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Lab e, Specialized Leaves, Questions

Why must the stomata be located where they are in the Nymphaea leaf? The stomata through
which gas exchanges take place, on the Nymphaea leaf must be located on the upper epidermis
(unlike an ordinary leaf) because it needs to be able to absorb carbon dioxide from the
atmosphere. Having the stomata located on the upper surface of the leaf allows the leave to
absorb carbon dioxide. Additionally, this also allows the leaf to lose more water, which isnt a
problem for this plant leaf because it is surrounded by water. The adaptation here is optimal for
its environment. 1
1. How does the vascular tissue bundle composition of the Nymphaea leaf differ from that of
other leaves you have examined? The Nymphaea leaf (dicot) differs from other leaves I have
examined due to the fact that this leaf has considerably less xylem than phloem and the presence
of large air spaces.
hydrophytes do not need (nor have they) much in the way of mechanical supporting tissues. Hydrophytes
also have a reduced vascular supply -this is evidenced in reduction of the water-conducting tissues within
the xylem.

2. What are the environment conditions in which plants known as hydrophytic, mesophytic and
xerophytic grow? Hydrophytes plants grow in or near water.2 Hydrophytic plants are also
referred to as aquatic plants due to growth in or near water or waterlogged soil. They thrive in
areas where there is an excessive water supply.3 These plants may grow completely or partially
submerged in water or they may float upon the surface of water. The roots are typically planted
in wet soil, usually anchored to swamp grounds or other nearby sources of water. These plants
thrive in watery habitats due to morphological and anatomical modifications such as modified
roots classified as pneumatophores.4 Pneumatophores are lateral roots that grow upward,
fluctuating in distance and function as the site of oxygen consumption for the submerged root
system.5 Mesophytic plants thrive and grow in environments with a moderate amount of
moisture. In other words, they survive in habitats that are neither dry nor wet.6 These plants
thrive in conditions that are considered normal for the majority of plants.7 Xerophytic plants live

1 http://www.sbs.utexas.edu/mauseth/weblab/webchap10epi/10.3-14.htm
2 http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/plant-adaptations-introduction-andecological-classification-of-plants/6902
3 http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iv/organismsenvironment/hydrophytic-habitat.php
4 http://www.cropsreview.com/plant-classification.html
5 http://www.britannica.com/plant/angiosperm#ref596603

and thrive in conditions where water is usually scarce- such as a desert. These plants are able to
survive in areas with extreme water shortages. They can live during long droughts as seeds.5
3. What are the adaptations of the leaves of hydrophytic, mesophytic and xerophytic plants that
would allow them to grow in their specialized environment? Hydrophytes typically have

6 http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/plant-adaptations-introduction-andecological-classification-of-plants/6902
7 http://www.acsgarden.com/courses/plant-ecology-982.aspx