Heat Transfer for Conduction

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Heat Transfer for Conduction

© All Rights Reserved

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1

Heat Transfer

Steady State

Conduction

1 Dimension

No internal energy generation

The term one-dimensional refers to the fact that only one coordinate is

needed to describe the spatial variation of the dependent variables.

Characteristics of a one-dimensional system conduction steady state:

temperature gradients exist along only a single coordinate direction,

and heat transfer occurs exclusively in that direction.

the temperature at each point is independent of time

for one-dimensional, steady-state conduction in a plane wall with no

heat generation and constant thermal conductivity, the temperature

varies linearly with x.

both the heat rate

are constants, independent of x.

There could be internal heat generation

There could be thermal storage inside the investigated body

fins can be used to enhance heat transfer by convection to an adjoining fluid.

distributed source or sink of energy within

the wall, the appropriate form of the heat

equation

material is assumed to be constant, the

equation may be integrated twice to obtain

the general solution

and constant thermal conductivity, the temperature varies linearly with x.

Thermal Resistance

In particular, an analogy exists between the diffusion of heat and electrical charge.

Just as an electrical resistance is associated with the conduction of electricity,

a thermal resistance may be associated with the conduction of heat.

surface. From Newtons law of cooling

The thermal resistance for convection is then

resistances are in series and may be summed,

it follows that

Radiation exchange between the surface and surroundings may also be important if the

convection heat transfer coefficient is small (as it often is for natural convection in a

gas). A thermal resistance for radiation may be defined by

Composite Wall

Equivalent thermal circuits may also be used for more complex systems, such as

composite walls. Such walls may involve any number of series and parallel thermal

resistances due to layers of different materials. Consider the series composite wall. The

one-dimensional heat transfer rate for this system may be expressed as

Exercise

1. Thin silicon chip and an 8-mm-thick aluminum substrate are separated by a 0.02mm-thick epoxy joint. The chip and substrate are each 10 mm on a side, and their

exposed surfaces are cooled by air, which is at a temperature of 25C and provides a

convection coefficient of 100 W/m2 K. If the chip dissipates 104 W/m2 under normal

conditions, will it operate below a maximum allowable temperature of 85C?

For steady-state conditions with no heat generation, the appropriate form of the heat

equation

The rate at which energy is conducted across any cylindrical surface in the solid may

be expressed as

where A 2rL is the area normal to the direction of heat transfer

Note that the temperature distribution without internal energy generation associated

with radial conduction through a cylindrical wall is logarithmic, not linear, as it is for

the plane wall under the same conditions.

the heat transfer rate

For radial conduction in a cylindrical wall, the thermal resistance is of the form

Consider now the composite system of Figure 3.8. Recalling how we treated the

composite plane wall and neglecting the interfacial contact resistances, the heat

transfer rate may be expressed as

or

Exercise

A steam pipe of 0.12-m outside diameter is insulated with a layer of calcium silicate.

If the insulation is 20 mm thick and its inner and outer surfaces are maintained at Ts,1

800 K and Ts,2 490 K, respectively,

a. The thermal resistance

b. what is the heat loss per unit length (q) of the pipe?

Now consider applying the alternative method to analyzing conduction in the hollow

sphere

For the differential control volume of the figure, energy conservation requires that

for steady-state, one-dimensional conditions with no heat generation. The

appropriate form of Fouriers law is

Exercise

A spherical Pyrex glass shell has inside and outside diameters of D1 0.1 m and D2 0.2

m, respectively. The inner surface is at Ts,1 100C while the outer surface

is at Ts,2 45C.

(a) Determine the temperature at the midpoint of the

shell thickness, T(rm 0.075 m).

(b) For the same surface temperatures

Summary

generation

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