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# Advances in Electrical Engineering System

Vol. 1, No. 1, March 2012
www.worldsciencepublisher.org

24

Optimal Tuning of TCSC Controller Using Particle Swarm
Optimization
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1

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
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Abstract –This paper presents parameters setting by optimization algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for modeling
Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) in power system. This is done by minimizing a time-domain based objective function
of PSO. The results obtained from simulations in MATLAB/Simulink verified the effectiveness of proposed modeling and improving
power system stability.
Keywords –Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC); optimal tuning; particle swarm optimization; power system stability.

1. Introduction
One important member of FACTS family, TCSC
(Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor) is an impedance
compensation which is applied in series reactance on an
AC transmission system to provide smooth control of
series reactance [1]. The use of these controllers had
given grid planners and operators a greater flexibility
regarding the type of control actions that could be taken
at any given time. The detailed explanations about the
FACTS controllers are well documented in the literature
and be founded in [2, 3], developed a continuous-time,
large-signal dynamic model for a TCSC. The model is
based on the representation of voltages and currents as
time-varying Fourier series, and focused on the dynamics
of the short-term Fourier coefficients [4]. The detailed
has presented dynamics of the TCSC with the analysis of
the periodic state equations, using the state variable
approach. Transient characteristics as well as steady state
characteristics of the TCSC were also presented using the
analytical equations for three operating modes of the
TCSC. A fundamental frequency model for TCSC for
analyzing the factors that influence the transient stability
of TCSC with the changed in operating conditions was
developed in 1998 [5]. A new TCSC model for angle
stability studies was used to design a simple controller
based primarily on the dynamic response of the system.
An analysis of different locally measurable controller
input signals was also presented a small signal, PhillipsHeffron [6] model of single-machine infinite bus power
system installed with a TCSC where the parameters of the
TCSC damping controller are optimized by a multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization. This presents
difficulties for tuning the FACTS controllers in that, the
controllers tuned to provide desired performance at small
signal condition never guarantee acceptable performance
in the event of major disturbances. A conventional leadlag controller structure is preferred by the power system
utilities because of the ease of on-line tuning and also
lack of assurance of the stability by some adaptive or
variable structure techniques. The problem of FACTS

controller parameter tuning is a complex exercise. A
number of conventional techniques have been done.
In the literature belonging to design problems of
conventional power system stabilizers namely: the
eigenvalue assignment, mathematical programming,
gradient procedure for optimization and also the modern
control theory. The conventional techniques were taked
more time as they are iterative and require heavy
computation burden and slow convergence. In addition,
the search process was faced to be trapped in local
minima and the solution obtained may not be optimal [7].
Recently, PSO is becoming more famous to solve the
optimization problems in different fields of applications.
Particle swam optimization is a kind of population-based
evolutionary algorithm .It is as similar as other
population based evolutionary algorithms that the
algorithm is initialized with a population of random
solutions. In PSO has motivated by the simulation of
social behavior instead of survival of the fittest, and each
candidate solution is associated with producer. The
candidate solutions, called particles, then “fly” through
the search space. The velocity is constantly adjusted
according to the corresponding particle’s experience and
the particle’s companions’experience. It is seem that the
particles will towards better solution area. Simulation
results show the advantages of using the modeling and
tuning method when performing control and stability
analysis in a power system including a TCSC controller.
The remainder of this paper is organized in five major
sections. A brief explain of TCSC is presented in Section
2. Power system modeling with the presented TCSC
controller structure is presented in Section 3. In Section 4,
application of PSO
is presented. The results are
presented and discussed in Section 5. Finally, in last
Section have compared between
PSO and GA and
conclusions are given. Effective design and accurate
evaluation of the TCSC control strategy is depend on the
simulation accuracy of this process. This paper is
presenting a function model of the TCSC in the