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Estimation In BPSK-QPSK-PSK MIMO-OFDM System

Dinesh B. Bhoyar*1, Dr. C. G. Dethe*2, Dr. M. M. Mushrif*3, Abhishek P. Narkhede*4

Dept. Of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, Y.C.C.E., Nagpur, India*1,3,4.

P.I.E.T., Nagpur, India*2.

2

dinesh_bhoyar@rediffmail.com*1, cgdethe@rediffmail.com* ,

3

milindmushrif@yahoo.com* , abhi.narkhede@gmail.com*4

Abstract In broadband wireless channel multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO) communication

system

combined with the orthogonal frequency

division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation technique

can achieve reliable high data rate transmission and

to mitigate intersymbol interference. High data rate

system suffer from inter symbol interference (ISI). To

estimate the desire channel at the receiver channel

Estimation techniques are used and also enhance

system capacity of system. The MIMO-OFDM

system uses two independent space-time codes for two

sets of two transmit antennas. The objective of this

paper is to improve channel estimation accuracy in

MIMO-OFDM system because channel state

information is required for signal detection at

receiver and its accuracy affects the overall

performance of system and it is essential for reliable

communication. This paper presents channel

estimation scheme based on Leaky Least Mean

Square (LLMS) algorithm proposed for BPSKQPSK-PSK MIMO OFDM System. So by designing

this we are going to analyze the terms of the

Minimum Mean Squares Error (MMSE), and Bit

Error Rate (BER) and improve Signal to Noise Ratio.

Keywords:- MIMO-OFDM System, for BPSK-QPSKPSK system, Channel Estimation, Leaky Least Mean

Square.

I.

INTRODUCTION

multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology

and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

(OFDM) has the potential to achieve enormous

increase in the capacity and link reliability.

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

(OFDM) is an attractive and basic technique for

high data rate transmission over frequencyselective fading channels due to its capability to

combat the intersymbol interference (ISI), low

complexity and spectral efficiency. Using multipleantennas at both the transmitter and receiver results

in further increase in the capacity. The combination

of MIMO and OFDM, referred to as MIMO OFDM

is a very promising system for enhancing the

capacity and improving the link reliability for

future broadband wireless communication.

However, to obtain the promised capacity and to

achieve maximum diversity gain, MIMO OFDM

(CSI) at the receiver, in order to perform coherent

detection [4]. Also, it is a well-known fact that the

amount of information transported over

communication systems grows rapidly. Not only

the file sizes Increase, but also large bandwidthrequired applications such as video on demand

and video calling require increasing data rates to

transfer the information in a reasonable amount of

time or to establish real-time connections. To

support this kind of services, broadband

communication systems are required. Large-scale

penetration of wireless systems into our daily lives

will require significant reductions in cost and

increases in bit rate and system capacity.

In Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)

technology, basically these techniques

transmit

different data streams on different transmit

antennas simultaneously. By designing an

appropriate processing architecture to handle these

parallel streams of data, the data rate and the

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) performance can be

increased. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)

systems are often combined with a spectrally

efficient transmission technique called Orthogonal

Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) to avoid

Inter Symbol Interference (ISI).

Channel estimation is usually refers to estimation

of the frequency response of the path between the

transmitter and receiver. Also this is used to

optimize performance and maximize the

transmission rate[12]. The channel estimation in

MIMO-OFDM system is more complicated in

comparison with SISO system due to simultaneous

transmission of signal from different antennas that

cause co-channel interference [1]. In this paper,

Leaky Least Mean Square (LLMS) adaptive.

Channel estimator is described for MIMO OFDM

systems. These CE methods uses adaptive

estimator which are able to update parameters of

the estimator continuously, so that knowledge of

channel and noise statistics are required [3].

This LLMS CE algorithm requires knowledge of

the received signal only. This can be done in a

624

transmitting a training sequence that is known to

the receiver. Also LLMS algorithm mitigates the

coefficient overflow problem. If the large Leaky

factor result in large steady state error[5].

II.

OFDM SYSTEM

into several subcarriers, and before each OFDM

block the cyclic prefix (CP) is inserted.

Consequently, by employing MIMO channels, not

only the mobility of the wireless communication

can be increased [2] but also the algorithm can be

more robust against fading, which makes it

efficient and reliability for the (WLAN), worldwide

interoperability for microwave access (WiMax),

wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) and (3GPP)3rd generation

[9],[2].

The channel estimators use training sequence or

blind sequence method. Training Sequence

methods known to the receiver are embedded into

the frame and sent over the channel. Easily applied

to any communications system. It is most popular

method used today than blind method. In training

based channel estimation algorithms, training

symbols or pilot tones that are known to the

receiver, are multiplexed along with the data stream

for channel estimation [8]. The idea behind these

methods is to exploit knowledge of transmitted

pilot symbols at the receiver to estimate the

channel. For a block fading channel, where the

channel is constant over a few OFDM symbols, the

pilots are transmitted on all subcarriers in periodic

intervals of OFDM blocks [13]. This type of pilot

arrangement is called the block type arrangement.

For a fast fading channel, where the channel

changes between adjacent OFDM symbols, the

pilots are transmitted at all times but with a an even

spacing on the subcarriers representing comb type

pilot placemen. Blind method hard to implement on

real time systems. Blind methods on the other hand

require no training sequences [11]. They utilize

certain underlying mathematical information about

the kind of data being transmitted. These methods

might be bandwidth efficient.

The total number of subcarriers is N. Basically the

MIMO-OFDM transmitter has Nt parallel

transmission paths which are very similar to the

single antenna OFDM system. In OFDM system

the binary data is first grouped and mapped

according to the modulation in signal mapper.

Then the binary information data is obtained back

in signal demapper block. Following IDFT block,

guard time, which is chosen to be larger than the

expected delay spread, is inserted to prevent

intersymbol interference. This guard time is a copy

of the last part which is pretended to OFDM

symbol. This makes the transmitted

symbol

frames correctly, so as to avoid ISI and intercarrier

interference (ICI)[11].

A fast Fourier transform (FFT) is an algorithm to

compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and

its inverse is used to convert frequency domain to

time domain and vice-versa. An FFT is a way to

compute the same result more quickly and faster

compare to other[12].The OFDM transmitters

usually employ an inverse fast Fourier transform

(IFFT) of size N for modulation. In order to limit

the transmit signal to a bandwidth smaller than 1/T.

where, T is the sampling time interval of the

OFDM signal [10]. The guard band also enables us

to choose an appropriate analog transmission filter

to limit the periodic spectrum of the discrete time

signal at the output of the IFFT or IDFT. A guard

interval is also added for every OFDM symbol to

avoid intersymbol interference caused by multipath

fading channels [10], [13].

III.

MIMO-OFDM System

because it has been widely used today due to its

high data rate, channel capacity and its adequate

performance in frequency selective fading

channels. For this purpose a 22 system was

designed and pilot aided channel estimation with

interpolation, is made iterative to enhance BER

performance.

In this paper consider MIMOOFDM systems with

two transmit antennas and two receive antennas.

The total number of subcarriers is N. Basically, the

MIMO-OFDM transmitter has N parallel

transmission paths which are very similar to the

single antenna OFDM system, each branch

performing serial-to-parallel conversion,

pilot

insertion, N-point IFFT and cyclic extension

before the final TX signals are up-converted

to RF and transmitted. It is worth noting that

the channel encoder and the digital modulation,

625

be done per branch, where the modulated

signals are before transmitting from multiple

antennas not

necessarily implemented jointly

over all the Nt branches. Subsequently at the

receiver, the CP is removed and N-point FFT is

performed per receiver branch. Next, the

transmitted symbol per TX antenna is combined

and outputted for the subsequent operations like

digital demodulation and decoding. Finally all

the input binary data are recovered with certain

BER [1].

for different ns, ks or js [7].

Above equation can be expressed in matrix form

as,

[n]

rj

[n]

ij

t [j n ] + W

[n]

j

(2)

i =1

rj

[n]

[n]

[n]

tj

Wj

[n]

= [W j [ n , 0], W j [ n , 1], ....., W j [ n , N 1]]

IV.

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

CHANNEL ESTIMATION

usually employed for synchronization and channel

estimation. After dispreading a pilot channel in a

finger of a MIMO-OFDM receiver, the received

signal can be expressed as,

Figure2:- For Channel Estimation In MIMO

OFDM System.

receive antennas is shown in above Fig. The

techniques developed in this paper can be directly

applied to any OFDM system with multiple

transmit antennas. At time, a data block is, {b[n,k]:

k=0,1,........,}transformed into two different signals,

{ti[n,k]: k=0,1,.......K-1 and i=1,2} at the transmit

diversity processor,[2] where, K, k, and i are the

number of sub-channels of the OFDM systems,

sub-channel index, and antenna index, respectively.

This OFDM signal is modulated by using the ti[n,k]

where i=1,2. At the receiver, the discrete Fourier

transform (DFT or FFT) of the received signal at

each receive antenna is the superposition of two

distorted transmitted signals. The received signal at

the jth receive antenna can be expressed as [7],

parameter, n(k) is zero-mean additive white noise,

and k is a discrete time index. Estimating h(k)

from {u(k)} is not a trivial task, because the

statistics of are unknown and vary depending on

the velocity of the mobile receiver. The use of an

adaptive filter for this estimation is also difficult,

since it is impossible to provide a training sequence

consisting of channel parameters [3]. Thats why in

this paper used Leaky LMS (LLMS) algorithm is

used for channel estimation; also it is called as

adaptive beamforming algorithm. Beamforming is

a signal processing technique used in sensor arrays

for directional signal transmission or reception [6].

This is achieved by combining elements in the

array in such a way that signals at particular angles

experience constructive interference while others

experience destructive interference. Beamforming

can be used at both the transmitting and receiving

ends in order to achieve spatial selectivity [12].

LMS algorithm:

rj [n, k] =

ij

H [n, k ]

ij

at

th

th

th

j th receive antenna and is assumed to be zero

the most popular adaptive signal processing

techniques adopted in many applications including

antenna array beamforming. The LMS algorithm

is a popular solution used in beamforming

technique. This algorithm is easy to implement

with low computation [8]. The basic LMS

algorithm is expressed as below,

626

w ( n + 1) = w ( n ) + 2 x ( n ) e ( n ) ( 8 )

to the incoming signal. The error signal is,

e ( n ) = d ( n ) y ( n ) (9)

The system model has been tested for BPSK,

QPSK modulations with an AWGN or Rayleigh or

Rician fading channels. In the simulation, there

are 2 transmitter antennas and the number of

the receiving antennas is 2.

LLMS based adaptive beamforming. The LLMS

algorithm is shown in Figure3 [6]. The intermediate

output, LMS1 yielded from the first LMS section,

LMS1, is multiplied by the image array factor (A)

of the desired signal. The resultant filtered signal is

further processed by the second LMS section,

LMS2. For the adaptation process, the error signal

of LMS2, e2 , is feedback to combine with that of

LMS1, to form the overall error signal, eLLMS ,

for updating the tap weights of LMS1. A

common external reference signal is used for both

the two LMS sections, i.e. d1 and d2 [6]. The error

signal for updating LLMS1 at the j th iteration is

given by,

eLLM ( j ) = e1 ( j ) e2 ( j 1) (10)

V.

CONCLUSION

since the aim is to observe channel estimation

performance. Simulations are carried out for

different signal-to-noise (SNR) ratios. The digital

modulation technique used is BPSK (Binary phase

shift key). The following simulation parameters are

taken for OFDM, MIMO and MIMO-OFDM test as

shown in table 1, 2 and 3.

Table1: OFDM Parameters for simulation

Parameters

Value

FFT size

32

No. of data

subcarriers

No. of bits per

symbol

No. of bits

52

e1 ( j ) = d1 ( j ) w1 ( j ) x1 ( j ) (11)

H

e2 ( j ) = d 2 ( j ) w2 ( j ) x2 ( j ) (12)

The input signal of LMS2 is derived from the

LMS1,

1

x 2 ( j ) = A YLMS 1 ( j ) = w1 ( j ) x1 ( j ) (13)

Where, A1 is the image of the array factor of the

desired signal. The weight vector W for the ith

LMS section is updated according to,

wi ( j + 1) = wi ( j ) + i ei ( j ) xi ( j ) (14)

52

10000

Carrier modulation

used

Guard period type

BPSK

cyclic extension of the symbol

SNR

0-15dB

Channel type

channel

Parameters

for LMS2.i is the step size and 0 is a

positive number that depends on the input signal

statistic [6].

Value

MIMO system

2*2

BPSK

number of bits

1000000

SNR

0-25 dB

Channel type

Rayleigh channel

627

Parameters

Value

MIMO-OFDM

system

Carrier modulation

used

N-no. of samples

2*2

BPSK

10000

No. of data

subcarriers

FFT size

52

symbol

SNR

52

Channel type

Gaussian channel and Rayleigh

channel

64

0-25 dB

Symbol error probability curve for 16-PSK modulation

10

simulation

-1

VI.

SIMULATION WINDOW

10

-2

10

-3

10

-4

10

-5

10

10

15

20

Es/No, dB

25

30

35

40

Symbol error probability curve for 64-PSK modulation

10

simulation

-1

10

-2

10

-3

10

-4

10

-5

10

10

15

20

Es/No, dB

25

30

35

40

Symbol error probability curve for 128-PSK modulation

10

simulation

-1

10

-2

10

-3

10

-4

10

-5

10

10

15

20

Es/No, dB

25

30

35

40

628

10

10

theory-QPSK

simulation-QPSK

-1

-1

10

simulation

10

-2

10

-3

10

-4

10

-2

10

-3

10

-4

10

-5

10

-5

10

15

20

Es/No, dB

25

30

35

10

40

Figure 10: Symbol Error Rate Vs SNR for 256-PSK MIMOOFDM System

5

6

Es/No, dB

10

Figure 14: Symbol Error Rate Vs SNR for QPSK MIMOOFDM System Using LMS Algorithm (=1)

10

theory-QPSK

simulation-QPSK

-1

10

-2

10

-3

10

-4

10

-5

10

5

6

Es/No, dB

10

Figure 11: Symbol Error Rate Vs SNR for QPSK MIMOOFDM System Using VSS-LMS Algorithm

System Using LLMS Algorithm

10

theory-QPSK

simulation-QPSK

10

theory-QPSK

simulation-QPSK

-1

10

-1

-2

10

10

-3

10

-4

10

-2

10

-3

10

-4

10

-5

10

5

6

Es/No, dB

10

-5

10

Figure 12: Symbol Error Rate Vs SNR for QPSK MIMOOFDM System Using LMS Algorithm (=o.025)

6

Es/No, dB

10

12

14

System Using LLMS Algorithm

-2

10

theory-QPSK

simulation-QPSK

-1

10

VII.

-2

CONCLUSION

10

-3

10

-4

10

-5

10

5

6

Es/No, dB

Figure 13: Symbol Error Rate Vs SNR for QPSK MIMOOFDM System Using LMS Algorithm (=o.075)

10

Mean Squared (LMS), Leaky Least Mean Squared

(LLMS) algorithms for different system likes

QPSK-PSK-BPSK MIMO-OFDM System. The

main purpose is to reduced bit error rate (BER) and

improve signal to noise ratio (SNR) by varying step

size or time varying step size. After observing

above all simulated windows, smaller the step size

better the steady state error and improve SNR

629

generated by using combination of MIMO and

OFDM system gives better than MIMO and OFDM

system. By observing the above all simulated

window, after applying the LLMS algorithm better

the signal to noise ratio and reduced the BER of the

system, this shown in figure No. 16.

Leaky LMS (LLMS) algorithm improves the

capacity of channel by reducing the bit error rate

and also consecrated on leaky factor or leakage

factor.

VIII.

FUTURE WORK

Leaky LMS algorithm (MLLMS) and compare

with other algorithm by using QPSK-BPSK-PSK

MIMO-OFDM system. And furthermore reduces

Symbol Error Rate or Bit Error Rate.

REFERENCES

[1] Kala Praveen Bagadi And Prof. Susmita Das,

MIMO-OFDM Channel Estimation Using Pilot

Carries,

International

Journal

Of

Computer

Applications (0975 8887) Volume 2 No.3, May

2010.

[2] Pei-Sheng Pan AndBao-Yu Zheng, An Adaptive

Channel Estimation Technique In MIMO OFDM

Systems, Journal Of Electronic Science And

Technology Of China, Vol. 6, No. 3, September 2008.

[3] Sungkwon Jo, Jihoon Choi And Yong H. Lee,

Modified Leaky LMS Algorithm For Channel

Estimation

In

DS-CDMA

Systems,

IEEE

Communications Letters, Vol. 6, No. 5, May 2002.

[4] Md. Kamal Hosain and Md.MasudRana, Adaptive

Channel Estimation Techniques for MIMO OFDM

Systems, (IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced

Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 1, No.6,

December 2010

[5] Max Kamenetsky and Bernard Widrow, A Variable

Leaky LMS Adaptive Algorithm, 0-7803-86221/04/$20.00 2004 IEEE

[6] SuchitaVarade and Kishore Kulat, BER

Comparison Rayleigh Fading and AWGN Channel

using Chaotic Communication based MIMO OFDM

System, International Journal of Soft Computing and

Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN: 2231-2307, Volume-1,

Issue-6, January 2012.

[7]Ye (Geoffrey) Li,Simplified Channel Estimation

ForOfdm

Systems

With

Multiple

Transmit

Antennas,Ieee

Transactions

On

Wireless

Communications, Vol. 1, No. 1, January 2002

OFDM Systems, FreescaleSemiconductor, Inc., 2006.

[9] E. Karami, Tracking performance of least

squares MIMO channel estimation algorithm, IEEE

Trans. On Wireless Comm. vol. 55, no.11,pp. 22012209, Nov. 2007.

[10]Baoguo Yang,Khaled Ben Letaief, Roger S.

ChengAnd Zhigang Cao,Channel Estimation For

OFDM Transmission In Multipath Fading Channels

Based On Parametric Channel Modeling, IEEE

Transactions On Communications, Vol. 49, No. 3,

March 2001

[11] SinemColeri, Mustafa Ergen, AnujPuri, And

Ahmad Bahai, Channel Estimation Techniques Based

On Pilot Arrangement In Ofdm Systems, Ieee

Transactions On Broadcasting, Vol. 48, No. 3,

September 2002.

[12] S. Haykin, Adaptive Filter Theory, 4th Ed. Upper

Saddle River, Nj: Prentice Hall, 2002.

[13] Baoguo Yang, Khaled Ben Letaief, Roger S. Cheng

And Zhigang Cao, Channel Estimation For OFDM

Transmission In Multipath Fading Channels Based On

Parametric Channel Modeling, IEEE Transactions On

Communications, Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2001.

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