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Question # 5: In the 19th century, this country became a battleground in the rivalry between imperial Britain and czarist Russia for
control of Central Asia.. In 1893 Britain established an unofficial border, the Durand Line, separating it from British India, and London
granted full independence in 1919.
Clue: pproximately the size of Texas, is bordered on the north by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan, on the extreme northeast
by China, on the east and south by Pakistan, and by Iran on the west
Clue: Darius I and Alexander the Great were the first to use this country as the gateway to India.

Question # 2:A part of Illyria in ancient times and later of the Roman Empire, it was ruled by the Byzantine Empire from 535 to 1204.
An alliance (14441466) of Albanian chiefs failed to halt the advance of the Ottoman Turks, and the country remained under at least
nominal Turkish rule for more than four centuries, until it proclaimed its independence on Nov. 28, 1912.
Clue: situated on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea, with Montenegro and Serbia to the north, Macedonia to the east, and Greece
to the south. Slightly larger than Maryland, ___ is composed of two major regions: a mountainous highland region (north, east, and
south) constituting 70% of the land area

Question # 3:Excavations in this place it have indicated that Homo erectus resided there between 500,000 and 700,000 years ago.
Phoenician traders settled on the Mediterranean coast in the 1st millennium B.C. As ancient Numidia, Algeria became a Roman
colony, part of what was called Mauretania Caesariensis, at the close of the Punic Wars (145 B.C. ).
Clue: Conquered by the Vandals about A.D. 440, it fell from a high state of civilization to virtual barbarism, from which it partly
recovered after an invasion by Arabs about 650
Clue: nearly four times the size of Texas; it is bordered on the west by Morocco and Western Sahara and on the east by Tunisia and

Question # 4:It is the only Latin American nation that derives its language and culture from Portugal. The native inhabitants mostly
consisted of the nomadic Tup-Guaran Indians. Adm. Pedro Alvares Cabral claimed the territory for Portugal in 1500.
Clue: The early explorers brought back a wood that produced a red dye,from which the land received its name.
Clue: Portugal began colonization in 1532 and made the area a royal colony in 1549.
Clue: overs nearly half of South America and is the continent's largest nation. It extends 2,965 mi (4,772 km) north-south, 2,691 mi
(4,331 km) east-west, and borders every nation on the continent except Chile and Ecuador

Question # 6:Little is known about the various Indian tribes who inhabited in this country before the Spanish arrived. In 1510
Spaniards founded Darien, the first permanent European settlement on the American mainland. In 1538 they established the colony
of New Granada, the area's name until 1861.
Clue: bordered on the northwest by Panama, on the east by Venezuela and Brazil, and on the southwest by Peru and Ecuador


the country was called the United States of New Granada;

Question # 1 :It was following this initial flourishing of civilization, in a period known as the Chou dynasty (1122249 B.C. ), that
Lao-tse, Confucius, Mo Ti, and Mencius
Clue: the great wall symbolized this country

Question # 4:aboriginal inhabitants arrived from the Asian mainland around 25,000 BCThey were followed by waves of Indonesian
and Malayan settlers from 3000 BC onward. By the 14th century AD , extensive trade was being conducted with India, Indonesia,
China, and Japan.
Clue: Ferdinand Magellan, the Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain, explored this country in 1521

Question # 8:inhabited by aborigines of Malayan descent when Chinese from the areas now designated as Fukien and Kwangtung
began settling it in the 7th century.
Clue: The Dutch forced out the Spanish in 1641 and controlled the island until 1661, when Chinese general Koxinga took it over and
established an independent kingdom
Clue: The UN seat representing all of China was held by the Nationalists for over two decades before being lost in Oct. 1971, when
the People's Republic of China was admitted and this country was forced to abdicate its seat to Beijing

Question # 9:originally inhabited by Celts, Iberians, and Basques, became a part of the Roman Empire in 206 B.C. , when it was
conquered by Scipio Africanus. In A.D. 412, the barbarian Visigothic leader Ataulf crossed the Pyrenees and ruled this country.
Clue: occupies 85% of the Iberian Peninsula, which it shares with Portugal, in southwest Europe. Africa is less than 10 mi (16 km)
south at the Strait of Gibralta
Clue: they established the Inquisition, to root out heresy and uncover Jews and Muslims who had not sincerely converted to

Question # 10:Descendants of nomadic Mongols from China and migrants from Indonesia. According to mythology, the first ruler of
this country was Hung Vuong, who founded the nation in 2879 B.C.
Clue: the

Portuguese were the first Europeans to enter the area. France established its influence early in the 19th century, and within

80 years it conquered the three regions into which the country was then dividedCochin-China in the south, Annam in the central
region, and Tonkin in the north.
Clue: occupies the eastern and southern part of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia, with the South China Sea along its
entire coast

Question #3:One of the earliest civilizations, the Indus Valley civilization flourished on the Indian subcontinent from c. 2600 B.C. to c.
2000 B.C. It is generally accepted that the Aryans entered the country 1500 B.C. from the northwest, finding a land that was already
home to an advanced civilization
Clue: They introduced Sanskrit and the Vedic religion, a forerunner of Hinduism
Clue: Buddhism was founded in the 6th century B.C. and was spread

Question # 2:largest of the 21 republics that make up the Commonwealth of Independent States. It occupies most of eastern
Europe and north Asia, stretching from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the
north to the Black Sea and the Caucasus in the south
clue: The various tribes were united by the spread of Christianity in the 10th and 11th centuries; Vladimir the Saint was converted
in 988
clue: In the late 15th century, Duke Ivan III acquired Novgorod and Tver and threw off the Mongol yoke. Ivan IVthe Terrible (1533
1584), first Muscovite czaris considered to have founded this state.

Korea, North
Question # 13:In the 17th century, it became a vassal state of China and was cut off from outside contact until the Sino-Japanese
War of 18941895. Following Japan's victory, Korea was granted independence. By 1910, Korea had been annexed by Japan,
which developed the country but never won over the Korean nationalists, who continued to agitate for independence.
Clue: Some of the larger communities of this era were established along the Han-gang River near modern-day Seoul, others near
Pyongyang and Pusan.

Question # 14:became a kingdom about 4 B.C. and Christianity was introduced in A.D. 337. During the reign of Queen Tamara
(11841213), its territory included the whole of Transcaucasia.
Clue: joined Azerbaijan and Armenia in 1917 to establish the anti-Bolshevik Transcaucasian Federation, and upon its dissolution in
Clue: ______, Armenia, and Azerbaijan were annexed by the USSR and formed the Transcaucasian Soviet Socialist Republic. In
1936, and became a separate Soviet republic. Under Soviet rule, the country was transformed from an agrarian to a largely
industrial, urban society.

Question # 15: After World War I, France was given a League of Nations mandate over the country and its neighbor Syria, which
together had previously been a single political unit in the Ottoman Empire.
Clue: lies at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, north of Israel and west of Syria
Clue: Civil war broke out in 1958, with Muslim factions led by Kamal Jumblat and Saeb Salam rising in insurrection against the
countries government headed by President Camille Chamoun, a Maronite Christian favoring close ties to the West

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Last and final clue

Day 1

Question # 5: Legend attributes the creation of this country to the sun goddess, from whom the emperors were descended. The
first of them was Jimmu, supposed to have ascended the throne in 660 B.C. , a tradition that constituted official doctrine until 1945.
Clue: At the same time, warrior clans were rising to prominence as a distinct class known as samurai.


1. THALES: Traditionally considered the first ever western

philosopher. None of his writings survive.
SOCRATES: Ancient Greek, changed philosophy from a study of natural science to ethics
and politics..
PLATO: Ancient Greek, student of Socrates, most influential philosopher of all time.
Works: The Republic.
ARISTOTLE: Ancient Greek, student of Plato, second most influential philosopher of all
time. Works: The Nichomachean Ethics, The Metaphysics, The Politics.
5. : Fused Platonic principles with Christian teaching. The last of the ancient Greek
philosophers. Works: The Enneads.
St Augustine: Continued Plotinus' project of Platonic Christianity. The first of the
Scholastic philosophers. Works: The Confessions, The City of God.
7. St Anselm: Scholastic, mostly famous for his argument for the existence of God, the
Ontological Argument, which was based on the argument that it would be contradictory to
God's nature for him not to exist. Works: The Monologion.
ST AQUINAS: The greatest Scholastic, he changed their emphasis from Plato to Aristotle,
promoting him as the greatest of all philosophers and attempting to fuse Aristotelianism
and Christianity. Works: The Summa Theologica.

9. Duns Scotus: Scholastic. I don't know much about him.

10. William of Ockham: Scholastic. Mostly famous for Ockham's razor, which argues for
simplicity in arguments.
11. Machiavelli: Political philosopher, famous for the ruthless advice he gave to rulers in
The Prince. Works: The Prince, The Discourses.
12. DESCARTES: The father of modern philosophy for challenging the blind acceptance of
Aristotle. Works: The Meditations, Discourse on Method.
13. HOBBES: Political philosopher. Explosively infamous in his day for being a suspected
atheist, among other reasons. Works: Leviathan.
14. SPINOZA: As infamous as Hobbes, his contemporary, in his day. Thought that the
universe was God and we were all part of it. Works: Ethics.
15. Malebranche: Considered the equal of Descartes or Spinoza in his day, now mostly
ignored. Works: The Search After Truth.
16. Arnauld: Equal to Leibniz and Malebranche in his day, now suffers the same fate as
Malebranche. Works: His correspondance is highly important, but also Logic or the Art of
17. LOCKE: Empiricist. Famous for his views on the human mind, knowledge and how we
can own property. Currently my favourite philosopher. Works: An Essay Concerning
Human Understanding, Two Treatises of Government.
18. LEIBNIZ: Rationalist, famous for his justification of evil and his ideas on substance.
Works: Discourse on Metaphysics, Monadology, Theodicy.
19. BERKELEY: Idealist, argued that the physical didn't really exist, only the mental did.
Not a popular view nowadays. Works: A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human
Knowledge, Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous.
20. HUME: Empiricist, most famous for arguing that inductive knowledge is not certain.
Works: A Treatise on Human Nature, The Enquiries.
21. Rousseau: Political philosopher mostly. Some consider him great, others, like me, think
him a sloppy and shallow thinker. Works: The Social Contract, The Origins of Social
Inequality, Emile.
22. KANT: Considered to be the greatest of the modern philosophers, his influence is allpervasive in almost every area of philosophy. Works: Critique of Pure Reason,
Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals.

23. Fichte: Follower of Kant, one of the founders of nationalism.

24. HEGEL: Argued that all history was progressing towards a perfect state of being.
Works: Phenomenology of Spirit, The Philosophy of Right.
Marx: Follower of Hegel, took his ideas and changed them into Communism. Works: The
Communist Manifesto, Capital.
26. Kierkeguaard: First major objector to Hegel, consider to be a founder of existentialism.
Works: Either/Or, Sickness Unto Death, Fear and Trembling.
27. Schopenhauer: Famous mostly for his pessimistic outlook and for influencing Nietzsche.
Works: The World as Will and Representation.
28. J.S. Mill: Utilitarian, follower of Bentham. Works: On Liberty, Utilitarianism.
29. NIETZSCHE: Mostly a moral philosopher, famously rejected traditional Christian and
Jewish morality as 'slave morality'. Works: Thus Spake Zarathustra, Beyond Good and
30. James: Important US philosopher, proponent of pragmatism. Works: Pragmatism,
Varieties of Religious Experience.
31. Frege: Most important logician since Aristotle.
32. Russell: Perhaps the greatest philosopher of the last century. Works: Problems of
Philosophy, History of Western Philosophy, Principia Mathematica (with Whitehead).
33. Wittgenstein: Student of Russell, another contender for greatest of the last century,
premier philosopher of language. Works: Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Philosophical
34. Heidegger: Important German philosopher. Works: Being and Time.
35. Sartre: Famous French existentialist. Works: Being and Nothingness.

The 100 Greatest Heroes:

Inspiring Profiles of One Hundred Men and Women Who Changed the World

1. George Washington: first President of the United States from 1789 to

1797 and as the commander of the Continental Army in the American
Revolutionary War from 1775 to 1783.

2. Abraham Lincoln: 16th President of the United States from March 1861
until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country
through its greatest internal crisis, the American Civil War, preserving
the Union and ending slavery
3. Susan B. Anthony: she was a prominent American civil rights leader
who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights
movement to introduce women's suffrage into the United States. She
traveled the United States, and Europe, and gave 75 to 100 speeches
every year on women's rights for 45 years.
Clue: On January 1, 1868, she first published a weekly journal entitled
The Revolution. Printed in New York City, its motto was: "The true
republic men, their rights and nothing more; women, their rights and
nothing less."
4. Pope John Paul II: he has been acclaimed as one of the most influential
leaders of the twentieth century.[2] It is widely held that he was
instrumental in ending communism in his native Poland and eventually
all of Europe
clue: He was one of the most-travelled world leaders in history, visiting
129 countries during his pontificate
5. John F. Kennedy: 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961
until his assassination in 1963.
Clue: assassinated on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas. Lee Harvey
Oswald was charged with the crime but was shot and killed two days
later by Jack Ruby before he could be put on trial
6. Neil Armstrong: an American aviator and a former astronaut, test pilot,
aerospace engineer, university professor, and United States Naval
Aviator. He was the first person to set foot on the Moon
Clue: second and last spaceflight was as mission commander of the
Apollo 11 moon landing mission on July 20, 1969
7. Napoleon Bonaparte: decided France's naval power was not yet strong
enough to confront the Royal Navy in the English Channel and
proposed a military expedition to seize Egypt and thereby undermine
Britain's access to its trade interests in India.

Clue: become a worldwide cultural icon who symbolizes military genius

and political power. Since his death, many towns, streets, ships, and
even cartoon characters have been named after him.
8. Joan of Arc: a national heroine of France and a Catholic saint. A peasant
girl born in eastern France, she led the French army to several
important victories during the Hundred Years' War, claiming divine
guidance, and was indirectly responsible for the coronation of Charles
Clue: remained an important figure in Western culture. From Napoleon
to the present, French politicians of all leanings have invoked her
memory. Major writers and composers who have created works about
her include Shakespeare (Henry VI, Part 1), Voltaire (La Pucelle
d'Orlans), Schiller (Die Jungfrau von Orlans ), Verdi (Giovanna
d'Arco), Tchaikovsky (
9. Alexander the Great: tutored by the famed philosopher Aristotle,
succeeded his father Philip II of Macedon to the throne in 336 BC after
the King was assassinated and died thirteen years later at the age of
clue: died in Babylon in 323 BC, before realizing a series of planned
campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia.
Clue: He succeeded in being awarded the generalship of Greece and, with
his authority firmly established, launched the military plans for expansion
left by his father
Christopher Columbus: a navigator, colonizer, and explorer from
Genoa, Italy, whose voyages across the Atlantic Ocean led to general
European awareness of the American continents in the Western
Clue: he was preceded by at least one other group, the Norse, led by Leif
Ericson, who built a temporary settlement 500 years earlier at L'Anse aux

The original name in 15th century Genoese language was Christoffa