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Leaky Least Mean Square (LLMS) Algorithm For Channel


Estimation In BPSK-QPSK-PSK MIMO-OFDM System
Dinesh B. Bhoyar*1, Dr. C. G. Dethe*2, Dr. M. M. Mushrif*3, Abhishek P. Narkhede*4
Dept. Of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, Y.C.C.E., Nagpur, India*1,3,4.
P.I.E.T., Nagpur, India*2.
2
dinesh_bhoyar@rediffmail.com*1, cgdethe@rediffmail.com* ,
3
milindmushrif@yahoo.com* , abhi.narkhede@gmail.com*4
Abstract In broadband wireless channel multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO) communication
system
combined with the orthogonal frequency
division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation technique
can achieve reliable high data rate transmission and
to mitigate intersymbol interference. High data rate
system suffer from inter symbol interference (ISI). To
estimate the desire channel at the receiver channel
Estimation techniques are used and also enhance
system capacity of system. The MIMO-OFDM
system uses two independent space-time codes for two
sets of two transmit antennas. The objective of this
paper is to improve channel estimation accuracy in
MIMO-OFDM system because channel state
information is required for signal detection at
receiver and its accuracy affects the overall
performance of system and it is essential for reliable
communication. This paper presents channel
estimation scheme based on Leaky Least Mean
Square (LLMS) algorithm proposed for BPSKQPSK-PSK MIMO OFDM System. So by designing
this we are going to analyze the terms of the
Minimum Mean Squares Error (MMSE), and Bit
Error Rate (BER) and improve Signal to Noise Ratio.
Keywords:- MIMO-OFDM System, for BPSK-QPSKPSK system, Channel Estimation, Leaky Least Mean
Square.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Wireless communication systems based on


multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology
and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
(OFDM) has the potential to achieve enormous
increase in the capacity and link reliability.
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
(OFDM) is an attractive and basic technique for
high data rate transmission over frequencyselective fading channels due to its capability to
combat the intersymbol interference (ISI), low
complexity and spectral efficiency. Using multipleantennas at both the transmitter and receiver results
in further increase in the capacity. The combination
of MIMO and OFDM, referred to as MIMO OFDM
is a very promising system for enhancing the
capacity and improving the link reliability for
future broadband wireless communication.
However, to obtain the promised capacity and to
achieve maximum diversity gain, MIMO OFDM

systems require accurate channel state information


(CSI) at the receiver, in order to perform coherent
detection [4]. Also, it is a well-known fact that the
amount of information transported over
communication systems grows rapidly. Not only
the file sizes Increase, but also large bandwidthrequired applications such as video on demand
and video calling require increasing data rates to
transfer the information in a reasonable amount of
time or to establish real-time connections. To
support this kind of services, broadband
communication systems are required. Large-scale
penetration of wireless systems into our daily lives
will require significant reductions in cost and
increases in bit rate and system capacity.
In Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)
technology, basically these techniques
transmit
different data streams on different transmit
antennas simultaneously. By designing an
appropriate processing architecture to handle these
parallel streams of data, the data rate and the
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) performance can be
increased. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)
systems are often combined with a spectrally
efficient transmission technique called Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) to avoid
Inter Symbol Interference (ISI).
Channel estimation is usually refers to estimation
of the frequency response of the path between the
transmitter and receiver. Also this is used to
optimize performance and maximize the
transmission rate[12]. The channel estimation in
MIMO-OFDM system is more complicated in
comparison with SISO system due to simultaneous
transmission of signal from different antennas that
cause co-channel interference [1]. In this paper,
Leaky Least Mean Square (LLMS) adaptive.
Channel estimator is described for MIMO OFDM
systems. These CE methods uses adaptive
estimator which are able to update parameters of
the estimator continuously, so that knowledge of
channel and noise statistics are required [3].
This LLMS CE algorithm requires knowledge of
the received signal only. This can be done in a

978-1-4673-5090-7/13/$31.00 2013 IEEE

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digital communication system by periodically


transmitting a training sequence that is known to
the receiver. Also LLMS algorithm mitigates the
coefficient overflow problem. If the large Leaky
factor result in large steady state error[5].
II.

OFDM SYSTEM

In OFDM system the whole spectrum is divided


into several subcarriers, and before each OFDM
block the cyclic prefix (CP) is inserted.
Consequently, by employing MIMO channels, not
only the mobility of the wireless communication
can be increased [2] but also the algorithm can be
more robust against fading, which makes it
efficient and reliability for the (WLAN), worldwide
interoperability for microwave access (WiMax),
wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) and (3GPP)3rd generation
[9],[2].
The channel estimators use training sequence or
blind sequence method. Training Sequence
methods known to the receiver are embedded into
the frame and sent over the channel. Easily applied
to any communications system. It is most popular
method used today than blind method. In training
based channel estimation algorithms, training
symbols or pilot tones that are known to the
receiver, are multiplexed along with the data stream
for channel estimation [8]. The idea behind these
methods is to exploit knowledge of transmitted
pilot symbols at the receiver to estimate the
channel. For a block fading channel, where the
channel is constant over a few OFDM symbols, the
pilots are transmitted on all subcarriers in periodic
intervals of OFDM blocks [13]. This type of pilot
arrangement is called the block type arrangement.
For a fast fading channel, where the channel
changes between adjacent OFDM symbols, the
pilots are transmitted at all times but with a an even
spacing on the subcarriers representing comb type
pilot placemen. Blind method hard to implement on
real time systems. Blind methods on the other hand
require no training sequences [11]. They utilize
certain underlying mathematical information about
the kind of data being transmitted. These methods
might be bandwidth efficient.
The total number of subcarriers is N. Basically the
MIMO-OFDM transmitter has Nt parallel
transmission paths which are very similar to the
single antenna OFDM system. In OFDM system
the binary data is first grouped and mapped
according to the modulation in signal mapper.
Then the binary information data is obtained back
in signal demapper block. Following IDFT block,
guard time, which is chosen to be larger than the
expected delay spread, is inserted to prevent
intersymbol interference. This guard time is a copy
of the last part which is pretended to OFDM
symbol. This makes the transmitted
symbol

periodic, which plays a key role in identifying


frames correctly, so as to avoid ISI and intercarrier
interference (ICI)[11].
A fast Fourier transform (FFT) is an algorithm to
compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and
its inverse is used to convert frequency domain to
time domain and vice-versa. An FFT is a way to
compute the same result more quickly and faster
compare to other[12].The OFDM transmitters
usually employ an inverse fast Fourier transform
(IFFT) of size N for modulation. In order to limit
the transmit signal to a bandwidth smaller than 1/T.
where, T is the sampling time interval of the
OFDM signal [10]. The guard band also enables us
to choose an appropriate analog transmission filter
to limit the periodic spectrum of the discrete time
signal at the output of the IFFT or IDFT. A guard
interval is also added for every OFDM symbol to
avoid intersymbol interference caused by multipath
fading channels [10], [13].

Figure 1: Block diagram OFDM system

III.

MIMO-OFDM System

MIMO-OFDM system was chosen in this study


because it has been widely used today due to its
high data rate, channel capacity and its adequate
performance in frequency selective fading
channels. For this purpose a 22 system was
designed and pilot aided channel estimation with
interpolation, is made iterative to enhance BER
performance.
In this paper consider MIMOOFDM systems with
two transmit antennas and two receive antennas.
The total number of subcarriers is N. Basically, the
MIMO-OFDM transmitter has N parallel
transmission paths which are very similar to the
single antenna OFDM system, each branch
performing serial-to-parallel conversion,
pilot
insertion, N-point IFFT and cyclic extension
before the final TX signals are up-converted
to RF and transmitted. It is worth noting that
the channel encoder and the digital modulation,

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in some spatial multiplexing systems, can also


be done per branch, where the modulated
signals are before transmitting from multiple
antennas not
necessarily implemented jointly
over all the Nt branches. Subsequently at the
receiver, the CP is removed and N-point FFT is
performed per receiver branch. Next, the
transmitted symbol per TX antenna is combined
and outputted for the subsequent operations like
digital demodulation and decoding. Finally all
the input binary data are recovered with certain
BER [1].

mean with variance 2n . The noise is uncorrelated


for different ns, ks or js [7].
Above equation can be expressed in matrix form
as,
[n]

rj

[n]
ij

t [j n ] + W

[n]
j

(2)

i =1

rj

[n]

= [ r j [ n , 0 ], r j [ n , 1], ....., r j [ n , N 1]]

[n]

H j = [ H j [ n , 0], H j [ n ,1], ....., H j [ n , N 1]]


[n]

tj

Wj

[n]

= [ t j [ n , 0 ], t j [ n , 1], ....., t j [ n , N 1]]


= [W j [ n , 0], W j [ n , 1], ....., W j [ n , N 1]]

IV.

(3)

(4)
(5)
(6)

CHANNEL ESTIMATION

In MIMO-OFDM systems, a pilot channel is


usually employed for synchronization and channel
estimation. After dispreading a pilot channel in a
finger of a MIMO-OFDM receiver, the received
signal can be expressed as,

u (k ) = h(k ) + n(k ) (7)


Figure2:- For Channel Estimation In MIMO
OFDM System.

An OFDM system with two transmit and two


receive antennas is shown in above Fig. The
techniques developed in this paper can be directly
applied to any OFDM system with multiple
transmit antennas. At time, a data block is, {b[n,k]:
k=0,1,........,}transformed into two different signals,
{ti[n,k]: k=0,1,.......K-1 and i=1,2} at the transmit
diversity processor,[2] where, K, k, and i are the
number of sub-channels of the OFDM systems,
sub-channel index, and antenna index, respectively.
This OFDM signal is modulated by using the ti[n,k]
where i=1,2. At the receiver, the discrete Fourier
transform (DFT or FFT) of the received signal at
each receive antenna is the superposition of two
distorted transmitted signals. The received signal at
the jth receive antenna can be expressed as [7],

Where, h(k) is a wide-sense stationary channel


parameter, n(k) is zero-mean additive white noise,
and k is a discrete time index. Estimating h(k)
from {u(k)} is not a trivial task, because the
statistics of are unknown and vary depending on
the velocity of the mobile receiver. The use of an
adaptive filter for this estimation is also difficult,
since it is impossible to provide a training sequence
consisting of channel parameters [3]. Thats why in
this paper used Leaky LMS (LLMS) algorithm is
used for channel estimation; also it is called as
adaptive beamforming algorithm. Beamforming is
a signal processing technique used in sensor arrays
for directional signal transmission or reception [6].
This is achieved by combining elements in the
array in such a way that signals at particular angles
experience constructive interference while others
experience destructive interference. Beamforming
can be used at both the transmitting and receiving
ends in order to achieve spatial selectivity [12].
LMS algorithm:

rj [n, k] =

H [n, k]t [n, k] + w [n, k] (1)


ij

where, the channel frequency response

H [n, k ]
ij

at

k the tone of the n OFDM block, corresponding


th

th

to the i th transmit and j receive antenna. w j [ n, k ]


th

denotes the additive complex Gaussian noise on the


j th receive antenna and is assumed to be zero

Generally, the LMS algorithm has become one of


the most popular adaptive signal processing
techniques adopted in many applications including
antenna array beamforming. The LMS algorithm
is a popular solution used in beamforming
technique. This algorithm is easy to implement
with low computation [8]. The basic LMS
algorithm is expressed as below,

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w ( n + 1) = w ( n ) + 2 x ( n ) e ( n ) ( 8 )

Simply assume that the reference signal is identical


to the incoming signal. The error signal is,
e ( n ) = d ( n ) y ( n ) (9)

Leaky LMS algorithm:


The system model has been tested for BPSK,
QPSK modulations with an AWGN or Rayleigh or
Rician fading channels. In the simulation, there
are 2 transmitter antennas and the number of
the receiving antennas is 2.
LLMS based adaptive beamforming. The LLMS
algorithm is shown in Figure3 [6]. The intermediate
output, LMS1 yielded from the first LMS section,
LMS1, is multiplied by the image array factor (A)
of the desired signal. The resultant filtered signal is
further processed by the second LMS section,
LMS2. For the adaptation process, the error signal
of LMS2, e2 , is feedback to combine with that of
LMS1, to form the overall error signal, eLLMS ,
for updating the tap weights of LMS1. A
common external reference signal is used for both
the two LMS sections, i.e. d1 and d2 [6]. The error
signal for updating LLMS1 at the j th iteration is
given by,

eLLM ( j ) = e1 ( j ) e2 ( j 1) (10)

Figure 3: Block diagram of LLMS algorithm

V.

SIMULATION RESULT AND


CONCLUSION

That is assuming to have perfect synchronization


since the aim is to observe channel estimation
performance. Simulations are carried out for
different signal-to-noise (SNR) ratios. The digital
modulation technique used is BPSK (Binary phase
shift key). The following simulation parameters are
taken for OFDM, MIMO and MIMO-OFDM test as
shown in table 1, 2 and 3.
Table1: OFDM Parameters for simulation
Parameters

Value

FFT size

32

No. of data
subcarriers
No. of bits per
symbol
No. of bits

52

e1 ( j ) = d1 ( j ) w1 ( j ) x1 ( j ) (11)
H

e2 ( j ) = d 2 ( j ) w2 ( j ) x2 ( j ) (12)
The input signal of LMS2 is derived from the
LMS1,
1

x 2 ( j ) = A YLMS 1 ( j ) = w1 ( j ) x1 ( j ) (13)
Where, A1 is the image of the array factor of the
desired signal. The weight vector W for the ith
LMS section is updated according to,

wi ( j + 1) = wi ( j ) + i ei ( j ) xi ( j ) (14)

52
10000

Carrier modulation
used
Guard period type

BPSK
cyclic extension of the symbol

SNR

0-15dB

Channel type

Gaussian channel or Rayleigh


channel

Table2: MIMO Parameters for simulation


Parameters

Where, 0 < i < 0 and ith is 1 for LMS1 and 2


for LMS2.i is the step size and 0 is a
positive number that depends on the input signal
statistic [6].

Value

MIMO system

2*2

Carrier modulation used

BPSK

number of bits

1000000

SNR

0-25 dB

Channel type

Gaussian channel and


Rayleigh channel

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Table3: MIMO-OFDM Parameters for simulation


Parameters

Value

MIMO-OFDM
system
Carrier modulation
used
N-no. of samples

2*2
BPSK
10000

No. of data
subcarriers
FFT size

52

No. Of bit per


symbol
SNR

52

Guard period type


Channel type

Cyclic extension of the symbol


Gaussian channel and Rayleigh
channel

64

0-25 dB

Figure6: BER Vs SNR for 2x2 MIMO-OFDM Systems


Symbol error probability curve for 16-PSK modulation

10

simulation
-1

VI.

SIMULATION WINDOW

Symbol Error Rate

10

-2

10

-3

10

-4

10

-5

10

10

15

20
Es/No, dB

25

30

35

40

Figure 7: Symbol Error Rate Vs SNR for 16-PSK MIMOOFDM System


Symbol error probability curve for 64-PSK modulation

10

simulation
-1

Symbol Error Rate

10

-2

10

-3

10

Figure4: BER Vs SNR for OFDM System.


-4

10

-5

10

10

15

20
Es/No, dB

25

30

35

40

Figure 8: Symbol Error Rate Vs SNR for 64-PSK MIMOOFDM System


Symbol error probability curve for 128-PSK modulation

10

simulation
-1

Symbol Error Rate

10

-2

10

-3

10

-4

10

-5

10

Figure5: BER Vs SNR for 2x2 MIMO system.

10

15

20
Es/No, dB

25

30

35

Figure 9: Symbol Error Rate Vs SNR for 128-PSK MIMOOFDM System

40

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Symbol error probability curve for 256-PSK modulation

Symbol error probability curve for QPSK(u=1-LMS)

10

10

theory-QPSK
simulation-QPSK
-1

-1

10

simulation

Symbol Error Rate

Symbol Error Rate

10

-2

10

-3

10

-4

10

-2

10

-3

10

-4

10

-5

10

-5

10

15

20
Es/No, dB

25

30

35

10

40

Figure 10: Symbol Error Rate Vs SNR for 256-PSK MIMOOFDM System

5
6
Es/No, dB

10

Figure 14: Symbol Error Rate Vs SNR for QPSK MIMOOFDM System Using LMS Algorithm (=1)

Symbol error probability curve for QPSK(VSS-LMS)

10

theory-QPSK
simulation-QPSK
-1

Symbol Error Rate

10

-2

10

-3

10

-4

10

-5

10

5
6
Es/No, dB

10

Figure 11: Symbol Error Rate Vs SNR for QPSK MIMOOFDM System Using VSS-LMS Algorithm

Figure 15: Bit Error Rate Vs SNR for BPSK MIMO-OFDM


System Using LLMS Algorithm

Symbol error probability curve for QPSK(u-0.025-LMS)

10

Symbol error probability curve for QPSK(4-QAM)

theory-QPSK
simulation-QPSK

10

theory-QPSK
simulation-QPSK

-1

10

-1

-2

10

Symbol Error Rate

Symbol Error Rate

10

-3

10

-4

10

-2

10

-3

10

-4

10

-5

10

5
6
Es/No, dB

10
-5

10

Figure 12: Symbol Error Rate Vs SNR for QPSK MIMOOFDM System Using LMS Algorithm (=o.025)

6
Es/No, dB

10

12

14

Figure 16: Bit Error Rate Vs SNR for QPSK MIMO-OFDM


System Using LLMS Algorithm

Symbol error probability curve for QPSK(u-0.075-LMS)

-2

10

theory-QPSK
simulation-QPSK
-1

Symbol Error Rate

10

VII.

-2

CONCLUSION

10

-3

10

-4

10

-5

10

5
6
Es/No, dB

Figure 13: Symbol Error Rate Vs SNR for QPSK MIMOOFDM System Using LMS Algorithm (=o.075)

10

In this paper, the channel estimation based on Least


Mean Squared (LMS), Leaky Least Mean Squared
(LLMS) algorithms for different system likes
QPSK-PSK-BPSK MIMO-OFDM System. The
main purpose is to reduced bit error rate (BER) and
improve signal to noise ratio (SNR) by varying step
size or time varying step size. After observing
above all simulated windows, smaller the step size
better the steady state error and improve SNR

629

value. Also Comparative study suggests that result


generated by using combination of MIMO and
OFDM system gives better than MIMO and OFDM
system. By observing the above all simulated
window, after applying the LLMS algorithm better
the signal to noise ratio and reduced the BER of the
system, this shown in figure No. 16.
Leaky LMS (LLMS) algorithm improves the
capacity of channel by reducing the bit error rate
and also consecrated on leaky factor or leakage
factor.

VIII.

FUTURE WORK

We will extend the work to developed Modified


Leaky LMS algorithm (MLLMS) and compare
with other algorithm by using QPSK-BPSK-PSK
MIMO-OFDM system. And furthermore reduces
Symbol Error Rate or Bit Error Rate.

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