Adaptive signal processing

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Adaptive signal processing

© All Rights Reserved

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1.1

Noise Variance

To show that,

nL nL (0) = E I(n)

L1

X

!2

wl {s(n 1 l) + I(n 1 l)}

(1)

l=0

We assume that the signal s(n) and the interference I(n) are uncorrelated. Thus their cross-correlation

is zero. We also assume that the signal and interference are wide-sense stationary with zero mean and

variance ss (0) = E[s2 (n)] = 1 and II (0) = E[I 2 (n)] respectively. Expanding the above equation we get,

#

#

"L1

"L1

X

X

wl2 {s2 (n l 1) + I 2 (n l 1)}

nL nL (0) = E[I 2 (n)] 2E

wlT {I(n)I(n l 1)T } + E

l=0

l=0

L1

X

nL nL (0) =

l=0

L1

X

l=0

L1

X

l=0

l=0

l=0

L1

X

L1

X

L1

X

l=0

2

L1

L1

X

X

2

jwI (l+1)

nL nL (0) =

wl + II (0) 1

wl e

l=0

l=0

2

L1

L1

X

X

2

jwI

jwI l

nL nL (0) =

wl + II (0) 1 e

wl e

l=0

l=0

(2)

where, we have used the fact that the autocorrelation function has a peak at zero and decreases exponentially on either side. Thus, we see that E[I(n)I(n l 1)] = II (l + 1) = II (0)ejwI (l+1) .

1.2

Glpef =

1

II (0)

PL1

l=0

1

2

P

jwI l

wl2 + 1 ejwI L1

w

e

l

l=0

The parameters are L = 50, input SN R=-20 dB. Using these parameters we find that,

Glpef,theoretical 14dB

1

(3)

1.3

Figure 1 shows the plot for the broadband gain Glpef and the corresponding mean square error versus the

number of samples for different seed values. We see that the Glpef is lower than the theoretical value. This

is due to the low SNR of -20 dB.

All zero weight initialization

10

9

6

(dB)

lpef

Broadband gain G

5

4

3

4

seed value = 0.8825, = 1.2611 radians

3

2

1

1

0

0.5

1.5

2

Number of samples

2.5

0.5

x 10

1.5

2

Number of samples

(a)

2.5

3

4

x 10

(b)

1

10

10

10

10

Mean square error

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

0.5

1.5

2

Number of samples

2.5

10

3

4

x 10

0.5

1.5

2

Number of samples

(c)

(d)

2.5

3

4

x 10

1.4

Figure 2 shows the plot for the broadband gain Glpef and the corresponding mean square error versus the

number of samples for different seed values. In comparison to the all zero weight initialization we see that

gain is significantly lower. This is due to the low SNR of -20 dB.

All pass weight initialization

10

10

5

seed value = 0.4716, = 1.4643 radians

10

15

5

seed value = 0.1532, = 0.1994 radians

10

15

20

25

0.5

1.5

2

Number of samples

2.5

20

0.5

x 10

1.5

2

Number of samples

(a)

2.5

3

4

x 10

(b)

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

15

10

10

10

15

10

20

10

20

10

25

10

25

10

30

10

30

10

35

0.5

1.5

2

Number of samples

2.5

10

3

4

x 10

0.5

1.5

2

Number of samples

(c)

2.5

3

4

x 10

(d)

1.5

Analysis

It can be seen from the plots that the convergence of the all zero weight initialization is faster than that of

the all pass initialization. In addition, the former also attains a higher gain and therefore is able to nullify

the interference better.

ADAPTIVE BEAMFORMING

Adaptive Beamforming

2.1

2.1.1

|W (N )H U (0 )|2

SIN R = 10 log10

A2I |W (N )H U (I = 0)|2 + (0.1)2 |W (N )|2

(4)

In the above expression, we can see that U0 and UI represent the steering vectors of the desired and

interference signal respectively. When the adapted weight vector W is multiplied by both of these steering

vectors we get,

W (N )H U0 = 1

W (N )H UI = 0

Thus cancelling out the interference. The ideal SINR given that the interference is cancelled out, by the

minimum variance beamformer weight vector W is given by,

10 log10 (L/(0.1)2 )

The value of L is assumed to be 30 and thus the steady state SINR is 34.771 dB, this is the maximum SINR

that can be achieved. Figure 3a and Figure 3b illustrate the convergence of the SINR over the sample size

for different amplitudes (AI ) and different angles of the desired (0 ), interfering (i ) signals. We notice

that for larger differences between 0 and i , the convergence to 34.771 dB is faster, thus eliminating the

interference more accurately. It becomes difficult when both 0 and i are close to each other.

AI=10

A =1

I

40

35

30

30

25

SINR (dB)

SINR (dB)

20

20

15

10

0=0, i=1

=5, =10

10

0=0, i=1

=3, =7

0

0

0=3, i=7

0=5, i=10

10

=10, =30

0

0.5

1.5

2

2.5

Number of samples

0=10, i=30

3.5

20

4

4

x 10

0.5

1.5

2

2.5

Number of samples

3.5

4

4

x 10

The corresponding array gains for the different values of (0 ) and (i ) are as shown in Figure 4.

0=0

ADAPTIVE BEAMFORMING

0=3

AI=1

AI=10

AI=1

AI=10

5

10

10

Gain (dB)

Gain (dB)

15

20

30

20

25

30

40

35

i=1

=7

i

40

50

45

60

40

30

20

10

0

10

Angle (degrees)

20

30

50

40

40

30

20

(a)

20

30

40

(b)

=5

10

0

10

Angle (degrees)

AI=1

AI=1

=10

0

AI=10

AI=10

10

10

20

20

Gain (dB)

Gain (dB)

30

30

40

50

i=10

50

60

60

70

40

40

i=30

70

30

20

10

0

10

Angle (degrees)

20

30

80

40

40

30

(c)

20

10

0

10

Angle (degrees)

20

30

40

(d)

2.1.2

The table below lists the values of the mse for different combinations of 0 , i and AI .

(0 , i )

(0,1)

(3,7)

(5,10)

(10,30)

AI =1

68.2826

32.5360

38.3304

28.7183

AI =10

71.8815

29.4528

29.8999

21.1764

We can infer from the table that, as the distance (0 i ) between the desired user and interferer

increases, the mean square error decreases because the weight vector W is able to suppress the interference

better.

2.1.3

Ideally, the BER is zero for a low noise variance because the W is able to completely nullify the interference.

However, for high values of noise variance, we see the BER plots for the adaptive constraint beamformer

in Figure 5. We can deduce from the plots that the BER increases with the increasing strength of the

interferer i.e., AI . Thus a strong interferer will reduce the error performance of the system.

AI=1

ADAPTIVE BEAMFORMING

A =10

I

10

10

Noise SD = = 3.535

Noise SD = = 3.535

1

10

10

10

BER

BER

10

10

10

=0, =1

0

=3, =7

0

0=3, i=7

0=5,i=10

4

10

10

10

0=10,i=30

5

0=0, i=1

0=5, i=10

0=10, i=30

0

Signa to Noise ratio (SNR) dB

10

10

0

SNR (dB)

10

(a) Error performance of the adaptive constraint linear (b) Error performance of the adaptive constraint linear

beamformer with AI = 1

beamformer AI = 10

2.2

2.2.1

Comparison between PCA and Minimum Variance Beamforming

In this section, we compare the SINR obtained from PCA and that from minimum variance beamforming

(MVB). The values are tabulated in the following table,

(0 , i )

(0,1)

(0,15)

PCA

AI = 1

AI = 10

SINR (dB) SINR (dB)

-0.036

20.4538

-0.003

34.4678

MVB

AI = 1

AI = 10

SINR (dB) SINR (dB)

27.9105

27.9075

29.4528

34.7670

The PCA assumes no prior information about the transmitted signal like the angle of arrival and uses

only the information from signals received. However, the PCA assumes that the power of interference

signal is strong and that the power of the desired signal is relatively very weak. It relies on this difference

between the relative strengths of the received signals and after performing an eigenvalue decomposition

assigns the one with the lowest eigenvalue to that of the desired signal. Then, uses the corresponding

orthogonal eigenvector to cancel out the interference.

It is clear that in the case of the PCA, AI has a significant impact on the performance. When the

strength of the desired signal and the interferer are similar, the PCA does not perform well. This can

be understood by looking at the eigenvalues obtained. For example, the case for when AI = 1 and

i = 15, eigenvalues via the decomposition are found to be 31.1 and 28.8. Hence, the eigenvectors are

not completely orthogonal resulting in a large amount of residual interference and ergo the performance

degradation. Finally, for large values of AI , the PCA performs much better and is comparable to the

performance of the MVB.

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