydrate some red onion in salt
from around the class in a discussion. (1015 mins)
plant cell.
Main
solution to show plasmolysis.
The differences between
Learning styles
Demonstrate each of the stages in preparing an onion epidermal cell slide,
animal and plant cells.
Visual: Looking at plant cells.
asking pupils to recap each stage to check and to reinforce learning.
Cut a section of onion about 1 cm square. Using forceps, remove and place the Auditory: Listening to exposition and discussing with peers.
Kinaesthetic: Making the slide.
section of epidermis onto a small drop of water in the centre of a microscope
Interpersonal: Working as part of a group.
slide. Add a drop of iodine and cover with a cover slip. Mount the slide on the
Intrapersonal: Developing confidence in use of microscopes.
stage of a microscope and reinforce the correct method for focussing.
Homework. Show the pupils some model cells or photographs of them.
Pupils should draw a half A4 size plain paper drawing of what they see. At the
Ask them to make one for display.
end of the practical, through questioning check that pupils have seen each of
the features and can identify them.
Plenary - What a flop!
Show a wilted plant and ask pairs of pupils to discuss and explain why this
happens. Have a list of key words on the board for them to tick off in their
answers. Carry out a class discussion of their answers to finish. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils will be able to set up a slide and with help label a plant cell.
Most pupils will be able to set up a slide well, label a plant cell and describe the functions of the Class set of scalpels, white tiles, forceps, slides, cover slips, seekers or mounted needles,
iodine solution, pipettes, paper towels, onion, beakers of water.
parts.
Support
Some pupils will also be able to draw links between the structures of the cell organelles and
Have beakers of water set up around the room for disposal of the slides and bins for the
their functions.
How Science Works
onion debris at the end of the lesson. One of the major difficulties is that the pupils get the
layer of epidermis folded over on itself. Use a seeker to disentangle layers while holding
Describe and record observations and evidence systematically. (1.2d)
one end down with forceps. Again enable the pupils to identify air bubbles.
Safety
Take care that pupils wear eye protection while handling iodine and show caution when
handling the fragile glass cover slips and scalpels.

Fusion 1: B1.5 Special Cells


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
Those different cells have
different functions.
How the structure of the
specialised cells relates to
their function.

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. Draw out some specialised cell pictures with their names
Lesson structure
Starter - Footwear features
beside them. Place them into a cardboard frame with five flip-up sections
on one end, covering the name of the cell type. Pupils get six points for
Pupils are given one minute in pairs to write down as many types of footwear
getting the name right without lifting any of the flaps and loose one point for
as they can. Get a list from the pupils by questioning, choose suitable
each section they have to flip up to reveal part of the name. They could also
examples to write on the board. Get the pupils to write down a feature of each
type of footwear that suits it for its purpose. Use the vocabulary to be used later make a model of a specialised cell using for example, Plasticine.
Extension. Provide the pupils with Internet access and point them at
regarding cells (characteristic, adaptation, specialised). (1015 mins)
Main
suitable interactive websites so as to carry out their own research on
specialised cells and test themselves.
Talk through PowerPoint slides of each specialised cells, showing it first then
asking the pupils to guess, comment and describe the function and adaptations Learning styles
Visual: Observing slides and PowerPoint.
of each cell. Specialised cells to be covered should include root hair cell,
Auditory: Listening to exposition.
palisade cell, sperm cell, nerve cell, red blood cell and lung epithelial cell.
Kinaesthetic: Playing the floor dominoes plenary game.
Introduce the practical and tell the pupils which features to look out for on each
Intrapersonal: Considering the very small size, very great number and
slide or specimen. The specimens and slides can be arranged in a circle of
complexity of the cells of the body.
previously focused microscopes and the pupils can circulate around them.
Alternatively the specimens and slides can be placed at convenient points
around the lab for collection and return.
Plenary - Floor dominoes
Play a game of floor dominoes using A4 sheets with pictures of the specialised
cells on one end and descriptions of their adaptations on the other end. A
playing card size version might also be of use. (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Using microscopes, specimens and prepared slides examine root hair cells. Specimens
All pupils will be able to describe at least one specialised animal cell and one specialised plant
could include root hairs (these look particularly good if binocular microscopes are available),
cell.
nettle stinging cells (warn regarding abuse of these). Commercial slides could include
Most pupils will be able to describe a range of specialised cells and relate their structure to
sperm, eggs, nerve cells (giant axons are good), leaf palisade cells, red blood cells.
function.
Diagrams may be drawn if time allows but are not essential.
Some pupils will also be able to describe a wide range of specialised cells and in detail relate
Support
their structure to function
Set up cress to germinate in small Petri dishes with damp cotton wool in the bottom several
days before the practical so as to give them time to develop root hairs. Cover them with
cling film to keep the moisture in. Do not touch the root hairs or they will be damaged. If
slides are not available the Internet has suitable images.

Fusion 1: B1.6 Cells, Tissues, Organs and Systems


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - What do we need tree
What tissues are and be
Draw the word live in the top centre of the board. Below it draw a series of
able to name some.
lines coming down from the centre and ask the pupils what we need to live.
How tissues group together
Write down their suggestions as the next layer down, pick one and do the
to form organs.
same again. Encourage pupils to draw out their own version. (510 mins)
What is meant by an organ
Main
system?
Show the pupils a PowerPoint slide of the various levels of organisation within
the human body. Starting from cells of the same type working together forming
a tissue, progress to various tissues working together to make something
happen in an organ and finally describe how a number of organs work together
in an organ system. While talking about organs you may hand around some
organ donor cards. For further discussion opportunities describe to the pupils
the spoof reality TV show that was carried out by the makers of Big Brother,
where a dying woman was supposed to choose from between several wouldbe recipients who would get her kidneys and therefore survive.
Plenary - Hierarchy voting
Describe examples of cells, organs, tissues or systems. Pupils have to vote for
which classification they belong to. Share class views and correct any
misconceptions. (510 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to name some tissues, some organs and some systems.
Most pupils will be able to put cells, tissues, organs and systems into hierarchical order.
Some pupils will also be able to give detailed ways of how to distinguish between layers of the
hierarchy and give details of system functions.

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Felt tabards can be bought which come with sets of fabric
organs. These attach be means of Velcro and provide an enjoyable
physical interactive learning experience. They are referred to as inside-out
organs tunics.
Extension. Provide the pupils with computer and Internet access and
allow them to look for websites which display appropriate information about
organs.
Learning styles.
Visual: Observing the PowerPoint slide show of the hierarchical
arrangement.
Auditory: Discussing words involved in the starter activity.
Interpersonal: Discussing the hierarchy with others in the group.
Intrapersonal: Identifying the positions of organs within their own body.

Additional teachers notes


If time allows it would be stimulating to show the pupils examples of some organs. It may
not be appropriate to do dissection at this stage, but to bring in some fresh organs from a
butcher would be beneficial. If you ask at a butchers shop for a fresh lambs pluck, they may
be able to get in a heart and lungs still joined. Find out on which day the animal is
slaughtered and use the same day if possible. Allowing the pupils to touch the organs adds
zest, but can only be used if local authority and school health and safety allow. It would also
be good to show pupils examples of plant organs.
Safety
Risks assess and carry out hygienically, being careful with disposal. See information in
CLEAPSS handbook/CD-ROM section 14.7.2. Pupils should wash their hands with soap
after touching the organs.

Fusion 1: B1.7 The Skeleton


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
The four functions of the
skeleton.
What makes bones strong?

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. Make an A3 or larger size skeleton diagram with
Lesson structure
Starter -Bone thief disease
predetermined colour codes for functions and a key. Cut the bones into
several major sections and put Velcro tabs at the correct places to join it
Ask pupils to write a short piece from a horror story where the touch of an
back together. Pupils should assemble the skeleton and state which
infected person spreads an unknown and deadly disease dissolving your
function different parts have as they are pointed to. Alternatively assemble
bones as it goes. Volunteers are to read their stories. (1015 mins)
Main a digital skeleton from a suitable Internet site.
Extension. Repeat the rod strength test practical with tubes of various
To show support, get the pupils to put their hands up in the air and imagine
diameters and work out a formula to relate diameter to strength. Higher
what would happen if their bones disappeared. Show the pupils a bone and
attaining groups may weigh the bones before and after immersion and
ask what you need for strong healthy bones. Discuss what is in milk that helps
burning. They could calculate percentage weight loss.
make healthy bones (protein and calcium). Ask if anyone has been sick
Learning styles
recently. Ask what it tasted like. Draw out that stomachs contain acid. Ask if
Visual: Observing demonstrations.
anyone has seen a dog eating bones. Draw out that although dogs eat bones
Auditory: Listening to discussions.
their excreta dont contain bones. Draw out that the bones must be broken
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the practical.
down by acid in the stomach.
Interpersonal: Group work for the practical.
Show pictures of a child with rickets. Explain that it is caused by lack of vitamin
Intrapersonal: Imagining a boneless body.
D which helps your body to absorb calcium.
Plenary - Skeleton diagram
Provide the pupils with a skeleton diagram to colour code the areas that are
used for each function. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Investigating bone: removing the calcium salts
All pupils will be able to name the four functions of bones and that they contain calcium.
Equipment and materials required
Most pupils will be able to name the four functions of bones and link this to protein and calcium
For each group: 250 ml beaker, a small piece of bone such as sections of ribs (to fit
content, including the importance of vitamin D and know that hollow shapes are strongest.
3
beaker), a bottle of dilute (1 mol/dm ) hydrochloric acid, labels, forceps or tongs, paper
Some pupils will also be able to relate the diameter of a rod to strength for a given amount of
material.
towels, seeker. Optional: electronic balance.
How Science Works
Safety
Describe an appropriate approach to answer a scientific question using a limited range of
1 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid is an irritant: CLEAPSS Hazcard 47A.
information and making relevant observations. (1.2a)
Investigating bone: removing the protein
Equipment and materials required
Crucible with lid, pipe-clay triangle, tongs, Bunsen burner, small piece of bone, forceps,
paper towels, seeker.

Fusion 1: B1.8 Joints and Muscles


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Teaching suggestions
Learning Objectives
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. Provide the pupils with sets of coloured cards, one colour
Pupils should learn:
Lesson structure
Starter - Joint names
for each joint type, one letter per card. The pupils are to shuffle the pack
How our skeletons move.
and spell out the type names. Timing and repeating giving achievable
How our joints work.
Show the pupils a model skeleton and question them about the names of the
targets and rewards will be motivating.
joints. Get a series of volunteers to show the rest of the class how each joint
Extension. Pupils to research into hydrostatic skeletons and
moves. (510 mins)
Main endoskeletons. Focus on how size and complexity of the body plan restricts
skeleton type suitability. Link to
Get a volunteer to roll up their shirt sleeves and raise and lower a small weight.
why we dont get giant insects
Impersonate an angry person shouting Dont antagonise me! Introduce the
Learning styles
concept of an antagonistic pair as working against each other, one contracting
Visual: Observing dissection.
as the other relaxes. Show an animation of an antagonistic pair of muscles in
Auditory: Listening to discussions.
action. If available, use a model to reinforce this. Identify where other
Kinaesthetic: Getting involved in the dissection.
antagonistic pairs are.
Intrapersonal: Writing individual questions.
Discuss the parts and function of cartilage, ligaments and synovial fluid. You
may wish to illustrate this by dissecting a chicken leg.
Plenary - Joint questions
Split the class into groups of three or four. Within each group get each pupil to
write one question about joint types, one about synovial joints and one about
antagonistic muscle pairs onto a sheet of paper. When all have finished pass
the pieces around the room. Have a small prize for the best question set as
voted for at the end. (1015 mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils will be able to state that muscles can only pull bones.
Most pupils will be able to describe how a pair of antagonistic muscles works.
Large wooden dissecting board, half a fresh chicken (preferably with claws on), scalpel, dissecting
Some pupils will also be able to describe how a pair of antagonistic muscles work in
scissors, seeker, bag for disposal. A Flexicam and projector will help pupils to see.
Details
detail and relate joint structure to function.
Get a half bird fresh from a reputable butcher. Remove the skin and using scissors and scalpel
expose the outside of the hip and knee joints. Demonstrate the movement range of each. Be
careful of bone splinters. Dissect the joints, expose the cartilage and identify the ligaments. Show
how the muscle sheath becomes the tendon. Pull on some tendons to move the leg introducing
the word. At the end of the dissection (not before) allow the pupils to feel the surface of the
cartilage and then tell them to wash their hands thoroughly.

Fusion 1: B1.9 - Microbes


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a, c.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
The four types of microbe.
How we can see microbes.
What microbes look like?

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. Carry out a life skills exercise on ways of ensuring that
Lesson structure
Starter - Warding it off
microbes are not transferred from person to person (hand washing, good
hygiene practices), modelling the practices and then pupils emulating this.
Show the pupils an orange with cloves in it and hand around a container of pot
Extension. Pupils should extend the disease and causal organism list in
pourri for them to sniff. Show them an image of a Middle Ages doctors longthe starter How many diseases. Have a range of books on microbes from
nosed face mask used to keep bad odours away. Show images of the tattoos
the library to refer to.
on the ice mummy found in the Alps. Explain that these were to keep away
Learning styles
diseases. Pupils are to write a message to these people to tell them why they
Visual: Microscopic observation.
were wrong and what really causes diseases. (1015 mins)
Main
Auditory: Listening to exposition.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the practical.
Define microbes as being another name for micro-organisms and explain that
Interpersonal: Group work setting up and observing through the
this means living things that are too small to see with the naked eye. Draw a
microscopes.
gravestone on the board and write on it R.I.P. Germs, explaining that in this
Intrapersonal: Considering the scales involved.
science topic germs is a word we will not use. Draw out by questioning from
the pupils what they know about microbes so far and summarise this on the
board. From the starters, disease causing organisms will be identified.
Discuss that there are microbes which do not cause diseases and there are
ones which can be useful to us.
Allow students to use microscopes to observe fungi, bacteria, protozoa and
viruses. Discuss the general features of each microbes and some diseases
caused by them and uses of them.
Plenary - Net search for microbes
In pairs pupils use the Internet to research types of microbe. Assign each
group to one type, ensuring balanced overall coverage. Produce a PowerPoint
slide for each type. E-mail home and complete for homework. (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils will be able to name the four types of microbe.
Microscopes, slides, hand lenses, Petri dishes of mouldy foods (lids taped in two places but
Most pupils will be able to name the four types of microbe and give examples and features of
not sealed), Petri dishes of Micrococcus luteus culture (lids taped in two places but not
each.
sealed).
Some pupils will also be able to name the four types of microbe and give several examples
Safety
and detailed features of each, including similarities and differences.
Dispose of the plates hygienically after the practical: CLEAPSS handbook/CD-ROM section
How Science Works
15.2.14.
Describe and record observations and evidence systematically. (1.2d)

Fusion 1: B1.10 Growing Microbes


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Learning Objectives
Teaching / Learning activities
Pupils should learn:
Lesson structure
Starter - Rotten racers
How we can grow bacteria.
How to measure factors
Show the pupils, or ask them to imagine, two ripe peaches in perfect condition.
affecting the growth of yeast. If people were to race to see who could make the peach go rotten first, how
could they go about doing this? Discuss and debate. Draw out ideal conditions
for microbial growth. (1015mins)
Main Introduce the key terms and equipment for Growing Bacteria practical. Pass
around a Petri dish and ask the pupils to say the name out loud. Pass around
one containing nutrient agar and allow the pupils to touch it, but not to scoop it
out. When it comes back to the front ask who would like to lick it? When you
get a yuk reaction, ask why not? All the fingers will have had bacteria on
them. Ask what would happen if we put this plate somewhere where the
bacteria would grow fast. Ask if anyone in this class was in an incubator as a
baby. Do they know of anyone who was? Have they seen how eggs are made
to hatch? Introduce the term incubation.
Plenary - Flow diagrams
Get the pupils to create a flow diagram showing what happens to the rate of
growth under different conditions (warmer or colder, more or less sugar). An
outline on the board will help this. Discuss the flow chart in the light of the
results and summarise. (1015 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to describe in simple terms how to grow bacteria.
Most pupils will be able to describe how to grow bacteria and be able to measure factors
affecting the growth of yeast.
Some pupils will also be able to describe in detail how to grow bacteria and be able to measure
factors affecting the growth of yeast with precision and accuracy.
How Science Works
Recognise the range of variables involved in an investigation and decide which to control.
(1.2b)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Demonstrate each stage of the practicals and ask the
pupils to take digital photographs. Use these with prompt cards later on to
make a display.
Extension. Pupils can set up a data-logger to record the temperature of
the two incubation sites. Each day they record the temperature and the
number of colonies or, if dense, the percentage coverage. They plot this
against time for each site and work out how the growth rate is linked to
temperature. They need to get a numerical value, such as how many
percent more colonies/cover the warm one has. Does this change over
time?
Learning styles
Visual: Observing demonstrations.
Auditory: Listening to exposition and discussion.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the practical.
Interpersonal: Group work.
Intrapersonal: Reflecting on ideas learned.

Additional teachers notes


Growing bacteria
Equipment and materials required
For each group: two Petri dishes and lids filled to 1/3 depth with nutrient agar and left to
set, Chinagraph pencil or OHP pen, wire loop, Bunsen burner, bench mat,
culture of Micrococcus luteus or other suitable microbe, alcohol or sterilising fluid, cotton
wool, Sellotape strips.
Safety
Ethanol (alcohol) is highly flammable and harmful, make sure there are no naked flames:
CLEAPSS Hazcard 40A. See CLEAPSS handbook/CD-ROM section 15.2.
Autoclave before disposal.

10

Fusion 1: B1.11 Useful Microbes


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Learning Objectives
Teaching / Learning activities
Pupils should learn:
Lesson structure
Starter - Wipe out!
How microbes can be used
to make food and other
Ask pupils to imagine that all the micro-organisms on the planet died due to a
products.
blast of cosmic radiation (anything visible to the naked eye was unaffected).
What effect would this have? Discuss this and describe this situation in
whatever way you prefer. Read out volunteers work. As a backing track the
Beachboys Wipe-out could be used from the album Still Cruisin. (1015 mins)
Main Bring in a loaf of bread, empty wine, beer and spirits bottles and a jar of
Marmite (preferably the special edition Guinness Marmite in the black and
white jar), some blue cheese, some mycoprotein such as Quorn, a pot of
natural yoghurt and a bottle of Yakult or similar bacterial drink. Hand these
around and discuss them, emphasising that eating in the laboratory is not
permitted. Be aware of potential blue cheese allergies. Explain the production
of each of the examples above.
Show the pupils a pot of yoghurt. Get the pupils to read the names of the
bacteria written on the side of the pot. Set up the yoghurt making practical
described below, if possible in a domestic science room so that it may be
permissible for the pupils to taste their products.
Plenary - Wipe out remixed
If the pupils carried out the Wipe-out! starter, they can add to their notes using
knowledge gained during the lesson. (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to name some products made using microbes.
Most pupils will be able to describe how a range of products are made using microbes.
Some pupils will also be able to describe in detail how a wide range of products are made
using microbes.
How Science Works
Describe and record observations and evidence systematically. (1.2d)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Pupils can carry out a simple card sort exercise to
arrange the parts of the equation for anaerobic respiration. This can be
carried out using laminated cards and can be scaled as appropriate.
Extension. Pupils may with to extend their understanding of the topic by
looking in detail at the importance of keeping a pure strain of microbes for a
particular food product, for example a particular yeast for brewing a beer.
You may like to get them to set up some barley to germinate, testing it for
sugar at various points during the process.
They may also wish to look into the claims of probiotics through Internet
searches.
Give the pupils the formula for glucose, ethanol and carbon dioxide and ask
them to work out how many of each molecule are on each side of the
equation.
Learning styles
Visual: Observing a presentation.
Auditory: Discussing the types and uses of microbes.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the practical.
Interpersonal: Group work during the practical.
Intrapersonal: Appreciating the wide range of impacts microbes have on our
lives.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required
Full-fat milk (150 ml per pupil), measuring cylinder (200 ml), optional dried milk powder, hot
plate, live natural yoghurt (1 teaspoon per 250 ml), teaspoon, sterile yoghurt pots, cling film,
universal indicator solution (flammable), pH probe and data-logger.
Safety
If possible, make yoghurt in domestic science (home economics) room.

11

Fusion 1: B1.12 Harmful Microbes


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a, c.
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Diseases map of what I know
Which diseases are spread
Divide the class into groups of about four. Give each group a large A3 size
by microbes?
sheet of paper. Ask them to start with the word diseases in the centre of the
How diseases are spread.
page and draw out collectively a concept map of their knowledge of the topic
How the body defends itself
showing the words involved and how they are linked together, labelling each
against disease.
link. Allow about eight
Minutes for drawing out, then five minutes circulating looking at other groups
material, then a brief summary from the front. (1015 mins)
Main Read through the section entitled Spreading diseases in the pupil book. Divide
into groups of about three. Give each group of the pupils a set of blank cards
with the word Chance? written on the back. Their task is to write up scenarios
where people catch a disease and the circumstances under which this takes
place. Emphasise that these must be realistic but not offensive. These cards
can be shuffled and read out to the class. De-personalise this by having the
chance cards apply to fictional characters.
Plenary - Key word charades
Provide a set of key word cards from the lesson, including all the key words in
the pupil book, the methods of infection (do not allow sexually transmitted
diseases for reasons of decency), the names of the diseases featured and the
barriers to infection discussed. Place them face down on the front desk. Get a
pair of volunteers to come to the front. They are to choose a card, look at it and
place it face down to one side. They must then act out the key word together
while others guess. Do not allow shouting out. (1015 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to name some diseases spread by microbes.
Most pupils will be able to name a range of diseases spread by microbes and describe how
they are spread and how the body defends itself.
Some pupils will also be able to name a wide range of diseases spread by microbes and
describe in detail how they are spread and how the body defends itself.

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Pupils can carry out an interactive whiteboard exercise
with drag and drop category boxes for diseases, methods of infection, ways
of spreading microbes and types of microbe. Each key word in turn appears
in the centre of the screen and the pupil has to choose which bin to put it in.
An option to colour code these could help when learning difficulties are
more pronounced.
Extension. With higher attaining pupils you should discuss some of the
ethical issues surrounding infectious diseases.
They could research the controversy over the claimed
link between MMR jabs and autism, evaluating the evidence. They could
look at the ethical issues regarding objection to the use of condoms and the
consequences of unprotected sex leading to high HIV infection rates in subSaharan Africa, including looking at other means of prophylaxis.
Learning styles
Visual: Creating and decorating a concept map.
Auditory: Explaining the barriers to infection.
Kinaesthetic: Making and playing with the Chance cards.
Interpersonal: Playing the Key words charades plenary.
Intrapersonal: Considering the objectives and checking their own learning
outcomes.

Additional teachers notes

12

FUSION 1 C1 WHAT IS HAPPENING AROUND US?

13

Fusion 1: C1.2 What are Reversible and Irreversible Changes?


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a. 2.2b. 3.2c.
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Match the word
What a reversible change is.
Present the pupils with the key words for the lesson and, jumbled up, the
What an irreversible change
definitions for those words. Ask them to match the correct definition to each
is.
word. (5 mins)
How to decide whether a
Main
change is reversible or
Set up various examples of physical/reversible and chemical/irreversible
irreversible.
One example of each type of changes for pupils to try/observe: an ice cube melting [physical], burning a
splint [chemical], dissolving copper sulfate in water [physical], boiling water
change that happens in the
holding a cold watch glass over it to see the steam condense [two physical
home.
changes] (Safety: steam burns), adding water to sherbet [chemical], melting
chocolate (over a water bath) [physical], dropping a piece of magnesium into
some acid [chemical]. Pupils should observe each event in turn and record
what they observe happening. They should also decide whether they think a
reversible, physical change has taken place or an irreversible, chemical one.
Plenary - Match the word Part 2
Revisit the definitions starter and ask pupils to sort them out again. This time
they should get them all right. Ask them to give an example for each one. (10
mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to recognise a change.
Most pupils should be able to classify a change as reversible or irreversible.
Some pupils should also be able to explain why a change is reversible or irreversible
How Science Works
Describe and record observations and evidence systematically. (1.2d)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Give pupils cards stating some physical and chemical
changes. These could be the changes they have seen during the lesson.
Ask pupils to sort them into two groups and then stick them into their books.
Extension. Slowly pour a super-saturated solution of sodium ethanoate
onto a sodium acetate seed crystal. A stalagmite of sodium acetate will
crystallise out. Challenge pupils to explain this physical change. (Safety:
sodium ethanoate is harmful if large quantities are swallowed. Wear eye
protection.) You could also get your pupils to try to change the colour of
flowers by leaving them in water which has been dyed.
Learning styles.
Visual: Observing physical and chemical changes.
Auditory: Describing observations of changes.
Intrapersonal: Reflecting on the differences between physical and chemical
changes.
Homework. Pupils to identify examples of reversible and irreversible
changes around the home. Many examples of irreversible changes exist
with respect to cooking food.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required
23 ice cubes, splints (1 per pupil), copper sulphate powder (12 spatulas full per pupil
group), a few watch glasses, bowl of iced water, paper towels, 1 packet of sherbet, tongs,
3
34 squares of chocolate, evaporating basin, 200 cm of 0.5 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid, 1
cm long pieces of magnesium (1 per pupil group).
Safety:
Pupils should wear eye protection during the experiments.
Copper sulfate is harmful: CLEAPSS Hazcard 27C. Sodium ethanoate is harmful if
swallowed. (See Extension.) Hydrochloric acid is harmful: CLEAPSS Hazcard 47A.
Magnesium: CLEAPSS Hazcard 59A.

14

Fusion 1: C1.3 Are All Acids Dangerous?


National Curriculum Link up
3.2c.
Learning Objectives
Teaching / Learning activities
Pupils should learn:
Lesson structure
Starter - Whats an acid?
How to tell if a chemical is
dangerous.
Ask pupils to describe what they think an acid is or what comes to mind when
What acids are?
someone uses the word acid. (5 mins)
Main
Ask pupils whether they think all acids are dangerous. Then show pupils a
range of acidic substances including, lemon juice, vinegar, sherbet,
hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Ask them whether they still think
all acids are dangerous (if they did before).
Show them a bottle of acid with the Corrosive warning symbol on it. Ask pupils
to explain what it might mean. They are likely to come up with ideas about
burning through things. Explain to them that some acids can damage materials
and eat away at them.
Ask pupils why we need warning signs. Introduce them to the idea that lots of
chemicals have warning signs on them. Give them a sorting activity to do
where they must match the hazard symbol with its name and its meaning.
Extend the activity by asking pupils to design their own warning symbol, e.g. for
a label for a heavy object which may be difficult to carry, or the edge of a cliff.
Plenary - Hazard
Give pupils a recall test by holding up flashcards of hazard symbols and asking
them to say what the hazard is and give an explanation. (10 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to name household examples of acids.
Most pupils should be able to recall the hazard symbols.
Some pupils should also be able to explain why hazard symbols are important.
How Science Works
Explain how action has been taken to control obvious risk (1.2c)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Play a game of hazard warning symbol snap.
Extension. Some pupils can be given the opportunity to design their own
hazard symbols. They could provide a risk assessment for something they
consider to be dangerous around the home operating hair straighteners,
boiling a kettle, making a cup of tea, mowing the lawn, etc.
Learning styles
Visual: Studying hazard symbols.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out practical work.
Intrapersonal: Understanding the idea that warning symbols are a fast way
to convey information.
Homework. Pupils to find examples of warning symbols, e.g. road signs
or those found in the home.

Additional teachers notes


CLEAPSS CD-ROM has printable hazard labels and fonts.
Equipment and materials required
A variety of acidic substances in bottles are needed, including one bottle of laboratory acid
which has the corrosive hazard warning symbol on it.
3
Acids chosen could include: lemon juice, vinegar, sherbet, hydrochloric acid (1 mol/dm ),
3
3
sulfuric acid (0.5 mol/dm ) and nitric acid (0.4 mol/dm ).

15

Fusion 1: C1.4 Are All Alkalis Dangerous?


National Curriculum Link up
2.1c. 3.2c.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Allow short words if you are using the starter Mix it up.
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Extension. Ask pupils to research the difference between alkalis and
Starter - Mix it up?
Which substances are
bases. Although alkali is the more commonly used term, base is the
Challenge pupils to come up with as many words as they can using the letters
alkalis?
in the word alkali or sodium hydroxide. To make it harder, only allow words of correct name. Alkalis are bases which are soluble in water. Ask pupils what
The difference between an
might happen if a base and an acid were to react together. This will be
more than three or four letters. (10 mins)
alkali and an acid.
Main
covered in C1.6, but they could start to think about it now.
Learning styles
Show pupils a bar of soap. Wet it and ask one of them to touch the soap and
then describe how it feels. Explain that soap is made from an alkali which is the Kinaesthetic: Testing substances to see if they are alkalis.
Intrapersonal: Understanding that not all alkalis are dangerous.
chemical opposite of an acid. Most alkalis feel soapy. [Alkalis feel soapy as
Homework. Give pupils some pieces of litmus paper and ask them to
they react with fats in the skin, turning to a form of soap. Traditionally soap is
identify some alkaline substances they find at home.
made by reacting animal fat with lye, the traditional name for sodium
hydroxide.]
Set pupils the challenge of identifying the alkalis from a range of substances.
They can make their own indicator from red cabbage to do this. Use the
indicator to test the substances. The indicator will turn green in alkalis and red
in acid. You may wish to demonstrate this by dripping some indicator onto the
soap shown earlier.
Plenary - Alkalis at home
Having seen that soap is an alkali, ask pupils to compile a list of all the alkalis
they have at home. Most cleaning products, from shower gel to oven cleaner
are alkalis. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
No explanation of indicators is necessary at this point, as these will be discussed in detail in
All pupils should be able to name household examples of alkalis.
C1.5.
Most pupils should be able to state the difference between an acid and an alkali.
Equipment and materials required
Some pupils should also be able to explain the difference between alkalis and bases.
How Science Works
Per group: pestle and mortar, a few pieces of chopped red cabbage, 10 cm3 95% ethanol,
disposable pipette, 5 test tubes, test-tube rack, 2 cm3 each of: 0.5 mol/dm3 hydrochloric
Explain how action has been taken to control obvious risks and how methods are adequate for
3
acid, distilled water, 0.4 mol/dm sodium hydroxide, 0.5 mol/dm3 sodium carbonate and
the task. (1.2c)
limewater.
Safety
Eye protection must be worn.
Ethanol is highly flammable and harmful: CLEAPSS Hazcard 40A. No naked flames when
using ethanol. Sodium hydroxide is an irritant (at 0.4 mol/dm3): CLEAPSS Hazcard 91.
Limewater is an irritant: CLEAPSS Hazcard 18

16

Fusion 1: C1.5 Indicators


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, c. 3.2c.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
What an indicator is.
What the pH scale shows
us.
How we test the pH of a
chemical.

Teaching / Learning activities


Lesson structure
Starter - Whats the danger?
Ask pupils to match the hazard symbols to the correct
chemical, e.g. concentrated acid = corrosive, concentrated
alkali = corrosive, ethanol = flammable. (5 mins)
Main
Discuss the need for a simple way to tell acids from alkalis and how dangerous
they are. Introduce universal indicator as a means of testing how acidic or
alkaline a solution is.
Ask pupils to test a range of substances to find their pH. A suitable table for
their results is suggested in the pupil book. [The pH scale is so called as it tells
+
you about the concentration of hydrogen ions (H ) in a solution. It must be
written pH, and not PH or Ph, as the letters have a meaning.
Discuss the results of the experiment and allow pupils to share their results.
There is often a difference of opinion, which is a good opportunity to discuss
the limitations of universal indicator and, perhaps, to get the pupils to consider
why it is important that scientists share their research.
Plenary - Whats the pH?
Give pupils a range of substances and ask them to place them at the correct
point on the pH scale. Choose some of the substances seen this lesson and
some met in previous lessons. (5 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to test chemicals to classify them as acids or alkalis.
Most pupils should be able to identify the pH of a chemical.
Some pupils should also be able to explain why universal indicator is more useful than others
such as litmus.
How Science Works
Describe and record observations and evidence systematically. (1.2d)
Recognise that the presentation of experimental results through the routine use of tables
makes it easier to see patterns and trends. (1.2d)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Give pupils an outline of the pH scale for them to colour in
with the colours which universal indicator turns at each pH.
Extension. Ask pupils to explain why universal indicator is a much better
indicator than they made in C1.4. [That is, to explain that universal indicator
is more useful because it gives more detailed information about a
substance.] Ask pupils to find out how the pH scale was developed. Some
higher attaining pupils may wish to research the meaning of pH, but this is
very advanced (see Main lesson notes).
Learning styles
Visual: Observing colour changes in indicators.
Auditory: Justifying the decision about pH.
Kinaesthetic: Testing the indicators.
Intrapersonal: Understanding the need for scientists to collaborate.
Homework. Pupils to find out what hydrofluoric acid is used for. [It will
dissolve glass and has to be stored in Teflon bottles. It is used, in very
dilute form, to etch car number plate details onto car windows.]

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required
Per group: test-tube rack, 1 test tube per substance to be tested, universal indicator with
3
dropping pipettes, pH scale keys (available from universal indicator suppliers), 23 cm of
3
each substance to be tested, such as: 0.5 mol/dm sulfuric acid, lemon juice, vinegar,
distilled water,
3
3
ethanol, 0.5 mol/dm sodium bicarbonate solution,0.4 mol/dm sodium hydroxide, 0.5
3
mol/dm ammonia solution, commercial oven cleaner.
Safety
Eye protection must be worn. Sulfuric acid: CLEAPSS Hazcard 98A.
Sodium hydroxide: CLEAPSS Hazcard 91. Ethanol is flammable, so there must be no
naked flames: CLEAPSS Hazcard 40A. Universal indicator usually contains ethanol and is
flammable. Many of the substances suggested are corrosive.

17

Fusion 1: C1.6 Acid Reactions: Neutralisation


National Curriculum Link up
2.1b. 3.2c.
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Chemical clash
What a neutral chemical is.
Ask pupils to consider what would happen if a chemical of pH 1 were to meet a
What happens when an acid
chemical of pH 14. (5 mins)
and alkali are mixed?
Main
How to measure the volume
Remind pupils that a neutral substance is neither acid nor alkaline. Introduce
of a liquid.
the idea of neutralisation of an acid and ask pupils how they could make an
acid less acidic. [Hopefully they will suggest adding an alkali.] Ask pupils to
carry out the neutralisation reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and
sodium hydroxide solution. It is quite tricky to get the solution to be completely
neutral, so challenge them to be the first to successfully complete the task.
There is also an excellent opportunity here to get pupils to measure out liquids
in a measuring cylinder accurately and the chance to introduce some datalogging.
Get the class to feedback on any problems they had with the practical and how
they tried to solve them.
Plenary - See-saw
Challenge pupils to explain how neutralisation is like a see-saw. If you add too
much acid it will tip one way. Too much alkali and it will tip the other. (5 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to measure the volume of a liquid in a measuring cylinder.
Most pupils should be able to recall that acids and alkali react.
Some pupils should also be able to explain observations of a neutralisation reaction.
How Science Works
Recognise that the presentation of experimental results through the routine use of tables
and simple graphs makes it easier to see patterns and trends.
(1.2d)
Describe patterns and trends in results (1.2e)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Pupils with poor motor skills may struggle to obtain a
neutral solution, as only tiny drops of acid or alkali will be needed at the end
point.
Extension. Ask pupils to write a word equation for the reaction. Support
for this is available in the pupil book.
Learning styles.
Visual: Observing the changes in indicator colour as pH changes.
Auditory: Describing and discussing the difficulties in obtaining a neutral
solution.
Kinaesthetic: Manipulating the apparatus during neutralisation, this requires
good motor control.
Interpersonal: Taking part in discussions about the practical.
Homework. Pupils could find out what the acid-neutralising ingredient in
an antacid tablet is. [It is usually a carbonate of some sort.]

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required
3
3
3
3
Per group: two 10 cm measuring cylinders, 50 cm of 0.1 mol/dm hydrochloric acid, 50 cm
3
of 0.1 mol/dm sodium hydroxide, a few drops of universal indicator, two dropping pipettes
3
(one for acid and one for alkali), glass stirring rod, 100 cm beaker; optional: data-logger
with pH probe and access to a PC to review data.
Safety
Universal indicator usually contains ethanol and is flammable. Eye protection should be
worn to protect from possible acid and alkali plashes. Watch for pupils squirting pipettes at
each other.

18

Fusion 1: C1.7 Acid Reactions: Metals


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, b, c. 3.2c.
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Metal everywhere
What we observe when a
Ask pupils to list as many metals as they can. To make it more difficult, they
metal reacts with an acid.
must give a use for each metal. (510 mins)
How to test for hydrogen
Main
gas.
Explain that in this lesson they are going to study what happens when an acid
reacts with a metal. Show the pupils how to set up the experiment. They are
unlikely to have collected a gas before and will need to be shown how to do
this.
Get the pupils to carry out the experiment according to the instructions in the
pupil book. At this stage you may not want to tell them that the gas given off is
hydrogen. Explain to pupils that the gas is hydrogen and demonstrate the test
for hydrogen once more. Emphasise that a lighted splint makes a squeaky pop
in hydrogen gas.
Ask pupils if they observed a difference in how well the acids reacted. They
should have noticed that magnesium was the most reactive, followed by zinc,
then copper.
Plenary - Diminishing words
Ask pupils to write down five sentences which summarise the lesson. They
must then reduce this to five words and, finally, to just one word. (10 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to record observations.
Most pupils should be able to recall the test for hydrogen.
Some pupils should be able to also complete word equations.
How Science Works
Describe and record observations and evidence systematically. (1.2d)
Describe patterns and trends in results (1.2e)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Some pupils may need extra guidance with the
Diminishing words plenary. They could use five sentences provided to
them and try summarising into one sentence. Some may not successfully
catch enough hydrogen in order for the test to work. However, the
demonstration at the end should cover this aspect.
Extension. Ask pupils to write word equations for the reactions. Support
for this is available in the pupil book.
Learning styles
Auditory: Listening to the pop when hydrogen burns.
Kinaesthetic: Collecting hydrogen gas.
Interpersonal: Working with others to collect the gas.
Intrapersonal: Understanding that all acids react with metals in a similar
way.
Homework. Find out what the Hindenburg Disaster was. [The
Hindenburg was an early airship, filled with hydrogen, which exploded.
Later airships were filled with the inert gas helium.]

Additional teachers notes


Metals and acids
Equipment and materials required
Per group: three test tubes, 2 cm long piece of magnesium ribbon, 23 g of granulated zinc (1 or 2
3
3
pieces), one piece of copper, 9 cm of 1 mol/dm hydrochloric acid, boiling tube, test-tube rack,
splints, access to a lit Bunsen Burner nearby.
Safety
Wear eye protection and keep the metals away from flames. Magnesium ribbon: CLEAPSS
Hazcard 59A.
Demonstration of hydrogen test
The teacher will need: 2 boiling tubes of hydrogen gas. These could be pre-filled from a cylinder or
obtained by the method given in the pupil experiment.
Safety
Hydrogen is extremely flammable: CLEAPSS Hazcard 48.

19

Fusion 1: C1.8 Acid Reactions: Metal Carbonates


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, b, c. 3.2c.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Some pupils may struggle to understand that the
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - All of a muddle
limewater bubbles because of the carbon dioxide
What is observed when a
Give pupils the steps of the practical suggested for this lesson, but in the wrong passing through it and not because it is reacting.
carbonate reacts with acid?
Extension. Ask pupils to write word equations for the reactions. Support
order. They must put the steps into the correct order. (5 mins)
How to test for carbon
Main
for this is available in the pupil book.
dioxide.
Learning styles
Introduce metal carbonates as the main mineral in many rocks: calcium
Visual: Observing the reaction between acids and carbonates.
carbonate in limestone, copper carbonate in malachite.
Auditory: Describing observations of the reactions.
Introduce the practical and explain how to carry it out. You may wish to get
pupils to collect some of the gas, rather than bubbling it through limewater. You Kinaesthetic: Reacting acids with carbonates.
Interpersonal: Working with others during the practical and discussing ideas
may wish to get pupils to collect some of the gas, rather than bubbling it
with other pupils.
through limewater. They could then test it in the same way as in C1.7 and
Intrapersonal: Understanding that all acids react with carbonates in a
prove that the gas collected was not hydrogen.
similar way.
Discuss with the group the fact that the limewater turning milky is a test for the
Homework. Pupils to find out what carbon dioxide is used for. [Certain fire
presence of carbon dioxide gas and that when acids react with carbonates,
extinguishers, the fizz in fizzy drinks, a
carbon dioxide is always produced. Carbonates are the basis for many antacid
packaging gas for some foods which slows oxidation, the gas given off by
remedies. Thats why they can taste chalky; they are often made from chalk.
yeast which makes bread rise.]
The carbonate reacts with excess stomach acid. Carbon dioxide is released,
which is why taking an indigestion remedy can give you wind.
Plenary - Sort it out!
Give pupils the key words (carbonate, carbon dioxide and limewater) as
anagrams. Ask them to sort the words out and then write a sentence which
includes each word. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to record observations.
3
Per group: 2 test tubes, 12 spatulas of copper carbonate powder, 10 cm measuring cylinder, 3
Most pupils should be able to recall the test for carbon dioxide.
3
3
3
Some pupils should be able to complete word equations.
cm of 0.4 mol/dm hydrochloric acid, 5 cm of limewater (calcium hydroxide solution), test tube
How Science Works
rack, bung attached to delivery tube to fit test tubes used.
Safety
Explain how action has been taken to control obvious risk and how methods are adequate
for the task. (1.2c)
Wear eye protection to protect from acid spills and from copper carbonate which is harmful.
Copper carbonate powder is harmful: CLEAPSS Hazcard 26. Limewater is an irritant: CLEAPSS
Hazcard 18.

20

Fusion 1: C1.9 Is It a Metal?


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a. 2.2b. 3.2 c.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
What a metal is.
What a non-metal is.
How to decide if a substance
is a metal or non-metal.

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. There are many new key words and terms used in this
Lesson structure
Starter - Is it a metal?
lesson which pupils with poor literacy skills may need support with.
Extension. Challenge pupils to explain what a semi-metal is. A good
Give pupils a list of materials and ask them to divide them up into metallic and
element for them to research here is silicon.
non-metallic. Ask them to give a reason why they put each one into a
Learning styles
particular group. (5 mins)
Main
Visual: Observing the behaviour of metals.
Kinaesthetic: Testing the properties of metals.
Show the class a Periodic Table and ask them to pick out the names of
elements which they know to be metals. Explain that there are lots of metals on Interpersonal: Working with others during practical.
Intrapersonal: Understanding that some substances, such as graphite, are
the Periodic Table and that they must come up with a set of rules which
not easily classed as metals or non-metals.
describe what a metal is, while carrying out the main activity.
Ask pupils to carry out the practical Classifying metals and non-metals, as a
circus of activities. Many of the materials pupils meet in the practical may not
pure metals and non-metals in the elemental sense; they do not appear on the
Periodic Table. However, the aim of this lesson is to convey typical metallic
and non-metallic properties.
Plenary - That cant be right?
Show that a piece of graphite will conduct electricity even though it is a form of
the non-metal carbon. Challenge pupils to say why it is probably still a nonmetal. [Dull appearance, not sonorous, brittle, other forms of carbon, such as
diamond, do not conduct electricity.] (5 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Classifying metals and non-metals
All pupils should be able to group some metals and non metals.
Equipment and materials required
Most pupils should be able to recall the physical properties of metals and non-metals.
Per station: a selection of metallic and non-metallic materials; 23 magnifying glasses, bowl
Some pupils should also be able to explain why a material is a metal or non-metal.
How Science Works
half filled with water, paper towels to dry materials; lamps (up to 6 V), 3 wires, power supply
(low voltage) to match lamps, 2 crocodile clips; board to protect bench, small hammer.
Describe and record observations and evidence systematically. (1.2d)
Safety
Keep electrical conductivity test away from floating test. Pupils should wear eye protection
when testing malleability.
Plenary: That cant be right
Equipment and materials required
As per pupil practical for testing electrical conductivity except: 1 graphite electrode stick.

21

Fusion 1: C1.10 Burning


National Curriculum Link up
2.1b. 2.3a. 3.2c.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
How to use a Bunsen burner
safely.
What is needed for burning?
What happens when
something burns?

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. Ask pupils to match the safety rules in a laboratory with
Lesson structure
Starter - Who was he?
the reasons for the rule.
Extension. Ask pupils to write word equations for the reactions. Support
If Internet connection is available, ask pupils to find out who Robert Wilhelm
for this is available in the pupil book.
Bunsen, who is credited with the invention of the Bunsen burner, was. Pupils
Learning styles
who complete this quickly could try to think how a Bunsen burner might work.
Auditory: Observing differences between Bunsen flames.
(1015 mins)
Main
Kinaesthetic: Operating a Bunsen burner safely.
Interpersonal: Working in a way which keeps others safe.
Remind pupils about the general laboratory safety rules, especially those
Intrapersonal: Understanding the need to work safely.
relating to experiments. They may have had access to or seen a Bunsen
Homework. Pupils to find out what rules are in place at petrol stations to
burner in earlier lessons, but the focus here is on getting the pupils to use one
try to prevent fires.
correctly.
Ask them if they have heard of the fire triangle. If anyone knows, ask them to
explain what it means. It may be useful here to have a lit candle class as a
visual prompt.
There are instructions for setting up a Bunsen burner for the pupils to follow in
the practical support section. It may be best to demonstrate all of this before
allowing the pupils access to the apparatus. Explain to pupils that opening the
air hole allows air to mix with the fuel (gas) and makes the flame hotter. The
role of oxygen will be dealt with next lesson. Ask pupils to share their
observations.
Plenary - Bunsens rule!
Ask pupils to write a set of instructions to allow other Year 7 pupils to use a
Bunsen burner safely. Their instructions should cover setting up and lighting
the burner, and how and when to use the safety flame. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
The local Fire Service may be willing to visit the school for a talk.
All pupils should be able to set up a Bunsen burner safely.
Equipment and materials required
Most pupils should be able to explain the laboratory safety rules.
Heat mat, Bunsen burner, splints or matches, half a spatula of carbon (charcoal) powder,
Some pupils should be able to write word equations for the reactions they have seen.
How Science Works
half a spatula of fine iron filings, half a spatula of magnesium powder.
Safety
Explain how action has been taken to control obvious risk and how methods are adequate for
Make sure anything that can burn is moved away from the Bunsen burner. Tie long hair and
the task. (1.2c)
clothes back so that they do not go into the flame. Wear eye protection. Iron filings are
highly flammable: CLEAPSS Hazcard 55A. Magnesium powder is highly flammable:
CLEAPSS Hazcard 59A.

22

Fusion 1: C1.11 Fuels and Oxygen


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a. 2.2a, b. 2.3a. 3.2c.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. If plotting line graphs many pupils in Year 7 will need
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Fire of London
support in preparing the axes. It may be better just to ask them to identify
What a fuel is.
the pattern that the larger the jar, the longer the candle burns for and then
Show pupils a picture depicting the Fire of London or a forest fire. Ask them to
The products of combustion.
to explain why this is.
think about why fire caused so much damage. (510 mins)
What effect oxygen has on a
Learning styles
Main
fire?
Visual: Observing the burning candles.
Establish that, as oxides are formed, oxygen is required for burning. [It is a
How to record the results of
Auditory: Describing how to carry out the investigation.
common misconception that oxygen burns. Burning is generally an oxidation
an investigation.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the investigation into burning.
reaction; that is a substance may burn when it reacts with oxygen. Oxygen
Interpersonal: Working with others during practical work.
cannot react with oxygen and so does not burn. For burning to take place, a
Intrapersonal: Deciding how to plot a graph of results.
fuel (such as petrol) must react with oxygen. The reaction is fast enough for us
Homework. Pupils to find out how long the worlds oil reserves are
to feel heat and see light being given off.]
predicted to last. [Answers will vary wildly, as oil company optimism
Explain that they are going to investigate whether the amount of air available
changes regularly, but the important point to establish is that oil is a finite
affects how long a candle will burn. Get pupils to carry out Investigating
resource.]
combustion described in the pupil book. You could, at this point, ask pupils to
plan the investigation themselves, including a table for their results, if you have
the time available.
Ask pupils to plot a graph of their results, plotting jar size against candle burn
time. If you want pupils to plot a line graph, they will need to know the volumes
of the jars used. Establish the pattern that the greater the volume of the jar, the
longer the candle burns. Ask pupils to say why they think this is the case [more
oxygen in the larger jars than the smaller jars]. Relate the experiment back to
the fire triangle and explain that removing any part of the triangle puts the fire
out.
Plenary - Put it out!
Give pupils different ways of putting out a fire and ask them to explain why it
works. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils will recall that oxygen is needed for burning and the fire triangle.
24 different-sized glass containers: glass beakers will be fine, measuring cylinder, tray of
Most pupils will recall that length of burning is related to amount of oxygen available.
sand, candle (about 2 cm tall), splints, stopwatch.
Some pupils will also draw a graph of their results.
Safety
How Science Works
Wear eye protection. Remove things that catch light easily from the bench. Tie back hair
Describe patterns and trends in results and link this evidence to any prediction made. (1.2e)
and loose clothing. Avoid skin contact with cobalt chloride paper.

23

Fusion 1: C1.12 Making Oxygen


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, b, c. 3.2c.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Some pupils may struggle to collect enough gas to test.
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Fire, fire!
You may wish to have a few tubes of oxygen from a cylinder to cover for
What we observe when
this eventuality.
Ask pupils to draw the fire triangle from recall, which they should remember
hydrogen peroxide reacts
Extension. Ask pupils to find out where they might come across hydrogen
from C1.10 and C1.11. (5 mins)
with manganese dioxide.
Main
peroxide in everyday life. (It is used by
How we test for oxygen.
hairdressers to bleach hair, hence the term peroxide blonde).
Remind pupils how important oxygen is too many processes on Earth,
Learning styles
including respiration.
Auditory: Asking or answering questions in the Ask the expert plenary.
Demonstrate to pupils how to collect a gas by displacement, as they are
Kinaesthetic: Collecting oxygen.
unlikely to have done this before. It is quite tricky, so be sure to emphasise to
Interpersonal: Taking part in class discussion in the Ask the expert
make sure that the boiling tube is completely full of water before they start
plenary.
collecting the gas. Place a bung in while the tube is still submerged under the
Intrapersonal: Understanding that oxygen had to be discovered and that all
water.
the gases in our atmosphere are not the same.
Ask them to carry out the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, collect the gas
produced and test for oxygen. At this level, most pupils do not need to know
that the hydrogen peroxide decomposes in the presence of the manganese
(IV) oxide catalyst. They can simply observe it as a chemical change.
Once they have collected two or three test tubes of oxygen, show them how to
test for oxygen.
Plenary - Ask the expert
Invite a panel of three pupils to the front. Choosing at least one high attaining
pupil might be a good idea. The rest of the class must then think of questions
about this topic. The person who asks the question has to decide if they were
given the correct answer or not. (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to record observations and be able to collect gas by displacement.
Per group: conical fl ask, 25 cm3 of 10 vol. hydrogen peroxide solution, bung with single
Most pupils should be able to recall the test for oxygen.
hole attached to rubber delivery tube, 23 boiling tubes for gas collection with bungs, test
Some pupils should be able to write word equations.
How Science Works
tube rack, bowl, half-filled with water, spatula, manganese (IV) oxide powder, splints and
access to a lit Bunsen burner.
Explain how action has been taken to control obvious risk and how methods are adequate for
Safety
the task. (1.2c)
Wear eye protection.
Hydrogen peroxide solution: CLEAPSS Hazcard 50. Manganese(IV) oxide powder is
harmful: CLEAPSS Hazcard 60.

24

FUSION 1 P1 STRIKE A LIGHT!

25

Fusion 1: P1.2 Complete Circuits


National Curriculum Link up
3.1c.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. For lower attaining pupils, you may wish to use
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Symbolic
photographs of circuits alongside the circuit diagrams so that the pupils can
That a complete circuit is
make connections between them. Locktronic type boards can also make
Show the pupils some everyday symbols and ask them to explain what they
required for an electrical
the relationship between diagram and circuit construction easier but they
mean. Start with symbols that give strong visual clues about their meaning and
current.
are unreliable when rusty or dirty.
move onto the more abstract. You should include the symbols for a switch,
How a circuit can be
Extension. Higher attaining pupils can add a greater range of
lamp and battery. (5 mins)
represented by circuit
Main
components in their circuits including an LED. This should be connected in
symbols.
Pupils can try to build circuits using a range of components in the Connecting
That some materials are
series with a 1 k protective resistor and to a 4.5 V power supply. Ask them
up activity. The goal is to get them to construct the circuit correctly and then
good electrical conductors
to describe what happens when this is placed facing one direction
simply describe what it does. If some components are not available, then just
while others are insulators.
compared to another. They could also try to build a circuit that can turn a
miss out the circuit.
light on and off from two separate switches, like those on landings
Pupils need to be shown how to build the circuits component by component,
controlled from upstairs and downstairs.
the same way that they trace the current. Start with the battery and add one
Learning styles.
component at a time until the connections go back to the battery again.
Visual: Analysing circuit diagrams and their relationship to physical circuits.
Pupils should be familiar with conductors and insulators, but it is worth
Auditory: Explaining verbally what is happening in a circuit.
demonstrating some materials like plastic strips, copper and graphite rods.
Kinaesthetic: Building and manipulating circuits.
Pupils could carry out these tests if time permits.
Interpersonal: Working in groups to discuss the function of circuits.
Encourage pupils to draw correct circuit diagrams using a ruler. Dont allow any Intrapersonal: Thinking back to their KS2 work on electricity.
gaps at all, point out that the circuit would be incomplete; using little blobs to
show connections is a good idea.
Plenary - Any bright ideas?
Show the pupils a full-size mains bulb. Ask them to describe which parts
conduct and which dont. Show them the internal parts of other components
too, a motor for example. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to identify the circuit symbols for a battery, bulb and switch.
Per group: a battery pack (3 V), two 3 V bulbs, two switches (press to close), six connecting
Most pupils should be able to construct simple circuits from circuit diagrams.
leads, a buzzer, a small electric motor (optional).
Some pupils should also be able to draw accurate circuit diagrams and explain how they work
Details
in terms of current.
How Science Works
The pupils should construct the circuits one at a time and then describe what they do.
These descriptions should include what happens when individual switches are pressed. Try
Describe and record observations and evidence systematically. (1.2d)
to get the pupils to connect the idea of current and energy being provided to components
and then being transferred in the components.

26

Fusion 1: P1.3 Electric Current


National Curriculum Link up
3.1c.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Pupils may need some help setting up the circuits. As in
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - A river runs through it
the previous lesson the pupils could be given photographs of what the
That an electric current is a
completed circuit should look like. Locktronic type boards are also an
Show the pupils a video clip about the flow of a river from its source into the
flow of electrons in metal
option.
oceans and perhaps the rest of the water cycle. Concentrate on the flow of the
wires.
Extension. With higher attaining pupils you should discuss energy in the
water particles and the word current. (1015 mins)
How to measure the current
Main
circuit and log flume in more detail. [The battery provides the electrons with
in a circuit with an ammeter.
energy and they lose this energy as they travel around the circuit. In the log
Pupils should complete the experiment Controlling Current as describes in the
How adding components,
flume the pump lifts up water and provides it with energy that is
pupil book. They should see how the brightness of the lamp is related to the
such as bulbs, affects the
consequently loses as it travels back around the loop.] You could ask the
current, but check that they can state this relationship to you.
current in a circuit.
pupils to try to come up with their own model to describe an electric circuit.
The model used in the pupil book is a water flume, where the water represents
This is
the electrons and a pump represents the battery. Take great care that the
rather a difficult task, but they could be lead towards
pupils understand that you are attempting to describe what the current is like,
a rollercoaster type model or even a central heating version.
not what it actually is. The water current does not get used up as it goes
Learning styles
around the flume and similarly the electrons in the circuit are not used up when
Visual: Analysing circuit diagrams and their relationship to physical circuits.
they travel. This is a point very often misunderstood by pupils with a majority
Auditory: Explaining verbally what is happening in a circuit.
believing that electrons are used up when they light up the lamp. Some pupils
Kinaesthetic: Building and manipulating circuits.
may point out that some water escapes. This is a limitation with the model and
Interpersonal: Working in groups to build circuits.
you may wish to explain that all science models have some limits.
Plenary - Electron journeys
Intrapersonal: Appreciating that electrons are not used up when they travel
Ask the pupils to imagine they are an electron on a journey around a circuit that around a circuit.
Homework. The electron journeys plenary makes a good homework
has a cell, two bulbs and a variable resistor. Ask them to describe this journey
task. The pupils can read out some of their descriptions next lesson and
using the key words: current, energy, cell, bulb, heat and light. Some pupils
you can make sure that they use the correct concepts.
may like to do this as a comic strip. (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to measure an electric current using an ammeter.
Most pupils should be able to describe how an electric current can be increased.
Per group: a 12 V power supply, a 10 W bulb (or three), a variable resistor (1 k), an
Some pupils should also be able to describe an electric current in terms of electron movement.
ammeter, four connecting leads.
How Science Works
Details
Use an existing model or analogy to explain a phenomenon. (1.1a1)
Sometimes the ammeter is connected the wrong way around and gives a negative value;
this confuses some pupils so get them to switch the leads to the meter around.

27

Fusion 1: P1.4 Cells and Batteries


National Curriculum Link up
3.1c.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Lower attaining pupils will need quite a bit of support in
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Potato clock
building their circuits. You may want to limit each group to one type of fruit,
That cells/batteries produce
and then they can investigate the effect of increasing the number of fruits
Show the pupils a clock that operates using potato power. These are available
a voltage that causes an
without changing the type of fruit. The results can then be shared with other
electric current in a complete in various gadget shops. Ask them to explain how they think it works. (1015
groups.
mins)
circuit.
Extension. Challenge higher attaining pupils to design a device that
Main
The size of a voltage
operates on fruit power. They can even work on a marketing campaign for
depends on the number, and Botanical batteries can take up a quite a bit of time but is well worth carrying
their product. Remember, fruit is renewable.
out. With the higher attaining pupils you may wish to introduce the use of a
orientation, of the cells.
Learning styles
voltmeter to measure voltage produced by the fruits. The results from the
How to use a voltmeter to
Visual: Designing an advertising campaign.
battery experiment can be varied, so get the groups to compare results with
measure the voltage in a
Auditory: Discussing the uses and limitations of batteries.
each other until they reach an appropriate conclusion about which fruit
circuit.
Kinaesthetic: Testing different fruits in a practical task.
provides the highest voltage (usually kiwi). Talk about the fairness of
Interpersonal: Working in groups during experiments.
comparing results across groups.
Intrapersonal: Making conclusions about which fruit would make the best
After the practical is complete, you can show the pupils the inside of a simple
battery.
battery to show that these depend on a chemical reaction to provide their
Homework. The pupils could make a plan to test the claims about how
voltage too.
long a rechargeable battery in a portable music player actually lasts. Can
Discuss the energy transfer taking place inside the cell; chemical energy is
they really play music for 24 hours before needing to be recharged?
transferred to electrical energy (and thermal energy warming up the cell). A
battery dies when all of the chemicals have reacted together.
Plenary - Do not dispose of in fire
Batteries should not be disposed on in general household waste. Take the
opportunity to discuss the environmental impact of battery disposal. The pupils
should design a battery disposal point for the UK to be situated in a
supermarket. They could also produce a leaflet to encourage people to dispose
of batteries properly. (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to describe what happens to the voltage of cells when they are
Per group: a range of citrus fruits (lemon, orange, kiwi, grapefruit) quartered, a 1.5 V bulb, a
combined in a battery.
voltmeter and or milli-ammeter, a copper and a zinc electrode (just strips of the metal that
Most pupils should be able to describe what happens to the current in a circuit when the
wont bend too much), connecting leads, crocodile clips, a tray.
voltage is increased.
Some pupils will also be able to measure the voltage of a battery using a voltmeter.
How Science Works
Recognise the range of variables involved in an investigation and decide which to control.
(1.2b)

28

Fusion 1: P1.5 Shocking Stuff


National Curriculum Link up
3.1c.
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Hot stuff
That mains electricity is at a
Ask the pupils to list as many devices that use electricity to produce heat as
high voltage and that it can
they can. Then they should list all of the other electrical devices that produce
force a current through a
heat as a side effect [almost everything]. (510 mins)
person.
Main
That the current can cause
Due to the danger of mains electricity, there are a number of demonstrations in
burns or even kill.
this lesson instead of a major practical activity for the pupils. The pupils should
That a fuse is a device
leave the lesson understanding the dangers of using mains electricity
designed to melt if the
inappropriately, but they should not be afraid of its safe use.
current is too large.
You should demonstrate:

Electrical conduction through water

A fuse blowing

Allow low voltage lamps to heat up


Bathrooms needs to have electric lights and sockets for electric razors. Discuss
how these are made safe in the bathroom [pull cords and extra earthing].
At the end of the lesson, remind the pupils that mains electricity is perfectly
safe as long as it is used correctly.
Plenary - Clear!
Show a video clip of a patient being shocked to restart the heart. The doctor
always shouts Clear! Ask the pupils to explain why this is important. What
would happen to anybody touching the patient? What could happen to any
electronic equipment? (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to describe the action of a fuse.
Most pupils should be able to explain why mains electricity is dangerous.
Some pupils will also be able to state the UK mains voltage and to link this with the level of
danger.
How Science Works
Explain how action has been taken to control obvious risk and how methods are adequate for
the task. (1.2c)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. For these pupils concentrate on the safety features used
to protect users from mains electricity.
Extension. These pupils should take a look at mains electricity in other
countries. They can find out about the supply in the USA. They could take a
look at what alternating current is compared to direct current and find out
about the mains frequencies used in the UK and USA.
As an alternative, the pupils can look at the connection between resistance
and the heating effect of a current. You can go through the model of
electrons colliding with ions in the metal to release energy.
Learning styles
Visual: Watching various demonstrations.
Auditory: Listening to, and giving, explanations about why mains electricity
is dangerous.
Interpersonal: Discussing the dangers of mains electricity in groups.
Homework. The pupils can produce an electrical safety booklet
containing a list of what we should and shouldnt do with mains electricity.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required
A 9 V battery (or low voltage d.c. power supply), a 500 cm3 beaker, distilled water, salt, a
stirrer, a 3 V lamp, connecting leads.
Details
Set up a series circuit with the lamp and battery so that there is a gap between two leads.
Place the two leads in a beaker of distilled water and the lamp will not light. Make sure that
the pupils understand that you are using a low voltage and you would never try this with
mains electricity. Gradually stir salt into the water and the lamp will light as the current
passes through the solution.

29

Fusion 1: P1.6 Series and Parallel


National Curriculum Link up
3.1c.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Lower attaining pupils will need a lot of support,
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Continuity checking
especially in measuring voltages. If the pupils struggle, then just get them to
That in a series circuit the
measure voltages in a series circuit and note that the voltage is shared.
Check that the pupils have remembered the key words and ideas from the
current is the same through
Extension. These pupils can attempt to make measurements in more
previous lessons by using a crossword. (10 mins)
all devices.
Main
complex circuits. Ask the pupils to build a circuit that has two lamps in
How the current divides in
parallel followed by one in series and to investigate the current through and
Start by making sure that the pupils understand the meaning of the word
parallel circuits.
voltages across the bulbs. Pupils could use their knowledge of circuits to
series as in one after another. Pupils can then carry out the Measuring
That the voltage across
design a circuit for stairs lights that can be switched on and off by two
current activity.
parallel branches is the
separate switches (one upstairs and one downstairs).
After the practical you can show the circuit with three separate ammeters in it
same.
Learning styles.
to confirm that the current is the same at the three different points.
Visual: Picturing electron movement.
Remind the pupils of the meaning of the word parallel. They need to get the
Auditory: Describing the flow of current in various circuits.
idea that the components are alongside each other and current can go both (or
Kinaesthetic: Constructing circuits.
more) ways. Pupils can now do the Switches in control activity; they should
Interpersonal: Working in groups to set up circuits.
attempt to measure the voltages across components in parallel. Measuring the
Intrapersonal: Making deductions about the behaviour of current in parallel
voltage across components in parallel circuits will be particularly difficult for
circuits.
some. Make sure you demonstrate how to connect and move the voltmeter
Homework. Give the pupils a worksheet showing circuit diagrams with
before the pupils start on the task. Check that all of the pupils have the
missing measurements. The pupils must use their knowledge of series and
expected results from the practical.
parallel circuits to fill in the gaps using the information already present.
To sum up the key ideas of the lesson a computer model/animation should be
used to look at what is happening to the current in the circuit.
Plenary - Connect-up cards
Give the pupils a set of cards containing circuit symbols. The pupils have to
place the cards in a way that makes a functioning circuit where all of the
readings are correct. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Measuring current
All pupils will be able to describe the behaviour of the current in a series circuit.
Equipment and materials required
Most pupils will be able to describe how the current divides in a parallel circuit.
Per group: battery packs or low voltage power supply, two 3 V lamps, ammeter, connecting
Some pupils will also be able to state that the voltage across parallel branches in a circuit is
leads.
the same.
Switches in control
How Science Works
Equipment and materials required
Describe and record observations and evidence systematically. (1.2d)
Per group: battery packs or low voltage power supply, two 3 V lamps, two switches,
ammeter, connecting leads.

30

Fusion 1: P1.7 Magnetic forces


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b.
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Force facts
That some materials are
Get the pupils to list as many facts about forces and their effects as they
magnetic while others are
remember. (510 mins)
not.
Main
That magnets have two
Start by demonstrating the effect of a magnet on a magnetic material and the
poles named north and
lack of effect on a non-magnetic one.
south.
Pupils may already be aware of the idea of poles and they will know that these
About the interactions and
are found at the ends of the bar. You could show a horseshoe magnet to show
forces between north and
that the position of the poles can be different.
south poles of a magnet.
The opposites attract idea will be commonly known, but some pupils will be
confused by the term like so use alternative phrases as well such as same
poles.
The pupils should spend a major portion of the lesson handling magnets,
especially during the game construction. You should have some designs in
mind or even complete designs to support lower attaining pupils.
Plenary - Attract or repel?
Show the pupils a range of diagrams of various combinations of magnets. Ask
them to describe what would happen to these. (5 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to describe a simple test for magnetic materials.
Most pupils will be able to describe the interactions between combinations of magnetic poles.
Some pupils will also be able to describe that when a magnetic material is placed near a
magnet it also becomes a magnet.
How Science Works
Describe an appropriate approach to answer a scientific question using a limited range of
information (1.2a)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs You may want to mark the poles of magnets with N and S
in permanent marker (or white paint for black magnets), especially if you
use unusual magnets. Provide designs for the games for lower attaining
pupils so that they can spend more time constructing and playing them.
Extension. These pupils should investigate magnets other than bar
magnets to find the poles. Possibilities include horseshoe magnets and
magnets where the poles are on the larger faces, such as the ferrite
magnets often used in building model motors. They could also research into
which materials can be used to make permanent magnets.
Learning styles
Auditory: Discussing game design.
Kinaesthetic: Experimenting with magnets and constructing magnetic
games.
Interpersonal: Discussing the design of magnet-based games.
Intrapersonal: Collaborating with others during game construction.
Homework. The pupils could make of list of all of the devices they can
find that use magnets in their home.

Additional teachers notes


Pole position
Equipment and materials required
Per pupil: a pair of bar magnets and a steel paper clip.
Pole puzzle
Equipment and materials required
Per group: three bar magnets, some card. The exact requirements for the games depend
on the designs the pupils come up with, but you should provide them with a range of
magnets in different sizes, cardboards, scissors, pens and plastic Petri dishes as starting
points.
Details
Pupils can design and build a simple game based around magnetic material.
Safety
If iron filings are used then the pupils will need to wear eye protection. They should also
wash their hands afterwards to remove any stray particles.

31

Fusion 1: P1.8 Making Magnets


National Curriculum Link up
3.1c.
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - MAGNET acrostic
How permanent magnets
Can the pupils come up with an acrostic using the word magnet that is related
can be made using strong
to how they work? (510 mins)
magnets.
Main
About methods for testing
Start the lesson by demonstrating how to make a magnet using a large steel
the strength of a magnet.
nail as described in the pupil book. After making the magnet, you can try to
demonstrate that it will lose some of its magnetic strength if it is banged.
Whack it against a solid object a few times and it should get weaker. Use this
idea to show the pupils it is important to handle their magnets with care or they
will get weaker too.
The pupils should now try one of the testing magnets activities. You may want
to assign the methods to different groups of pupils or let them decide for
themselves. Try to make sure that all of the methods are used by pupils so that
they can all be evaluated.
Plenary - Correct me if Im wrong
Give the pupils a paragraph with many mistakes explaining how to test a
magnets strength. They have to correct the mistakes. (510 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to make a simple permanent magnet.
Most pupils will be able to test the strength of a magnet.
Some pupils will also be also able to evaluate the methods used for testing the strength of a
magnet.
How Science Works
Describe an appropriate approach to answer a scientific question using a limited range of
information and making relevant observations or measurements. (1.2a)
Describe and suggest how planning and implementation could be improved. (1.2e)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Provide the pupils with more detail about the techniques
used to compare magnets. A set of step-by-step instructions would be
appropriate.
Extension. Ask the pupils to design and carry out an experiment to find
out if a material placed between two magnets can affect the strength of the
field.
Learning styles
Visual: Watching the demonstration of how to make a magnet.
Auditory: Describing their ideas about which test is best.
Kinaesthetic: Testing the strength of magnets.
Interpersonal: Working in groups.
Intrapersonal: Discussing the choice of tests and their outcomes.
Homework. They should write a short essay on the discovery of
magnetism, the compass and how it led to the exploration of the Earth.

Additional teachers notes


Make your own magnet
Equipment and materials required
A permanent bar magnet, an un-magnetised nail or needle, digital electronic balance and
block of iron or steel.
Safety
Needles and nails are sharp. If pupils rub the needle against the magnet they are more
likely to stab themselves, so make sure that they move the magnet, not the needle.
Testing magnets
Equipment and materials required
Depending on which tests the pupils choose they will need two bar magnets and one of the
following sets: a) paper clips, b) paper clip, cotton, small equal masses (beads are good), c)
cardboard, paper clips, d) paper clips, e) a plotting compass or f) a top-pan balance and
small iron block.
Safety
Keep strong magnets away from electronic equipment and data storage systems.

32

Fusion 1: P1.9 A Field of Force


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. For the Its all a plot activity the pupils should use a
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Is it really there?
worksheet with the position for the magnet and various positions for the
That magnets have a field
compass already marked on it.
The pupils need to make of list of things that they cannot see (e.g. air, gravity).
round them that can be
Extension. The pupils could plot the field of a horseshoe magnet. They
They then need to give explanations of how they could prove that these things
represented in a diagram.
could also look in more detail at the Earths magnetic fields and what it
exist. (10 mins)
That magnets interact with
Main
does to protect the planet.
each other through these
Learning styles
Demonstrate the shape of the field by sprinkling iron filings onto card with a
fields.
Visual: Drawing and observing magnetic fields.
magnet beneath. This makes the concept a bit more real. If you have an
Auditory: Discussing methods of detecting invisible things.
overhead projector, place the magnet beneath a transparency, or clear plastic
Kinaesthetic: Plotting magnetic fields.
box with lid, and then sprinkle.
Intrapersonal: Visualising the structure of the Earth and its field.
The direction of the force lines is important. If pupils ask why they go in that
Homework. Set the pupils a history lesson task. They must write a short
particular direction, and then explain that it is the direction a north pole would
essay on the discovery of magnetism, the compass and how it led to the
be pushed if it were placed there.
exploration of the Earth.
The Its all a plot practical is straightforward ways of letting the pupils find the
Did you know? The compass was a Chinese invention, a
field for themselves. Its a lot less messy than using iron filings. If you do want
loadstone floating on water, originally used in practices such as feng shui
to let the pupils have a go with the iron filings, then make sure the magnets are
and fortune telling. It took over a thousand years before sailors realised
covered in cling film; this makes it a lot easier to clean the magnets afterwards.
how useful it would be in working out directions. It is unclear if the compass
When discussing the Earths magnetic field, you should have a globe to make
sure the pupils know the locations you are discussing. You can also show them was independently invented in Europe, but
Europeans significantly developed the device into what it is today. Of
where the bar magnet would have to be to generate the field.
Plenary - Model Earth
course, satellite navigation has made the compass all but obsolete for
navigation at sea.
The pupils have to design a model for the Earth that includes its magnetic field.
They should draw out their design and list the material they would use. (10
mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils will be aware that magnets, including the Earth, have a field around them.
A permanent bar magnet, A3 paper, a plotting compass.
Most pupils will be able to detect and draw the shape of the field around a bar magnet.
Details
Some pupils will also be able to explain how a compass operates in the
The pupils should place the magnet in the centre. They should then draw around it to get a
Earths magnetic field.
How Science Works
permanent record of where it was and so that they can replace it if they knock it. They
should then place the compass at different points around the magnet, working away from
Describe and record observations and evidence systematically. (1.2d)
one of the poles, and trace the field.

33

Fusion 1: P1.10 Electromagnets


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b.
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Anagramania
That an electric current
Give the pupils a set of anagrams of words from the electrical circuits and
produces a magnetic field.
magnets topic so far, and ask them to solve them. (510 mins).
That the strength of the field
Main
is increased in a coil.
Show the pupils an electromagnet made from a coil of wire and contrast with
That increasing the current,
the photograph in the pupil book.
the number of loops in the
Demonstrate that the field around a solenoid only exists when there is a
coil
current. Place a set of plotting compasses around it and turning it on and off.
and adding a magnetic core
The pupils should now try to make an electromagnet themselves. It can be
can increase the strength of
quite difficult for pupils to get the coil just right. The pupils should make sure
the magnetic field.
that they think about potential risks associated with the magnets; they should
be aware of the heating effect of the electric current.
Discuss the methods of making the magnet stronger, but point out the
disadvantages too. The pupils can then test the strength of the electromagnets
with the second practical task, Testing an electromagnet.
Plenary - Electromagnetic info
The pupils have to make a summary and comparison of magnets and
electromagnets. (10 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to describe how an electromagnet is made.
Most pupils will be able to describe how the strength of an electromagnet can be increased
and a method of testing this.
Some pupils will also be able to evaluate methods for testing the strength of an electromagnet.
How Science Works
Recognise the range of variables involved in an investigation and decide which to control.
(1.2b)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Have some coils with and without a core already
prepared, to make the setting up of the practical tasks easier. The pupils
can spend more time making measurements.
Extension. Some very powerful electromagnets are used in medical
devices such as PET scanners. These magnets carry high currents and
have to be cooled to very low temperatures. The pupils could find out why
they have to be cooled and what a superconductor is.
Learning styles
Visual: Designing the shape of an electromagnet.
Auditory: Discussing how an electromagnet can be made stronger.
Kinaesthetic: Practical work.
Interpersonal: Discussing the factors that increase the strength of an
electromagnet.
Homework.
Can Do: the pupils can design a machine that separates out steel cans
from the more valuable aluminium ones.

Additional teachers notes


Making an electromagnet
Equipment and materials required
Each group will require: a low voltage d.c. power supply, connecting leads, crocodile clips, a
long iron nail, a paper, card or plastic tube (thin is better), paper clips and an insulated
length of wire to form the coil. The length of wire required will depend on the size of the
tube, but it should be long enough to wrap around the tube 20 times. The same length of
wire should be used throughout the experiment to limit the current.
Testing an electromagnet
Equipment and materials required
Each group requires the same equipment as before, ammeter and variable resistor.
Safety for both experiments
Electromagnets can heat up and cause the circuit breaker in power supplies to trip. Test the
circuit before use to make sure that it cannot heat up too much.

34

Fusion 1: P1.11 Electromagnets at Work


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Provide descriptions of how electromagnetic devices work
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Eye know how
but jumble up the order. The pupils have to sort this order out to get the
That the shape of a
correct description for each device.
The pupils have to design a device that can remove a metal splinter from the
magnetic field around the
Extension. Pupils could look at how a loudspeaker operates in more
eyeball of a patient. Their designs must be very controllable and easy to
electromagnet is similar to
detail. They need to understand why an electromagnet and a permanent
operate. A circuit diagram should be included too. (1015 mins)
that around a bar magnet.
Main
magnet are used in combination.
About the applications of an
Learning styles
Start by showing the shape of the field around a bar magnet again and then
electromagnet.
comparing this to the field around an electromagnet. The pupils can then check Visual: Examining electromagnetic devices.
Auditory: Describing how a device operates.
the comparison using The field of an electromagnet practical
Kinaesthetic: Plotting the field of an electromagnet.
The lesson them moves on to the applications of electromagnets, starting with
Interpersonal: Discussing the operation of electromagnetic devices.
a doorbell. It is important to get across to pupils that without electromagnetic
Intrapersonal: Predicting the effect of changing the current on an
devices, many of the things they take for granted would not operate. Every
electromagnet.
device that produces movement from electrical power needs an electric motor
Homework. Electromagnets are common, but can the pupils come up
and these use electromagnets.
with a new idea for their use? They can produce an advertisement or
The pupils can then investigate other devices, including an electric bell and
instruction manual for their devices.
relay. The exact devices will depend on what is available. See the practical
How it works for details.
Plenary - Key points
Test the pupils understanding with a range of verbal questions about magnets
and electromagnets. (5 min)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils will be able to list some uses of an electromagnet.
There are three pieces of equipment to investigate. a) An electric bell connected to a power
Most pupils will be able to describe the advantages of using electromagnets in comparison to
supply with a switch. b) A relay set up so that one circuit turns on another circuit. This will
permanent magnets.
require two power supplies, connecting leads and a bulb. c) A set of headphones connected
Some pupils will also be able to describe the operation of some electromagnetic devices in
to a signal generator.
detail.
Details
How Science Works
a) The electric bell should be set so that it vibrates but not too loudly. If you can, limit the
Describe and record observations and evidence systematically. (1.2d)
voltage on the power supply.
b) The relay should be set so that when one circuit is switched on the relay becomes
activated and turns on a separate circuit containing a light bulb.
Safety
Make sure that it is not possible for the pupils to connect any of the devices directly to the
mains supply.

35

FUSION 1 B2 REPRODUCTION

36

Fusion 1: B2.2 Sex Organs


National Curriculum Link up
3.3b.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
The functions of womens sex organs.
The functions of mens sex organs.

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Use cut-and-stick labels onto a
large A4 or even A3 diagram of each genders
sexual anatomy.
Extension. Pupils could use recording apparatus
such as a
dictaphone or a microphone into a PC or laptop to
record a summary of the parts and their functions
discussed in the lesson. They could extend the
content based on a more advanced text such as the
AQA GCSE Science series.
Learning styles.
Visual: Looking at the diagrams of the anatomical
parts.
Auditory: Talking to peers about the meaning of
words and phrases.
Kinaesthetic: Manipulating letter cards sets if the
Mixed up bits plenary is used.
Interpersonal: Group discussion about the meanings
of the key words.
Intrapersonal: Evaluating own knowledge of sexual
anatomy and improving it.
Homework. Pupils could revise for a short slip test
(a verbal test needing a number of single word
answers, these usually written on slips of paper) on
the parts and their functions. They could be given a
blank grid to fill in a word search for their peers to
use.
Additional teachers notes
If available show a good quality sex education video (view first and
check for suitability). Liaison with the PSHE department will be helpful,
as will familiarity with the schools and local authoritys policies on sex
education.

Teaching / Learning activities


Lesson structure
Starter - Why have two sexes?
Discuss stereotyping on gender grounds. What are the significant differences between
males and females and what importance do they have? (510 mins)
Main
Using PowerPoint diagrams go through the structure of the male reproductive system. Ask
the pupils to fill in the labels on unlabelled diagrams as you go. Go through the same
process with the female system. Initially use front and side views of the system, annotating
them as the terms are introduced.
While showing these diagrams it is important to emphasise that every set of genitals, either
male or female, is unique so there is no normal shape, size or colour. The arrangement is
generally the same, but the individual parts will differ greatly in appearance.
This is a good opportunity for pupils to ask questions that may be worrying them. Introduce
ground rules, scientific terms only, no personal comments or references to known
individuals.
Give the pupils a sheet summarising the functions and get them to fill in a table matching
the functions to the parts.
Plenary - Mixed up bits
Ask the pupils to solve a list of anagrams of the names of parts that they have been
studying such as the following: SPINE (penis) RUM COST (scrotum) SETSIT (testis)
VIANAG (vagina) REXVIC (cervix) SUTURE (uterus) CUTVOID (oviduct) VAYOR (ovary)
SNAGLD (glands) PETERS BUM (sperm tube) As an extension, pupils can make up their
own anagrams of the names of the parts. These could be on sets of cards if required, or as
a digital anagram sorter. (510 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to name some of the major parts of the male and female reproductive systems and
describe their functions in simple terms.
Most pupils should be able to name all of the parts of the male and female reproductive systems and describe their
functions.
Some pupils should also be able to describe the male and female reproductive systems in detail including alternative
names and be able to give descriptions of their functions.

37

Fusion 1: B2.3 Fertilisation in Humans


National Curriculum Link up
3.3b.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
How sex cells are adapted to their jobs.
How a sperm and an egg get together.
What happens in fertilisation?

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Model fertilisation using role play:
represent the egg by having a circle of pupils with one in the
centre. Have several others around the outside to represent
the sperm, circling around the egg. The pupil representing
the nucleus of the egg chooses one sperm to get hold of
the egg and then the others lock arms tightly representing
the membrane so that no more sperm can get in. The pair
in the centre can give the new child a name. Repeat this
several times to reinforce the message and get the pupils to
state what is happening at each stage.
Extension. Give the pupils a list of the key terms and get
them to play a linking game, where they have to choose a
minimum of two terms and a maximum of four and link them
in a coherent sentence. Impose a strict time limit and give
points for each correct link. If any single terms remain, give
one point for a correct definition.
Learning styles
Auditory: Listening to exposition.
Kinaesthetic: Role-play exercises
Interpersonal: Group conversations on the topic.
Intrapersonal: Reflecting on own understanding and reevaluating.
Homework. Pupils to do the Using Quia plenary.
Additional teachers notes
Use a PowerPoint slide to illustrate and label the sperm and egg
step-by-step, adding a function to each of the parts named. Show
video footage of fertilisation taking place, talking over the role of the
enzymes in helping the head of the sperm to penetrate the egg.
Discuss the result of fertilisation.

Teaching / Learning activities


Lesson structure
Starter - Situations vacant
Have a brief discussion about the roles of the sperm and the egg, and then
suggest to the pupils that they write a job description for each. Choose some
pupils to read out their descriptions. (510 mins)
Main
Discuss the detailed structure of a sperm and an egg. It could be instructive to
provide paper scale models of a sperm and an egg. In humans, a sperm cell has
a head measuring 5 m by 3 m and a tail 50 m long. A human ovum
measures on average 145 m in diameter, so the diameter of the model egg
needs to be about 30 times larger than the head length of the model sperm.
Using diagrams of the male and female reproductive systems discuss where
eggs and sperm are formed, where fertilisation takes place and then consider
how far each type of sex cell has to travel. This could reinforce the differences in
structure, and the need for motility of sperm.
Discuss the difference in numbers of sex cells produced
usually only one egg released per month, but millions of sperm produced in the
testes. Get pupils to suggest reasons why there are such big differences in
numbers.
Plenary - Situations vacant re-advertisement
Review the Situations vacant starter by asking the pupils if they would alter their
job descriptions. (510 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to describe some basic features of sperm and eggs and be able to outline the process of how
fertilisation takes place in humans.
Most pupils should be able to describe adaptations of sperm and eggs and be able to describe the process of how
fertilisation takes place in humans.
Some pupils should also be able to relate structure to function and be able to describe the processes which lead up to
fertilisation in detail.
How Science Works
Use key scientific vocabulary and terminology in discussions and written work. (1.1c)

38

Fusion 1: B2.4 Pregnancy


National Curriculum Link up
3.3b.
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Before I was born
What the fetus needs
Give each pupil a photocopied tiny set of footprints, about half a cm long. Ask them to consider that
and how it gets it.
their feet were once that size. Ask them to consider what they feel about that fact, and then
How the fetus is
encourage them to share their thoughts with a small group, then with the class. (1015 mins)
protected.
Main
How the fetus
Using PowerPoint describe how the pupils developed before their birth. Introduce and define the
develops.
words embryo (in humans from conception to about the eighth week of pregnancy) and fetus (a
What the mother
developed embryo which has all the features of its adult form). Ask the pupils to complete a
needs to do to care
sentence: The difference between an embryo and a fetus is
for the fetus.
Allow students to complete a model placenta by getting each group to fill one 15 cm sections of
Visking tubing with a solution of food colouring and a second with water. The coloured solution
represents useful substances in the mothers blood; the colourless water represents the fetuss
blood. Tie off the ends. Lay the tubes alternately side-by-side in a shallow tray, so that they are in
contact with each other, simulating the placenta. Allow diffusion to take place (at least half an hour),
then examine the contents. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the simulation.
Plenary - True or false
Divide the class into groups of four. One pair is to set the other pair a series of five questions based
on the lesson to which there can be true or false answers. Allow five minutes for construction of the
questions, five minutes for asking each other, and five minutes for feedback. (15 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to state in simple terms what a fetus needs, how it gets it, how it is protected and how it develops.
Most pupils should be able to state the above clearly and fully.
Some pupils should also be able to state the above in detail and relate this knowledge to anatomy and physiological systems.
How Science Works
Recognise and explain the value of using models and analogies to clarify explanations. (1.1a1) (See Main Lesson modelling
placenta.)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Use a model womb if available. Lay out a
set of laminated scale diagrams in order of age.
Extension. Embryonic haiku
Explain what a haiku is (a short poem of three lines, these
generally being of five syllables, seven syllables, then five
syllables again). Give an example, e.g.
A heron rises
In the middle of the swamp
Under the full moon.
Pupils to create a haiku poem based on consideration of the
life of an embryo.
Learning styles
Visual: Observing PowerPoint.
Auditory: Taking part in discussions.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out practical activities.
Intrapersonal: Considering life before birth.
Homework. Answer the Summary Questions from the
pupil book. Write a before I was born story.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required
Per group: 225 cm Visking tubing, 250 cm3
coloured glucose solution, strong thread or thin
string, plastic tray, food colouring, beaker for water
bath, Bunsen burner, tripod and gauze.

39

Fusion 1: B2.5 Birth


National Curriculum Link up
3.3b.
Teaching suggestions
Learning Objectives
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. Give the pupils a baby model, and film them using a
Pupils should learn:
Lesson structure
Starter - 12 word birth
video camera. Get them to show which position the baby is normally in
What happens when
before birth, where the cord can cause problems, where the cord is
a baby is born?
Pupils are to describe their understanding of how they were born in 12 words exactly.
attached. Give them a second doll and ask them to state what two
What can go wrong
They are to work in silence individually at first, then to share and check with their
babies born at the same time are called and how they can come about. If
during childbirth?
neighbours. Ask for some examples to be read. (510 mins)
Main
both dolls are the same, get them to talk about identical twins. If they are
different, non-identical twins can be discussed.
Using a series of PowerPoint slides give an exposition on the sequence of stages in a
Extension. Using the Internet to locate the data, pupils should prepare
normal birth. Encourage the pupils to predict what will happen in each stage. Flag up
a statistical report on the causes of multiple births and their probabilities
any new key words and place printed laminated cards of the new key words onto the
and how these vary with time, age of the mother, genetic pre-disposition
side of the board as they emerge during the discussion. If an anatomical model of a
and geographical location. Pupils should use full scientific descriptions of
pregnant woman at full term is available, take a break from the PowerPoint and gather
the types of twin (e.g. mono-zygotic and di-zygotic).
the pupils around the model, getting them to describe what the parts are, using the key
Learning styles
words on the board.
Visual: Observing the photographs of various parts of the birth process.
Write the word problems on the board and encourage the pupils to tell what they know
Auditory: Listening to exposition.
about birth problems. Try to draw out descriptions of breech birth, Caesarian section
Interpersonal: Discussion on twins and on birth difficulties.
(make a link to MacBeth if they are studying it and to Julius Caesar) and premature
Homework. Complete the in-text questions and Summary
births, again using PowerPoint to illustrate the knowledge covered.
Plenary - Broken birth sentences
Questions 14 from the pupil book. Compile a list of 16 questions with
single-word answers from which a crossword can be compiled.
Give the pupils a series of sentences summarising the birth process. Each one should
be broken into several smaller phrases and mixed up. The pupils are to reassemble first
each sentence and then the whole passage. This can be carried out in small groups.
(1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
This is a good opportunity for an open discussion time,
All pupils should be able to describe in simple terms what happens during a normal birth and name a complication.
as the pupils will have stories about themselves or their
Most pupils should be able to describe a normal birth and what may go wrong.
relatives that they wish to share.
Some pupils should also be able to describe in detail a normal birth and give full descriptions of what may go wrong using several
Be aware that some issues may be sensitive for pupils
examples.
How Science Works.
who may have had an upsetting recent experience
personally or in their family.
Use key scientific vocabulary and terminology in discussions and written work. (1.1c)
Describe patterns and trends in secondary evidence (1.2f) (See Extension activity.)

40

Fusion 1: B2.6 Growing Up


National Curriculum Link up
3.3b.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
What new babies need?
How humans and other animals grow.
The changes that take place at puberty
and how they are controlled.

Teaching / Learning activities


Lesson structure
Starter - Answers and questions
Provide the pupils with 10 words from the previous work on gamete formation,
conception and birth. Pupils are to provide the questions to these answers. (10
mins)
Main
Show video footage of a newborn baby. Ask the pupils to put the words (names)
needs in the centre of a sheet of paper and either draw or write down what they
think the baby will need in its first few months. Discuss these needs and collect
suggestions on the board. Discuss the need for food. Show a PowerPoint slide of
the human mammary gland in section and describe its function. Is breast best?
Discuss the reasons for breast feeding and some of the drawbacks. If available, an
audio or video recording of some young mothers discussing their experiences of
breast feeding would be useful. Pupils can make notes on the benefits and
drawbacks of each type of infant feeding.
Show the pupils a video of other pupils discussing the physical changes that they
experienced as they went through puberty, discussing their thoughts, worries and
expectations. Explain these changes are caused by hormones, where these
hormones are made and give essential personal hygiene advice.
Plenary - All change!
Ask the pupils to draw out a table of puberty changes with three columns labelled
males, females and both. Pupils to fill this in, discussing it with a partner. Then
review the class responses. (510 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to describe what new babies need, growth and puberty changes in simple terms.
Most pupils should be able to do the above using full descriptions.
Some pupils should also be able to state the reasons why the above are necessary and interrelate the
concepts involved.
How Science Works
Identify a range of data and other evidence to back an argument and a counterclaim in less complex and/or
familiar contexts, e.g. advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding and using formula milk. (1.1a3)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Give the pupils cards with the words
and/or pictures boys and girls. The teacher or the
learning assistant describes a body change which occurs
in puberty and the pupils have to hold up a boy card, a
girl card or both (if applicable). Seek consensus and
record the findings in an appropriate manner, such as
stickers in the appropriate parts of the exercise book or
worksheet.
Extension. Pupils use the information provided in
Summary
Question 2 regarding growth rates to work out the rate of
growth in terms of percentage increase over every three
year period (03, 36, etc.). They can then compare this
with overall height increase in centimetres during each of
these periods. They write a paragraph summarising the
interpretations of the graphs and giving considered
opinions on any differences seen between the sets of
figures.
Learning styles.
Visual: Observing the sections of video.
Auditory: Listening to the exposition and video clips of
conversations.
Interpersonal: Taking part in the discussions.

Additional teachers notes


PSHE link: Baby think it over virtual infant simulators may be available
from the PSHE dept. Some of these are designed to mimic the attention
needed by a young child. Looking after one for a weekend can be an
illuminating experience, especially for anyone who may be contemplating
starting a family early.

41

Fusion 1: B2.7 Periods


National Curriculum Link up
3.3b.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
How a womans body controls the
time when eggs are released.
Why women have periods.

Teaching / Learning activities


Lesson structure
Starter - Reasons for periods discussion
Most pupils know vaguely that something called periods occurs when girls start to mature.
Without giving any information yourself, lead a discussion on why periods happen. (510
mins)
Main
Get the pupils to carry out the Producing Periods activity. Explain the reasons for the
limited dates in a womans cycle when she can get pregnant (approximately days 1115).
Ask the pupils to write down the title Could she get pregnant? into their exercise books
and to copy down a list of girls names (get the pupils to choose these) from the board.
Carry out an exercise where two dates are identified, the first one being for the date during
the month of September when the woman starts her period and the second one being for
the date when she has sexual intercourse without using contraceptives.
Refer the pupils to the calendar sections of the pupil book. The number generation can be
done by drawing numbers from 1 to 30 from a hat. Assume that sperm can live inside a
woman for an average of 3 days. Continue generating pairs of dates until all the girls on
the board are pregnant. If the pupils are working in groups, tick off their girls names as the
pregnancies occurs. Warn the pupils that variation can occur in ovulation dates and
reliance on having sex only during unfertile dates is not a very reliable method of birth
control.
Plenary - Spot the blot
Give the pupils a short passage of text describing the menstrual cycle. This will have a
number of errors in it. Pupils are to highlight or circle these, number them and write in the
corrections below. Ask the pupils carry out a peer marking exercise on the sheets. (1015
mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should know the meanings of the words menstruation, ovulation and periods.
Most pupils should be able to describe these processes.
Some pupils should also be able to describe these processes in detail and be able to link them to specific hormones.

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Give the pupils an exercise to draw
lines between words and their simple meanings.
Extension. Pupils can use the Internet to look up
ectopic pregnancy and be prepared to talk about it if
required.
Learning styles
Auditory: Participating in discussions.
Interpersonal: Group discussions.
Intrapersonal: Consideration of the issues involved,
either for themselves if female or for their girl peers if
male.
Homework. Pupils can answer the in-text questions
and Summary Questions from the pupil book. Pupils
can produce a public information leaflet entitled The
facts about menstruation aimed at premenstrual girls
as a discussion aid.

Additional teachers notes


Show some tampons and sanitary towels.
As a link with PSHE it may be suitable to
discuss hygiene and to go over some of
the problems which can be associated with
unwise use of tampons, such as toxic
shock syndrome caused by
Staphylococcus aureus.

42

Fusion 1: B2.8 In Control


National Curriculum Link up
3.3b, c.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
How women can avoid
getting pregnant if they dont
want to.
How women can be helped to
have a baby.

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. Pupils to use a hangman style exercise to identify
Lesson structure
Starter - True or false?
the key words. Some of the letters could be placed in advance and a
list of the key words provided to choose from.
Give the pupils a list of five which contain some true ones and some common
Extension. With a higher attaining group, a point of controversy
myths or misunderstandings. e.g. You cant get pregnant if you have a shower
could be whether the use of the morning after pill and IUDs are
after having sex. [false] Birth control pills stop you being moody before periods.
ethically sound and tie this in with and the debate on when a life starts.
[false] You cant get pregnant when you are breast feeding. [false] You cant
Learning styles
catch STDs/STIs if you are on the pill. [false] You can get contraceptive pills for
Auditory: Taking part in class debate.
men. [true] (510 mins)
Main
Intrapersonal: Reflecting on the effectiveness of different methods of
contraception.
Ask the pupils if anyone knows what STDs are and draw out the existing
Homework. Pupils imagine they are a doctor. They are to write a
knowledge from the group. Using discussion and exposition to build on this to
letter giving advice to a young couple who want to start a family in a
establish the importance of the alternative use of condoms as a prophylactic
few years, but not just yet.
device. Sound out the classes opinions and hold a snap ballot to poll whether they
think these should be freely available without prescription or not, and what the role
of parents might be. Ask the pupils to complete a summary of the different types of
contraceptive, either on a worksheet or copied into their books.
Plenary - Contraception blockbusters
Divide the class into two large groups. Using a Blockbusters style game format,
get the pupils to play a game using questions drawn from this lesson and the
previous ones. Provide a small prize for the winning group. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Although not in the pupil book it would be useful to discuss long term surgical
All pupils should be able to describe at least two methods of birth control and know what IVF means
methods of contraception, such as vasectomy and tubal ligation (tying the oviducts to
in simple terms.
stop eggs from descending to the uterus) and to answer some of the pupils queries
Most pupils should be able to describe fully male and female condoms and their use; contraceptive
regarding these topics. A short discussion on the morning after pill could be held.
pills, injections and implants; IUDs and know some reasons why conception may be difficult and the
Show the pupils a video or an animation of a couple who want to have a child but are
meaning of IVF. Most should also understand which methods give protection from STDs/STIs and
unable to. Discuss the possible problems which may have occurred and some ways
which dont.
of overcoming them. Emphasise that fertility problems are quite common and nothing
Some pupils should also be able to do the above in detail and be aware of the ethical controversies
to be ashamed of and that about 1 in every 6 couples will experience difficulty in
involved and be able to take a reasoned and balanced view.
starting a family.
How Science Works
Identify a range of scientific data and evidence to back an argument and the counterclaim in less
complex and/or familiar contexts, e.g. IVF or contraception. (1.1a3)

43

Fusion 1: B2.9 Reproduction in Plants


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
The meaning of the phrase asexual
reproduction.
The advantages and disadvantages of
asexual reproduction.

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. Make a mint! Pupils to take cuttings from
Lesson structure
Starter - New plants how does it happen?
mint plants and sell them to staff once rooted. Arrange with the
school canteen to allow mint from the practical to be used as a
Pupils are to describe to each other how plants make copies of themselves.
garnish or to make sauce.
They then share this with the class through discussion. (510 mins)
Extension. Pupils to look up the process of mitosis on the
Main
Internet or in textbooks. Summarise the process using
Show the pupils a range of plants which reproduce by asexual means, such as
diagrams or audio recording.
strawberries, daffodils, potatoes, ginger, duck weed and couch grass. Arrange
Learning styles
these in a circus around the room. Get the pupils to observe each one in turn
Auditory: Taking part in discussions.
and write down a comment on how they think it reproduces.
Taking cuttings: use mature well-grown geranium or zonal pelargonium plants.
Kinaesthetic: Practical on cuttings.
Interpersonal: Group work.
Other suitable species include Wandering Sailors of the family Tradescantia and
Intrapersonal: Consideration for other organisms.
the vigorously asexually Bryophyllum diagremontiana or Bryophyllum tubifolium.
Homework. Pupils to write out crossword clues for the key
Demonstrate the method first.
words used in this lesson for use during the starter of the next
The class should try to take at least one cutting each and able members should
one.
be capable of taking several. As a motivator, ensure that the pupils can take
these cuttings home once rooted.
Plenary - Which method?
Give pupils a sheet which has the pictures of the plants studied during this
session. Fill in the description sections for each explaining how it reproduces.
(510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to define asexual reproduction and give an example from plants.
Most pupils should be able to define asexual reproduction and state its advantages and disadvantages.
Suitable stock plants: geraniums or zonal pelargoniums,
Some pupils should also be able to do the above and demonstrate some knowledge of mitosis.
Tradescantia, Bryophyllum and any other plants which are available
and suitable for asexual reproduction. Per group: scalpel, white
ceramic tile, rooting powder, dibber or similar implement, label, cutting
compost (50% peat or peat substitute, 50% Perlite or Vermiculite), pot
approx 10 cm diameter, plastic bag, elastic band, newspaper for
covering the benches.
Safety
Take care with scalpels. Do not allow rooting powder to be inhaled or
to touch the skin for fear of allergic reactions. Also contains fungicide.

44

Fusion 1: B2.10 Flowers and Pollination


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Pupils to make a giant paper flower for a wall
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - What are flowers for?
display.
The advantages and
Extension. Using the Internet, texts or library resources, pupils can
Show the pupils some beautiful slides of flowers and pass around, or have on
disadvantages of sexual
look up meiosis and find out how variation is introduced by sexual
display, some examples in the classroom. Ask the pupils to write down, in a
reproduction in plants.
reproduction. This is preparatory work for eventual full coverage at
single sentence, what flowers are for. Get volunteers to read out some of their
How plants reproduce sexually.
GCSE level.
responses. Conclude by summarising the job of flower as being seed
How pollen gets from one plant to
Learning styles
factories. (5 10 mins)
another.
Main
Auditory: Discussing pollination.
Kinaesthetic: Flower dissection.
Carry out the Looking at flowers dissection. Use daffodils and demonstrate it
Interpersonal: Group work.
first using a Flexicam to display, if available.
Intrapersonal: Use of imagination.
Break open a ripe ovary of a daffodil flower and show the ovules inside using
Homework. Revise flower parts for a short slip test. Complete in-text
a Flexicam if available. If not, use a PowerPoint slide. Explain that these are
and Summary Questions from pupil
the female sex cells called ovules and that the function of the flower is to
Book.
bring the male and female sex cells together so that a seed can be formed.
Using PowerPoint, explain the structure of a typical flower. Ask the pupils to
say the names of the parts out loud as they encounter them, reinforcing the
words by Blu-tacking up laminated fl ash cards with the words on.
Plenary - Wind or insect?
Show the pupils a series of slides of flowers. Using show me boards ask the
pupils to write either W or I to show if they think the flowers are wind- or
insect-pollinated. (5 mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to state that flowers are for sexual reproduction in plants and that pollen is often
transferred between flowers.
For each pupil: One daffodil flower (have a few spares), white ceramic tile,
Most pupils should be able to list advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction, to describe the
scalpel, scissors, seeker or mounted needle, lots of strips of clear adhesive
function of flowers and to define and describe pollination.
tape (these are best stuck to the edge of the bench), hand lens.
Details
Some pupils should also be able to do the above and link structure to function for each of the parts.
Remove each part and arrange them in sets on a plain piece of A4 then stick
them down and label them.
Safety
Beware of severe pollen allergies. Care with scalpels/ scissors/mounted
needles

45

Fusion 1: B2.11 Fertilisation in Plants


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Teaching suggestions
Learning Objectives
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. Pupils to sequence a series of pictures showing the
Pupils should learn:
Lesson structure
Starter - Slip test flower parts
stages in the growth of a pollen tube. Pupils to make models using
How fertilisation takes
modelling balloons and peas.
place in flowers.
Give pupils a short slip test using single word answers to assess their recall and
Extension. Pupils to calculate rates of growth using scale factors.
Which factors affect the
understanding. (510 mins)
Main
Ask the pupils to imagine a scale model of a pollen tube large enough
growth of pollen tubes?
to get a golf ball down to represent the pollen nucleus. Assume a golf
Discuss with the class what might be in the sticky stuff at the top of the stigma. Remind
ball to be 4 cm across and a real pollen tube to be 16 m in diameter.
the pupils that making the pollen tube will need energy. After establishing that there is
What would the scale be? If the real distance from the stigma to the
sugar in the liquid at the top of the stigma and that this helps the pollen to start growing,
ovule is 1.5 cm, how long would the golf ball model one have to be? If
ask the pupils to devise a plan to find out which concentration of sugar would work best.
it was big enough for a person to crawl down, how long would it be?
Divide the class into six groups. Allocate each of the first five groups a concentration of
Learning styles
sugar to work with. Choose from the following: 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. Ask the
Visual: Observing pollen growth.
sixth group to carry out the experiment using onion epidermis following the practical
Auditory: Discussing how the pollen nucleus can descend to the ovule.
directions.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the practical.
Observe the slides during the rest of the lesson, and arrange a rota to allow one from
Homework. Make a scale model of a stigma, style and ovary with a
each group to come and examine them over the next two days. Pupils are to record
tube down which a model nucleus can pass.
growth of pollen tubes and collectively report back next lesson.
Plenary - Whats next?
Give the pupils a set of cards to put into the correct order describing the sequence of
events once fertilisation has taken place. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Growing pollen tubes; What conditions are best for growing pollen tubes?
All pupils should be able to describe in simple terms what a pollen tube is.
Equipment and materials required
Most pupils should be able to describe the process of fertilisation in plants and name several factors
100 cm3 sugar solutions, 0.01 g yeast extract, one small crystal of boric acid, 1 g
which affect pollen tube growth.
agar, and distilled water. Ripe anthers, Petri dish and lid, microscope and slides.
Some pupils should also be able to describe the process of fertilisation in plants in detail and explain
Safety: Wear eye protection.
the science underlying the factors that affect pollen tube growth.
Onion epidermis practical
How Science Works
Equipment and materials required
Recognise that the presentation of experimental results through the routine use of tables ... and simple
Onion, scalpel, white tile, Petri dish and lid, forceps, ripe anthers, damp paper
graphs makes it easier to see patterns and trends.
towels, microscope and slides.
(1.2d).
Safety: Take care with scalpels.

46

Fusion 1: B2.12 Spreading the Seeds


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Special needs. Hold a competition to see whose seed goes
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Schools out for ever
Pupils should
furthest.
Extension. Pupils to research the requirements for pre-chill
Ask the pupils to think about what would happen to the school field if the school was closed
learn:
germination and present a report.
forever. Working in pairs, get the pupils to think about and write down ways in which seeds
How seeds are
Learning styles
might get transported to the school field. Share the results with the rest of the class. (1015
dispersed from the
Visual: Observing the video clips and specimens.
mins)
parent plant.
Main
Auditory: Jointly planning the investigation with their peers.
The conditions
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the practical investigation.
Show the pupils a family tree. Ask the pupils to think about what it would be like if all their family
necessary for seed
Interpersonal: Group work on the practical.
came to stay. Where would they all sleep? What problems would there be? On the board,
germination.
summarise the problems which would occur due to overcrowding. Ask what would really happen Intrapersonal: Considering the necessity for dispersal.
Homework. Pupils to write up the germination practical. Provide
and draw out that they would move elsewhere. Emphasise that plants cant move, so dont have
lower attaining pupils with a structured worksheet to fill in the
this option. Relate this to plants, asking what would happen if all the seeds from a plant just fell
required information. Include a pre-formed results table and a
to the ground directly below the parent plant?
conclusion in the form of a cloze passage.
Allow students to complete the Helicopter fruits practical.
Show a germinating seed. Discuss the question of what seeds need in order to germinate. Carry
out the practical and leave it set up for the next lesson.
Plenary - Dispersal concept map
Give the pupils a concept map with the links between the boxes which will contain the key
words labelled. Have a list of the key words in a box at the bottom of the page. (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Helicopter fruits
All pupils should know what the words dispersal and germination mean.
Equipment and materials required
Most pupils should be able to describe several mechanisms which aid seed dispersal and
Several hundred dry sycamore or field maple seeds. Dustpans and brushes. Metre rules, tape
name the three conditions required for germination.
measures, litter pickers. Optional several sheets, one for each group, with concentric rings
Some pupils should also be able to describe in detail and link the structural details of the
drawn on them like a target at 20 cm intervals.
mechanisms to their function and show awareness of the diversity of germination
Safety
conditions which different species of plants exhibit.
How Science Works
Do not allow the pupils to stand on benches. Use litter pickers to hold the cups at the higher
heights.
Describe and suggest how planning and implementation could be improved. (1.2e)
Investigating germination
Equipment and materials required
For each group: four test tubes, labels, test-tube rack, bungs, 20 small seeds (e.g., cress),
boiled water, cotton wool or Vermiculite (care regarding dust) oil, pipette.

47

FUSION 1 C2 PARTICLES IN ACTION

48

Fusion 1: C2.2 Solids


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, b, c. 3.2a.
Teaching suggestions
Learning Objectives
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. The idea of particles is highly
Pupils should learn:
Lesson structure
conceptual and lower attaining pupils may well
The properties of a solid. Starter - Solid as a rock
struggle with the idea. It is important that as many
How the particles in a
Pupils must list as many solid materials as they can see in the room. Longest list wins. (5 mins)
Main
pupils as possible can represent solids using a
solid are arranged.
particle diagram, even if they cannot fully explain it.
Ask pupils to carry out, or demonstrate, the Investigating solids activity described in the pupil book. After
Extension. Ask pupils to explain why talc, which is
the practical, gather together the results. [Solids cannot be compressed, when heated solids expand and
a solid, can be made to behave like a liquid or even
similar-sized blocks can have a different mass (different density).]
a gas. [Although its a solid it is ground into a
Introduce pupils to the idea that matter is made of tiny particles. Introduce the word atom but it may be
powder. The individual pieces of that powder can
best, especially with lower attaining pupils, to stick to the word particles rather than atoms as, for most
move separately, allowing the substance to flow like
substances, the particles are molecules made of several atoms.
a liquid and, if the container is banged on the desk,
Show pupils a tray that has a layer of marbles covering about two-thirds of its surface. Tilt the tray to one
to spread out like a gas.]
corner slightly and explain that, in solids, the particles are all packed close together. Very gently shake the
Learning styles.
tray to represent the particles vibrating. Emphasise that the particles can vibrate but not move around and
Visual: Making observations of the behaviour of
remain touching most of the time.
solids.
Ask pupils if they think they can use the model to explain some of the results of the practical. Solids keep
Auditory: Describing how solids behave.
their shape and cannot be compressed as the particles cannot move and are already touching. They
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out practical work on solids.
cannot be pushed closer together. Raising the temperature causes the particles to vibrate more, meaning
Intrapersonal: Understanding the concept that
they get slightly further apart. This causes the material to expand.
Plenary - Whats it like?
matter is made of particles too small to see.
Homework. Pupils to make a model of the
Ask pupils to write a description of a solid for the benefit of Year 6 pupils. Ask some of the class to read
particles in a solid.
their work out. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to recall the properties of a solid.
Per group: syringe with a piece of wood in it (not sawdust), metal bar and
Most pupils should be able to draw the particle diagram for a solid.
gauge, Bunsen burner, ball and ring expansion apparatus, three metal
Some pupils should also be able to explain the properties of a solid in terms of the particle diagram.
How Science Works
blocks of identical size, balance.
Safety
Use an existing model or analogy to explain a phenomenon. (1.1a1)
Care must be taken when heating the metal bar and ball. The metal
Recognise that scientific evidence can be used to support or disprove theories. (1.1a3)
remains hot for a considerable time afterwards

49

Fusion 1: C2.3 Liquids


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, b, c. 3.2a.
Teaching suggestions
Learning Objectives
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. The idea of particles is highly conceptual. It is important that
Pupils should learn:
Lesson structure
Starter - True or false?
as many pupils as possible can represent liquids using the particle diagram,
The properties of a
even if they cannot fully explain it.
liquid.
Give pupils a list of statements that may apply to the way liquids behave. They
Extension. Crazy custard is an example of shear-thickening. When a force
How the particles in a
must decide which ones are true. (10 mins)
Main
is applied to a liquid the particles attempt to move away by sliding over each
liquid are arranged.
other. If they cannot do this fast enough the mixture appears thicker than it is
Ask pupils to carry out, the activity Investigating liquids. After the practical
normally. The mixture needs to be very thick, but not so thick that dry
gather together the results. [Liquids cannot be visibly compressed, when heated
cornflour is visible. If the dish is tipped the mixture will flow like a liquid. A
liquids expand (the level rises up the straw) and that they can have a different
finger can be slowly pushed into the mixture but if it is poked quickly this will
density (oil fl oats on water).] Refer back to the particle model introduced to
not be possible the mixture becomes hard.
pupils when learning about solids. Show pupils a tray which has a layer of
Equipment and materials required
marbles covering about two-thirds of its surface. Tilt the tray to one corner
Per group: small plastic tub (250 g margarine tub or similar), water, cornflour,
slightly and explain that, in liquids, the particles are all packed close together but
2 spatulas (one for stirring and one for spooning out cornflour).
they can slide past each other. Gently shake the tray to represent the particles
Learning styles
vibrating. You will have to shake slightly harder than when trying to represent a
Visual: Making observations of the behaviour of liquids.
solid. Emphasise that the particles can vibrate and slide past each other but
Auditory: Describing how liquids behave.
remain touching most of the time.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out practical work on liquids.
Ask pupils if they think they can use the model to explain some of the results of
Interpersonal: Working with others to develop a drama of particle behaviour.
the practical. [Particles can slide past each other means that a liquid can change
Intrapersonal: Understanding the concept that matter is made of particles too
shape and flow. Particles mostly touching means that a liquid cannot be
small to see.
compressed enough to see it. High density liquids have closer packed particles.]
Homework. Pupils could make a model of the particles in a liquid.
Plenary - Particle people
Ask the pupils to work in groups of about six to demonstrate how the particles in
a liquid behave, using themselves as the particles. (5 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to recall the properties of a liquid.
Per group: syringe filled with water and the end sealed with resin or glue, conical flask filled
Most pupils should be able to draw the particle diagram for a liquid.
almost to brim with coloured water (use food colouring), bung to fit conical fl ask with 20
Some pupils should also be able to explain the properties of a liquid in terms of the particle
cm long straight glass delivery tube inserted through it, glass straw, beaker larger than fl
diagram.
How Science Works
ask half-filled with hot water (hot tap water should be sufficient), test tube and bung, 2
dropping pipettes, 5 cm3 of cold water, 5 cm3 of cooking oil.
Use an existing model or analogy to explain a phenomenon. (1.1a1)
Safety
Care should be exercised when using hot water. Pupils should be well controlled.

50

Fusion 1: C2.4 Gases


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, b, c. 3.2a.
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Lifes a gas
Pupils should
Pupils must list as many gases as they can think of. Longest list wins. (5 mins)
learn:
Main
The properties of a
Remind pupils of the work they did about solids and liquids in the last two lessons. Ask them to
gas.
How the particles in describe how gases are different from solids and liquids.
a gas are arranged. Ask pupils to carry out the activity Investigating gases. After the practical gather together the
results. [Gases can easily be compressed, gases can be seen to fill the whole container and
gases have mass.]
Refer back to the particle model introduced to pupils when learning about solids. Show pupils a
tray which has a layer of marbles covering about one-tenth of its surface. Shake the tray quite
hard to represent the particles vibrating. Explain that the particles move in straight lines and
change direction when they strike another particle or the walls of the container, like the balls on
a snooker table.
Ask pupils if they think they can use the model to explain some of the results of the practical
[Particles not touching each other means that a gas can change shape and flow and that it can
be compressed by pushing the particles closer together. Those particles can move freely means
that a gas will fill the whole of a container.]
Plenary - Whats it like?
Ask pupils to write a description of a gas for the benefit of Year 6 pupils. Ask some of the class
to read their work out. (10 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to recall the properties of a gas.
Most pupils should be able to draw the particle diagram for a gas.
Some pupils should also be able to explain the properties of a gas in terms of the particle diagram.
How Science Works
Use an existing model or analogy to explain a phenomenon. (1.1a1)
Recognise that scientific evidence can be used to support or disprove theories. (1.1a3)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. It is important that as many pupils as possible can
represent gases using the particle diagram, even if they cannot fully
explain it.
Extension. Allow pupils to make bottle rockets. Challenge pupils
to explain what makes the bottle fly and to try to improve the length
of the flight. Do this outside! Pour a small amount of water into the
bottle and push the bung in hard. Attach the other end of the
delivery tube to the foot pump. Place the bottle neck into the clamp
with the neck pointing down. Do not grip the neck with the clamp.
Pump the foot pump to pressurise the bottle. Keep pumping until
the bottle flies off. Safety. Keep pupils away from the flight path.
Equipment and materials required
Per group: 2 litre cola bottle, bung with plastic delivery tube to fit
bottle, car foot-pump, water, clamp to hold bottle.
Learning styles
Visual: Making observations of the behaviour of gases.
Auditory: Describing how gases behave.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out practical work on gases.
Intrapersonal: Understanding the concept that matter is made of
particles too small to see.
Homework. Pupils could make a model of the particles in a gas.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required
Per group: syringe filled with air and with end sealed with resin or glue, sealed gas jar
of chlorine gas, sealed gas jar of bromine gas (place a few drops of bromine liquid
into a gas jar), sensitive balance, large beaker and a gas jar containing carbon
dioxide.
Safety
Wear eye protection. Chlorine is toxic: CLEAPSS Hazcard 22A; bromine is toxic and
corrosive: CLEAPSS Hazcard 15A; they should both be kept in a fume cabinet. Wear
chemical protective gloves.

51

Fusion 1: C2.5 Gases in Action


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, b, c. 3.2a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Special needs. It is important that as many pupils as possible explain the
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Holding up
Pupils should
effects of diffusion even if they cannot fully explain it.
Show pupils an inflated balloon. Ask them to explain what holds the balloon stretched. Extension. Demonstrate the diffusion of hydrogen chloride gas and
learn:
ammonia in a tube. Safety. Ensure the area is well ventilated. Wear eye
(10 mins)
How gases spread
Main
protection. Concentrated hydrochloric acid is corrosive: CLEAPSS Hazcard
out.
47A. Concentrated ammonia is corrosive: CLEAPSS Hazcard 6. Be aware if
Show pupils the Diffusion in Gases experiment. Ask pupils to describe what they can
What causes an
any asthmatics are present. Equipment and materials required 1 m long
see and to try to explain it using what they know about gas particles. [The gas
empty can to
glass tube, approximately 23 cm in diameter, 2 bungs to fit tube, 23 cm3 of
particles are moving in straight lines, frequently bouncing off each other. Slowly, this
collapse?
3
concentrated hydrochloric acid, 23 cm of concentrated ammonia, mineral
random movement causes the particles to spread further and further apart. In the gas
jar, the colour should spread across the two jars, but be paler than it was when the
wool, 2 pairs tweezers, 2 watch glasses.
Learning styles
gas is contained in just one jar.]
Ask pupils to carry out the Air pressure. [The can collapses because the steam
Visual: Making observations.
(water gas) inside the can condenses into liquid very quickly when the can is put into
Auditory: Describing how gases diffuse.
cold water. This reduces the pressure inside as liquid takes up much less space than
Kinaesthetic: Investigating pressure in gases.
gas. As the open end of the can is sealed with water, the air pressure outside the can
Interpersonal: Working with others to develop a particle model.
is much greater than that inside. The can is crushed by the force of the air particles
Intrapersonal: Understanding the concept that matter is made of particles too
colliding with it.]
small to see.
Plenary - Particle people
Homework. Newcomen Webquest.
Ask groups of pupils to prepare a demonstration of gas pressure and diffusion, using
themselves as particles. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Diffusion in gases demonstration
All pupils should be able to recall what we mean by gas pressure and diffusion.
Equipment and materials required
Most pupils should be able to explain diffusion using the particle model.
3
1 gas jar with 2 cm of bromine liquid in it and a lid placed on top, further gas jar, and same
Some pupils should also be able to explain why a can has collapsed, using the particle model.
How Science Works
size neck as the first. Safety
Use an existing model or analogy to explain a phenomenon. (1.1a1)
Must be carried out in a fume cabinet. Bromine is toxic and corrosive: CLEAPSS Hazcard
15A. Wear chemical protective gloves.
Air pressure
Equipment and materials required
3
Per group: 1 empty 330 cm fizzy drink can, retort stand, boss and clamp, shallow bowl or
tray half-filled with water, Bunsen burner. Safety
Turn the can over using the arm of the clamp. The arm of the clamp near to the burner will
get hot.

52

Fusion 1: C2.6 Changing State


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, b, c. 3.2a.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
What happens when we heat a
solid or a liquid?
What happens when we cool a
liquid or a gas?

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. It is important that they can name the changes though.
Lesson structure
Starter - How many substances
You may wish to avoid discussing the melting and boiling points of
substances which are gases at room temperature.
Give pupils a list of substances and ask them to tell you how many different
Extension. Get pupils to carry out the Stretch yourself activity, looking
ones there are. E.g. ice, water, steam [all water] or lava, rock [both rocks] or
at sublimation of iodine. Substances, like iodine, which change directly
cooking oil and margarine [both oil]. (5 mins)
Main
from solid to gas are said to sublime. Pupils could research other
substances which do this, such as graphite.
Show pupils some ice cubes and ask them to say what will happen to them if
Equipment and materials required. Per group: boiling tube and wellthey were left on the side. [They will melt.]
fitted bung, 45 iodine crystals, access to hot water. Safety. Wear eye
Ask the pupils to investigate what happens to salol if it is heated and then
protection. Ensure the bung cannot fall out of the test tube. Iodine
cooled. They can observe the salol melting in a test tube and then freezing
crystals are harmful, avoid skin contact: CLEAPSS Hazcard 54A.
again. It is important at this stage to establish the meanings of melting [solid
Learning styles.
becomes liquid] and freezing [liquid becomes a solid].
Return to the beaker of melted ice. Ask pupils what will happen if you continue Visual: Observing changes of state.
Auditory: Describing their observations of salol changing state.
to heat it. Heat the water to boiling point and show that it can be condensed
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out practical work on changing state.
by holding a piece of cold glass over the steam.
Intrapersonal: Understanding the concept that matter is made of particles
Ask pupils whether they think that the liquid water could turn into a gas if just
too small to see.
left. [Yes, the water would slowly evaporate. Although most of the particles do
Homework. Pupils to find out the melting and boiling points of some
not have enough energy to become gaseous, some do. The water left behind
common substances, such as iron, copper, hydrogen, sugar.
has less energy and becomes cooler.]
Plenary - Changing state
Show pupils a flow chart, linking the words solid, liquid and gas. Ask them to
add the words, melting, freezing, boiling, condensing, and perhaps even
sublimation, to the flow chart. (5 mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
Melting ice demonstration - Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to define melting, boiling, condensing and freezing.
56 ice cubes in a glass beaker, Bunsen burner, heat mat, tripod and gauze, matches. Safety.
Most pupils should be able to explain the difference between boiling and evaporation.
Some pupils should also be able to define sublimation and give an example.
Equipment will get hot.
How Science Works
Salol - Equipment and materials required
Use an existing model or analogy to explain a phenomenon. (1.1a1)
Per group: test tube and grip, 12 spatulas full of salol, mineral wool plug, access to hot water (above
50C), 2 small beakers, access to cold water.
Safety. Eye protection must be worn. A mineral wool plug will keep fumes in test tube. Hot water can
scald. Salol is an irritant: CLEAPSS Hazcard 52.

53

Fusion 1: C2.7 Mixtures


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, b, c. 3.2a.
Teaching suggestions
Learning Objectives
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. The idea of particles is highly conceptual and
Pupils should learn:
Lesson structure
Starter - What is pure?
lower attaining pupils may well struggle with the idea of a solute
What a mixture is.
dissolving, believing instead that it simply disappears.
How particles are arranged Ask pupils to write a definition for the word pure. Allow open responses. You may wish
Extension. Get pupils to investigate the properties of a mixture of
in a mixture.
to tell them afterwards that the chemical meaning is to describe a single substance. (5
ethanol and water. Measure out 50 cm3 each of ethanol and
mins)
Main
distilled water in separate measuring cylinders. Mix the two in the
larger measuring cylinder and observe the final volume. [It will be
Explain that when you have more than one substance at a time, you have a mixture.
less than the sum of the volumes of the separate solutions.]
Most materials are mixtures. You could show them a piece of granite at this point; pupils
Equipment and materials required. Per group: Two 50 cm3
should easily be able to see the different minerals in it.
measuring cylinders, 100 cm3 measuring cylinder, 50 cm3 distilled
Explain that, although many mixtures are liquids, it is possible to find solid and gaseous
water, 50 cm3 ethanol. Safety. Ethanol is highly flammable and
mixtures too. Introduce the solution key words.
harmful: CLEAPSS Hazcard 40A. No naked flames.
Ask pupils to carry out the Investigating mixtures. Common errors when carrying out
Learning styles
this investigation include failing to zero the balance before weighing each time, and
Visual: Making observations of mixture behaviour.
stirring the mixture so vigorously they spill some liquid. It is a good opportunity to instil
Auditory: Describing the behaviour of mixtures.
the need for attention to detail when carrying out practical work in order to take accurate
Kinaesthetic: Investigating mixtures.
measurements. Repeating measurements will improve the reliability of their results.
Establish that the mass of a solution is the total mass of the solute used and the solvent. Interpersonal: Working with others to develop a drama of particle
behaviour.
Ask pupils whether they think an unlimited amount of solute can be dissolved. [No, a
Intrapersonal: Understanding the need to take accurate
saturation point is reached where no more solute will dissolve and any extra solute will
measurements during the investigation into mixtures.
settle out.] Add more and more salt to one of the pupils solutions from the practical to
Homework. Pupils to find substances in the kitchen which are not
establish that it cant.
Plenary - What does it mean?
mixtures. [Any pure substances, such as salt, bicarbonate of soda.]
Ask pupils to match up the solution key words to their meanings. (5 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Investigating mixtures
All pupils should be able to recall a definition of a mixture in words.
Equipment and materials required
Most pupils should be able to define a mixture with a particle diagram.
Per group: 100 cm3 measuring cylinder, 100 cm3 distilled water, 1 g salt, spatula, 250 cm3
Some pupils should also be able to explain why a substance is a mixture and collect
beaker, glass rod, access to a 1 decimal place balance (2 d.p. balance is too precise and is more
reliable data.
How Science Works
likely to show a change in mass).
Safety
Use an existing model or analogy to explain a phenomenon. (1.1a1)
Clear up spillages immediately.

54

Fusion 1: C2.8 Separating Mixtures: Sieving and Filtering


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, b, c. 3.2a.
Teaching suggestions
Learning Objectives
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. Lower attaining pupils may cope better with the
Pupils should learn:
Lesson structure
Starter - Whats the question?
Its a thingymajig plenary if suitable labels for the equipment is
How to separate different-sized
solids.
Give pupils key terms about solutions, such as solute, solvent and solution. provided.
Extension. Ask pupils to repeat the Separating mixtures
How to separate solids from liquids.
Tell them that these words are the answers, but that they must write the
practical, investigating whether or not different ways of folding the
questions. (10 mins)
Main
filter paper make a difference. [They should find that fluting provides
the best combination of fast filtering and good separation.]
Demonstrate how to separate a mixture of gravel and sand using a sieve, i.e.
Learning styles
separating solids. Explain that the sand passes through as the grains are
Visual: Observing the effects of sieving and filtering.
smaller than the holes but the stones of the gravel cannot.
Auditory: Describing the effects of sieving and filtering.
Ask the pupils to carry out the Separating mixtures. Pupils will probably need
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out sieving and filtering.
to be shown how to fold a filter paper properly. Although they are forming the
Intrapersonal: Understanding that the particles in a solid are joined
insoluble solid to filter out using a chemical reaction, stress that this method is
together so the solid cant pass through a filter.
suitable for all separations of a solid from a liquid. It may be worth explaining
Homework. Pupils to find out how the automatic sorting machines
to pupils that filtering is often slow, as the trapped solid blocks the path of the
work. [Many waste management companies use automatic
liquid through the filter. Prodding the filter paper will only result in ripping it.
machines to sort recyclable materials. There are even some in
After the practical, ask pupils why they think the method works. [Liquid
supermarket car parks in the UK now. Some work by weighing the
particles can move individually and can pass through the tiny holes in the filter
items, but more sophisticated machines use X-rays.]
paper. In the lead iodide precipitate the particles are clumped together as it is
a solid. The clumps are too big to pass through.]
Plenary - Its a thingymajig
Draw diagrams of the equipment used in this lesson and met so far in Year 7.
Ask the pupils to label the items. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Separating solids - Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to separate a mixture of solids using a sieve.
About 500 cm3 of a 50:50 mixture of sand and gravel, tray, sieve with a suitable mesh to let the sand pass
Most pupils should be able to separate a solid from a liquid by filtering.
through but not the gravel. Safety. Sand can make the floor slippery if spilt.
Some pupils should also be able to explain why sieving or filtering is suitable for
Separating mixtures - Equipment and materials required
separating some mixtures.
How Science Works
Per group: 5 m3 of 0.01 mol/dm3 lead nitrate, 10 cm3 of 0.1 mol/dm3 sodium iodide, boiling tube and
rack, filter paper, filter funnel, conical flask. Safety. Wear eye protection. Lead iodide is toxic: CLEAPSS
Explain how action has been taken to control obvious risk and how methods are
Hazcard 57A. Hands must be washed after any contact with it. Take care with disposal.
adequate for the task. (1.2c)

55

Fusion 1: C2.9 Separating Mixtures: Chromatography


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, b, c. 3.2a.
Teaching suggestions
Learning Objectives
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. The Using chromatography experiment will not
Pupils should learn:
Lesson structure
Starter - Odd one out
work unless the pencil marks and the dye spots are prepared
How we can separate inks and
carefully and accurately. Some pupils may need assistance with
dyes.
Show pupils four pictures: a bottle of cola, some orange juice, a cup of tea and a
this.
How we can use
glass of water. Ask them to decide which is the odd one out and why. (5 mins)
Extension. Ask pupils to find out how DNA electrophoresis is
Main
chromatography.
carried out. [It is a form of chromatography where an applied
Discuss with pupils how, in an Art lesson, they can make colours they dont have
voltage drives the movement of the components of the mixture,
by mixing others together. Explain that many paints, inks and dyes are actually a
rather than the solvent.]
mixture of colours. Blacks in particular are rarely, if ever, pure.
Learning styles
Ask pupils to carry out the Making a chromatogram investigation. After carrying
Visual: Interpreting chromatograms.
out the experiment, ask pupils to think of any situations where separating colours
Auditory: Describing the process of chromatography.
like this might be useful.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out chromatography experiments.
Ask pupils to carry out the Using chromatography investigation. After the practical
Interpersonal: Working with others during the practical.
establish which food colouring was the same as the unknown one.
Plenary - Who dunnit?
Intrapersonal: Understanding that dyes are often made from more
than one colour.
Show pupils a chromatogram prepared by the police showing the traces produced
Homework. Pupils could make their own chromatograms at home
by two known pens and another one. Set the scene by telling the class that the
using inks and dyes and blotting paper.
chromatogram was prepared from samples taken at a murder scene. A note was
left in the room and the police have identified two suspects, both of whom were
arrested shortly after the incident and pens were found in their pockets. Ask the
pupils whether either person could have written the note. (5 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Making a chromatogram - Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to separate a mixture of dyes with a wick.
3
Per group: 100 cm beaker, 50 cm3 water, filter paper disc (approx. 8 cm in diameter), 34 drops of
Most pupils should be able to separate dyes into a chromatogram.
black ink or a black, water-based felt pen, dropping pipette if using ink, scissors. Safety. Normal
Some pupils should also be able to explain how chromatography works.
How Science Works
laboratory rules.
Using chromatography - Equipment and materials required
Describe and record observations and evidence systematically. (1.2d)
Per group: 34 drops of green food colouring (which is pure green, not a mixture), 34 drops of
manufactured green food colouring (made from
yellow and blue), 34 drops of an unknown food colouring one of the first two colourings labelled as
3
X, 3 dropping pipettes, 250 cm beaker, paper clip, sheet of chromatography paper to fit as a cylinder
inside beaker (approx. 10 cm by 15 cm). Safety. Normal laboratory rules.

56

Fusion 1: C2.10 Separating Mixtures: Distillation and Evaporation


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, b, c. 3.2a.
Teaching suggestions
Learning Objectives
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. The idea of particles is highly conceptual and
Pupils should learn:
Lesson structure
Starter - Shipwreck
lower attaining pupils may well struggle with the idea that a
How to separate a solid which is
substance is still there when it is dissolved, even though it cannot
dissolved in a liquid.
Ask pupils how they could obtain fresh drinking water from seawater (which
always be seen.
How to separate a mixture of liquids.
also contains some sand, picked up as the water is scooped into a bucket).
Extension. Ask pupils to find out how fractional distillation is
They have a fire and some basic equipment, such as cloth which can be
carried out and why it is used.
used as a filter. [Filter the water to remove the sand. Boil the water and
Learning styles
collect and condense the steam.] (10 mins)
Main
Visual: Observing the results of distillation and evaporation.
Auditory: Describing what happens during distillation and
Set up the Evaporation experiment described in the pupil book at least 24
evaporation.
hours in advance. Look at the results of the Evaporation experiment. Invite
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out distillation and evaporation.
pupils to try to explain what has happened. [The water has evaporated and
Interpersonal: Working with others during practicals.
left the salt behind.] Ask pupils to suggest how the process could be
Intrapersonal: Understanding that dissolved substances are still
speeded up. [Heat the evaporating dish.]
there even if the particles cannot be seen.
Get pupils to carry out the Distillation experiment described in the pupil
book. After the practical, establish that only the water transfers from the test Homework. Pupils to find out how spirits, such as whisky are
made.
tube. Any impurities are left behind.
Plenary - Shipwreck 2
Invite pupils to re-plan their method of gaining fresh water from seawater
which also has sand in it, based on what they have learned from the lesson.
Again, they must not use laboratory equipment but can use things which
they might find on a ship. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Evaporation - Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to separate a solid from a liquid by evaporation.
3
Per group: 20 cm saturated brine solution, evaporating dish.
Most pupils should be able to separate a mixture by distillation.
Some pupils should also be able to explain why distillation or evaporation Safety.
is suitable for separating a mixture.
If heating, do not heat the dish directly. Wear eye protection. If salt starts to spit, stop heating.
How Science Works
Distillation - Equipment and materials required
3
Use an existing model or analogy to explain a phenomenon. (1.1a1)
Per group: 20 cm water, coloured, in front of the class, with ink or food dye, two boiling tubes, glass delivery tube
with 90 bend, holed bung to attach delivery tube to top of one boiling tube, Petri dish, ice, Bunsen burner and
heat-proof mat, matches. Safety. Wear eye protection.
Pupils must not drink the distilled water. Do not heat too strongly (see above).

57

Fusion 1: C2.11 Grouping Chemicals


National Curriculum Link up
2.1a, b, c. 3.2a.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
How to decide if something is a solid, a
liquid or a gas.
How to devise a method to decide if
something is pure or a mixture.

Teaching / Learning activities


Lesson structure
Starter - Word challenge
Ask pupils to come up with as many words as they can, using only letters from the
word chromatography. Longest list wins. (10 mins) Main
Get pupils to carry out Grouping chemicals by their state. Allow open responses
here, as all the substances exhibit properties of more than one state. The important
aspect here is the reasoning behind the answers. Establish that it is not always
easy to decide whether something is a solid, liquid or gas.
Get the pupils to carry out the Grouping chemicals as pure or impure activity. The
main focus of this is on the planning of the experiment. Pupils will need advice on
what to include in their method. Many pupils will fail to include enough detail. You
may wish not to carry out the practical, depending on the time you have available.
If you do, plans must be checked before practical work starts.
Plenary - Ive got the key
Ask pupils to prepare a key to guide someone into deciding whether a substance is
a solid, a liquid, a gas or a mixture. [The key could start with the question, Does it
flow? No its a solid; Yes next question ] (10 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to recognise a solid, a liquid and a gas.
Most pupils should be able to explain why something is a solid, a liquid or a gas.
Some pupils should also be able to distinguish between mixtures and pure
substances by devising a method independently.
How Science Works
Describe an appropriate approach to answer a scientific question using a limited
range of information and making relevant observations or measurements. (1.2a)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Provide pupils with a jumbled method
for the
Grouping chemicals as pure or impure activity which
they must sort into the correct order.
Extension. Get pupils to extend the practical by giving
them a mixture of ethanol and water. They will have to
employ fractional distillation to prove that it is a mixture.
Safety. Ethanol is highly flammable and harmful. Wear
eye protection.
Learning styles
Visual: Observing the behaviour of materials.
Auditory: Describing whether a substance is a solid, a
liquid or a gas, with reasons.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out practical work to decide if a
substance is pure or not.
Intrapersonal: Understanding that the state of a
substance is sometimes difficult to define.

Additional teachers notes


Grouping chemicals by their state - Equipment and materials required
Per group: watch glass with some ketchup on it, watch glass with some hair gel on it, watch glass with
some emulsion paint on it. Safety. Pupils must not eat the ketchup.
Grouping chemicals as pure or impure - Equipment and materials required
Per group: a range of the equipment used for the practicals in lessons C2.7 to C2.10, depending upon
what methods the pupils plan, a bottle of ink, a bottle of water (distilled or tap, depending on whether
you wish the pupils to find it pure or not), a jar of mixed salt and chalk, labelled White powder;
Extension: 20:80 ethanol: water mix, labelled Water sample 2. Safety. Ethanol is highly flammable and
harmful: CLEAPSS Hazcard 40A. Wear eye protection.

58

FUSION 1 P2 FORCES AND ENERGY

59

Fusion 1: P2.2 Measuring Forces


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
That forces act between objects
and can cause changes to them.
That forces are measured in a unit
called the newton.
That forces can be represented by
arrows showing the direction, and
magnitude, of the force.

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. Provide the pupils with a worksheet with a results table
Lesson structure
Starter - The right tool for the job
for the practical task.
Extension. The pupils can find out how a top-pan balance operates.
Show the pupils a range of measuring instruments and get then to explain
[Some use springs, but others use the electrical properties of materials.]
what each one measures and how it works. (510 mins)
Main
It is again important the pupils become more familiar with the language
of science, so use the terms accelerate and decelerate when possible.
Demonstrate the use of a forcemeter and how to attach objects to it. Then
With higher attaining pupils you can move on to the effect of forces that
get the pupils to carry out the Measuring pushes and pulls practical task.
are not acting in the same plane.
The emphasis is on measuring the size of the forces carefully and as
Can they describe what they think will happen if the forces are at right
accurately as possible. The pupils should note down the problems that they
angles?
have with measuring the sizes of the forces (HSW).
Learning styles.
It is important that the pupils gain an understanding of the size of forces in
Visual: Reading scales off measuring instruments.
relation to the newton during the practical task. Ask them to estimate, and
Auditory: Describing force diagrams.
record, the force they think will be required to lift/move each object before
Kinaesthetic: Measuring forces practical task.
they use the meters. They should then select the appropriate meter for the
Interpersonal: Discussing the outcome of the experiment.
object. Using the correct meter will also give them more precise
measurements. Discuss this after the experiment in relation to How Science Intrapersonal: Evaluating the basic experiments and suggesting
improvements.
Works (see page 158).
Homework. The pupils can make a list of all of the devices that can be
The pupils then move on to the idea of representing forces by arrows. This
used to measure forces, and the locations where they are used. They
is fairly straightforward, but make sure that they are putting arrowheads on
should explain why it is important to measure forces, such as weight,
the lines they draw and that the arrows actually point in the right direction.
Plenary - Sentence construction
accurately. Examples include electronic bathroom scales, scales at
supermarkets, and the electronic balances that are used at the
The pupils must write a set of sentences that includes all of the key words
checkouts, weighbridges, and check-in scales at airports and so on.
or phrases from this lesson. The fewer sentences needed the better. (510
mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Measuring pushes and pulls
All pupils should be able to draw arrows to represent the forces acting on an object.
Equipment and materials required
Most pupils should be able to draw a diagram including forces drawn to scale.
Some pupils should also be able to find the resultant force of a set of forces acting on an A variety of everyday objects that the pupils can weigh: these can be typical laboratory equipment,
furniture or pupil equipment. Avoid fragile objects. Pupils will need a range of forcemeters (1 N, 5
object.
N, 10 N, 25 N and so on) and string to attach objects to the meters. Safety: The pupils should be
How Science Works
careful if they are lifting large masses or dragging objects around the laboratory.
Describe and record observations and evidence systematically. (1.2d)

60

Fusion 1: P2.3 Bending, Stretching


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Use worksheets with results tables and preLesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Describing patterns from graphs
prepared axes for the graph plotting tasks.
That weight is caused by the
Extension. The pupils can compare the extension of a spring to
Give the pupils a set of graphs that show the results of different experiments, e.g.
action of gravity on objects.
the distance a projectile travels when fired at different angles, the stopping distance that of elastic. Springs do not always obey Hookes Law. Pupils
That a spring will extend evenly
can investigate the limit of the law, the idea of an elastic limit or
of a car. They have to describe the graphs in as much detail as possible. (HSW).
when the force on it is increased
even the concepts of plastic and elastic behaviour. This can be
(1015 mins)
evenly.
Main
achieved by stretching thick lengths of plastic such as carrier
That graphs can be used to find
The emphasis of the Investigating a spring practical should be on making accurate bags, and noting that it does not return to its original shape.
patterns in the behaviour of
Learning styles
and precise measurements. If there is time, you can ask the pupils to record the
materials.
Visual: Interpreting graphical data.
extension as the spring is unloaded and calculate the mean extension. These
Kinaesthetic: Measuring the extension of a spring.
results need to be used to plot an accurate line graph (pupils to decide on the
Interpersonal: Collaborating with others in practical work.
appropriate scales and units). The experiment should produce a straight-line graph
Homework. The pupils can find out about gravity on other
showing that the extension is proportional to the load; Hookes Law. The pupils can
planets. How much would they weigh on each planet? Is there a
judge the quality of their experiment by how straight their line is. You can show that
all springs behave in this way by showing a set of graphs of extension against load. connection between the strength of gravity and the size (mass) of
the planet? Higher attaining pupils may want to take the diameter
The steeper the line (higher gradient) the less stiff the spring is. Have more than
into account.
one set of results on the same set of axes so that you can compare the springs.
Plenary - Bending
Pupils could design an experiment that will compare the flexibility of different types
of ruler (the experiment must be able to produce numerical results). (15 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Comparing weights - Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to state that the weight of an object is caused by gravity.
A range of objects, including some of very similar weights; sets of masses (50 g, 20 g and 10 g)
Most pupils should be able to describe the connection between the load on a spring and
and holders; forcemeters. Safety. If larger objects or masses are used, then warn the pupils about
its extension.
the dangers associated with dropping the materials.
Some pupils should also be able to compare the extension of an elastic material to that
Investigating a spring - Equipment and materials required
of a spring.
How Science Works
A spring, 20 g masses with holder, stand, two clamps and a ruler. For more precise
Recognise that the presentation of experimental results through the routine use of tables measurements, the pupils will need a pin and some Blu-Tak. The spring should have a low enough
spring constant to stretch significantly with a load of 100 g placed on it. Safety. The pupils should
and simple graphs makes it easier to see patterns and trends. (1.2d)
again be warned about the risks of objects falling on their feet. Wear eye protection in case springs
Describe patterns and trends in results (1.2e)
snap.

61

Fusion 1: P2.4 Friction


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
That friction is a force that acts between
objects, slowing them or preventing
them moving.
That there are a range of factors that
affect the frictional forces between
objects.

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. Provide worksheets with instructions about how to
Lesson structure
Starter - Get a grip
take the measurements. The worksheets should have space for
recording results and instructions about how to calculate average
The pupils make a list of sports/activities where a good grip is essential
values.
and explain how this is achieved, for example, putting powder on your
Extension. During the Measuring friction experiment the pupils
hands for weightlifting. The powder absorbs moisture (sweat), which
could investigate dragging the objects up an adjustable slope to see if
would act as a lubricant. (10 mins)
Main
the angle affects the size of the force required.
Learning styles
During the Measuring friction practical task, ensure that the pupils are
Auditory: Describing the causes of friction.
acting with safety in mind as they move around and drag fairly large
Kinaesthetic: Practical work on measuring friction.
masses. Get the pupils to write out a quick risk assessment or to choose
Interpersonal: Working in small groups.
the possible risks from a list you have already prepared (HSW: safety).
Intrapersonal: Understanding how lubricants work.
The results are likely to be quite varied, as pupils tend to pull slightly
Homework. The most important device invented to overcome the
upwards as they drag; you can discuss this when comparing the results
problems of friction was the wheel. The pupils can find out about how
of different groups for the same material and mass combination (HSW:
a wheel works and the history of its development or even the (nonreliability of data).
serious) attempt to patent the device in Australia in 2001.
Now move on to the explanation of frictional forces. Try to move two very
flat metal plates across each other; there can be quite high frictional
forces. A little oil will make the plates slide much more freely.
Plenary - Rough edges
Show some further electron micrographs (or highly magnified optical
micrographs) and ask the pupils to guess what the material or object is.
A set of decreasing magnifications is best so that you can zoom out. (5
mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to state that friction is a force that prevents objects moving past
Per group: a range of forcemeters, a wooden block, three 1 kg masses, a range of surfaces
each other.
to pull the block across (carpet, tiles, desktop, etc.). Details. The two key factors that affect
Most pupils should be able to describe the cause of a frictional force in terms of rough
the frictional force are the surface conditions; rougher giving higher friction, and the weight of
surfaces.
the object being pulled. They should discover that rougher surfaces produce larger frictional
Some pupils should also be able to list the factors that affect the magnitude of frictional
forces and that the heavier the object the greater the force is. Safety. The pupils will be
forces.
moving around the classroom and may be working on the floor. Look out for trip hazards.
How Science Works
Explain how action has been taken to control risk and how methods are adequate for the
task. (1.2c)

62

Fusion 1: P2.5 Floating and Sinking


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
That when an object floats its weight is
matched by an equal but opposite upthrust
force.
That objects that are more dense than water
will sink, while those that are less dense will
float.
That when the weight of an object is greater
than the upthrust force it will sink.

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. Provide a worksheet with a table to
Lesson structure
Starter - Under pressure
help these pupils organise and process their results for
the Measuring upthrust activity. Some pupils may
Use mini-whiteboards to hold a quickfire quiz about forces. The pupils keep their
need additional help with attaching the objects to the
own score and the person that reaches ten points first is the winner. This could
forcemeter.
also be played as a team game. (10 mins)
Extension. The pupils can look into how airships or
Main
hot air balloons work. You can demonstrate the lift of a
The Measuring upthrust practical is a fairly simple one, but it can be a bit messy.
small hydrogen balloon (buy a helium one from a shop)
Make sure that the pupils are recording the change in the forcemeter reading. The
by attaching it to a forcemeter. The pupils have to
pupils should take simple safety precautions and look out for ways of improving the
consider the expansion of air in the hot air balloon in
basic method (HSW: evaluation). Try to get the pupils to see if there is any
terms of particle behaviour.
connection between the size of the upthrust and the shape of the object. This idea
Learning styles
can later be linked to the shape of boats.
Visual: Observing the behaviour of floating objects.
Explaining upthrust for an object that is submerged is rather difficult. Make sure
Kinaesthetic: Measuring upthrust.
that the pupils understand that there are forces (pressure) all around the object.
Interpersonal: Discussing the cause of upthrust.
Then they need to be guided to an understanding that the forces on the bottom of
Intrapersonal: Answering questions in the Under
the object are larger that the forces on the top and that this produces an overall
pressure starter quiz.
upwards force.
Homework. The pupils could build their own
Plenary - Cartesian diver
Cartesian diver at home as mentioned in the plenary.
Place an inverted pen top into a large plastic bottle full of water and seal it. The top
should have a small bubble of air in it. Squeeze the bottle and the pen top should
sink. Can the pupils explain what is happening? [Squeezing the bottle causes the
pressure in the bubble to increase and so its volume decreases. This makes it
denser so it sinks.] (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to draw a diagram showing the forces acting on a floating object.
Per group: A range of forcemeters, a range of objects denser than water (various metal
Most pupils should be able to use the idea of balanced forces to explain why some objects fl oat
blocks, glass, etc.) and a wooden object less dense than water.
while others do not.
Details
Some pupils should also be able to describe how the forces change on a floating object as it is
The objects will have to have string loops tied around them in order for them to be attached
loaded up and eventually sinks.
to the forcemeter. Once the pupils have tested all of the objects that sink, get them to
How Science Works
calculate the upthrust on the object that floats. The forcemeter should read zero when the
Describe and suggest how implementation could be improved. (1.2e)
object is floating. This means that the upthrust and weight are equal so proving the point
Explain how action has been taken to control risk (1.2c)
from earlier in the lesson. Safety. Watch out for spilled water hazards.

63

Fusion 1: P2.6 A Matter of Density


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
That the mass of an object represents the
amount of material (matter) it contains.
That the volume of an object is the amount of
space it occupies.
That graphs can be used to find patterns in the
properties of materials.

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. The pupils should be provided
Lesson structure
Starter - Accident at work?
with a template for the calculations of density so
that they learn how to lay out these calculations
Spray-paint a block of expanded polystyrene to look like a brick, wooden block or
clearly.
chunk of metal. Carry it convincingly in a tray, trip and drop it on your foot. The pupils
Extension. These pupils can look into the
have to explain why it didnt hurt. (5 mins)
Main
density of gases (make sure that they do not think
that gases are mass/weightless). Show the pupils
The pupils will be required to perform some calculations of density; many will not be
a hydrogen-filled balloon and a carbon dioxideentirely confident with calculations. Go through a few examples before moving on to
filled one and ask them to explain their behaviour.
the practical task.
They could discuss the strange behaviour of
The practical task Measuring density is fairly straightforward, but can have a number
water as mentioned in Did you know?
of inaccuracies due to the measurement of volume. At the end, the pupils could
discuss the problems with accuracy in measuring the volume and share the results for Learning styles.
Visual: Taking measurements using a forcemeter.
each material to get an average value (HSW: improving the reliability of data).
Kinaesthetic: Building boats.
Some sample materials will not sink in water. You can deliberately use these in the
Intrapersonal: Understanding the difference
practical task in order to lead to a discussion about how their volume can be
between weight and density.
measured so that their density can be found.
Interpersonal: Working in groups to measure
To summarise the results, place a series of material samples in order of density so
density.
that the pupils can check their results. You can add additional materials to the row.
Homework. The pupils can research the design
Plenary - Boat building
of ships to find out how they are made to fl oat.
Give each group of pupils a sheet of aluminium foil, measuring approximately 20 cm
They can also find an explanation of why
by 20 cm. They have five minutes to build a boat capable of floating and supporting
submarines can fl oat and sink at will.
as many 20 g masses as possible. After the time is up, test the boats to destruction.
(15 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to compare materials in terms of density.
Per group: a range of forcemeters, measuring cylinders large enough to fit the samples into or
Most pupils should be able to decide if a material will float based on the density.
displacement cans with measuring cylinders. A range of sample materials; these do not need to be
Some pupils should also be able to measure the density of substances in grams
regularly shaped but they do need to be denser than water so that they sink. Suitable materials include
per centimetre cubed (g/cm3 ).
How Science Works
metal blocks, plastics, ceramics and various rocks. Top-pan balances if available.
Safety Watch out for water spillage and dropping samples onto feet.
Describe and record observations and evidence systematically. (1.2d)

64

Fusion 1: P2.7 Fuels Alight


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. A clear step-by-step method should be provided for
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Fuel for a fire
the practical task so that the pupils can concentrate on taking accurate
That fuels are substances
The pupils should give their own definition of a fuel. They should also make a list of all measurements of changes in temperature.
that are burned to release
Extension. Pupils could make, and carry out, a plan to measure the
the fuels they know and give an example of how, or where, the fuel is used. (510
useful energy.
amount of energy released by the consumption of equal masses of a
mins)
That different fuels release
Main
sample fuel. This would involve measuring the mass of the spirit
different amounts of useful
burner before and after the experiment and calculating the amount of
Demonstrate the combustion of small samples of charcoal, wood (on a heat-resistant
energy when they are
energy released (temperature rise in the water) per gram of fuel used
mat) and gas (a Bunsen) to show that they all burn in a similar way: releasing light
burned.
(HSW: controlling variables).
and heat energy.
Learning styles
The pupils will enjoy the practical task Comparing fuels. The task presents some
Visual: Watching combustion processes.
new hazards, so there is a good opportunity for the pupils to carry out a risk
Auditory: Reading out poems.
assessment (HSW: safety). The comparison of the different fuels will not lead to an
accurate measurement of how much energy is released but the pupils can move on to Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the comparison of different fuels.
look at some of the problems associated with the measurements, such as energy loss Intrapersonal: Evaluating experimental procedures.
Interpersonal: Working in groups.
to the surroundings (HSW: evaluation).
Homework. When fuels burn without enough oxygen, the gas
If they have time, the pupils should use a bar chart to show their results. They should
carbon monoxide is formed. The pupils can find out why this is a very
be able to explain why a bar chart is the best way of representing this information
dangerous gas and how it can be detected.
(HSW: presenting data). After the experiment, ask the pupils to list ways that they
could improve the practical to be more accurate.
Plenary - Tiger, tiger, burning bright
The pupils can write a short poem about fuels and combustion. It can be judged on
scientific accuracy or aesthetic beauty. (1015 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils should be able to state that a fuel is a substance that releases heat, light and
Per group: two spirit burners labelled A and B, boiling tubes, a 10 cm3 measuring cylinder, a
sometimes sound when burned.
thermometer (0.5C is best), a retort stand and a stop clock. Fuel A is ethanol and fuel B is
Most pupils should be able to explain that different fuels release different amounts of
paraffin. The fuels should be soaked into cotton wool inside the burners to reduce the chance of
energy when burned.
spillage. Safety. Eye protection must be worn. Pupils to tie back hair and clothing. The pupils will
Some pupils should also be able to describe the products of combustion.
How Science Works
be using only very small quantities of fuels for the practical, but they must be warned about the risk
of spillage and combustion. Spirit burners must not be moved while they are lit. Ethanol is highly
Describe and suggest how planning and implementation could be improved. (1.2e)
flammable and harmful: CLEAPSS Hazcard 40A. Paraffin is harmful: CLEAPSS Hazcard 45B

65

Fusion 1: P2.8 Burning the Past, Wrecking the Future?


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a. 3.4c.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. The carbon footprint task can be quite
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Old fossil
complex. The pupils should be led through a few examples
That fossil fuels are the remains
before completing their own assessment; this should be based
Show the pupils slides of fossils (or the real thing) and ask them what they think
of plants and animals that lived millions
on some multiple choice questions such as what type of house
they are and where they come from. (510 mins)
of years ago.
Main
they live in, what type of holiday they take, how they travel to
That fossil fuels are an important
school and so on.
Have some samples of fossil fuels available for the pupils to see, as many will
energy resource and are used in the
Extension. The pupils could find out about peat. This was
not be familiar with them. A rough lump of coal, a sealed container of crude oil
production of electricity and for
once a very popular form of fuel but now its use is very
and a squirt of gas from a gas tap should be sufficient. If you have a set of
transport.
restricted.
samples of the fractions made from oil, you can point out the petrol and diesel
That burning fossil fuels has
Learning styles
fuels to show how oil is used in cars too.
environmental consequences.
Auditory: Talking about dinosaurs and the formation of fossil
The idea of a carbon footprint is quite a tricky one. Explain that the more fuels
fuels.
you use the bigger your effect on the atmosphere; then move onto the carbon
Interpersonal: Discussing their personal impact on the
footprint task. This involves making judgements about personal fuel use, if
environment.
pupils cant make estimates then provide examples on a worksheet (HSW:
Intrapersonal: Evaluating a carbon footprint.
issues). Pupils will need support to help them to make their estimates and
Homework. Where do our fossil fuels come from and how
perform the calculations from the worksheets. Most will require calculators.
Plenary - Smaller carbon feet
long will supplies last? The pupils can find out information
about the sources of the fuels used in our power stations,
The pupils must list a set of steps that they could take to reduce their carbon
homes and cars and look at the latest estimates of how long
footprint. These should be ways to reduce fuel use and to use the fuel more
these supplies will be available.
efficiently. The suggestions could be written on cut-out footprints and added to a
display board. (10 mins)
Learning Outcomes
Additional teachers notes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils will be able to state where fossil fuels come from and that they are a non-renewable resource.
Most pupils will be able to describe the steps in the formation of fossils fuels.
The pupils need access to worksheets containing information about carbon
Some pupils will also be able to describe the link between the use of fossil fuels and global warming.
footprints and a calculator. The worksheet should contain step-by-step instructions.
How Science Works
Details
Describe some benefits and drawbacks of scientific developments with which they are familiar. (1.1b)
To calculate their carbon footprint, the pupils will have to know some of the details
of their lifestyles. Provide two sample details (one with a high carbon footprint and
one with a low footprint) for the pupils to analyse if they are unclear of their own
details. Pupils will be required to multiply and add to get their total footprint.

66

Fusion 1: P2.9 Renewables Cleaning up our Act


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a. 3.4c.
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. Provide explanations of how the electricity
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Biofuels at work
generating devices operate. The pupils can then answer a set of
There are a range of renewable
questions about each process leading them to realise the limitations of
Show the pupils a video clip showing how biofuels are produced and used.
energy resources that can be used to
each of the methods.
Willow is an important one in the UK and it is easy to understand, as the
produce electricity.
Extension. Why dont biofuels contribute to the greenhouse effect
willow is simply burned. (1015 mins).
That to maintain a reliable electricity
Main
even though they are burned? Get the pupils to look into this; they
supply and range of
need to find out that the carbon is taken back out of the atmosphere
Growing biofuels takes quite a lot of land; you may want to discuss whether
different resources, renewable and
when the plants photosynthesise. They might find that growing crops
the land would be better used to grow food crops (HSW: issues). Pupils
non-renewable are needed.
does have some effect because of the production processes.
may have difficulty understanding that biofuels are renewable because they
Learning styles
disappear when burnt. Its all a matter of being able to get more; remind
Visual: Observing energy transfers in different resources.
them how long it takes for coal to form and point out that a crop can be
Auditory: Discussing what makes a resource renewable.
grown every year.
Kinaesthetic: Exploring energy resource models.
The pupils can look at some of the ways of producing electricity with the
Interpersonal: Discussing the greenness of energy companies.
Testing renewable energy practical tasks. Ask them to try to describe the
Intrapersonal: Reflecting on the challenge of changing our energy
energy transfers that are happening using correct scientific language. They
sources.
should also take note of the limitations of the technology; will this work in all
Homework. The pupils can produce a booklet trying to persuade
areas and in all conditions?
Plenary - How green is your power?
people to use renewable energy resources instead of fossil fuels.
Give the pupils some advertisements from energy companies, producers
and distributors. They have to discuss and decide which company is the
greenest. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils will be able to name several renewable energy resources.
The pupils will be visiting stations showing how electricity can be generated. If there is
Most pupils will be able to describe the advantages and disadvantages of different resources.
enough equipment, two of each station should be set up. Station 1: Solar power A solar
Some pupils will also be able to produce a balanced opinion of the need for different
panel connected to a low power bulb or small motor. A bright lamp if there is no direct
resources.
sunlight available. Station 2: Water power A water turbine connected up to the tap. Ideally
How Science Works
the turbine should be enclosed and the water should drain out into the sink. Station 3: Wind
Recognise that decisions about the use and application of science and technology are
power A wind turbine connected to a low power lamp or motor. A hairdryer (set on low
influenced by society and individuals. (1.1b)
temperature) to spin the turbine. Station 4: Animal power A wind-up radio or torch. A
hand-powered turbine connected to a low power lamp or motor would work as an alternative.
Safety. Make sure that the hairdryer isnt used on a hot setting as this can cause burns.
Make sure it is safety tested.

67

Fusion 1: P2.10 Making More of Energy


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a
Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Special needs. For the Keeping heat in practical have some boiling
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - My best suit
tubes pre-insulated to save time. The pupils can then concentrate on
That the amount of energy we
The pupils have to write an outline plan that can be used to test which clothing recording the cooling of the tubes more carefully. If data-logging
use can be reduced by taking
equipment is used, then the pupils can spend more time looking at the
material is the best at keeping you warm. (1015 mins)
measures to prevent heat loss.
Main
trends in the data during and after the experiment.
About the environmental costs
Extension. Consider the Keeping heat in (alternative) practical. This
Show the pupils some of the materials typically used for insulation. This can
of wasting energy.
can lead to discussions about the ability of different materials to store
be clothing or even some materials used in buildings. You should be able to
different amounts of thermal energy. Water is a particularly interesting
get hold of some foil-backed foam as used in the cavities between brick
layers. Safety: fibreglass materials need to be handled with gloves, and wear
substance when it comes to specific heat capacity. You may want the
pupils to plot cooling curves. This can lead to the idea that the amount of
eye protection.
cooling depends on the temperature difference between the object and
Allow students to complete the Keeping heat in practical. The pupils insulate
the surroundings.
two of the boiling tubes in different ways with the materials provided, while
Learning styles
leaving one un-insulated. They can use tape or elastic bands to hold the
Visual: Recording thermometer readings.
material in place. Once this is done, the tubes will not fit in normal racks so
Auditory: Discussing how thermal energy movement is controlled.
the pupils stand them in the beakers. They pour hot water into one of the
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out investigations into heat loss.
tubes, insert the thermometer, wait for the water to reach 70C (or 60C) and
Interpersonal: Discussing the variables associated with cooling.
then measure how much the temperature falls over a five-minute period. They
Intrapersonal: Considering fair tests.
then repeat the procedure with the other two tubes to compare the
Homework. The pupils can bring in labels from food products to be
effectiveness of the insulation. Some pupils may want to make aluminium lids
used in the next lesson. Make sure that they know that they will need a
to prevent energy escaping through the top of the tubes.
Plenary - Pile up the savings
large variety of labels.
Give the pupils a table of house insulation measures and the savings that they
will make each year. The pupils have to decide which measures they would
take and in what order. (510 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
Equipment and materials required
All pupils will be able to list measures that can be taken to reduce energy loss. Most pupils will be able to
Per group: three boiling tubes, three 100 cm3 beakers, thermometers, a stopdescribe a simple method to test energy saving techniques.
clock, aluminium foil, a range of insulating materials (cotton wool, thin layers
Some pupils will also be able to describe the consequences of inefficient use of energy resources in terms of
of foam, etc.) and some sticky tape, kettles or another source of hot water.
environmental impact and monetary cost.
Optional: data-logging equipment with temperature sensors.
How Science Works
Safety
Describe an appropriate approach to answer a scientific question using a limited range of information and
The pupils will be handling hot water; they must not attempt to hold the boiling
making relevant observations and measurements. (1.2a)
tubes while pouring water directly from a kettle into them.

68

Fusion 1: P2.11 How Much Energy?


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a.
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
That energy can be measured in a unit
called the joule.
Larger amounts of energy are
measured in kilojoules.
The amount of energy released by a
food can be estimated by burning it,
transferring the energy to water and
measuring the temperature increase of
the water.

Teaching suggestions
Teaching / Learning activities
Special needs. It is important that the pupils evaluate the
Lesson structure
Starter - Fast food sort
limitations of the experiments. Use a question and answer
session to lead the pupils to a realisation of the limitations of
Give the pupils a set of about ten different food labels. Ask them to sort the labels
the measurements that they made, so that they can produce
quickly into various orders while you give a one-minute countdown for each sort.
a suitable set of improvements.
Sorting orders should include fat content, salt content, sugar content and finally
Extension. The pupils can find out more details about
energy content. (10 mins)
Main
photosynthesis. What else, besides energy from sunlight, do
plants need and what do they produce beside food?
Pupils should be reminded that it is simplistic to judge a food on energy content
Learning styles
alone. Take some time to mention the other values, e.g. salt levels, protein,
Visual: Taking temperature measurements.
carbohydrates and vitamins, and their importance. You can briefly discuss what the
Auditory: Discussing the improvements that can be made to
energy is used for in the body [carrying out chemical reactions] and where it ends
the experiment.
up [as heat].
Kinaesthetic: Sorting cards against the clock.
The Burning food practical task does not give very reliable results, but it does give
Interpersonal: Working in teams to test food samples.
a general indication about which foods types have most energy. Pupils need to link
Intrapersonal: Interpreting the results of an experiment.
this to the idea that foods with high fat or sugar content have a larger supply of
Homework. The pupils can find out about the energy
energy. The pupils should also be thinking about the limitations of the experiment.
requirements of different groups of people, including
Are they using equal masses of food, did they hold the sample the same distance
athletes. How much energy do they require each day?
beneath the tube, is all of the energy going into the water, and so on (HSW:
controlling variables, evaluation).
Food technologists have to be very careful not to let any of the energy of the food
escape without being measured.
Plenary - Food Top Trumps
The pupils can play Top Trumps with the food labels (which has the highest fat?,
etc.). The winner is the first to win all of the labels. (10 mins)
Additional teachers notes
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to describe a simple method for measuring the energy that can be released by burning food Equipment and materials required
Per group: Bunsen burner, tongs, (or a metal spike), thermometer,
samples.
boiling tube, retort stand with clamp and access to food samples.
Most pupils will be able to carry out a procedure to estimate the energy content of a food sample.
Safety
Some pupils will also be able to evaluate and improve on the simple procedure.
Eye protection must be worn. Some pupils may be allergic to peanuts or
How Science Works
other nuts so do not use them. Check that there are no other food
Recognise the range of variables involved in an investigation and decide which to control. (1.2b)
allergies.
Describe and suggest how planning and implementation could be improved. (1.2e)

69

FUSION 2 B1 BODY SYSTEMS

70

Fusion 2: B1.2 The digestive system


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a
Learning Objectives
Pupils should learn:
About the parts of the digestive system.
The different parts of the digestive
system and describe their structure.
The functions of the different parts of
the digestive system.

Teaching / Learning activities


Lesson structure
Starter - Where is food needed and how does is get there?

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Use a cloth intestines tabard to illustrate
the parts of the digestive system.

Pose this question and give the pupils the task of reporting their ideas on to a large
piece of paper in whatever manner they choose it could be an outline diagram of
the human body or a concept map. Display the results and share the responses
with other groups. (1015mins).

Extension. Using the chocolate bar illustration from the


starter, suggest to the pupils that they calculate how the
surface area of an 8 cm cube sweet bar increases each time
it is divided, i.e. untouched, cut into 2,4,8,16,32. Pupils
could graph these out and try to come up with an equation
linking the two.

Main
Using a human model torso, take the pupils through the main parts of the digestive
system. It could be useful to give each pupil a blank outline diagram to fill in as the
parts are named. The functions of the stomach can be illustrated by reference to
the story of Alexis St Martin, who had lumps of meat dangled inside him.
The functions of the small intestine in absorption can be illustrated by using pieces
of rolled up carpet to convey the idea of the villi increasing the surface area. Now is
a good time to do the activity from the pupil book: A model intestine. The standard
tests for a reducing sugar and starch need to be demonstrated to the pupils so that
they can test for the results.
Plenary - Digestion mnemonic

Learning styles
Visual: Observing model torso
Auditory: Listening to the explanations.
Kinaesthetic: Demonstrating the function of digestion.
Interpersonal: Working in groups in the starter activities.
Intrapersonal: Composing mnemonic.
Homework. Give the pupils a list of the key words and ask
them to write a paragraph about the digestive system in
their notebooks.

Pupils are to make up a mnemonic to help them remember the sequence of parts
of the digestive system. (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to state that food needs to be broken down so that it can be absorbed.
Most pupils will be able to label the main parts of a digestive system diagram.
Some pupils will also be able to give detailed and alternative names and functions of the parts of the digestive
system.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required Visking tubing, dropping pipettes,
elastic bands, starch and enzyme solutions, water baths, beakers,
Bunsen burner, 2 test tubes and a stand, 1 test tube of warm water,
iodine solution, Benedicts solution, eye protection.
Safety Iodine: CLEAPSS Hazcard 54B. Benedicts solution is harmful:
CLEAPSS Hazcards 27C and 95. Eye protection.

71

Fusion 2: B1.3 Digesting food


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
How digestion occurs. Starter - Dissolving race
That starch, protein
Get two volunteers to come to the front of the class. Give each a large clear beaker of water
and fat have to be
and a plastic or wooden spoon. Say that you are going to have a dissolving race. Give one
digested before they
pupil a sugar cube and the other a potato cube. Have two more volunteers as judges. Start
can be absorbed.
the race and stop it when the sugar has dissolved. Discuss this with the class. If you cannot
How these large
dissolve potatoes, how do they act as a food? (1015 mins)
molecules are broken
Main
down by enzymes.
Explain that enzymes are proteins, biological catalysts, which speed up reactions in living
organisms but are not themselves used up. It could be useful to ask if pupils know what a
catalyst is and to link with knowledge they may have gained from Chemistry. Explain that
enzymes are specific, i.e. that one enzyme will only speed up the rate of one reaction and
another reaction will require a different enzyme.

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. There is a very good fun and simple digestion
animation to be found at:
http://kitses.com/animation/swfs/digestion.swf
Extension. Ask pupils to research the consequences of cystic
fibrosis (which blocks the pancreatic duct) in terms of enzymes and
digestion, then report on their findings.
Learning styles
Visual: Observing the results of the experiment.
Auditory: Listening to the exposition on enzymes.
Kinaesthetic: Listening to the exposition on enzymes.
Interpersonal: Taking part in Squeezy fists or Breakdown duel.
Intrapersonal: Completing summary table on breakdown of foods.
Homework. Having explained that enzyme names end in -ase,
ask pupils to find as many different names for enzymes as they can.

Give each group of pupils a set of 6 identical Lego bricks (or laminated cards with Velcro
patches) with the letters S, T, A, R, C and H written on the front of them. On the back of
each brick write the word sugar (or glucose if you prefer). Get the pupils to assemble the
bricks into a block and then to separate them using a plastic knife labelled amylase. Use the
experiment Digesting starch described in the pupil book either as a class demonstration or in
groups.
Plenary - Digestion rags to riches
Carry out a Who wants to be a millionaire? style rags to riches game constructed using a set
of Java tools such as Quia (www.quia.com). (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to recognise that large molecules cannot be absorbed but smaller ones can.
Most pupils will be able to match the food types to their component parts.
Some pupils will also be able to give a detailed description of the digestion of the major food types including
enzyme names
How Science Works
Describe how the use of a particular model or analogy supports an explanation (1.1a1)

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required
Starch solution, glass beaker, water bath at 37C, amylase solution (or saliva),
3
iodine solution (less than 1 mol/dm ). See pupil book.
Safety Amylase solution is an irritant: CLEAPSS Hazcard 33, Recipe card 23.
Iodine solution: CLEAPPS Hazcard 54B. Eye protection.

72

Fusion 2: B1.4 Food and a balanced diet


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Shopping sort out
Pupils should
learn:
Show the pupils a large bag with shopping items in, or display large posters with pictures of the items .Get the pupils
The food types
to sort them into groups according to the food type. Do not introduce the scientific notion of food types at this stage,
needed in a
just see what emerges. Discuss the types of food and see if a consensus is present. (1015 mins)
balanced diet.
Main
How the body uses
the different
Using PowerPoint, go over the main food types according to scientific understanding. Give the pupils a worksheet to
nutrients contained
fill in the appropriate bits on a table of food types, examples and uses. They could use the materials from the
in foods.
Shopping sort out starter and take the opportunity to correct any misconceptions.
To use chemical
tests to identify
carbohydrate,
protein and fat.

Demonstrate the main standard food tests: iodine solution for starch, Benedicts reagent for sugars (dont bother
with the distinction between reducing and non-reducing at this level if necessary alter the instructions so that both
will show positive), Biuret for protein (sodium hydroxide solution and copper sulfate solution) and either the emulsion
test (shaking with alcohol) or the grease mark test on translucent paper for fats.
Give the pupils a variety of simple foods, such as pieces of apple, potato, bread, egg albumen etc. to test. Give them
a sheet with the foods tabulated and spaces to fill in the results of the tests they do on each one. Show pictures of
several different occupations e.g. a clerical assistant, a bricklayer, a sumo wrestler, an athlete or any other relevant
types, being careful not to stereotype them. You could also include a toddler and an elderly person. Carry out a
matching exercise with the occupations and a range of different diet types. Put a time limit on this and then discuss
the results.
Plenary - Food type booklet

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Pupils could use a cut and
stick exercise to sort food items on to
appropriate shelves drawn on a pantry sheet.
Extension. Continue the exercise on
occupation and appropriate diet to include more
detailed information on the changes in the food
requirements of an individual at different stages
of their life. Do they change? Why might they
need to change?
Learning styles
Visual: Observing changes in food tests.
Auditory: Listening to discussion of food
requirements for different occupations.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the food tests.
Interpersonal: Working together on food tests.
Intrapersonal: Making a personal food types
booklet in the plenary.
Homework. Get the pupils to take a
photograph using their mobile phones (or find
an appropriate picture from a magazine) of an
example of a food which is very representative
of each one of the food types.

Provide each pupil with a piece of plain A4 paper and show them how to fold and cut it to make an eight page
booklet. Using one page as a cover, one as a back sheet for sticking the booklet into notes if so desired, allow one
sheet for each of the major food groups. Get the pupils to colourfully illustrate and complete notes on each type. (5
10 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to name the six major food types with aid.
Most pupils will be able to list the major food types, giving examples, and
describe the tests for them.
Some pupils will also be able to give detailed descriptions of the types of
foodstuffs and how they are used by the body.
How Science Works
Explain how the observation and recording methods are appropriate to the
task (1.2d)

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required
small pieces of foods such as apple, potato, bread, egg albumen etc., test tubes, test tube rack, water bath,
dropping pipettes, watch glasses or white tiles, iodine solution (starch), Benedicts reagent (sugars), Biuret
reagent (proteins) and translucent paper (fats).
Safety Eye protection. Care with water baths. Care with chemicals: wash off with water if there is contact
with the skin. Iodine solution: CLEAPSS Hazcard 54B; Benedicts solution: CLEAPSS Hazcard 27C; Biuret
3
reagent: CLEAPSS Recipe card 13; 0.1 mol/dm sodium hydroxide solution: CLEAPSS Hazcard 91. Also
useful: CLEAPSS Student Safety Sheet 4 Food Testing (1).

73

Fusion 2: B1.5 Breathing


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Breathing line up
Pupils
should learn:
As the pupils come through the door, say to each one in turn You are a mouth, you are an epiglottis, you are a larynx,
The basic
you are a trachea, you are a bronchus, you are bronchioles, you are air sacs, you are alveoli. Go straight into an
structure of
anatomical diagram of the respiratory system and get the pupils to line up in sets in the correct order that inhaled air
the lungs.
would meet them. (510 mins)
How our lungs
Main
work.
How we
breathe in and How we breathe activity: use the classic bell jar with a pair of balloons in it as a breathing model. Get the pupils to say
what the parts of the model represent in a mammal, e.g. the balloons are the lungs. Demonstrate how the model works
out.
by pulling down the diaphragm and then letting go. Get the students to describe and explain what is happening. Ask:
How does the model differ from a human chest? Loosen the plug at the top of the bell jar and get a pupil to try to get
the balloons to inflate. They may a little, but very poorly. State that this is why chest wounds are very dangerous they
do not have to pierce the lungs to stop you from being able to breathe properly, as by raising your rib cage and
lowering your diaphragm you will draw air in through the wound and into the cavity around the lungs, expelling it when
you try to breathe out. You might add that sometimes if a wound is bleeding into an un-punctured chest cavity it needs
to be let out so that the pressure difference can be established allowing the victim to breathe. Link to the inventor of a
chest drain valve which does this and has saved many lives, Henry Heimlich, the same chap who developed the antichoking manoeuvre.
The pupils can make their own lung model by putting a balloon into the neck of a soft drinks bottle, cutting the bottom
off it and securing a circle cut from a plastic bag over the open end using an elastic band. They can then stick a loop of
tape onto the bag as a handle and pull and push it in and out to inflate and deflate the balloon lung. Carry out the
activity Lung capacity as described in the pupil book.

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Give the pupils the key words
for the topic, but with either all the vowels or all
the consonants missing and get them to fill in the
missing letters.
Extension. Provide the pupils with a microscope
and some slides of lung tissue for them to
observe the structure of the alveoli.
Learning styles
Visual: Observing nostrils.
Auditory: Listening to the PowerPoint exposition.
Kinaesthetic: Making their own lung model.
Interpersonal: Discussing the results of the
observations on chest movements.
Intrapersonal: Reflecting on effectiveness of
model.
Homework. Pupils to write up the results of the
Lung capacity activity or peak flow meter
activities, making a table of results and
commenting on any difficulties with the
experiment, differences in results from different
groups (age, gender, etc.) and conclusions that
can be drawn from the results.

Plenary - Passengers will kindly remember to breathe


In pairs, write and rehearse a spoof version of the familiar airline safety announcements given at the start of flights.
Their version should, in a humorous yet accurate way, tell the passengers how to breathe. (510 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to describe the basic structure of the lungs.
Most pupils will be able to describe how the breathing process occurs.
Some pupils will also be able to explain the effects of breathing in and
breathing out on the different parts of the thorax.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required
For the class demonstration breathing model: bell jar with a cork in the top, sheet of rubber, two balloons, Yshaped glass tube inserted through the cork at the top of the bell jar.
Lung capacity and Taking peak flow readings Large plastic container (five-litre fruit juice container) marked
with litres and half litres, large bowl, rubber tubing. Peak flow meter and disposable mouthpieces.

74

Fusion 2: B1.6 - Lungs


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Chest parts word search
Pupils should
learn:
Get the pupils to complete a word search with the key words in it. Gear the difficulty of this to the ability of the
How the lungs
pupils. (510 mins)
are adapted for
Main
gaseous
exchange.
Show the pupils a PowerPoint, or a video, on the process of breathing and how it takes place. If not using a
The structure of
video, animations will help this and a good one can be found at this website:
the lungs and
http://www.smm.org/heart/lungs/top.html
associated
organs.
How our lungs
are kept clean.

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Using a large poster of the lungs and
associated structures, ask pupils to label the key
structures or provide labels for them to put in the
correct places.
Extension. Ask the pupils to find out how you can
breathe for someone who is unconscious and not
breathing. If possible, let them investigate the models
used to teach CPR. Emphasise that this should never
be done on a conscious person!

Show photographs of the structure of the different parts of the lungs, particularly of the alveoli. A microscope
Learning styles
slide of alveoli, emphasising the nature of the thin walls and the close proximity to the blood vessels should link Visual: Observing PowerPoint or video presentations.
the gross structure to the gas exchange surface. Refer the pupils back to the dissection and the pink colour of Auditory: Listening to the ideas of others in the starter
the lungs. Ask: Why were they so pink?
activities.
Get the pupils to carry out a sequencing exercise on the stages in breathing. The In and out, or up and down Kinaesthetic: Sequencing the stages in breathing.
starter from the previous lesson could be a good starting point for this. Once the sequence has been
Interpersonal: Working in pairs to carry out the starter
established, the pupils should make notes in their exercise books summarising the process.
and/or plenary activities.
Intrapersonal: Making own notes on the sequence of
To reinforce the idea of changes in volume of the chest cavity, use a male volunteer and measure chest size
breathing.
inflated and deflated. Tie this in with pressure changes. Link with observations made in the starter to the
previous lesson and to the homework exercise below, if done.
Plenary - Structure to function mind map
Get the pupils to complete a mind map showing the parts of the respiratory system, relating them to their
functions. (510 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to label windpipe, voice box, bronchi and air sacs.
Most pupils will be able to label larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, ribs and diaphragm,
and be able to describe how the lungs are adapted for gaseous exchange.
Some pupils will also be able to link structure and function for all the above parts and give
explanations of how the lungs are kept clean.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required (optional)
Pigs lungs (pluck), dissecting tools, a piece of rubber hose, a foot pump or cycle pump.
Safety Place pigs lungs in a large, clear plastic bag when inflating: CLEAPSS
handbook/CD-Rom section 14.7.2.
Pupils to wash hands thoroughly after touching the pigs lungs.

75

Fusion 2: B1.7 Inhaled and exhaled air


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Watch the birdy
Pupils should
learn:
Show the pupils the painting Experiment on a bird in the air pump by Joseph Wright (go to National Gallery
That respiration
website). Have them respond in any way to the painting. Draw out, through discussion, what is going on and what
releases energy
will happen to the bird if it is left inside the pump and why. Expand this to explore what is currently known by the
from food.
class about the differences between inhaled and exhaled air. (1015 mins)
The differences
Main
between inhaled
and exhaled air.
Carry out the Limewater activity as described in the pupil book to show that exhaled air turns limewater cloudy.
That the
Ask the pupils to design and experiment to show that there is more carbon dioxide in exhaled air than in the air
differences
we breathe in. Ask: Can it be done using one piece of apparatus? Use the experiment Comparing carbon
between inhaled
dioxide described in the pupil book as a demonstration.
and exhaled air
are related to the
release of
energy.

Carry out the Comparing water vapour and Temperature activities as described in the pupil book. Link with the
starter Pupil breath samples. Get the pupils to think of other ways of showing that there is more water vapour in
exhaled air (breathing on to a cold surface or a mirror, etc.) and ask them to suggest why this should be so. Ask:
Why is the air we breathe out warmer? This should then lead to the formulation of a generalised equation for
respiration, involving the uptake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide. Use PowerPoint to reinforce the
respiration equation.
Plenary - Respiration modelling: O2 in, CO2 out
Give some pupils cards to hold with the names of the parts of the respiratory system on them. Give one student a
card with oxygen written on it. Get them to pass down the system in the correct sequence, eventually into the
blood and to the cells, where they join with a pupil who has a card labelled carbon. They both come back out as
CO2. Get the pupils involved so that they describe what is happening at each stage. Give some pupils cards with
H2O and energy on them, and ask whereabouts in the system they should be. (510 mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils should be able to state that inhaled air has more oxygen and less carbon dioxide than
exhaled air.
Most pupils should be able to state that inhaled air has more oxygen and less carbon dioxide than
exhaled air and give the percentages.
Some pupils should also be able to give a balanced equation for respiration.

Teaching suggestions
Extension. Pupils could produce a balanced
equation for respiration. To extend further, ask if a
person inhales and exhales 3 litres of air, assuming
the inhaled air has 0.04 % carbon dioxide and
exhaled has 4%, how much more would the exhaled
breath weigh than the inhaled one?
Learning styles
Visual: Watching film and video footage; observing
the Joseph Wright picture.
Auditory: Listening to discussions and the views of
others.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out the practical experiment.
Interpersonal: Working in groups in practical.
Intrapersonal: Reflecting on their own views about
the Joseph Wright picture.
Homework.
Pupils to imagine they are one of the people in the
picture by Joseph Wright and to write a short
account of what they saw, and give a scientific
explanation of what was happening.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required Drinking straws, test tubes, limewater,
candles, gas jars, Vaseline, cover slips, floats, stop-watches, rubber hose, cobalt
chloride paper, thermometer (0110C), matches.
Safety Eye protection should be worn. Limewater is an irritant: CLEAPSS Hazcard
18. Cobalt chloride paper should be handled as little as possible, wash hands
afterwards and avoid skin contact: CLEAPSS Hazcard 25. Warn about the use of
matches.

76

Fusion 2: B1.8 The heart and circulation


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - All change
Pupils should
learn:
Give the pupils a cloze passage to complete, or ten quick questions to answer, on the basic knowledge gained
That the heart
last lesson on the gas exchanges which happen in the lungs. This can then be peer marked. (510 mins)
pumps blood
Main
around the body.
That the blood is
Use an interactive animation of the heart such as that available as a download free from:
carried to and
http://resources.schoolscience.co.uk/abpi/heart/heart4.html Get the pupils to label a blank diagram of the heart
from body
and use coloured pencils to colour in the left side red and the right side purple. Carry out the activity Taking your
organs in blood
pulse as described in the pupil book. Ask: Are there other places where a pulse can be determined and
vessels.
measured? Working in pairs, pupils to practise taking someone elses pulse. Gather up the results for the class
The structure
and determine a mean rate. Ask: What are the extremes? If time permits, a distribution curve could be plotted of
and functions of
the class results and this could show how variable pulse rates can be.
the different
types of blood
vessel.

Carry out the activity Beating muscle as described in the pupil book. Each pupil should count how many times
they can clench and unclench their hand in five minutes. Again, the class results could be recorded and any
differences (age, gender, fitness, etc.) discussed. The rate at which the clenching and unclenching can be done
will vary. Ask the pupils to account for this.
Show the pupils a video clip of open heart surgery. [Be aware of sensitive pupils or those whose relatives may
have had such an operation.] The oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the transparent tubes should be
identifiable by their colours. This is probably best done after the heart dissection as the pupils will be able to
recognise the different parts more easily.
Plenary - Cute cuticles
Draw cells on a cardboard tube from a roll of kitchen paper and pass around to show what capillary structure is
like. Stick some moving eyes on it and suggest that it looks a bit caterpillary. Choose a volunteer, cover the nail
cuticle in clove oil and focus carefully down a binocular microscope. Capillary loops with curved heads towards
the nail should be visible under high magnification. (510mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to state that the heart pumps blood around the body and the names of the different types of blood
vessel.
Most pupils will be able to describe how the heart works and the differences between arteries, veins and capillaries.
Some pupils will also be able to give detailed descriptions of the tissues and anatomical features involved linked to their
functions.

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Give the pupils name cards to
place in the correct positions on a large heart
diagram. Also provide some arrows so that the
passage of blood through the heart can be indicated.
Extension. Get the pupils to do some more
research on Galen or William Harvey and to make a
poster for the classroom, summarising their ideas
and contrasting them with the knowledge we have
today.
Learning styles
Visual: Observing the heart dissection.
Auditory: Describing the double circulation.
Kinaesthetic: Taking pulse rates.
Interpersonal: Taking part in the double circulation
chanting.
Intrapersonal: Making their own diagrams of the
circulatory system.
Homework. Tell the pupils to imagine that they are
red blood cells and get them to describe how they
circulate around the body, picking up oxygen and
delivering it to the cells. To make it more exciting,
they could be told to think of it as a motor rally circuit
or a Grand Prix race track, where there are different
hazards and they may travel at different speeds.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required
Stop-watches or stop-clocks. For plenary: Kitchen roll tube,
felt tipped pens, moving eyes, clove oil, binocular microscope.

77

Fusion 2: B1.9 Supplying the cells


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - True or false?
Pupils should
learn:
Give the pupils a list of questions based on the previous lesson. They have to write down whether they are true
How ideas about
or false in the back of their books. They self-mark this exercise. (510 mins)
the circulation of
Main
the blood have
developed over
Using video, if available, and/or PowerPoint, go over the history of thought on the human circulation, from Galens
time.
ideas through Ibn al-Nafiss work on pulmonary circulation to that of William Harvey. There is a cross-curricular
That oxygen,
tie-in with the popular GCSE History topic The History of Medicine. Get the pupils to make a timeline using a till
carbon dioxide,
roll. Using a scale of 20 cm per 100 years, start at CE Year 0. The relevant dates are in the pupil book. Ask: Why
dissolved food
did it take so long for the details to be worked out? How were the workings of the human body discovered?
and waste are
carried in the
blood.
How different
substances are
carried to the
tissues and
organs.

If possible get a supply of fresh blood from an abattoir. Put a little sodium citrate into the bottom of the collecting
flask as an anti-coagulating agent. Using an oxygen cylinder or generator (manganese dioxide and hydrogen
peroxide will do this), bubble some oxygen through the blood to observe the colour change.
Working in pairs, get the pupils to look at the inside of each others lower lip or under the tongue to see both
oxygenated and deoxygenated blood within the arterioles and venules. Relate this to why blood is always bright
red when you cut yourself, but is purple/blue when you have a blood sample taken from a vein. Show an
animation of the body tissues with capillaries running through them. Observe how the molecules of oxygen and
dissolved food diffuse from the capillaries into the tissues and how the carbon dioxide and waste molecules
diffuse from the tissues into the capillaries. Get the pupils to summarise these exchanges in their exercise books.
Framework will be necessary for lower attaining pupils.
Plenary - Artificial blood

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Pupils could make Plasticine
models of red blood cells to fit the capillary tubes
made in the previous lesson. They could use red
Plasticine for oxygenated and purple for
deoxygenated.
Extension. Ask: Are all vertebrate red blood cells
the same? Get pupils to find out how the blood of
other animals differs from human blood. This leads
to a discussion of the importance of forensic science
in the investigation of blood stains at the scene of a
crime.
Learning styles
Visual: Observing each others arterioles and
venules.
Auditory: Listening to the job descriptions for blood.
Kinaesthetic: Making a timeline.
Interpersonal: Taking part in the floor dominoes
plenary.
Intrapersonal: Working out the number of molecules
of oxygen carried by the bag of sweets.
Homework. Get pupils to write a short passage or
a poem about the duties of a red blood cell.

Tell the pupils that there has been research going on for a long time into the possibility of artificial blood or blood
substitutes. Discuss with the pupils the advantages of artificial blood or blood substitutes. Ask: Does it seem like
a good idea? When could it be used? (1015mins.)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to state that the red cells carry oxygen.
Most pupils will be able to state that the red cells carry oxygen and that the plasma carries carbon dioxide, dissolved food and waste.
Some pupils will also be able to do the above in detail and describe how the different substances reach the tissues and organs.
How Science Works
Describe how scientific evidence from different sources carries different weight in supporting or disproving theories (1.1a3)

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required
Till roll or long strips of paper.
Safety Make sure pupils hands are clean when
examining each others mouths and tongues.

78

Fusion 2: B1.10 - Exercise


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Why does that happen?
Pupils
should learn:
Show the pupils a video clip from a cartoon chase, such as Road Runner, where a character is shown with a pounding heart following
That heart
vigorous exercise. Working in small groups, ask the pupils to say why this happens in as much detail as possible. Discuss the
rate increases
responses with the class. (1015 mins)
when we
Main
exercise.
What happens
Show the pupils how to take their own pulse and that of a partner. Get the pupils to count the beats in 15 seconds and then, by
to our
multiplying by four with a calculator, get the heart rate or pulse rate in beats per minute (BPM). Introduce these terms carefully and
breathing rate
ensure by questioning that the pupils understand them. Collect some rates and draw out that there appears to be a big range (the pupils
when we
are generally poor at accurately carrying out this task). Discuss what the range may be due to, leading to identification of human error
exercise?
What happens as a factor. Ask if they can think of a way of avoiding human error. Show the pupils how to use data-loggers with heart rate monitors
connected. If possible, have a range of these, including the commonly used chest belt and wrist-watch style recorders used by athletes
when we
to assess their training performance. Some monitors are better than others. Generally, they can function intermittently which can be
cannot get
irritating.
enough
oxygen to our
muscles?

Use the practical The effects of exercise as described in the pupil book. Let the pupils work in pairs, one as exerciser and one as timer
and recorder. Take an initial reading when the pupil is seated and resting. Record this result. Have them carry out safe, sensible but
vigorous exercise (discuss and agree on this in advance) for two minutes. This is best done en masse to avoid prolonged disruption.
Get the pupils to take a pulse reading immediately after exercise and record it, starting a stopwatch at the same time. After one minute,
take the next reading, keeping the stop-watch running, measure and record again. Continue this for another two or three minutes.
Repeat the whole exercise, reversing roles. Pupils can plot their results on a graph. The class results can be collated. Discuss the
results and draw out by questioning the reasons behind the increase in rate. Aim at getting recall of the links to the energy in food and
necessity of oxygen, and of getting both of these to the muscles for respiration to occur. Explain that the lactic acid can be broken down
to carbon dioxide as soon as there is sufficient oxygen available after exercise and that this is known as the oxygen debt.

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Using pictures
cut out from newspapers and
magazines, pupils could make a
poster showing examples of
aerobic exercise.
Extension. Pupils could devise
a training programme for an
athlete who wishes to compete in
a marathon. The programme
should include reasons for the
training and suitable diets, both
during training and on the day
before the marathon.
Learning styles
Visual: Recording pulse rates.
Auditory: Listening to
explanations.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out
practical activities.
Interpersonal: Working in pairs
on pulse rate activity.
Intrapersonal: Displaying
personal results on graphs.

Plenary - The long-distance runner


Show a video of Kenyan long-distance runners or other athletes training at altitude. Ask pupils to think of reasons why training at altitude
is beneficial for long-distance or endurance events. Discuss the reasons and then compare long-distance training with training for sprint
events. (1015mins.)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to relate heart rate to exercise.
Most pupils will be able to explain why heart rate increases with exercise.
Some pupils will also be able to accurately predict the effects of increased exercise on the rate of recovery.
How Science Works
Describe and suggest, with reasons, how planning and implementation could be improved (1.2e)

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. Stop-watches or a clock with a second
hand for the timing of pulse rates. If available, examples of data-loggers with
heart-rate monitors/pulse monitors such as used in athletic training.
Safety. Check exercises suggested for suitability and safety.

79

Fusion 2: B1.11 Excretion and homeostasis


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - What is a thermostat?
How the temperature
and water content of the
Pose this question to the pupils and gauge responses. If possible, display a thermostat in action
body is controlled.
a mini-fridge used for camping may be an appropriate prop. As an alternative example to
The functions of the
discuss in class, you could use thermostatically controlled radiators and domestic hot water
kidney in the removal of
systems. Discuss and pupils to make notes on how these systems work. (510 mins)
toxins and the control of
Main
the water content of our
bodies.
Discuss situations where we get sweaty, concentrating on drawing out the reason why we get
sweaty. Using volunteers, swab down the skin of the right forearm with water. Ask pupils to
describe how it feels and to explain why. Then swab down the skin on the left forearm with
alcohol. Ask pupils again to describe how it feels and to explain why. Then ask for any
differences between using water and alcohol.
Use the activity suggested in the pupil book, Does sweating actually cool us down?. Each
group of pupils could be given the same set of apparatus (boiling tubes, paper towels,
thermometers, hot water), and asked to consider how they can make it a fair test and how to
ensure that the results are as reliable as possible. The design of the investigation could be a
homework task and then the ideas could be put into practice during another lesson.
Plenary - Homeostasis of the wallet
Get the pupils to draw out a flow chart of decision making regarding the amount of money that
they have and how much they spend. Include directions on feedback links, e.g. the more money
you have, the more you can spend, but the less you have the less you can spend. Be aware of,
and sensitive to, social ramifications in the class. (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to state that the temperature and water content of the body are controlled and that
the kidneys clean the blood.
Most pupils will be able to describe how temperature and water content are controlled and how toxins
are removed from the body by the kidneys.
Some pupils will also be able to explain in greater detail how these homeostatic mechanisms work.

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Supply pupils with two outlines of the human
body, one labelled Too hot and the other Too cold. Pupils
can label and illustrate how each is feeling or what is
happening. For example, the hot person could have a red face
and drops of sweat and the cold person could look pale and be
shivering.
Extension. These pupils could be given pigs kidneys to
dissect. Supply an instruction sheet and a set of flag labels so
that they can label the parts for the rest of the class as a
demonstration. [Be aware of pupils sensitivities and/or
religious objections.]
Learning styles
Visual: Watching videos clips and demonstrations.
Auditory: Listening to the responses to discussions.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out practical activities.
Interpersonal: Working in a group to design an investigation.
Intrapersonal: Writing an e-mail to a person in the arctic or the
tropics.
Homework. Pupils could design the investigation suggested
in the pupil book.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. Boiling tubes, stand, thermometers,
paper towels, hot water. Main lesson evaporation - Cotton wool balls,
thermometers, ethanol.
Safety. Ethanol is highly flammable, no naked flames: CLEAPSS Hazcard 40A.
Care needed with the handling of thermometers.

80

Fusion 2: B1.12 The nervous system


National Curriculum Link up
3.3a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Senses for safety
Pupils should
learn:
Ask the pupils to list the five sense organs in their notebooks, or write up a list on the board. Give them 5 minutes to write
That reflex actions
down what each does and, for each one, an example of how the sense organ makes life safer. Give some an example to
protect us because
get them going standing on a pin or touching a hot saucepan. Gather together the ideas and discuss how important the
they are fast and
sense organs are. (510 mins)
automatic.
Main
How a reflex action
works.
Show a PowerPoint presentation on the reflex pathway. Provide the pupils with a worksheet that they fill in as the
The ways in which
pathway is explained. This sheet can then be fixed in their notebooks. It would be a good idea to choose something
the skin is sensitive
different from the example in the pupil book, e.g. a knee jerk reflex. Introduce the relevant terms, if appropriate, and
to different types of
ensure the flow of nerve impulses from receptor to effector in the pathway is clearly shown. The activity Measuring
stimuli.
reaction time can be carried out as described in the pupil book.
The activity Sensitive skin can be carried out as described in the pupil book. Variations could include testing other parts
of the body, such as the leg or the back. Map out the results from various parts of the body. The skin also has
temperature receptors, but how do they work? Provide a bowl of hot water, a bowl of iced water and a bowl of warm
water. Get a volunteer to place one hand in the hot water and the other in the iced water. Leave the hands in the water for
one minute, after which time both hands are placed in the warm water. Ask the volunteer what they are feeling. Draw out
an explanation of what information the hot and cold sensory receptors are sending to the brain.
Plenary - Sixth sense
Ask the pupils to imagine another sense that they would like to have. Ask: How would it work? What would it enable you
to do? Share this with other members of your group or neighbours and with the rest of the class. (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to name a reflex action.
Most pupils will be able to name a reflex action and describe how it works.
Some pupils will also be able to describe the details of a named reflex action.
How Science Works
Describe ways in which the presentation of experimental results through the routine use of tables, charts
and line graphs makes it easier to see patterns and trends (1.2d)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Provide the pupils with a
set of cards with the components of a
reflex pathway on them. Pupils can then
put them into the correct order.
Extension. Pupils could find out if
practising the stick-drop test improves
reaction times.
Learning styles
Visual: Observing PowerPoint
presentation on reflex action.
Auditory: Listening to explanations.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out practical
activities.
Interpersonal: Working in groups at the
practical activities.
Intrapersonal: Reflecting on sixth sense.
Homework.
Ask pupils to write a short paragraph in
their notebooks explaining which sense
they think is the most important for human
survival.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. Metre rulers, pre-printed sheets to fill in.
Small pieces of blunt wire (hair pins, unbent paper clip, blunt tapestry needles)
mounted in pieces of cork. If two wires are used, they should be about 1 cm apart.
Three washing-up bowls; hot (but safe to immerse hand in), warm and iced water.
Safety. Avoid the use of sharp needles or pieces of wire.

81

FUSION 2 C1 ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS

82

Fusion 2: C1.2 Building blocks


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b, 1.1a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Material world
Pupils should
learn:
Ask pupils to list all the different materials they can see in the room. This will help identify any pupils who are having difficulty
What matter is
distinguishing materials from objects. Longest list wins. (10 mins)
made from?
Main
What an element
is.
Remind pupils of the work they did last lesson on materials and discuss the number and range of different materials on Earth.
Scientists are registering around 5000 new materials every day. Ask pupils why we cannot be sure how many different
substances there are in the universe. [There are too many to reliably catalogue and people have not visited the whole
universe.]
Show pupils a copy of the Periodic Table of the elements [This is the full title.] There is one in the pupil book. Explain to them
that scientists believe that all the substances in the universe are made from just the elements in the Periodic Table. Establish
that there are about 100 elements listed in the Periodic Table. Only elements are listed in the Periodic Table.
Establish that each of the elements is made up of a different type of atom and that the definition of an elemental substance is
that it contains only one type of atom. All the other substances in the universe are made from combinations of the elements.
Get pupils to carry out the activity, Making a model of elements. The purpose of this activity is to test different ways of
modelling elements and to consider their limitations. They could record their opinions about the suitability of each model in a
table. [Plasticine is the weakest model as it does not show that atoms of an element have a uniform size nor that they can be
taken apart easily and re-assembled. Lego provides a very good model if bricks of the same colour are used. However, the
bricks should also be the same size. The molecular model kits provide, unsurprisingly, the best model as they show uniform
atoms which can only be joined in particular ways. They also allow groups of atoms to be broken apart and reassembled
easily. With all the models pupils will not have successfully represented an element unless they choose pieces of one colour.]
Give pupils the opportunity to discuss their ideas with each other and to debate the merits of each model.
Plenary - Whats it like?
Ask pupils to produce a poster to define an element, which could be put on the classroom wall. (10 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to list examples of elements
Most pupils will be able to recall a definition of element.
Some pupils will also be able to explain why a given model is an example of an element.
How Science Works
Describe more than one model to explain the same phenomenon and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each model (1.1a1)
Describe how the use of a particular model or analogy supports an explanation (1.1a1)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Some pupils may
cope better with a more basic
definition of an element: a substance
is only an element if it is listed on the
Periodic Table or if it cant be broken
down into a simpler substance.
Extension. Ask pupils to research
the most recently discovered
element.[It will have an atomic
number greater than 110 and will,
almost certainly, have been
discovered in a nuclear reaction such
as those carried out at CERN,
Switzerland.]
Learning styles
Visual: Making models of elements.
Auditory: Describing their
observations.
Kinaesthetic: Making models of
elements.
Intrapersonal: Understanding the
concept that matter is made of atoms
which are too small to see.
Homework. Pupils to find out as
much as they can about a particular
element. You could choose one
yourself or allow pupils free choice.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. Selection
of Lego bricks, of different sizes and colours; 23 golf-ball-sized lumps of Plasticine, each lump
a different colour; molecular model kit (MolyMod or similar).

83

Fusion 2: C1.3 Elements and their properties


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b, 2.1a, 1.2b,
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - What the use?
Pupils
should learn:
Show pupils a selection of materials and a list of possible uses. Ask them to match the material to the use. (10 mins)
How to test
and record the Main
properties of
Remind pupils of the work they did about elements last lesson. Ask them to describe what an element is.
elements
Discuss the fact that some elements are radioactive, in conjunction with the Science @ work section in the pupil book.
How to
classify
Explain to pupils that they are going to investigate some of the properties of elements by carrying out the Studying
elements
elements activity described in the pupil book. Ask pupils to decide which elements they think are metals and which are
not, suggesting why. Establish that metals are usually shiny in appearance, solid and conduct electricity, though there
are exceptions. For example, mercury metal is liquid at room temperature and the non-metal carbon in the form of
graphite can conduct electricity.
Refer to the Periodic Table in the pupil book and locate the elements pupils have met today on it. Establish that the
Periodic Table is arranged to place elements with similar properties together and that all the metals are on the lefthand side while the non-metals are on the right. In fact about 75% of the elements are metals, only a triangle of
elements on the upper right-hand side of the table are non-metals.
If you have time, ask pupils to debate the issue raised in the pupil book in the Great Debates section. Pupils may
need you to explain to them what tax is. Look for them to realise that without scientific research new discoveries are
harder to come by and we would not be able to develop new medicines, materials or energy sources so easily. They
may also consider that scientific research is slow, expensive and, as private companies make money from new
products, they should pay for all the research themselves. They could follow this up with some homework to extend the
scope of their understanding. (HSW: issues)
Plenary - Whats a metal?
Ask pupils to sort a list of properties into those they think apply to metals and those which apply to non-metals. (5 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to determine some properties of elements.
Most pupils will be able to group elements into metals and non-metals.
Some pupils will also be able to predict an elements properties based on its position in the
Periodic Table.
How Science Works
Recognise that decisions about the use and application of science and technology are
influenced by society and individuals, and how these could
impact on people and the environment (1.1b)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Instead of having a whole
class debate, ask pupils to consider specific
statements in small groups. They could consider
ideas like: The money wasted in scientific
research would be better spent on new schools
and hospitals. Pupils may then feel able to join in
with the whole class debate.
Extension. Give pupils some cards giving
brief details about elements, including physical
and chemical information. Ask them to sort the
cards into groups of their choosing. Then get
them to compare their groups to the locations of
elements on the Periodic Table.
Learning styles
Visual: Making observations of elements.
Auditory: Describing their observations.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out practical work.
Interpersonal: Taking part in the class debate.
Intrapersonal: Understanding the idea that there
may be more elements left to discover.
Homework. To extend the Great debates, you
could ask pupils to find out what scientific
research two commercial companies carry out.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. Circuit to test electrical conductivity: 6V power
supply/cells, lamp and three wires, piece of charcoal/graphite, labelled Carbon, piece of
Sulfur, sealed jar labelled Oxygen, small phial of Iodine crystals (sealed), mercury
thermometer, labelled Mercury, piece of Copper foil, piece of Magnesium ribbon, Iron nail,
piece of Zinc foil.
Safety. Sulfur: CLEAPSS Hazcard 96A. Magnesium: CLEAPSS Hazcard 59A. Do not warm the
iodine as it may vaporise. Do not touch iodine: CLEAPSS Hazcard 54A.

84

Fusion 2: C1.4 - Symbols


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b, 2.1a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Shorty
Pupils should
learn:
Give pupils some commonly used abbreviations and ask them to say what the full word/term is. They could be from
Why elements have
written English, (such as e.g. for example, etc. et cetera), from scientific language (such as cm centimetres, kg
symbols.
kilograms) or text-speak (such as B4 before, CUL8R see you later, btw by the way, lol laugh out loud). (10
How to find out the
mins)
symbol for an
Main
element.
Remind pupils of the work they have done on elements over the past few lessons and of the Periodic Table.
Use the pupil book to find out how the Periodic Table was developed. Pupils could extend this phase of the lesson
by using other sources of information, such as the Internet.
Ask pupils why we use abbreviations and establish that they are a quick way of writing a long word or phrase.
Introduce the idea that elements have a symbol which works like an abbreviation of their name.
Give the pupils a copy of the Periodic Table and start to look at the symbols for the elements. Emphasise that where
there is more than one letter in a symbol, only the first is capitalised and any others written in lower case. This is
very important as, for example Co is cobalt but CO is a compound called carbon monoxide.
Pupils may ask about some of the symbols which dont appear to be related to the name, such as Pb for lead and
Fe for iron. Explain that not all element symbols were decided by English speaking scientists and that many are
based on other languages. Sometimes the obvious symbol is not chosen to avoid a clash. For example, sulfur and
sodium cant both be S.
Plenary - Fastest finder

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Focus on the more
obvious symbols first, such as S for sulfur and
O for oxygen before moving on to the two-letter
symbols and, perhaps, to symbols which dont
seem to match the name.
Extension. Get pupils to research why
elements dont have symbols which match their
names, such as Ag, Pb and Fe.
Learning styles
Visual: Looking at the Periodic Table.
Auditory: Reading element names and
symbols.
Kinaesthetic: Manipulating card sorts.
Homework.
The pupils could find out who John Newlands
was and what influence he had on the
development of the Periodic Table.

Call out the names of some elements and ask pupils to find the symbol. Fastest correct response wins. You could
reverse it and call out the symbol. Make this more difficult by asking about some less common elements that pupils
will have to look up on the Periodic Table rather than remember. (5 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to recall that elements can be represented by a symbol as well as a name.
Most pupils will be able to use the Periodic Table to find the name or symbol of an element.
Some pupils will also be able to explain why the element symbols are useful for scientists.
How Science Works
Use a range of scientific vocabulary and terminology consistently in discussions and written work (1.1c)

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required.
Safety.

85

Fusion 2: C1.5 Compounds and their elements


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b, 2.1a, 2.1b,
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Odd one out
Pupils
should learn:
Show pupils four pictures (or just give them the names) of: sulfur, iron, gold and water. Ask them to decide which one is
What a
the odd one out and why. [Water is not an element and does not appear on the Periodic Table.] (5 mins)
compound is.
Main
How
compounds
Remind pupils of the work they have done on elements and symbols. Refer to work earlier in the unit about the existence
are different
of millions of different substances in the universe which are made from only a few (about 100) elements.
from
Establish that the product of a chemical reaction to make a compound directly from its elements does not seem to be like
elements.
either of the elements it was made from.
Get pupils to make iron sulfide, as described in the activity Making a compound in the pupil book.
Review the practical with the pupils looking for evidence of differences between the properties of the elements and the
compound formed. [The sulfur powder is yellow and the iron filings are slightly shiny and magnetic. The iron sulfide
compound is dull in appearance and non-magnetic. Un-reacted iron may mean that the compound appears to be
magnetic still.]
Plenary - Spot the compound
Show pupils some particle diagrams, representing elements and compounds. Pupils must correctly identify the
compounds. (10 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to give examples of compounds.
Most pupils will be able to recall a definition of a compound and recognise a model
of a compound.
Some pupils will also be able to explain why a model of a compound represents a
compound.
How Science Works
Explain how to take action to control the risks to themselves and others, and
demonstrate competence in their practical techniques (1.2c)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Concentrate on the concrete
idea that compounds do not have the same
properties as the elements they are made from,
rather then the much more conceptual issue of
molecule formation.
Extension. Challenge pupils to explain why
water doesnt burn.
Learning styles
Visual: Making observations.
Auditory: Describing their observations.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out practical work to
make a compound.
Intrapersonal: Understanding the concept that
atoms can join together to form molecules of
elements or compounds.
Homework.
The pupils could find out who Alchemists were.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. Per group: half a spatula of sulfur powder, half a spatula of fine
iron filings, magnifying glass, magnet, ignition tube (use old tubes as they will be broken during the
experiment), small piece of mineral wool to plug ignition tube, Bunsen burner and flame-proof mat,
spatula, test-tube holder, matches, eye protection.
For class teacher: small hammer, old rag (to prevent broken ignition tube pieces from escaping), eye
protection.
Safety. Sulfur: CLEAPSS Hazcard 96A. See L195. Only fill ignition tube one-quarter.
Ensure the room is well ventilated, especially if there are asthma sufferers in the room. If the sulfur
ignites, sulfur dioxide will be produced, which is an irritant. Ensure no sulfur is on the outside of the
ignition tubes before it is put into the flame. Beware of fragments of glass from broken ignition tubes.

86

Fusion 2: C1.6 Compound names


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Word up!
Pupils should
learn:
Make as many words as you can using the letters contained in the words magnesium oxide. (10 mins)
How to name a
Main
compound.
To state the
Remind pupils of the work they have done on elements and compounds and explain that the name of a
elements in a
compound can tell you what is in it. This lesson is essentially about learning the rules for naming
compound from the
compounds and much of it can be achieved by following the pupil book.
compound name.
Demonstrate the reaction between magnesium and oxygen (air). Explain that the white powder formed
is magnesium oxide and is called so because it contains only magnesium and oxygen. This would be a
very good opportunity to reinforce the idea that compounds are different to the elements they are
formed from, which the pupils learned in the last lesson.
Get the pupils to refer to the rules for naming compounds described in the pupil book and to discuss
why the rules are necessary. [They are important so that scientists developing new compounds can
describe what they have made to others without confusion.]
Plenary - Whats in a name (part 2)?
Ask pupils which elements they think are found in 8-hydroxy-7-iodo-5-quinolinesulfonic acid
(C9H6NSO4I). They are unlikely to guess all the elements involved but should at least get H, O, I and S.
(5 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to recognise the metal and non-metal in an -ide compound.
Most pupils will be able to recognise the metal and non-metal in an -ide compound.
Some pupils will also be able to recognise the metal and non-metal in an -ide compound.
How Science Works
Use a range of scientific vocabulary and terminology consistently in discussions and written work (1.1c)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Avoid moving onto compounds of three
elements, such as ates. Ensure pupils can understand the
elemental origins of basic compounds like magnesium oxide
and iron sulfide. It may be better to use the plenary card sort
as the main activity
Extension. Find out the difference between carbon dioxide
and carbon monoxide. [Carbon dioxide (CO2) contains two
oxygen atoms, while carbon monoxide (CO) only contains
one.]
Learning styles
Auditory: Describing and discussing the rules for naming
compounds.
Kinaesthetic: Card sort.
Interpersonal: Discussing with others.
Intrapersonal: Understanding that names have an origin.
Homework. Pupils could find out what elements are
contained in the compound ethane. [Carbon and hydrogen.]

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. For teacher: magnesium ribbon (2 cm strip,
heatproof mat, Bunsen burner, eye protection.
Safety. Magnesium ribbon: CLEAPPS Hazcard 59A.
Warn pupils not to look directly at flame.

87

Fusion 2: C1.7 Compound formulas


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b, 2.1a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Tessellation mania
Pupils should
learn:
Ask pupils to tessellate hexagons on a page and then to try to do the same think with octagons. [They will
How to write the
find that octagons leave small squares between them.] This starter will link to the idea that atoms can only
formula for a
be joined together in certain ways. (5 mins)
compound.
Main
How to recognise
the atoms in a
Remind pupils of the work they have done regarding forming compounds. Explain that compounds are
compound from its
made of molecules which are groups of atoms that are joined together.
formula.
Demonstrate the electrolysis of water using a Hoffman voltameter. You will obtain twice the volume of
hydrogen as oxygen. This is an excellent opportunity to review the tests for hydrogen and oxygen which
the pupils should have met in Year 7. Pupils may well know that the formula for water is H2O. Explain that
this means that each molecule of water has two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. This is
shown by the results of the electrolysis experiment.
Ask pupils to work in groups of six to use themselves as atoms to make up some molecules using the
hands suggestion in the pupil book. They could start by making two water molecules and then move on
to making other simple molecules like hydrogen bromide (HBr) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Lower attaining
pupils may find the activity suggested above more accessible if Moly-Mod kits are used.
Give pupils some examples of formulas and ask them to describe what atoms and how many of each type
are present. For example MgO contains one magnesium atom and one oxygen atom, C2H6 contains 2
carbon atoms and 6 hydrogen atoms.
Plenary Rules is rules

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Bond formation between atoms is a
highly conceptual idea. A simpler model, though one with
some flaws, can be found through the use of building
blocks, such as Lego.
Extension. Use the Stretch yourself section described
in the pupil book.
Learning styles
Visual: Making observations.
Auditory: Describing the rules for reading formulas.
Kinaesthetic: Forming molecules using themselves as
atoms.
Interpersonal: Working with others to form molecules.
Intrapersonal: Understanding the concept that atoms can
only bond in a certain way.
Homework. Pupils could research who August Wilhelm
von Hoffman was. Ask pupils to find out about what his
contribution to chemistry was. [He was the first director of
the Royal College of Chemistry, London and did much
work on dyes and organic chemistry.]

Ask pupils to summarise the rules for writing and reading a chemical formula, in 5 bullet points. (10 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to name the elements in a compound from its formula.
Most pupils will be able to state the number and type of particle from a compound formula.
Some pupils will also be able to generate the formula of a compound from its name.
How Science Works
Use a range of scientific vocabulary and terminology consistently in discussions and written work
(1.1c)

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. For teacher: Hoffman voltameter and power
3
3
supply, 100 cm 0.1 mol/dm sulfuric acid (tell the pupils its water), two test tubes,
matches, splints, eye protection.
Safety. Do not leave equipment operating unattended, as a build-up of explosive
hydrogen will occur. Equipment is fragile. See CLEAPSS handbook/CD-Rom 11.4.2. No
naked flames.
Use eye protection when filling.

88

Fusion 2: C1.8 Properties of compounds


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b, 2.1a, 2.1b
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Word up!
How to make a
compound from
Ask pupils to make as many words as they can using the letters from compound and element. Longest list wins.
elements.
(5 mins)
Whether the
Main
properties of a
compound depend
Remind pupils of their study of compounds and how forming a compound involves joining the atoms of more than
upon how it is made.
one element together to form molecules.
Pose the question: Are the properties of a compound different if its made different ways?
Invite pupils to discuss the matter in pairs or small groups for a few moments and then gather the class opinion
and their reasons for their ideas. You could even get them to vote on it. This is an excellent opportunity to
introduce the idea of making a prediction. After pupils are asked to make their prediction, they should explain it
and suggest ways of testing it.
Get pupils to carry out the Making carbon dioxide activity described in the pupil book. They will make carbon
dioxide by two different methods and show that, however it is made, it behaves the same.
Remind pupils that the formula of carbon dioxide is CO2. Ask them if they can now, having seen the evidence,
explain why carbon dioxide always reacts with limewater in the same way. [The experiment is evidence that all
molecules of carbon dioxide are the same.]
Plenary - Share pair, square

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. The idea of molecules is
highly conceptual but pupils may find it much
easier to handle the concrete evidence that
carbon dioxide gas behaves the same however
it is formed.
Extension. Ask pupils to use molecular model
kits to demonstrate why the carbon dioxide
formed is the same in each part of the practical.
Learning styles
Visual: Making observations.
Auditory: Describing their observations.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out practical work.
Interpersonal: Working with others during the
practical and discussing ideas with other pupils.
Intrapersonal: Understanding that a compound
has constant properties.
Homework. Pupils to find out why sherbet is
fizzy.

In pairs to start with, then with the table in front of/behind them, ask pupils to identify the key things they have
learnt this lesson. You could get them to share in larger and larger groups until the whole class can agree. (10
mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to produce carbon dioxide by two different methods.
Most pupils will be able to recognise that carbon dioxide has the same
properties however it is produced.
Some pupils will also be able to explain why compounds have the same
properties however they are made.
How Science Works
Explain how to take action to control the risks to themselves and others,
and demonstrate competence in their practical techniques (1.2c)

Additional teachers notes


3
3
Equipment and materials required. Method 1: Acid/carbonate reaction Per group: 3 cm of 0.5 mol/dm
hydrochloric acid, marble chip, spatula, 2 test tubes, bung to fit test tube with delivery tube attached, limewater,
test tube rack, eye protection. Method 2: Thermal decomposition of carbonate Per group: 3-4 spatulas full of
calcium carbonate powder (precipitated), spatula, Bunsen burner, matches, retort stand, boss and clamp,
boiling tube, bung to fit boiling tube with delivery tube attached, test tube, limewater, test tube rack, eye
protection.
Safety. Eye protection must be worn. Limewater is an irritant: CLEAPSS Hazcard 18. Care must be exercised
when heating the calcium carbonate powder to avoid fluidisation. Do not heat strongly initially. The boiling tube
containing the limewater must be taken away from the delivery tube before the heat source is removed from the
carbonate or suck-back will occur. Cold limewater could be sucked into the hot boiling tube and may cause it
to shatter.

89

Fusion 2: C1.9 Word equations


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b, 2.1a, 2.1b
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Chemical story
Pupils
should learn:
Show pupils the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. Ask them to write just one sentence to
How to use a
describe what they saw. For example, when the magnesium was placed in the acid, bubbles of gas were given off
word equation
and the magnesium dissolved. (10 mins)
to describe a
Main
chemical
reaction.
Remind pupils of the reactions they have seen so far in this unit, such as that between iron and sulfur, forming iron
What a word
sulfide. Establish that it would be very useful to have a simple and quick way to describe a chemical reaction. You
equation is.
could liken the process to writing a mathematical equation, where only the important information is given.
Establish that, in general a word equation is written:
Starting materials or reactants Finishing materials or products
Explain to pupils that they must try to write these on one line, just as they would a mathematical equation. Chemical
equations are not sentences and dont make sense if they are wrapped over more than one line. You could
encourage them to write them correctly by starting with the arrow in the middle of the line on the page. If pupils have
large writing, ask them to write long chemical names, like carbon dioxide, with the word carbon above dioxide.
Ask pupils to identify the reactants from the reaction they have just seen. Then get them to start to write the word
equation. They may need help to name the products so they can complete more examples of word equations.
Plenary - What do you know?

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Pupils could use word cards
to sort out the equations.
Extension. Pupils could find out how scientists and
engineers try to ensure nuclear power stations are
safe. Ask pupils to write a risk assessment for
Homer Simpsons job. You could show them the
opening credits to The Simpsons as inspiration.
Learning styles
Visual: Making observations.
Auditory: Describing their observations and writing
word equations.
Kinaesthetic: Forming human word equations.
Interpersonal: Working with others costructing word
quations.
Intrapersonal: Understanding how to describe
reactions by word equations.

Ask pupils to write an answer to the learning objective questions in the pupil book. (5 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to make and record observations.
Most pupils will be able to write simple word equations.
Some pupils will also be able to list reactants and products from a given word equation.
How Science Works
Explain how to take action to control the risks to themselves and others, and demonstrate competence in
their practical techniques (1.2c)
Explain how the observation and recording methods are appropriate to the task (1.2d)

Additional teachers notes


3
3
Equipment and materials required. For teacher: 100 cm beaker, 25 cm of 1
3
mol/dm hydrochloric acid, 2 cm long piece of magnesium ribbon, eye protection.
Safety. Hydrochloric acid is an irritant: CLEAPSS Hazcard 47A. Magnesium
ribbon: CLEAPSS Hazcard 59A.

90

Fusion 2: C1.10 Symbol equations


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b, 2.1a, 2.1b
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Elementary
Pupils should
learn:
Give pupils a quick-fire element name and symbol quiz. If you give them the name, they must respond
What a symbol
with the symbol. (5 mins)
equation is.
Main
How to balance a
symbol equation.
Discuss with pupils the purpose of a word equation and then some of the drawbacks. The principle
problem is that a word equation doesnt tell you how much of a chemical is needed and so doesnt make a
good recipe. Its a bit like a cake recipe which reads just: eggs, flour and butter.
Introduce the idea that we need an equation that shows us what happens to the atoms during a chemical
reaction. Explain that, during a chemical reaction, no atoms are made or destroyed. Whatever is present
at the start must be there at the end. You could refer to the Recycling starter if pupils undertook this.
Show pupils how to balance an equation. Establish that the same number of each type of atom must
appear on each side of the equation.
Ask pupils to complete a cut and stick equation balancing exercise. Stress to them that only whole
molecules are acceptable and they must add a whole extra molecule if they need just a part of it.
Ask pupils to complete further equation balancing exercises on a worksheet. Encourage them to make
use of a tally chart to account for the atoms of each type.
Plenary - In the balance

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. This lesson is highly conceptual and
may be omitted by lower attaining pupils.
Extension. Ask pupils to add state symbols to their
symbol equations, after each substance. [(s) for solids, (l)
for liquids, (g) for gases and (aq) for solutions in water
(aqueous).]
Learning styles
Auditory: Describing their observations.
Kinaesthetic: Completing a cut and stick equation
balancing exercise.
Intrapersonal: Understanding that atoms are not created
or destroyed during a reaction.
Homework. Pupils could write a story imagining what
might happen to an oxygen atom when breathed in.
[During respiration the atom would become part of, either
a carbon dioxide molecule which could take part in
photosynthesis, or a water molecule which could be
breathed out and form part of the water cycle.]

Ask pupils to write a set of rules/instructions for balancing equations. (10 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to state that atoms are not created or destroyed in a reaction, just rearranged.
Most pupils will be able to recognise when a simple symbol equation is balanced.
Some pupils will also be able to balance a symbol equation by themselves.
How Science Works
Use a range of scientific vocabulary and terminology consistently in discussions and written work (1.1c)

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required.
Safety.

91

Fusion 2: C1.11 - Mixtures


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b, 2.1a, 2.1b
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Mix it up
Pupils should
learn:
Pupils to plan a procedure to separate sand from water and salt from water. (5 mins)
The difference
Main
between
elements and
Ask pupils to recall different ways to separate mixtures which they met in Year 7, such as filtering, evaporation and distillation.
mixtures.
Ask them to suggest differences in the properties of mixtures, compounds and elements, referring to earlier lessons in this unit.
The difference
Ask pupils what the melting point and boiling point of water are. Establish that they are 0C and 100C respectively. Ask pupils
between
why we put salt onto roads and establish that it makes it less likely that the roads will freeze in the winter. [Salt lowers the melting
compounds and
point of water and so it freezes at a temperature lower than 0C.]
mixtures.
Explain that impure substances (mixtures) have different melting points and boiling points than their pure substances and melt
over a range of temperature rather than at one sharp point.
Ask pupils to plan and carry out activity Identifying compounds and mixtures as described in the pupil book. Pupils could look at
one or both of the following situations: comparing freezing point and comparing boiling point. Pupils may need reminding that
melting and freezing points are the same thing, but the name used is usually chosen to indicate the direction of the change of
state. Rather than use a freezer to compare freezing points, it is probably simpler to use an icesalt mixture to cool containers of
the two test substances.
Plenary - Defining moment
Ask pupils to write a definition for an element [substance made of only one type of atom], a compound [substance made of more
than one type of atom chemically joined], and a mixture [more than one element or substance that can be easily separated]. (10
mins)

Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to list examples of mixtures and compounds.
Most pupils will be able to recall definitions of elements, compounds and mixtures in words
and diagrams.
Some pupils will also be able to explain the properties of compounds and mixtures when
considering the elements that make them.
How Science Works
Describe an appropriate approach to answer a scientific question using sources of
evidence and, where appropriate, making relevant observations or measurements using
appropriate apparatus (1.2a)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Use a
jumbled-up suggested method for the
investigation that the pupils need to
sort.
Extension. Write an
instruction manual for the use of a
melting point apparatus.
Learning styles
Visual: Making observations.
Auditory: Describing their
observations.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out practical
work.
Interpersonal: Working with others
during practical work.
Homework.
Pupils could find out how scientists
use melting points to identify
compounds.

Additional teachers notes


3
3
Equipment and materials required. Per group: 200 cm distilled water, 200 cm of brine
3
solution, labelled tap water (doctored to ensure pupils see a difference), two 250 cm
3
beakers, two 100 cm beakers, two thermometers (-20C to 110C), Bunsen burner, tripod,
gauze and heat mat, plastic bowl, filled with ice, 50 g of sodium chloride, eye protection.
Safety. Pupils must not drink the water. Take care with boiling water. Wear eye protection.

92

Fusion 2: C1.12 Discovering oxygen


National Curriculum Link up
3.2b, 2.1a, 1.2a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Burning problem
Pupils
should learn:
Show pupils a candle burning in the open, and one burning inside an upturned jar. Ask them to explain why the one in the
How we know
jar goes out. [The oxygen is used up by conversion to carbon dioxide and water.] (10 mins)
about oxygen.
Main
How ideas
about burning
Find out what pupils know about burning. Hopefully they will say that a fuel and oxygen are needed.
have changed
Ask pupils how they know that oxygen is needed and lead on to a discussion about how people found out about oxygen.
over time.
Using the pupil book as a starting point, ask pupils to assemble a strip cartoon or timeline about the history of peoples
understanding of burning. They will need access to other sources of information, such as the Internet. They could produce
their work as a PowerPoint presentation rather than hand-written.
Plenary - Tricky problem
Ask pupils to debate why people used to think that the Sun went around the Earth and what changed our minds. They could
do this in pairs, groups or as a whole class. [People used to think that the Sun went around the Earth because that is what
appears to happen. It was only once we were able to study other planets and stars that we had enough information to
change that view.] (5 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to recognise burning and recall what is needed.
Most pupils will be able to understand that ideas about elements have changed over
time.
Some pupils will also be able to explain why scientific ideas change over time.
How Science Works
Identify a range of scientific data and other evidence to back an argument and the
counterclaim in more complex and/or less familiar contexts, e.g. use of antibiotics
(1.1a3)
Describe how scientific evidence from different sources carries different weight in
supporting or disproving theories (1.1a3)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Give pupils some of the
key facts about the people involved so they
dont have to do so much research.
Extension. Pupils to find out how scientists
developed our understanding of what atoms
are like, from Dalton through Rutherford,
Bohr and Chadwick.
Learning styles
Visual: Preparing the timeline.
Auditory: Writing text for the timeline.
Intrapersonal: Understanding that the
scientific development is slow and ideas
often change over time.
Homework. Encourage them to find out
about work that is still being done in places
like Harwell, Oxfordshire and in CERN.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. For demonstration: two candles or nightlights, one jar big
enough to fit over one of the candles, matches.
Safety. Make sure hair and loose clothing are tied back.

93

FUSION 2 P1 LIGHT AND SPACE

94

Fusion 2: P1.2 Straight-line light


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Straight to the point
Pupils should
learn:
Show the pupils a map showing the whole of Europe. Ask one to draw the shortest route from London to Rome.
That light (and
Everybody will probably agree that its a straight line. Now show the pupils a globe. Is the shortest route still a straight
infra-red) rays
line? (510 mins)
travel in straight
Main
lines.
That light travels at
Demonstrate the problem with dipping string by hanging a piece across the length of the classroom. There will be a
300 000 km/s
noticeable dip in the middle even when it is fairly taut. You could also demonstrate the path of a laser (using the
(3108 m/s) and
technique from the previous lesson) across the room but make sure the beam does not come near any of the pupils.
that this is the
The first method in the Light line-up activity is straightforward but can be a bit challenging to get just right. It is worth
fastest possible
trying this method before the second, more traditional, one, as it shows the three-dimensional nature of light travelling.
speed.
The second method is much simpler and introduces the techniques required to use ray boxes successfully. The pupils
will need to be careful in order to get the crosses in the centre of the rays as these spread out a little as they get further
from the source.
Once the pupils are convinced that light is travelling in straight lines, you can move on to testing infra-red with the
Zapper test activity. This is primarily designed to let the pupils plan the experiment, but you can go further if time
permits.
Getting the speed of light across to the pupils is rather difficult, especially if they have never travelled very large
distances. Ask if anybody has been to New Zealand (or Australia) and how long it took. This will be about 20 hours.
Click your fingers. In the length of time that the click lasted, light would have reached New Zealand and got back.
There are plenty of time travel movies to mention at the end of the lesson. In the film Superman the eponymous hero
nips back in time by travelling at high speed to save Lois Lane from being crushed to death. Use this idea to lead into
the Excellent adventure plenary.
Plenary - Excellent adventure

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Provide the pupils
with some ideas cards that give them clues
about how to design the Zapper test
experiment.
Extension. The pupils can look into the
International System of Units (SI) to find out
why the speed of light is known exactly
whereas other speeds are not. The pupils
could also look at some of the other
fundamental units used in physics: kilogram,
second, ampere etc
Learning styles
Visual: Observing ray paths.
Auditory: Discussing the significance of the
speed of light.
Kinaesthetic: Careful manipulation of
equipment in practical task.
Intrapersonal: Thinking about and evaluating
the ray model for light.
Interpersonal: Working in groups to plan an
experiment.

Where would the students visit on a time travelling history field trip? What would they like to see and do? (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to describe a method to show that light travels in straight lines.
Most pupils will be able to describe an experiment that can be used to test whether or not infra-red rays
also travel in straight lines.
Some pupils will also be able to state that light travelling in a vacuum travels at the fastest speed
possible but travels at lower speeds in other materials.
How Science Works
Describe an appropriate approach to answer a scientific question using sources of evidence and, where
appropriate, making relevant observations using appropriate apparatus (1.2a)

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. Method 1 - For each group: three
pieces of card, cotton on a large needle, three retort stands or boss and clamps,
light source.
Method 2 - For each group: ray box with suitable power supply, blanking plates
and a single slit, A4 white paper, pencil and ruler.
Safety. Needles will be sharp. The filament lamps in ray boxes can become very
hot and should be handled with care especially when they are being put away.

95

Fusion 2: P1.3 Materials and light


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Group theory
That materials can be
described as
Let groups of pupils examine the materials that they will be using during the lesson and a few extra ones. They
transparent, opaque
have to sort the materials into three (and only three) groups and then explain what the groups are to you. Once
or translucent
they have done this they have to sort the materials into three entirely different groups and explain their
depending on how
decisions again. (510 mins)
light passes through
Main
them.
That light energy can
The pupil can categorise the materials using the Examining materials activity. This should be based on the
be absorbed or
categories: transparent, opaque and translucent. Make sure that all pupils understand these terms; they should
transmitted by
be familiar with them from Key Stage 2, but reinforcement of key words is always useful.
materials.
There may be some discussion about whether the coloured plastics are transparent or translucent. They are
How to measure the
transparent (but only to certain colours) because they dont cause the image to blur.
intensity (brightness)
of a light source.
To perform the Measuring light activity, the pupils will need access to a set of light sensors. The focus should
be on taking numerical measurements so that a true comparison can be made.
The pupils should concentrate on making the test fair. Use this point to lead the pupils to evaluate and improve
the design.
The final part of the lesson focuses on three more key words: absorb, transmit and reflect. If anything these are
more important than the first set. Make sure that all students can use them.
Plenary - Illuminate me
The pupils make a list of all of the scientific terms (transparent, opaque, translucent, absorb, transmit, reflect
and scatter) and give definitions for them. Check these carefully. (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to place materials into the categories transparent, opaque and translucent.
Most pupils will be able to measure the intensity of a light source and compare the transparency
of materials.
Some pupils will also be able to evaluate an investigation into measuring the transparency of
different materials.
How Science Works
Describe and identify key variables in an investigation and assign appropriate values to these
(1.2b)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Provide diagrams showing a
light ray being transmitted, reflected, absorbed
etc. and allow the pupils to label these with the
correct scientific terms.
Extension. The pupils can find out about how
the eye operates and, in particular, how it adapts
to different light levels. Just how sensitised is a
dark-adapted eye and how does it detect light?
Warn pupils not to look directly at the Sun.
Learning styles
Visual: Observing the effect of different materials
on light.
Auditory: Discussing the uses of various
materials.
Kinaesthetic: Measuring light intensity.
Intrapersonal: Thinking about the interactions light
has with materials.
Interpersonal: Discussing the uses of various
materials.
Homework. The pupils can design
improvements for the Measuring light experiment
based on their experiences.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. Each group needs access to some of the following
materials: glass (a block), Perspex, polythene: thicker sheets or strips, paper, tracing
paper, wood, wax (thin is best), sheets of plastic filters (red, green, blue) and black plastic
bin liners. Other materials can also be used. Light sensors, rulers and lamps. Some
sensors need to be connected to data-logging equipment to operate and so this equipment
may be required
Safety. If glass materials are used then they need to be handled with care. Check for
sharp edges; tape or file them if necessary. The lamps may become hot with prolonged
use. The pupils should not stare directly into the light.

96

Fusion 2: P1.4 Mirror, mirror on the wall


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Reality distortion
Pupils should
learn:
Show the pupils some photographs of images in distorted (fairground) mirrors. Ask them to describe the images,
That we can see
and see what language they use. Can they explain why the images are distorted and do they know what type of
images in
mirror doesnt distort images? (510 mins)
mirrors because
Main
they reflect light.
About the
You can show that the image in a mirror is as far behind it as the object is in front by this simple technique: hold a
properties of
30 cm ruler under your nose pointing outwards. Hold a plane mirror at the end of it so you can see the image; the
these images.
image you see is two ruler lengths away from you so its 30 cm behind the mirror.
That the law of
The law of reflection is a very important concept and the pupils will have to be convinced that it works. Get them
reflection is that
to draw a normal before they try out the experiment to make sure that they can do it.
the angle of
incidence is
The Investigating reflection activity itself is straightforward and the results will be good if the pupils measure the
equal to the
reflection from the back surface of the mirror.
angle of
Towards the end of the lesson the pupils can make a periscope or kaleidoscope with the Multi-mirror miracles
reflection.
activity. If plastic mirrors are used then you might let the pupils keep the results.
Plenary - Mirror maze
Test the pupils angle measuring skills with a mirror maze. They have to plot accurately the path a ray of light
follows through a set of five angled mirrors. They will need to plot the path accurately using normals and a
protractor. (10 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to state the law of reflection.
Most pupils will be able to describe the properties of an image formed in a plane mirror.
Some pupils will also be able to describe how an image is formed by a mirror using a ray diagram.
How Science Works
Explain how the observation and recording methods are appropriate to the task (1.2d)

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Use a worksheet with the mirror
position, incident rays and a protractor printed onto it
to make taking the readings more straightforward.
Extension. Whats special about mirrors? Why can
we see images in mirrors and on the surface or
water or glass but not on the surface of white paper?
The pupils must come up with a reason for this that
includes a diagram.
Learning styles
Visual: Observing ray paths and taking precise
measurements.
Auditory: Discussing patterns in their results.
Kinaesthetic: Making precise measurements of
angles.
Intrapersonal: Thinking about what an image in a
mirror actually is.
Homework. Pupils could design a device of their
own that uses mirrors.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. Per group: a ray box, power supply,
blanking plates (stops) and single slit. A sheet of white paper, pencil, ruler and
protractor. Mirror maze - For each pupil: card (the thicker the card the more sturdy
the periscope or kaleidoscope), two (telescope) or three - five (kaleidoscope)
plastic mirrors, scissors and tape (or glue). Small glass mirrors can be used, but
these are heavier and can lead to cuts.
Safety. Check for chips in the glass mirrors as these can lead to minor cuts when
the mirrors are handled; tape edges if necessary.

97

Fusion 2: P1.5 Rays that bend


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Is it all in your mind?
That light rays refract
(change direction) when
There are a wide range of optical illusions, some based on static images and some based on moving ones. Show the
they move from one
pupils some of these and ask them to explain what they see. (1015 mins)
medium to another.
Main
That the amount of
refraction depends on
Explain the tricks in terms of light changing direction when it moves between two materials (media). Use the idea of
the two materials
bending towards the normal and away from it. Refraction occurs whenever light moves from one medium to another;
involved.
limit the discussion to air, glass and water during this lesson.
Make sure that the pupils do not get the impression that the light rays are curving as they pass through the material.
There is a sharp change of direction at the boundary between the two materials, not a gradual curve inside. Check that
there are no curves on the diagrams drawn by the pupils during the following experiment.
The main focus of the lesson is the Investigating refraction activity and the results of this will show if the pupils can
meet the objective of making accurate measurements with unusual apparatus: the protractor. Some pupils will attempt
to use the protractor directly instead of drawing the ray path, because its quicker than drawing the lines. This usually
gives poor results so tell the pupils not to do it.
The shallow pool effect is based on real and apparent depth. The real depth is the actual depth of water while the
apparent depth is how deep it looks. The real depth of water (when viewed from air) is 1.33 times the apparent depth;
this means that the water is one-third again as deep as it looks.
You can demonstrate the effect clearly if you have a long measuring cylinder (over 30 cm). Let the pupils look down
the tube when it is empty and then when it is full of water. There is an obvious difference.
Plenary - Going off the deep end

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. You can provide
partially completed ray diagrams for the
Investigating refraction activity to show
suitable angles for the rays to enter the
block and the position of the block itself.
Extension. What is the cause of
refraction? The pupils can find out
about changes in the speed of light as it
enters or leaves materials (media).
Learning styles
Visual: Observing tricks and optical
phenomena.
Auditory: Discussing their ideas about
how tricks work.
Kinaesthetic: Carrying out an
investigation into refraction.
Interpersonal: Working in groups to
obtain results.
Homework. Pupils could find out and
learn to perform a magic trick using
refraction for themselves.

The pupils must produce a scientific warning sign to prevent people jumping into deep water, including the scientific
reasons. (1015 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to state that light is refracted when it moves from one material to another.
Most pupils will be able to show, using a ray diagram, how light is refracted as it enters and leaves a
glass block.
Some pupils will also be able to explain why a pool of water appears to be shallower than it really is.
How Science Works
Explain how the observation and recording methods are appropriate to the task (1.2d)

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. Each group: glass (or good Perspex) block,
ray box, power supply, stops, single slit, protractor, A3 paper, pencil and ruler.
Safety. The lamps in the ray boxes will become hot during use.
Glass blocks may have sharp edges; tape if necessary.

98

Fusion 2: P1.6 Colours of the rainbow


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning Objectives
Lesson structure
Pupils should learn:
Starter - Diamond
That white light is
composed of a
Diamond has a very high refractive index and so disperses colours strongly; this is why you can see so many
spectrum of colours.
colours in the gem. Show the pupils pictures or video of a large diamond and discuss the way diamond shines
That filters transmit
and seems to make colours. (5 mins).
some colours while
Main
absorbing others.
That coloured objects
The Making spectra demonstration should clearly show that white light is composed of a range of colours we call
can appear different
the spectrum. Most of the pupils will already know the colours thanks to the ROY G BIV or Richard Of York Gave
colours than their
Battle In Vain mnemonic.
actual colour when
Filters are more of a problem for most pupils. Let the pupils look at a range of coloured objects through a sample
they are viewed
filter and ask them to explain what is happening themselves. You can use some coloured slides as mentioned in
through filters.
the Hidden messages activity.
Most explanations will be along the lines of the filter changing the colour of the light. This misconception needs to
be challenged by showing that some colours of light are being absorbed while other colours are transmitted.
To prove that light is being absorbed by the filter, as opposed to being changed, you should measure the light
intensity before and after the filter using a sensor. There should be a clear reduction in intensity; showing that
energy is absorbed by the filter. Show that every colour filter absorbs some of the energy from the light. You might
like to discuss what happens to this energy [the filter heats up].
The students can then try out the Hidden messages activity to check their understanding of the above ideas.
They should be able to describe what they are seeing in terms of absorption and transmission of different colours.
Plenary - Using filters

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. The pupils should draw ray
diagrams showing white light passing through
filters and/or reflecting off coloured objects
using coloured pens.
Extension. The pupils can look beyond the
visible spectrum. They can find out about infrared and ultraviolet radiation and their effects.
Learning styles
Visual: Identifying shapes and flags through
filters.
Auditory: Discussing the processes that are
happening to light as it passes through a filter.
Kinaesthetic: Drawing out hidden messages or
images.
Intrapersonal: Designing a message or picture
based on an understanding of filters.
Interpersonal: Working in groups to sort
colours.
Homework. The pupils can design additional,
more detailed, images to be viewed through a
filter to see what they would look like.

The pupils should use their knowledge of filters to decide if coloured filters on car windshields would be a good
idea. What colours should be used, what would the benefits and possible problems be? (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to state the colours (ROYGBIV) of the spectrum.
Most pupils will be able to describe how a coloured filter affects white light.
Some pupils will also be able to explain why coloured objects appear as they do
when viewed through coloured filters

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. Two identical 60 prisms (the larger the better), a beam of bright
white light (from a ray box and power supply) and a sheet of white A3 paper.
A range of coloured filters including red, green and blue, a set of pens with very similar colours to the
filters, some white and coloured paper to write on.
Safety. Look out for sharp edges on prisms. Do not look directly at bright light sources.

99

Fusion 2: P1.7 Sources of light


National Curriculum Link up
3.1a, 3.1b, 3.4b
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Relative brightness
Pupils
should learn:
Give the pupils a set of cards with different light sources on them. They have to discuss the brightness
That stars are
(luminosity) of the source and put them in order. Use the following sources: a match, a candle, a torch, a car
visible
headlight a lighthouse, the Sun, and the pole star. (510 mins)
because they
Main
are sources of
light.
The topic is now moving on from light to an exploration of the solar system. Light is the main tool that astronomers
That planets
use to gather information about the universe and this is the thread that joins the two topics together during this
and the Moon
lesson. The pupils should already be familiar with the idea of hot objects producing light. The Sun, through the
are visible
light it produces, provides most of the energy to sustain life on Earth.
because they
The Seeing sunspots activity can be carried out as a demonstration unless you have several sets of binoculars
reflect light
or telescopes. Ask the pupils to perform a basic risk assessment before you, or they, carry out the task. As an
from our Sun.
addition or alternative to the observations, it is fairly easy to find video clips of sunspot activity. Search for
sunspot activity video. You may find that these are inverted images; this makes the sunspots easier to see.
Pupils need to understand that the amount of light reflected will depend on the colour of the planet / moon, its size
and just how far away it is from the Sun.
The pupils should have a good knowledge of night and day. Let them carry out the Day and night on Planet
Football activity to check this. They should be asked about the flaws in the model you are using.
Plenary - Rings

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Provide a list of instructions for
the Day and night on planet football activity. These
can lead the pupils to look at different sized and
coloured objects.
Extension. The pupils can look at the sunspot cycle.
Do the spots appear at random or is there a pattern?
What does this pattern tell scientists about the Sun?
Learning styles
Visual: Making observations of sunspots or discussing
their images.
Auditory: Explaining why planets are illuminated on one
half at a time.
Kinaesthetic: Investigating illumination via a model.
Intrapersonal: Considering how historical observations
have helped to develop modern ideas.
Interpersonal: Discussing the history of astronomical
observations.
Homework. Pupils can find out about the length of
the days on the different planets in the solar system.

Show an image of Saturn with its rings in shadow. Ask the pupils to describe how this supports the idea that the
Sun is the only source of light in the solar system. A video clip of a moon moving into or out of the shadow region
would be even better. (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to state that the Sun is the source of light in our solar system and planets
reflect some of this light.
Most pupils will be able to explain that the Sun gives out light energy because it is at a very high
temperature.
Some pupils will also be able to explain the relative brightness of the planets in terms of the size,
colour and distance to them.
How Science Works
Explain how to take action to control the risks to themselves and others, and demonstrate
competence in their practical techniques (1.2c)

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. Seeing sunspots - A pair of binoculars, retort
stand, boss, clamp, solid screen and sheet of paper. Planet football - A ball (on string if
possible) and a lamp.
Safety. The Sun should never be observed directly through binoculars or telescopes at
any time. Permanent eye damage will result.
The lamp may be hot (use a low energy bulb if intense enough). See CLEAPSS
handbook L194.

100

Fusion 2: P1.8 Solar system


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b, 3.4b
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Constellation consternation
Pupils should
learn:
Give the pupils some diagrams of constellations, just the star positions. They have to draw what they see in the
That scientists
patterns. Once they are finished, show them what the ancient societies thought that the patterns were. (510
gather information
mins)
about planets by
Main
making
observations with
The focus of the lesson is how the solar system has been explored, how the evidence has been gathered and
telescopes or
how ideas have changed.
sending probes to
Show the pupils a simple convex (converging) lens. One with a focal length of 10 cm shows the curved shape
the planet.
clearly and they should be able to see that it can be used to magnify the text in their books by holding it above the
Those conditions
words. Now show the pupils a real telescope if you have one available. They should be able to see that the
on the other plants
aperture is considerably larger than a pupil of the eye. This means that more light is gathered and fainter objects
in the solar system
can be seen. The image is also magnified, meaning that more detail is available; typical amateur telescopes
are very different to
magnify over 150 times.
those on Earth.
If you dont have a telescope, or want a practical task, the pupils can build a small astronomical telescope. See
the Telescope building activity. You could ask them to improve this basic design.
The pupils can then discuss what they already know about the solar system. The simplest mnemonic for
remembering the order of the planets is My Very Easy Method Just Speeds Up Naming (Planets). The pupils can
think up their own method.
The Planetary explorer activity will take up the major part of this lesson. The main goal of the activity is to
compare the conditions to those on Earth. Temperature, length of year and day are the most important aspects to
look at. Once the pupils have chosen a planet they can design the mission to explore it.
Plenary - Tiny planets

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Provide the pupils with a range
of specially chosen websites to use for the
research project, so that they do not get swamped
with the information available.
Extension. The pupils can investigate the
patterns in the whole solar system. What happens
to the surface temperature and length of the year
as you move further away from the Sun, etc.?
Learning styles
Visual: Designing probes and lander vehicles.
Auditory: Discussing the conditions on different
planets.
Kinaesthetic: Examining or building a telescope.
Intrapersonal: Thinking about the requirements of
a manned exploration of the solar system.
Interpersonal: Debating what a planet is (and
what isnt a planet).
Homework. The pupils can develop their ideas
and designs for planetary exploration.

The pupils have to describe all of the planets clearly in the fewest words possible. [For example, red rocky mini
moons for Mars.] (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to describe the basic structure of the solar system.
Most pupils will be able to describe the methods used to explore the solar system.
Some pupils will also be able to explain why it is difficult to investigate planets using manned exploration.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. For each group: a 50 cm ruler, two
converging lenses (5 cm and 30 cm) and some Plasticine.
Safety. The pupils must not use the telescope to observe the Sun. Glass lenses
may have sharp edges.

101

Fusion 2: P1.9 Phases of the Moon


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b, 3.4b
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Utter lunacy!
Pupils should
learn:
Get the pupils to list all of the non-scientific ideas about the Moon they have heard: its made of cheese, it turns people
That the phases of
into werewolves, etc. Discuss why the ideas are not scientific. They may come up with a couple of scientific ones that
the Moon are
they dont believe, so watch out. (10 mins).
caused by different
Main
parts of the Moon
being illuminated
The website www.inconstantmoon.com allows you to view the surface of the Moon in any of the phases and has a fairly
by the Sun at
detailed map of the surface that can be panned and clicked. It can also produce an image of what the Moon would look
different times.
like if it were viewed at that moment.
That all objects in
The pupils can then carry out the Modelling the Moon activity to check their understanding. It can be helpful for them to
the solar system
are only lit over half mark their position on the Earth with a cross or some other marker. They shouldnt worry about the rotation of the Earth
during this process; it only complicates matters. Watch out for the Earth blocking the light to the Moon and causing
of their surfaces;
eclipses. These are dealt with in P1.11.
the half pointing
towards the Sun.
It is important that the pupils discuss how effective their models are for this, and then experiment. Can they reach valid
conclusions?
The Moon was thought to be a perfectly smooth object at first. It was only with the advent of the telescope that scientists
began to make detailed observations and notice the details on its surface. Early pioneers in Moon mapping include
Galileo and, soon afterwards, the pairing of Giovanni Battista Riccioli and Francesco Maria Grimaldi who named most of
the features.
In The Earth from the Moon the pupils again test out their understanding. They should find that any lunar colonists would
see phases just like those found by observing the Moon. In fact the Earth will look a bit more spectacular. To find some
example images search for the term earthrise using the Internet and you will see a few variations on the image used in
the pupil book.
Plenary - Life in the sea of tranquillity

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Give the pupils some
instructions about how to set up their
Earth and Moon models and provide them
with a set of circles they can colour in to
show their observations.
Extension. What do the phases of the
Moon look like from the southern
hemisphere? Would they be exactly the
same?
Learning styles
Visual: Describing diagrams showing the
phases of the Moon.
Auditory: Discussing the evidence for
phases of the Earth.
Kinaesthetic: Manipulation of the Earth
Moon model.
Interpersonal: Working in teams to make
the best model of the phases.
Homework. The pupils can find out
about the history of lunar exploration. This
can be from the very earliest of maps,
through the manned landing and even
towards the possible future expedition.

The pupils can describe what they think it would be like to live on the Moon. They need to include as many scientific facts
as they can in their daily routine. (1015 minutes)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to state that the phases of the Moon are caused by the different ways it is lit by the
Sun.
Most pupils will be able to describe how the phases are caused in detail.
Some pupils will also be able to expand these ideas to explain how all of the objects in the solar system
are illuminated and how this causes their appearance to vary when viewed from the Earth.
How Science Works
Describe how the use of a particular model or analogy supports an explanation (1.1a1)

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. An angle-poise lamp, a ping-pong ball
(Moon) and a ball around the size of a small football (Earth). (A round balloon can
work as an alternative Earth.)The balls can be attached to cotton or supported on
sticks so that the pupils can move them about. See CLEAPSS Guide L194.
Safety. The lamps will become hot with use (using a low energy bulb will keep the
temperature down).

102

Fusion 2: P1.10 The seasons


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b, 3.4b
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - A year in the life
Pupils should
learn:
Ask the pupils to look out of the windows, or an imaginary view. They must draw a comic strip showing the changes
That weather
that will happen over the next 12 months. (1015 mins)
patterns change
Main
during the course
of a year due to the
To explain the cause of seasons you will really have to use a globe; two or more identical ones would be better.
Earths axial tilt.
Show them that the Earth rotates but it is tilted significantly.
That the changes
Place a lamp with no cover on a desk and the globe to one side of it with the pole angles towards the lamp direction.
in day length and
Make sure that the centre of the lamp is at the same height as the centre of the globe. If you have a second globe,
temperature are
position it directly opposite the first one. The first globe will be in the summer in the northern hemisphere position,
more extreme
and the second in the winter in the northern hemisphere position.
further from the
Equator.
Rotate the first globe and show that the pole has sunlight for 24 hours each day while the South Pole is in
Those different
permanent darkness. Describe how the length of the day varies with latitude. It is important to get this concept
cultures describe
across during the demonstrations.
seasons differently.
Discuss the second globe now, reminding the pupils that the globe has travelled for six months to get to this side of
the Sun.
The Climate comparisons activity will allow the pupils to find patterns in the weather conditions around the globe
and should result in a greater understanding of the variation. It can take quite a lot of time unless you limit the
number of sites or books the pupils can use. Now move on to look at the path the Sun takes across the sky during
different seasons.
The final High in the sky activity is meant to be a planning activity, but it can be carried out for real if time is
available.
Plenary - Seasonal eating?

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Provide a completed
spreadsheet of weather statists for the pupils to
analyse. They should concentrate on looking
for patterns and matching the data to locations
on a map.
Extension. The pupils could look at more
detailed weather statistics to see if they can
find any evidence of changes to the weather
patterns.
Learning styles
Visual: Watching demonstrations and
simulations of the seasons.
Auditory: Describing how the tilt of the Earth
affects the seasons.
Kinaesthetic: Manipulating models.
Intrapersonal: Interpreting information to find
patterns.
Interpersonal: Consolidating information from
different groups.
Homework. The research into changes in
weather patterns can be done out of school
hours.

Can the pupils match pictures of various locally produced foods with the seasons they are ready in? What do they
think about the idea of flying in fresh food from around the world? Are there any problems with having seasonal
food available all year round? (510 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to describe the length of the year in term of the Earths orbit and the length of the
day in terms of the Earths rotation.
Most pupils will be able to describe the relationship between the length of a day, height of the Sun and
the season.
Some pupils will also be able to explain the differences in the seasons in terms of the axial tilt of the
Earth.

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. Per group: a lamp, protractor, light sensor
and possibly a ball to represent the Earth.
Safety. The lamps will become hot (using a low energy bulb will keep the
temperature down).

103

Fusion 2: P1.11 - Eclipses


National Curriculum Link up
3.1b, 3.4b
Teaching / Learning activities
Learning
Lesson structure
Objectives
Starter - Shadow
Pupils should
learn:
The pupils have to give a detailed description of how shadows form. This must include a ray diagram. What
That a solar eclipse
happens if the light source is large? [You get a partial shadow, penumbra around the edge.] (10 mins)
occurs when the
Main
Moon blocks out
light from the Sun
Discuss the diagram showing how a solar eclipse happens and then let the pupils carry out the Modelling a
causing a region of
solar eclipse activity to confirm their ideas. Make sure that they are looking at the shadow on the surface of the
the Earth to be in
Earth.
shadow.
You should discuss why only part of the surface of the Earth is ever in shadow even during a total eclipse of
That a lunar eclipse
the Sun. This will require some understanding of the scale involved as mentioned in the next point. However
occurs when the
the pupils should be able to cast a shadow, as long as the lamp they are using is around a metre from their
Earth blocks the
models and pointing towards them.
path of light to the
Moon causing it to
Getting a realistic sense of scale for the Sun, Earth and Moon system is difficult in a classroom. Using a typical
be in shadow.
globe or football-sized object for the Earth (30 cm diameter) would mean that the Moon would have a diameter
a bit smaller than a tennis ball (7 cm) and would orbit it at a distance of nearly 9 m away. On this scale, the
Sun would have be nearly 3.5 km away.
The pupils then move on to looking at a lunar eclipse in the Modelling a lunar eclipse activity. As with the
Total eclipse starter, try to find some video or time lapse footage of this event happening.
Discuss the diagram from the pupil book and allow them to check the ideas with their simple models.
Plenary - The final frontier

Teaching suggestions
Special needs. Provide some hint diagrams to hep
the pupils set up their models.
Extension. The pupils can try to find a more
detailed model or simulation that takes into account
the details of the arrangement and the tilt of the
Moons orbit.
Learning styles
Visual: Observing the changing phases of the Moon.
Auditory: Describing the behaviour of the Earth and
Moon.
Kinaesthetic: Modelling the movement of the Moon
around the Earth.
Intrapersonal: Evaluating their models.
Interpersonal: Working in teams to model eclipses.
Homework. The pupils can find out where and
when the next solar and lunar eclipses are.

The pupils have now finished their flyby of the solar system. They should consolidate all that they have learned
in a mind map or similar summary diagram. (1015 mins)
Learning Outcomes
All pupils will be able to state that an eclipse of the Sun occurs when the Moon obscures it and an eclipse of the
Moon occurs when the Earth obscures the Sun.
Most pupils will be able to draw a simple diagram showing how a shadow is formed on the Earth during a total
eclipse of the Sun.
Some pupils will also be able to explain why, during eclipses, the whole surface of the Moon can be in eclipse
while only a small part of the Earth is in total shadow.
How Science Works
Describe how the use of a particular model or analogy supports an explanation (1.1a1)

Additional teachers notes


Equipment and materials required. An angle-poise lamp, ping-pong ball
(Moon) and a ball around the size of a small football (Earth). (A round
balloon can work as an alternative Earth.) The balls can be attached to
cotton or supported on sticks so that the pupils can move them about. See
CLEAPSS Guide L194 for light sources, etc. and p.517 for information on
viewing eclipses.
Safety. Hot lamps (using a low energy bulb will keep the temperature
down).

104