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RGMTTC

Computing Skills-Basic
UOM-S007
for the Students of University of Madras

BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED


(A Government of India Enterprise)
RAJIV GANDHI MEMORIAL TELECOM TRAINING CENTRE
(ISO 9001:2008 Certified)
MEENAMBAKKAM, CHENNAI - 16

INDEX
Contents
UNIT I - INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS........................................................... 3
UNIT II - WORD PROCESSING........................................................................... 34
UNIT III - FILE MANAGEMENT........................................................................... 61
UNIT IV - SPREADSHEETS ................................................................................ 81
UNIT V - NETWORKS...................................................................................... 109

UOM-S007

UNIT I - INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS

We are living in an information age dependent


upon digital information. Digital information is electronic information, the result of
computer processing. Every type of job relies upon getting information, using it,
managing it, and relaying information to others. Computers enable the efficient
processing and storage of information.

1.1 Classifications of Computer


The capability of computer depends upon the amount of data stored in the main
memory, the speed of operation, the number of peripheral devices, amount and
types of programs available for the use with the computer system. Accordingly,
computer can be classified as follows:
Mainframe Computer
Mini Computer
Personal Computer
1.1.1 Mainframe computers, the larger of the computers can literally fill a room.
These large computers are used to fulfill the computing needs of large companies
and corporations and are also used in large telecommunications centers. They are
very powerful with huge amount of storage and processing capability. The
drawbacks to the mainframe computer for use as a personal computer are its size,
its immense amount of computing power, and its price, which can run into crores
of rupees.
1.1.2 Mini computer was developed to serve the computing needs of smaller
companies and the larger departments of corporations. It has essentially the same

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functionality of the larger mainframe computer but on a smaller scale. The
mainframe was scaled into a smaller package with most of its functions remaining
and a little less storage and processing power, sold at reduced price. Because of
advances in technology, today's minicomputer can fulfill the entire computing
needs of a small- to medium-sized company as well as serve as a very powerful
communications server. But mini computer are much too big, in terms of
processing power and size, not to mention price, to be used as a personal
computer.
1.1.3 Personal computer is the smallest one and is often seen on the desk therefore
is referred to as desktop. It has a good processing power, though not of the same
degree as of mini or mainframe, with a much smaller size, with affordable price and
is quite effective for personal uses.
Two further types of computer need mentioning i.e. Super Computer & Embedded
Computer. A Super Computer is an extremely powerful computer used mostly in
research and space, military and governmental applications. A super computer is
the costliest one and can cost crores of rupees. It is equivalent of thousands of
personal computers that share in the processing load to solve very large and
complex problems in hours or days instead of weeks, months, or years. A
supercomputer is the largest and most powerful computer, sometimes equaling the
power of several mainframes combined.
An Embedded computer is built into another device to control, monitor, or
manage some activity for the device. Virtually all electronic devices have an
embedded computer built inside for example a microwave oven, modern televisions
etc. They have very small and single purpose processors. A personal computer also
has an embedded computer in its microprocessor but it is a multifunctional device
capable of controlling more than a single process or activity.

1.2. Role of Computers in Society


As we hurtle towards the 21st century, we must accept the
inevitability of a computer revolution in the near future. It is an-inseparable part of
development, as demonstrated by other countries. Computers are no longer luxury
or the sole property of the advanced countries. Their appropriate uses in India can
help us solve the unique problems of a developing country and bring about the

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desired changes in increasing literacy, optimizing resources, increasing efficiency,
productivity and quality.
Already computers have become such an important part of our livesin airports, banks, railway stations and every well-equipped modern office. As
computer continues to proliferate in ever increasing numbers across large
segments of Government, business and industry, the common man is beginning to
believe hesitantly that computers can actually deliver a good part of the promise
that they had offered. Society is gradually accepting the fact that computers will
indeed change the manner in which the things are done.
Computers can substantially save valuable man-hours by helping
people through communication to make reservation of tickets, operate their bank
accounts, to pay for electricity water and telephone bills, insurance premium and
also do routine shopping. Trains can be operated automatically by computers and
traffic signals be computer co-ordinate to produce best traffic patterns, increase
reliability and safety and generally provide for more efficient services.
The basic industry of India is 'agriculture'. In areas of agriculture and
irrigation, computers are making possible better matching of soil characteristics
and crop. This coupled with better use of resources like water, fertilizers and
sunlight and more precise prediction of monsoons can help India in increasing crop
yields manifold.
Computer in health is bringing new hope for the sick. In areas of
health and medicine, expert systems and data bases on blood groups availability,
eye banks medical history of patients etc, can bring about a marked improvement
in our health services. Expert system can help in more accurate diagnosis of
ailments 'Hospital Information Systems' can help improve the efficiency of our hospitals reduce mortality and death-rates and in general provide better and speedier
health care to our people.
While this realization is gaining firmer ground in areas like the utility
services, railways, airlines, agriculture, health etc., as well as organization control,
there is area where the role of computers as the prime agents of change has still
not been recognized. That is the area of education. In our country there are over
5,00,000 primary schools of which l/3rd are single-teacher schools. 64% of total
population of our country is illiterate. The number of illiterates at present is higher
than that at independence. To tackle a problem of such gigantic proportions, it is
essential that a modern aids offered by Information Technology are made use of to
spread education to the rural areas where most of the illiteracy is concentrated.
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Computer based lessons developed in various subjects by experts in that area
could be used to educate the masses. The computer is a rapidly evolving tool that
can now deal quite effectively with all fine forms of information that man deals with
for better education are -data, text, image, graphics and voice.
One thought can take place in our minds for a moment that 'the
computer will replace the teacher-that would be a suicidal thought. But we should
fully accept the reality that the computer will radically change the manner in which
teaching-learning processes take place. The role of the teacher will undergo a
radical change. From being a mere "information dumping machine", the teacher
will once again rise to the height of being a mentor, philosopher and guide
developing, instilling values, ideas, creating challenges and nurturing feelings,
sentiments and empathy in young minds. In the wider prospective, these are what
are required for building a strong nation-intellectually spiritually and economically.
In the most important area of government administration, to enable
administration take the right decision at the right time, accurate, relevant and upto-date information should be made available to them. Modern computerized
communication network can significantly help bureaucracy cut its red tape.
Therefore, computers are synonymous with development. With
appropriate computer usage and quality of life applications, India will be able to
effectively tackle its unique problems. The entire society will undergo a
transformation and what would emerge is a society that is more intellectually
aware and which values its time, intellect and dignity. A society armed with
computer expertise can meet with confidence the exciting new India of tomorrow.

1.3 Inside Computers


1.3.1 Computer and its functions:
Computer is an electronic data processing device capable of doing arithmetic
computations and other complex operations at a very high speed. The computer
does these operations on the basis of instructions given to it by a human being.
Thus a computer does not do anything by itself; it is only a tool and does what you
ask to do. If you feed wrong information into it, the result also will be wrong.
Basic functions that a computer can perform are:
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Input
Process
Store
Output
For different functions the computer has different component namely:
Input Unit
Central Processing Unit
o Control Unit
o Arithmetic & Logic Unit
o Memory Unit
Output Unit
Input Unit - It consists of devices through which the data and/or program can be
communicated with the computer. The input device converts the data and/or
program from the human readable form to the machine readable form i.e. into a
machine code. The various input devices in computer are:
Key board
Floppy/Compact disc
Magnetic tapes
Mouse
Camera/Scanner/Microphone
Central Processing Unit - Control Unit, Arithmetic & Logical Unit and Memory
Unit collectively act like the heart of the computer and are referred to as the central
processing unit. It is here that actual processing of data takes place on execution of
the programs.
Control Unit is responsible for overall control of program execution. It receives
instruction from memory unit and on deciding the action to be taken, directs other
units of the computer to carry out respective functions. This unit, thus, performs
the following important functions:
Directing the flow of data
Executing instructions operations
Looking-after hardware and program errors
Control the sequence of the operation of various units.

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Arithmetical & Logical Unit - All calculating functions like addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division are carried out in this unit.
Memory Unit - This unit stores instructions and/or data. This unit is also called
as main or internal memory. In this context two terms needed to be introduced i.e.
RAM & ROM.
RAM (Random Access Memory) is the actual usable memory where the instructions
and data are made to reside during execution. The contents of this area exist there
as long as power is on.
ROM (Read Only Memory) contains programs (of permanent nature) in machine
code which do not get wiped out even when power goes off. The method of storage
of this memory is such that, it is neither erasable nor replaceable. Programs in this
area include operating system, monitor programs, etc.
Auxiliary or external memory is the additional memory used to supplement the
storage capability. Magnetic tape, floppy, disc, etc. are examples of this category.
Output Unit - The final result for a given problem residing in main memory can be
inscribed on an appropriate output device in the output unit of the computer. The
output can be in either visual or audio or printer form. The output devices which
are in use today are:
Printer
Visual Display Unit
The various input and output devices of the computer are termed are termed as
Computer Peripheral

Computer Software
The physical and tangible components of the computer i.e. those components
which can be touched and seen are called Hardware. It includes central
processing units consisting of resistors, capacitors, ICs etc. and peripherals
consisting of input devices and output devices.
But all these devices are mere junks of there is no proper software. Software is the
program which gives life to the hardware. There are three major categories of
software viz.
Operating System
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Language Processor
Application Package
Operating System - These are programs usually written by computer
manufacturers. These programs are inbuilt into the computer and are used to
govern the control of the computer hardware components, such as processors,
memory devices and input/output devices. They, in fact, act as an interface
between the user's programs and the computer components and facilitate in the
execution of programs.
Language Processor - This software is used to translate the programmer written
instructions into machine code instructions. This is machine-dependent software
and is popularly known as assembler /compiler.
Application Package - Application programs are user-written programs to perform
certain specific jobs. They are unique in their construction and can be used only
for identical jobs. MS Word, Excel, etc. are common example of it.
1.3.2. Hardware:
Computers generally are of three type i.e. mainframe, mini and personal. What we
see on our desk is a personal computer. It has only been developed after the
mainframe and mini computer. Mainframe and mini computers, though fast in
processing, were large in size, costly and needed experts for use and application.
But the Personal Computer (PC) has removed all these limitations and has made
the computing popular. Now we shall study the component of a typical personal
computer. In other words we shall study the hardware of a PC.
The hard wares of a typical PC include:
Visual display unit
Keyboard / Mouse
System unit, which contains the motherboard, disk drive, expansion card, and
input/output ports
Printer
Visual Display Unit (VDU) The two general categories of PC visual presentation are monitor and display. A
monitor has a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) and looks something like a traditional
television set. On the other hand, a display is a flat-panel Liquid Crystal Display
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(LCD) that can be attached to a PC or hung on the wall. A display is really an
adaptation of the monitor, but because it uses different technology, they are treated
as two different components.
A monitor has some advantages over the display. It is bright, well-lit, and
economical and produces excellent color and graphic qualities. A monitor uses the
same technology common to the television set. The monitor is basically a funnel
shaped glass tube (technically known as cathode ray tube) that uses electron guns
to light up (technically known as excite) phosphor elements on the back of display
glass. The lighted phosphorous blend to form images and movements and is shown
through the display of the CRT for the user to view. The user views the
phosphorous through a single pane of glass, which is why the display is so bright
and why it is easily viewed from an angle.
But if there is limitation of space on a desk or worktable an LCD display is a more
suitable option than a CRT monitor. A typical CRT monitor are 12 inch or more
from front to back, which can take a considerable amount of workspace on a desk.
Flat-panel LCD displays are typically only a few inches deep including its foot,
which makes them perfect for small desks or places where a large CRT monitor
would negatively impact the aesthetics or decor. Even the new PCs that are
integrated into the same package as a flat-panel display are only inches in depth.
Flat-panel LCD display are backlit, which means the light source of the display
shine through several layers of filters and glass before on see it. This is why LCD
displays appear to be less bright than a CRT-style display and less legible from an
angle. However, LCD displays are digital, which means they are able to reproduce
images more accurately, especially colors.
The monitor and display can be found in different sizes. The most popular sizes are
14-inch, 15-inch, 17-inch, 19-inch and 21-inch. This is the size of the CRT or LCD
measured diagonally from a top corner to an opposite bottom corner (in the same
way a television set is measured and marketed). The viewable size of CRT, however,
is a bit less than its nominal size for the front bezel (the plastic around the edge of
the display) covers up a small portion of the display.
The images displayed on a monitor are created from a pattern of dots in much the
same way as the photographs in a newspaper. Dots are shaded lighter or darker so
that ones eyes can form a visual image from them. The CRT creates these dots from
the phosphor on the back of its screen using masking methods that isolate each
dot so that it can be illuminated by an electron gun.

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A monochrome, or single color, monitor has phosphor of only one color, so that
when the phosphor dots are illuminated, the text and the graphic image is a single
color on a contrasting background. Typically, the background is black and the
display color is green, amber or white.
The image produced on a color monitor is created by illuminated small triangles of
phosphor dots called picture elements, or pixels for short. In the CRT, one-third of
the dots are red dots, one-third are green dots, and one-third are blue dots. These
different colored dots are interspersed evenly on the screen so that a dot of each
color can be grouped with a dot of each of the other colors to form a triangle or
pixel.
A color CRT has three electron guns that are used to light up the phosphors in
each pixel. The combinations and intensities used to illuminate the phosphors
define the image produced on the screen. The electronic guns sweep over the pixels
from side to side, one row at a time, to create or refresh the displayed image.
LCD displays are of two different types: passive matrix and active matrix. A passive
matrix display has a layer of LCD elements on a grid (matrix) of wires. When
current is applied to the wire intersections, the diodes (pixels) are lighted. A passive
matrix refreshes the display by applying current to the pixels at a fixed rate. Active
matrix displays control each LCD element (diode) individually with one or more
transistors that continually refresh each element of the display.
Keyboard
The most common input device is the keyboard. The keyboard allows a user to
communicate with the PC through keystrokes that represent character data and
commands. Virtually every PC sold has a keyboard included as a part of its
standard package. In fact, most people take their keyboard for granted and rarely
even think about it.
Most keyboard layouts are still a variation on the key layout of a typewriter, at least
for the alphabetic, numerical, and special character keys. However, keyboards also
include a variety of other keys that are dedicated to specific functions or are
assigned functions by the software running on the PC, such as a keyboards
function keys.
Mouse
The mouse is a very natural, intuitive, inexpensive pointing device on a graphical
user interface like Windows. Two types o mouse in use today are:
Mechanical Mouse
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Optical Mouse
Mechanical Mouse
In a mechanical mouse, the movement of a rubber ball causes a pair of wheels to
spin that sensors detect to send data signal to the PC. Later modification came to it
and light emitting diodes were used to sense mouse movements and thus termed
as optomechanical mouse. A little modification of optomechanical mouse when a
finger wheel was attached on the top of it, typically between the two buttons i.e. left
click button and right click button. The wheel allows the user to scroll forward and
backward through a document in place of clicking on a windows scroll bar or using
the PAGE UP and PAGE DOWN keys or the cursor control arrow keys or the cursor
control arrow keys.
Optical Mouse
The optical mouse eliminates the mouse ball, replacing it with a optical sensors
that track the movement of the mouse against the background of the mouse pad or
whichever flat surface its on. One real advantage to the optical mouse over the
optomechanical mouse is that it does not require internal cleaning. Because it has
eliminated all moving parts, the optical mouse does not pick up dust and other
debris that could clog up the optomechanical mouse and require it to be regularly
cleaned. Another advantage is that, according to manufacturer claims, an optical
mouse is at least 33 percent faster and many times more accurate than an
optomechanical mouse.

1.3.3 Internal Hardware


The major components within a typical system case are:
Microprocessors
Motherboard
Chipsets and Controllers
BIOS
Computer Memory
Cache Memory
Hard Disks and Floppy Disks
CD-ROMs
Expansion Cards
Power Supply
Now we will discuss in brief each of these components.
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Microprocessors
The microprocessor is a multi function integrated circuit that is, in essence, the
computer. The processor, which is also called the central processing unit (CPU), is
made up of several parts. These parts work together to carry out the instructions
and actions that translate to a word processing system or a game on the PC.
Microprocessor of Intel is very popular and has a very higher clock speed. The clock
speeds of the Pentium I processor of Intel range from 60 MHz to 200 MHz and that
of Pentium IV range from 1.3 GHz to 3 GHz.
The primary parts of the CPU are Control Unit, Protection Test Unit, Arithmetic and
Logic Unit, Floating Point Unit, Memory Management Unit, Bus Interface Unit, The
Prefetch Unit, Decode Unit and Registers.
Motherboard
A motherboard (also known as a main board or system board) aggregates all of the
PC's primary system components on a single printed circuit board. In the
motherboard's single board design all the Pc's electronic circuitry that provides the
conduit through which all operations flow is located on the motherboard.
The major components found in a typical motherboard are CPU slot and socket,
Chipset, Memory sockets, BIOS ROM, CMOS battery, Power connectors, I/O
Connectors and Expansion Slots.
Chipset
The chipset is technically a group of chips that helps the processor and other
components on the PC communicate with and control all of the devices plugged
into the motherboard. The chipset controls the bits (data, instructions, and control
signals) that flow between the CPU, system memory and over the motherboard's
bus. The controller chip also manages data transfers between the CPU, memory
and peripheral devices and provides support for the expansion bus and power
management features of the system.
BIOS
A PC's BIOS (Basic Input / Output System) includes the programming to perform
three vital useful functions for the PC:
It boots the computer.
It validates the PC's configuration.
It provides an interface between the hardware of the PC and its software.

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ROM
ROM (Read Only Memory) is an electronic component. The data stored on ROM can
not be changed. Moreover it is nonvolatile i.e. it keeps its content even without a
power source. This makes it ideal for storing the PC's startup instructions and
system BIOS.
CMOS
CMOS memory is based on Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor technology
and requires only about one-millionth of an ampere to hold any data stored on it.
Using only a lithium battery, CMOS memory is able to store the startup
configuration of a PC for many years. The term CMOS is still synonymous with the
PC's startup configuration data.
RAM
RAM (Random Access Memory) is used in the PC for its primary memory. RAM is
where all active programs and data are stored to that they are readily available and
easily accessed by the CPU and other component of PC. When a program is
executed, a copy of the program from the hard disk is copied into RAM. Once it is
in RAM, the instructions that make up the program are passed one at a time to the
CPU for execution. Any data that the program accepts or reads from a disk is also
stored in RAM. It is a volatile but very fast in accessing the data. For example
accessing data from a hard disk takes from 8 to 16 milli-second while the same
data from RAM takes from 50 to 80 nano-second. The size of the RAM is measured
in bytes e.g. kilobyte or megabyte.
Cache Memory
Cache memory is very fast computer memory that is used to hold frequently
requested data and instructions. A cache is any buffer storage used to improve
computer performance by reducing its access time. The cache is commonly found
between RAM and CPU. To speed up the transfer of data and programs from the
hard disk drive to RAM, also, a disk cache is used.
Hard Disk & Floppy Disk Drives
Hard disk and floppy disk are types of secondary storage, with the PC's RAM
providing its primary storage. Hard disk drive is electronic equipment which stores
the data on the hard disk of the system. Whereas floppy disk drive stores the data
of the system on the floppies which are kept outside the system and helps in the
transfer of data from one system to another.

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CD-ROM Drive with Writer
CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory) Drive is a new invention and has
solved the problem of secondary storage. A huge data can be stored on a single CD.
The technology used is same as that of audio CD. Earlier once the data stored on a
CD was not re-writable but now the data can be written, read and re-written on the
CD through the CD Drive.
Expansion Card
Expansion cards are used to connect different peripherals (like ports providing
network connection, memory expansion etc.) of the computer to its motherboard.
Power Supply
The PC's power supply unit converts AC power from the wall socket to DC power for
the computer. Even the devise outside the computer case use DC power. In making
this conversion, the functions the power supply performs are conversion,
rectification, filtering, regulation, isolation, cooling, and power management.
Peripheral devices such as printers, external modems and disk drive use Ac power
converters to convert AC power to DC power.

1.4 Operating Systems


An operating system is a collection of programs that is needed to start and operate
the computer system. It works mostly in the background, specially when one start
the computer system, it is the operating system which takes over and does the
household routines on the computer system and hands over the computer to that
self for operation. Moreover it checks for the various commands that are given to
the computer to ensure that nothing wrong is happening.
Operating system also acts as an interface between a user and the hardware of the
computer. It controls and coordinates the use of the hardware among the various
application programs and thus acts as a Resource Manager.
We can thus summarize the functions of operating system as follows
Execution of program
Input/Output operation
Handling File System
Detection of errors
Allocation of resources
Information and Resource Protection

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All these services are ensured by the functions provided by an operating system.
The functions offered by different operating system differs from one operating
system differs from one operating system to another, but more or less they provide
the same services. Most commonly used operating systems are:
MS DOS
Windows
UNIX
Linux
1.4.1 MS DOS (MicroSoft Disk Operating System)
Microsoft's Disk Operating System, simply known as MS DOS had been the
prominent software for the running of the Personal Computer (PC). Actually it was
the big factor in popularizing the PC. Starting with version 1.0 MS DOS has now
come to the version 7.
The operating system should always remain in the main memory. The process of
transferring the operating system to the main memory is known as booting. The
operating system contains three files for booting viz.:
IO.SYS

hidden file

MSDOS.SYS

hidden file

COMMAND.COM
If the floppy contains these three files in the 0 track then it is called as booting
floppy.
There is a program called Bootstrap (Boot Program) in BIOS chip in the computer.
It does the following functions.
Testing the Hardware as per configuration
Search the OS and transfer the same i.e. it reads the boot sector, which
contains DOS boot record and then transfers the same to the main memory.
The boot record copies the IO.SYS, which contains SYSINT. Once IO.SYS is loaded,
boot record is not required. The SYSINIT will take care of further action. Now
MSDOS.SYS is loaded. Now SYSINIT searches for the CONFIG.SYS file and then
loads the same and gives instruction to MSDOS.SYS to act on CONFIG.SYS. The
SYSINIT instructs the MSDOS.SYS to load COMMAND.COM.
The COMMAND.COM contains the I/O operation and internal commands. It is the
command interpreter. After the loading of the COMMAND.COM the

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AUTOEXEC.BAT file will be executed. Finally the prompt will be displayed on the
VDU indicating that the booting is successfully completed and now the PC is ready
to accept any command.
A command is something you use to instruct MS-DOS what to do. All commands
are entered in the command line following the MS-DOS prompt. A command is
entered along with the necessary parameters and switches. So,
Command

- what is to be done (What to do)

Parameters

- to act upon what (Where to do)

Switches

- how the command is to be carried out (How to do)

DOS commands are divided into internal commands and external commands.
Internal command are memory resident. They are available in command.com.
The external commands are available in the form of a file, whose name is same as
the command with extension as either COM or EXE. Whenever the command is
issued the processor refers to the file and executes the command.
1.4.2 Windows
Windows is also a product of Microsoft. From Windows 95 to Windows xp it has
seen several version with each newer version improved over the older. What makes
it different from the MS-DOS is that it is based on Graphic User Interface (GUI).
Here the user is not required to write a command in the command line as in the
MS DOS rather he can use different menus of commands available on the screen.
Moreover it is mouse compatible. So a user is required to click the mouse only to
access different commands.
Another feature of this operating system is that multiple works can be carried out
through several windows which can be operated simultaneously. For example,
while the system is copying the file from the computer to floppy one can also read
another file. This feature of window has made it much popular and time saving.
1.4.3 UNIX
A multi-user, multitasking operating system that is widely used as the master
control program in workstations and servers. The Open Group holds the trademark
for the UNIX name (spelled in upper case) on behalf of the industry and provides
compliance certification to the UNIX standard.
Unix is written in C. Both Unix and C were developed by AT&T and freely
distributed to government and academic institutions, causing it to be ported to a

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wider variety of machine families than any other operating system. As a result,
Unix became synonymous with "open systems."
Unix is made up of the kernel, file system and a shell, which is the command line
interface with more than 600 commands for manipulating data and text. The major
shells are the Bourne shell (original), C shell and Korn shell.
Varieties of commercial applications run on Unix servers, and many Web sites run
under Unix. Over the years, there have been many different versions of the OS,
and, except for the PC world, where Windows dominates, almost every hardware
vendor offers Unix as its primary or secondary operating system. Sun has been
singularly instrumental in commercializing Unix with its Solaris OS (formerly
SunOS). HP, IBM, SCO and Digital (before it merged with Compaq) have also been
major Unix promoters.
1.4.4 LINUX
A very popular version of the Unix operating system that runs on a variety of
hardware platforms including x86, Itanium, PowerPC and IBM's entire product line.
Linux is widely used as a server OS and is gaining ground in the desktop market.
In 1990, Finnish computer science student Linus Torvalds turned Minix, a popular
classroom teaching tool, into Linux, which is closer to the real Unix. Torvalds
created the kernel, and most of the supporting applications and utilities came from
the GNU project of the Free Software Foundation. Many programmers have
contributed to the Linux/GNU system.
Linux is the most popular open source operating system in use now. Its source
code is available free of charge; however, Linux is distributed along with technical
support and training for a fee from several vendors such as Red Hat Software
(www.redhat.com) and SUSE Inc. (www.suse.com). The distribution CD-ROMs
include the complete source code as well as hundreds of tools, applets and utilities.

1.5.Storage devices
Most of the storage media in PC systems operate on magnetic principles. Hard disk
is the largest external memory of a PC system. It can be classified as exchangeable
& fixed. It is attached to a PC system through an IDE(Intelligent Drive Electronics)
adapter port or SCSI(Small Computer System Interface) adapter port. It is available
in different capacities like 20 GB, 40 GB, 80 GB,100 GB etc.
A Hard Disk Drive is a sealed unit that a PC uses for non-volatile data storage.
Nonvolatile, or permanent storage, in this case, means that the storage device
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retains the data even when there is no power supplied to the computer. Because
the HDD is expected to retain its data until a user deliberately erases it, the PC
uses it to store its most crucial programming and data. As a result, when the Hard
Disk fails, the consequences are usually very serious.
1.5.1 Hard Disk
A Hard disk drive contains rigid, disk-shaped platters, usually constructed of
aluminium or glass. A motor spins the platters at 5400 or 7200 rpm when the drive
is operating. In order to increase the amount of information the drive can store,
most hard disks have multiple platters and read/write heads.
Data is stored on the surface of a platter in sectors and tracks. Tracks are
concentric circles and sectors are pie-shaped wedges on a track.
A sector contains a fixed number of bytes- say 256 or 512 bytes. Sectors are often
grouped together into clusters.
The identically positioned tracks on each side of every platter together make up a
cylinder. A HDD normally has one head per platter side, with all the heads on a
common carrier device, or rack.
The process of low-level formatting a drive establishes the tracks and sectors on the
platter. The starting and ending points of each sector are written onto the platter.
High level formatting then writes the file-storage structures like the file-allocation
table into the sectors. This process prepares the drive to hold files.
A Hard disk drive is designed to be used with more than one operating system.
Partitioning enables a single HDD to run more than one type of Operating System
or it can enable a single Operating System to use the disk as several volumes or
Operating System assigns a drive letter or name.
1.5.2 Floppy Disk
Floppy disk is another magnetic storage device. It is made of thin, flexible Mylar
plastic coated with magnetic material and protected by an envelop. Earlier, 5.25
floppy disk with capacity 360 KB were in use. Nowadays 3.25 floppy disks are only
available in the market with capacity 1.44MB.
On the basis of recording density and capacity of a sector, floppy can be classified
as single density and double density disk.
The major parts of a Floppy disk drive include:

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1) Read/write head: Located on both sides of a diskette, they move together on
the same assembly.
2) Drive motor: A very small motor that spins at either 300 or 360 rotations per
minute.
3) Stepper motor: This motor makes a precise number of stepped revolutions to
move the read/write head assembly to the proper track position.
4) Mechanical frame: A system of levers that opens the little protective window
on the diskette to allow the read/write heads to touch the dual-sided
diskette media.
5) Circuit board: Contains all of the electronics to handle the data read from or
written to the diskette.
1.5.3 CDROM
CDROMs are used for storing large software packages and can contain all types of
multimedia data storing over 650MB of data. They are optical storage devices.A CD
is a simple piece of plastic about 1.2 mm thick and 12cm in diameter. CD consists
of an injection-molded piece of clear polycarbonate plastic. Once the clear piece of
polycarbonate is formed, a thin, reflective aluminum layer is sputtered onto the
disc, to make the surface reflective. The colour of a CD can be cyanine-green,
Phthalo cyanine- yellow or azo-blue. Then a thin acrylic layer is sprayed over the
aluminum to protect it. The label is then printed onto the acrylic.
A CD has a single spiral track of data, circling from the inside of the disc to the
outside. The data track is approximately 0.5 microns wide, with 1.6 microns
separating one track from the next. The track always circles from the inside of
the disc to the outside.

1.6 Programming
1.6.1 Overview:
Computer programming (often shortened to programming or coding) is the
process of designing, writing, testing, debugging, and maintaining the source
code of computer programs. This source code is written in one or
more programming languages. The purpose of programming is to create a set of
instructions that computers use to perform specific operations or to exhibit desired
behaviors. The process of writing source code often requires expertise in many

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different subjects, including knowledge
specialized algorithms and formal logic.

of

the

application

domain,

1.6.2 Need for Languages:


A programming
language is
an artificial
language designed
to
communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming
languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine
and/or to express algorithms precisely.
The earliest programming languages predate the invention of the computer, and
were used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms and player
pianos. Thousands of different programming languages have been created, mainly
in the computer field, with many more being created every year. Most programming
languages describe computation in an imperative style, i.e., as a sequence of
commands, although some languages, such as those that support functional
programming or logic programming, use alternative forms of description.
The description of a programming language is usually split into the two
components of syntax (form) and semantics (meaning). Some languages are defined
by a specification document (for example, the C programming language is specified
by an ISO Standard), while other languages, such as Perl 5 and earlier, have a
dominant implementation that is used as a reference.
A vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform
specific tasks. The term programming language usually refers tohigh-level
languages, such as BASIC, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, Ada, and Pascal.
Each language has a unique set of keywords (words that it understands) and a
special syntax for organizing program instructions.
High-level programming languages, while simple compared to human languages,
are more complex than the languages the computer actually understands,

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called machine languages. Each different type of CPU has its own unique machine
language.
Lying between machine languages and high-level languages are languages
called assembly languages. Assembly languages are similar to machine languages,
but they are much easier to program in because they allow a programmer to
substitute names for numbers. Machine languages consist of numbers only.
Lying above high-level languages are languages called fourth-generation
languages (usually abbreviated 4GL). 4GLs are far removed from machine
languages and represent the class of computer languages closest to human
languages.
Regardless of what language you use, you eventually need to convert your program
into machine language so that the computer can understand it. There are two ways
to do this:
compile the program
interpret the program
See compile and interpreter for more information about these two methods.
The question of which language is best is one that consumes a lot of time and
energy among computer professionals. Every language has its strengths and
weaknesses. For example, FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing
numerical data, but it does not lend itself very well to organizing large programs.
Pascal is very good for writing well-structured and readable programs, but it is not
as flexible as the C programming language. C++ embodies powerful objectoriented features, but it is complex and difficult to learn.
The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer the program
is to run on, what sort of program it is, and the expertise of the programmer.
1.6.3 Skills Needed In Programming
Programming does not represent a theoretical subject like Biology, Physics,
Mathematics or Chemistry. Consequently it is not necessary to have an advanced
degree in order to do very well or rather become perfect at programming.
In comparison to a variety of so-called physical tasks such as writing poetries,
singing, painting, gymnastics or rhyming, programming is not in need of special
innate talents or skills. So programming does not require strength, power,
condition or coordination. In order to do very well at programming it is necessary to
be careful and have a special capacity like craftsmanship.

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Things that are required for doing very well at programming are attention to detail,
specialized and technical knowledge, stupidity, good memory and the specific
ability to think in an abstract way in both all respects and every sense.
1. Attention to detail: Considering the matter of programming details are
playing a significant and very important role. So if the respective
programming language says it is necessary to declare and specify variables
before using them, you have to do so. However, if the programming language
requires the usage of parentheses, brackets and square brackets, you have
to do so as well.
2. Specialized and Technical knowledge: If you want to do very well at
programming you should have a profound specialized and technical
knowledge considering programming languages, programming in
general, web hosting, servers, etc. Be sure that you possess expert knowhow considering all things that have to do with web sites and web
development as well as other related issues such as for instance
configuration, optimization and practical use of both servers and web
hosting.
3. Stupidity: You certainly will not believe, but in spite of all it is true that
computers are incredibly stupid. Fact is that computers do only those things
you tell them to do no more, no less. When it comes to programming in
connection with the so-called stupidity of computers it is helpful to think as
stupidly as computers do.
4. Good Memory: Programming requires a very good memory. Because of the
fact that there are loads of important things and details to remember, it is
essential to be able to memorize basic and relevant programming facts.
Some of these are for instance the syntax of the respective programming
language, prewritten functions and parameters, variables and specific
functions, bugs you have had in the past and you want to avoid in the
future, etc. So the more of this basic know-how and details you are able to
keep in mind, the more successful you will be at programming.
5. Ability to think in an abstract way: The specific ability to think in an
abstract way on several levels as well as in all respects is certainly the most
essential skill in programming. Strictly speaking computers do represent one
of the most extensive and complex systems of all which do require knowing
and memorizing every single basic aspect and function of this system at all
levels as well as in all respects.
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1.7.Networking Basics:
The term network usually means a set of computers and
peripherals (printers, modems, plotters, scanners, and so on) that are connected
together by some medium. The connection can be direct (through a cable) or
indirect (through a modem). The different devices on the network communicate
with each other through a predefined set of rules called the protocol. Computer
networks allow people and machines to communicate, using a number of services.
The networking of computers become essential for two reasons:
Data Sharing
Resource Sharing
Data Sharing
Networks offer the capabilities of multi-user access to the organisational Data.
Shared files may exist in one location with multiple people accessing them or
updating parts of them. Database applications are found in virtually every
computerised organisation. Transmitting E-mail is one method of sharing data.
This avoids the face to face contact of people and improves the faster data flow.
Not only data files may be shared, but executable files may be shared as well. When
a user invokes an executable file on a network server, a copy of it is transmitted
over the network into the memory of the local user's workstation. That is where the
actual execution takes place, not on the file server
Resource Sharing
One of the distinct benefits of networking is the ability to share peripherals. For
example Laser Printer is costly and for a small office one can not afford to purchase
more than one printer to attach for each PCs. Instead one Laser Printer can be
shared by more PCs when the PCs are connected through Network. The ability of
sharing printers and disk space has been the driving force behind many companies
installing PC-based networks.
Line Configuration:

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The Line configuration defines the attachment of Network devices to a link. There
are basically two type of line configurations are there, they are:
Point to Point
Multi Point
The Point to Point line configuration provides a dedicated link between two Network
devices. The entire band width is available for transmission.
The Multi point Line configuration is also called Multi drop. In Multi Point Line
configuration more than two devices share the media. The bandwidth is shared
either Spatially or Temporally. If several devices can use the link simultaneously it
is a spatially shared line configuration. If the user must take turns, it is a time
shared Line configuration

Topology
The Physical layout or how the transmission media are wired together is known as
the Physical topology.
There are different type of topologies used in the Network they are:
BUS Topology
Ring Topology
Star Topology
Mesh Topology
Tree Topology
The Bus Topology
The bus network is the simplest, comprising a single main communications
pathway with each device attached to a single transmission media.
Terminat
or

A bus topology is a multipoint line configuration. A bus topology uses a single


transmission media to which network devices are attached. This single
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transmission media acts as backbone. Because all workstations share this bus, a
workstation checks for any information that might be coming down the backbone
before sending their messages. All messages pass the other workstations on the
way to their destinations. Each workstation then checks the address of each
message to see if it matches its own.
The primary advantage of a bus network is that it allows for a high-speed bus.
Another advantage of the bus network is that it is usually immune to problems.
Ends are terminated with a terminator called Head End to avoid signal reflection.
Advantages of a BUS Topology
Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus.
Requires less cable length than a star topology.
Disadvantages of a Bus Topology
Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable.
Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable.
Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down.
Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large building.
Ring Topology
Ring topologies consist of several nodes joined together to form a circle. In a ring
topology each device has a dedicated point to point line configuration only with the
other two devices on the either side of it. Ring consists of series of 150 shielded
twisted pair cable connecting each station to its neighbour. Output port of one
device is connected to input port of its neighbour. Messages move from one node
to the next, in one direction only. When a node receives a message that is
addressed to itself, the message is copied and sent back with a modification that
indicates it was received. Data was transmitted Uni-directionally around the ring.
Each workstation acted as a repeater, accepting and responding to packets
addressed to it, and forwarding on the other packets to the next workstation
downstream. (i.e the frame is passed to each station in sequence, where the
frame is examined, regenerated and then passed to the neighbour).

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Ring Topology
Multi Access Unit
A disabled or disconnected node may block the Ring. To avoid this an
automatic switch will by pass the faulty NIC. Once the node comes live it will be
put in to the Ring. For practical purpose these switches are combined into a
centralised devices called Multi Access Unit (MAU). The Multi Access Unit will have
multiple ports to connect the devices.
Advantages:
The benefit of such LANs was that response time was fairly predictable.
Disadvantages:
The more devices there were in the ring, the longer the network delays.The entire
network could be completely disabled if one of the workstations failed.
Star Topology
The star topology uses a central device with drop cables extending in all directions.
Each networked device is connected point-to-point to the central device, or hub. In
Star topology, each node has a dedicated Point to Point link only to the Hub. The
devices are not directly linked. All messages in a star topology must go through the
central device (Hub) before reaching their destination. It also acts as a repeater for
the data flow. This configuration is common with twisted pair cable; however, it can
also be used with coaxial cable or fibre optic cable.

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Advantages of a Star Topology

Easy to install and wire.


No disruptions to the network then connecting or removing devices.
Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.
Disadvantages of a Star Topology
Requires more cable length than a linear topology.
If the hub or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled.
More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the
concentrators.
The protocols used with star configurations are usually Ethernet or LocalTalk.
Token Ring uses a similar topology, called the star-wired ring.
Tree Toplology
In tree topology devices are connected to a secondary hub and that in turn
connected to central Hub. A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus

and star topologies. It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected


to a linear bus backbone cable. Tree topologies allow for the expansion of an
existing network, and enable schools to configure a network to meet their needs.

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Advantages of a Tree Topology
Point-to-point wiring for individual segments.
Supported by several hardware and software vendors.
Disadvantages of a Tree Topology
Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used.
If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down.
More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies.
Mesh Topology
Mesh topology is uncommon today because of its sheer impracticality. In a mesh
topology system, every node is connected to every other node. The pervading
thought behind this is to offer the maximum amount of reliability for data transit
and fault-tolerance.

1.8 Virus:
A computer virus is a program that spreads by first infecting files or the system
areas of a computer or network router's hard drive and then making copies of itself.
Some viruses are harmless, others may damage data files, and some may destroy
files. Viruses used to be spread when people shared floppy disks and other portable
media, now viruses are primarily spread through email messages.
Unlike worms, viruses often require some sort of user action (e.g., opening an email
attachment or visiting a malicious web page) to spread.
A virus is simply a computer program--it can do anything that any other program
you run on your computer can do. Some viruses are designed to deliberately
damage files, and others may just spread to other computers. A worm is a type of
virus that can spread without human interaction. Worms often spread from
computer to computer and take up valuable memory and network bandwidth,
which can cause a computer to stop responding. Worms can also allow attackers to
gain access to your computer remotely.

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A Trojan horse is a computer program that is hiding a virus or other potentially
damaging program. A Trojan horse can be a program that purports to do one action
when, in fact, it is performing a malicious action on your computer. Trojan horses
can be included in software that you download for free or as attachments in email
messages.
Most viruses, Trojan horses, and worms are activated when you open an
attachment or click a link contained in an email message. If your email client
allows scripting, then it is possible to get a virus by simply opening a message. It's
best to limit what HTML is available in your email messages. The safest way to view
email messages is in plain text.
Most users get viruses from opening and running unknown email attachments.
Never open anything that is attached to an email message unless you know the
contents of the file. If you receive an attachment from a familiar email address, but
were not expecting anything, you should contact the sender before opening the
attachment. If you receive a message with an attachment and you do not recognize
the sender, you should delete the message.
Selecting the option to view your email messages in plain text, not HTML, will also
help you to avoid a virus.
Tips to avoid virus:
Install anti-virus software from a reputable vendor. Update it and use it
regularly.
In addition to scanning for viruses on a regular basis, install an "on access"
scanner (included in most anti-virus software packages) and configure it to
start each time you start up your computer. This will protect your system by
checking for viruses each time you run an executable file.
Use a virus scan before you open any new programs or files that may
contain executable code. This includes packaged software that you buy from
the store as well as any program you might download from the internet.
If you are a member of an online community or chat room, be very careful
about accepting files or clicking links that you find or that people send you
within the community.
Make sure you back up your data (documents, bookmark files, important
email messages, etc.) on disc so that in the event of a virus infection, you do
not lose valuable work.

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1.9 Hacking:
Hacking is the practice of modifying the features of a system, in order to
accomplish a goal outside of the creator's original purpose. The person who is
consistently engaging in hacking activities, and has accepted hacking as a lifestyle
and philosophy of their choice, is called a hacker.
Computer hacking is the most popular form of hacking nowadays, especially in
the field of computer security, but hacking exists in many other forms, such as
phone hacking, brain hacking, etc. and it's not limited to either of them.
Due to the mass attention given to blackhat hackers from the media, the whole
hacking term is often mistaken for any security related cyber crime. This damages
the reputation of all hackers, and is very cruel and unfair to the law abiding ones of
them, from who the term itself originated. The goal of this website is to introduce
people the true philosophy and ethics of hackers, hopefully clearing their name and
giving them the social status they deserve.
Common Methods for Hacking Computer Terminals(Servers):
This comprises of either taking control over terminal(or Server) or render it useless
or to crash it.. following methods are used from a long time and are still used.
1.Denial Of Service
DoS attacks give hackers a way to bring down a network without gaining internal
access. DoSattacks work by flooding the access routers with bogus traffic(which
can be e-mail or Transmission Control Protocol, TCP, packets).
2.Sniffing
Sniffing refers to the act of intercepting TCP packets. This interception can happen
through simple eavesdropping or something more sinister.
3. Spoofing
Spoofing is the act of sending an illegitimate packet with an
expected acknowledgment (ACK), which a hacker can guess, predict, or obtain by
snooping
4. Viruses and Worms

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Viruses and worms are self-replicating programs or code fragments that attach
themselves to other programs (viruses) or machines (worms). Both viruses and
worms attempt to shut down networks by flooding them with massive amounts of
bogus traffic, usually through e-mail.
5. Back Doors
Hackers can gain access to a network by exploiting back doors administrative
shortcuts, configuration errors, easily deciphered passwords, and unsecured dialups. With the aid ofcomputerized searchers (bots), hackers can probably find any
weakness in the network.
6. Trojan Horses
Trojan horses, which are attached to other programs, are the leading cause of all
break-ins. When a user downloads and activates a Trojan horse, the software can
take the full control over the system and you can remotely control the whole
system.. great..!!! They are also reffered as RATs(Remote Administration tools)
7. Keyloggers
Consider the situation, everything you type in the system is mailed to the hacker..!!
Wouldn't it be easy to track your password from that.. Keyloggers perform
similar functionallities.. So next time you type anything.. Beware..!! Have already
posted about keyloggers and ways to protect yourself from them..
8. Social Engineering
This was one of the oldest trick to hack.. Try to convince your user that you are a
legitimate person from the system and needs your password for the continuation of
the service or somemaintainence.. This won't work now since most of the users are
now aware about the Scam.. But this Social Engginering concept is must for you to
have to convince victim for many reasons..!!!

9.Phishing
This is another type of keylogging, here you have to bring the user to
a webpage created by you resembling the legitimate one and get him to enter his
password, to get the same in your mail box..!! Use social engginering..

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10. Fake Messengers


So its a form of phishing in the application format.. getting user, to enter
the login info in the software and check your maill..!!!

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UNIT II - WORD PROCESSING


MS-WORD or Word in short, is a comprehensive word processing software package.
It provides all the features of a most advanced electronic typewriter. In addition to
these, many other features are also available in Word.
Some of the important features are given below. You can
Insert characters, words, sentences, paragraphs or pages of text anywhere in
the opened file.
Alter, insert, delete, or correct any character, paragraph, page at any time in the
file.
Move a selected portion of text to any location in the file using a few keystrokes
or mouse clicks.
Copy a section of text and insert it in any location using a few key strokes or
mouse clicks.
Find and replace a character, a word or phrase repeatedly.
View the document in its true form or in miniaturized form.
Insert pictures and objects in the existing text.
Check the spelling and correct the wrongly typed words.
Check the grammar in a portion or entire document in the file.
Check the words with similar and opposite meaning for a given word.
Create a multi column document.
Introduce numbering and bullet in the document.
Insert a table.
Use different fonts of different styles for a part/entire file.
Superscript or subscript.
Draw shapes using available drawing tools.
Create borders and shades.
Create headers and footers.
Resize the pages and so on.
A typical Word screen looks like Fig-1.1

Elements of Word Window


Word is built around a set of interactive windows (rectangular on-screen boxes)
through which you communicate with the Word Program.
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Figure 1.1 shows two windows on the screen, one nested within the other. They are
called
Application window and
Document window.
Application Window -Application window is the outer window that contains the
workspace for all word-processing procedures. Application window frames the
entire screen of the monitor. You use it to communicate with the Word program.
Document Window -Document window sits within application window. It is the
inner window where the text and images are entered.

Control Menu Box- This appears at the top-left corner of the window. When
clicked, it displays menu options to move, resize, close a window, or switch to other
applications.
Sizing Buttons-They are located in the upper-right corner of the window. They are
called minimize button, maximize/resize button, close button.
Minimize button- This is located to the left of the resizing button. A click on it
reduces a Window to a button on Taskbar.

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Maximize/resize button- The button, when clicked enlarges a program window
to fill the entire screen or enlarge a document window to increase the work area
inside an application window.
Close button- Clicking on this button closes the window.
Title Bar- Title Bar is the band displaying the name of the application. Title bar is
a part of the application window. The inner window displays the contents of the
current document. Title bar displays the name of the opened document as
Document1. If you open one more document, the name of that document will be
displayed as Document2. When you save the documents, Save As dialog box
appears and now you can opt for same name or a new one.
Menu Bar- It contains different menus located below the Title bar. You can select
any of the options by clicking on it or pressing Alt key and then the underlined
alphabet (Hot key). Refer figure 1.1. When you click on a menu, a list of options
drops down. From it select any option by clicking on it. If an item appears dimmed
(usually in gray shade), it means that it is not available for use.
Standard Toolbar- This bar is usually located below the menu bar. It contains the
tools that are used very frequently while working with the documents. Each tool is
activated by clicking on its icon. See fig 1.1
Formatting Toolbar- This toolbar contains drop down menus for different
headings, types and sizes of fonts, borders and shades and also options of text
attributes, text alignments, bullets and indents. See fig.1.1.
Ruler- Ruler contains scales that indicate the tabs, indents, and margin/paragraph
settings for the line/paragraph in which the insertion point is currently positioned.
The settings of current paragraph may be quickly changed through the use of the
mouse and the ruler.
Insertion Point- It is the vertical blinking line in the document window that
indicates current location and where the next text entry or graphics will be
inserted.
I-Beam-Pointer- It is the shape of the mouse pointer when it navigates within the
text area of the document window. (The pointer will take different shapes
depending on its location in the Word window and the Word procedures currently
in use.)
Status Bar- It is the bar at the bottom of the Word window that includes the page
number; section number, current page / total pages, the position of the insertion

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point in inches, the current line number and column number, current modes in
which Word runs.
Scroll Bars- They are the bars along the sides and/or bottom of a window, a dialog
box, or a list. They indicate that there is more information to be seen by scrolling.
To scroll through a document content, click on the beginning or end arrows located
on the scroll bar, or drag the scroll box slowly along the bar. The location of the
scroll box on the bar indicates the position of currently displayed information in
relation to the entire document.
The files in Word normally are called documents and DOC is the extension attached
by the system to the name of a Word file
2.1.1 Opening a Document
In File menu,
Click New for opening a new document.
Click Open for the existing document
Otherwise the respective icons in the standard tool bar can be clicked.
If you click New, the New dialog box appears. In that, choose blank document (in
General tab option). Click OK. A blank document is opened with its name as
Document1, say, on the title bar. While saving this document, Save in dialog box
will appear. Choose the drive/folder/files name and then click on the Save button.
The document will be saved with this new name.
If you click Open in the file menu, Open dialog box appears. Choose the
drive/folder/file to be opened and click on the Open button. The particular
document will be opened.
2.1.2 Saving a Document
As you enter information into a new document, the information is temporarily
stored in the computers memory. The computers memory will be erased when the
computer is turned off (or when you exit from your program). Saving the document
as a file on a disk provides a permanent copy of the document. A saved file can be
recalled later and its contents can be edited and can then be saved with
modifications included in it.
When you save a document as a file, you must give a name to it and specify the
location (drive and folder) where the file is to be stored.
Complete the following steps to save the current document.

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Click on the Save button on the Standard toolbar to display the Save As dialog box

(see fig 2.2)


Locate the blinking insertion point in the File name text box. Type the name
CTTC and do not press Enter.
Find the Drives list in the Save in text box. Drop down the menu to choose the
drive.
Click either on the name of the drive shown in the Save in textbox, or on the dropdown arrow. Choose one from the list.
If necessary, use the scroll bar to select the name of the drive.
Locate the directory from the list below the Save in text box. Click on the
appropriate folder.
Click on the Save button to save the file.
After the file has been saved, note that the title bar on the window now reads
Microsoft word-CTTC.
Modifying and Saving the Document- You have saved the document as CTTC.doc.
But still the document is open. Make some changes or go to the end of the
document by pressing Ctrl key and then End key. Enter you name there at the end.
You can save this document as a new file also. If you save this document as RTTC,
say, your name will appear in RTTC.doc only. The CTTC.doc will be left unchanged.
To save it as CTTC itself,

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Click on the save button on the Standard Toolbar. No dialog box is presented.
To save it as RTTC, say,
In the File menu, choose Save As option and complete the operations.
2.1.3 Closing a Document and Exiting Word
If the current file is not saved and if you try to close it, a dialog box appears with
options whether to save the changes in the file or not. Choosing Yes saves the file
under its current name and closes it. If the document is new and has not been
saved earlier, Yes option displays the Save As dialog box and complete the
operations.
There are numerous ways to exit Word safely. The ways to exit safely from Word are
listed as follows. We can use any one method
Open the File menu and click on the Exit option.
Double-click on the Word window control-menu box.
Press the Alt key and F4 key.
Click on the Close x box in the application window.
If the current document has not been saved when you enter the Exit command,
Word displays a dialog box asking with options whether the changes are to be
saved or not before exiting the program. On clicking the Yes button, Word saves the
document with changes included in it.
Note: Always close all running programs before turning off the computer.

2.2 Entering Text


When the document is opened, the blinking insertion point it is automatically
positioned at the top of the document. The default margins are 1.25 on left and
right, and 1 on top and bottom. The standard paper size is 8.5 by 11(Letter size),
default font is 10-point regular Times New Roman. The default document view is
Normal.
In the following exercise, a detailed description of few facilities provided by Word is
discussed.
Type the following paragraph. As you key in, notice that the insertion point moves
to the right. At the end of one line(boundary fixed by the right margin), Word wraps
to move the insertion point automatically to the next line. If you make a mistake
while entering, leave it, as you can correct it later.
Microsoft Word word-processor is being used to create this document. I am
looking forward to learning about some of the things that I can do with word so far.
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I have read how to start and exit Word and how to work with some of the dialog
boxes. When I complete this section, I will have learned to display- the paragraph
marks and symbols that Word uses to organize my document and to select, delete
and replace text.
Press the tab key once and press Enter.
Press the Enter key again.
Click on the Show/Hide button to display the tab stops, paragraph and space
markers in your document.

Fig. 2.1 displays one such paragraph.


A paragraph can contain any amount of text or blank lines ending with a
paragraph marker. The document on your screen (See figure 2.1) should consist of
three paragraph markers. The first paragraph contains the text just entered. The
next two paragraphs consist of blank lines. Space is displayed as a dot () and tab
stop as right pointing arrow ( ).
Note: The dot representing space and the paragraph marker and tab stops are
referred to as Non printable characters. Though they appear on the screen, they
will not appear in print outs.

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Edit and Format
Word offers too many ways to change the appearance of the document. One may
change the indents, adjust space between lines or paragraphs and so on. The work
of executing such jobs as above is called editing and formatting.
2.2.1 Editing Text
You can open an existing file for modifications, printing etc.
Complete the following exercise to practice opening a file.
Invoke Word.
Click the Open button on the Standard toolbar or from File Menu, click Open to
display the Open dialog box.

If necessary, open the Look in drop down list box by clicking on drop down
arrow.
Select the Folder in which the file is available.
Move the pointer into the File name text box and double-click to select the
current entry or Type Intro.Doc in that text box and press Enter.
Intro.Doc file now is opened. Verify that the Title bar of the window contains
Microsoft Word - Intro.
Open the File menu and click on the Save As option to get the Save As dialog
box. Then save the file as ALTTC.

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2.2.2 Formatting Text
So far, you have entered only plain text. Altering the style or size of the characters
is called formatting. Formatting work includes all the functions which contribute
for change in appearance of the document.
Word offers many ways to change the appearance of the document. You can format
individual character, word, change the indents, change at paragraph level. You can
change the font type or size and so on. The Formatting toolbar contains a number
of formatting buttons. Refer figure 2.1.
Fonts and its sizes- To change the type or size of the fonts, select the text.Then
click the drop down font list on the Formatting toolbar.Select the font from the drop
down list, to change the type.

Font type in the selected passage immediately changes. Now select size drop down
list. Choose the size and click. The change is effected immediately.
Then, for illustration click B and observe.
Then click I and see.
Then click U and notice.
All the tree boxes are highlighted and the text now assumes bold, italic and
underlined. Click B, I and U one by one again. The text assumes original shape and
style.
These operations can be done from Format menu also.

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Click Format menu.
Select Font.
Font dialog box appears as shown in fig 3.2.
Choose a font, type and size. This box provides few more facilities also as described
in the following.
Superscripts and Subscripts and other effects
To get the superscripts or subscripts and other effects, select the appropriate check
box in the Font dialog box.
Bold Face, Italic and Underline - When you select any of these along with font, you
get a preview with valuable information displayed below that box. Refer figure 3.2.
Other options can also be selected. See the effects in the preview window.
Getting Italic letters- Select the text and then click I button in Formatting tool bar.
Copying Font Styles- After font formatting you can apply the font formatting of the
selected text to other paragraphs easily and repeatedly.
Select the new text paragraph- Choose Repeat Font formatting from Edit Menu and
click on it or Press F4.
Changing Case- To change the case of the selected text click on the Format Menu.
Select Change Case and click on it. This opens the change case dialog box, which
offers the following five choices.
Sentence Case: Changes the first letter of each sentence into capital.
Lower Case: Changes all the selected text into lower case.
Upper Case: Change the selected text into the upper case.
Title Case: Changes the first letter of each selected into Capital letter.
Toggle Case: Changes the upper case into lower and lower case into upper.
2.2.3 Inserting Bullets and Numbers
You can insert bullets or numbers to your text to give more attraction.
For inserting bullets, select the text and click on Bullets button or Number button
in the Standard toolbar. There is the other way to do the above.
From Format menu select Bullets and Numbering and click. In Bullets and
Numbering dialog box, select either Bullets tab or Numbers tab and select any style.

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Removing Bullets and Number- Select the numbered or bulleted passage. Choose
Bullets and Numbering from Format menu. Bullets and Numbering dialog box opens.
Select None.
Select the numbered or bulleted text then click the highlighted Number button or
Bullet button in Standard toolbar to clear the bullets. These buttons are in toggle in
nature.

2.3 Spell Check


Word provides a spell check tool that you can use to proof the spelling of the
documents. You can check the spelling in entire document, a selection of text or a
single word.
Word 97 and above can automatically check your spelling as you type if you want it
to do. Word will either call the misspellings to your attention immediately or keep
track of them for later. Possible errors are flagged with wavy red underlines so that
they are easy to spot. You can hide the red lines while you work by checking the
Hide spelling errors in the document option in Spelling & Grammar tab of the
Option dialog box.
Select the text or a single word or paragraph for which the spelling is to be
checked. To check the entire document make sure that nothing is selected.
(Press Ctrl +Home key to come to the beginning of the document).
Choose Spelling & Grammar from Tools Menu.
When the Spelling and Grammar checking begins, the Spelling and Grammar dialog
box appears when the first error encountered. The dialog box suggests list of words
which sounds like error word.
You can select a correct word from the list and click Change option button.
Change All: Option button changes all the instances of the error word with the
selected word.
Ignore All: Ignore all the instances of the particular error word in the selected
document.
Once the spell check is over, Word will display a dialog box stating that the Spell
check is over. Click on OK button to return to the document. Pressing F7 key or
clicking Spell check button from the Standard tool bar also can activate spell check.

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2.4 Navigating In Word Keyboard and Mouse


There are many ways to navigate from the beginning to the end of a Word
document. You probably have your favorites, using the mouse or the keyboard. But
lets look at the wide variety of choices that Word offers, and youll probably find
some new ones that you never knew existed.
Lets start with the basics: make sure you have a Word document of some length
open as we do this; the instructions will be easier to follow.
Using the mouse
On the right side of your screen is a vertical scroll bar. (It has up and
down arrows at either end, agray area in the middle, and a scroll
box that moves from one end to the other to reflect your position in
the document.)
To scroll through your document, do the following:
Click the up arrow to scroll up one line.
Click the down arrow to scroll down one line.
Click above the scroll box to scroll up one full screen.
Click below the scroll box to scroll down one full screen.
Drag the scroll box to go to a specific page in your document.
If your mouse has a scrolling wheel, turn it to scroll quickly to
any part of your document.
Using KeyBoard

Somewhere on your keyboard, you have Page


Up andPage Down buttons that do exactly what
they say: by pressing them, you move by pages
through your document.
Near these keys are the Home and End keys.
These keys take you to the beginning or end of
a line, respectively.

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Next, while holding down the Control ( Ctrl ) key, press the Home key. Your cursor
jumped to the beginning of the document. If you hold down the Ctrl + End keys at
the same time, you reach the end of your document.
With your Word program open, locate the right scroll bar. Right
beneath it, you will see a double arrow pointing up, a small circle,
and a double arrow pointing down. Click the small circle.

small
them to see
the first row,
by Footnote button .
Browsing with Edit > Go To

The Select Browse Object grid with 10


buttons appears. Run your mouse over
what each button stands for. Notice that in
the third button from the left is the Browse

If you prefer working with menus, click Edit > Go To (shortcut: Ctrl + G). In the
dialog box that opens, look at the objects listed in the left-hand box: Page, Section,
Line, Bookmark, Comment, Footnote, Endnote, Field, Table, Graphic, Equation,
Object, Heading. Click one that is familiar to you, and follow the instructions given
to browse your document.
For instance, open a Word document that includes several pictures. Click Edit >
Go To, and select Graphic in the list. In the blank box to the right of the list, type
+2; the second graphic in your document appears on the screen.

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2.5 Document Formatting


2.5.1 Paragraph Alignment
Margins define the upper, lower, left, right page boundaries of entire document.
Indents define the left and right boundaries of the selected paragraph/line with in
the document. By default a paragraphs left and right indents align with left and
right margins.
Let us correct the paragraph you have typed using the following tools/facilities
provided by Word. At the end of this process, you will become familiar with
deleting, inserting and replacing a portion of text. For this, you should know how to
control the cursor. The following table shows the functions of Arrow keys and
Special keys. These keys can be used as an alternative to the mouse also.
Cursor control keys and action
Key press
Action
Moves insertion point up one line
Moves insertion point down one line
Moves insertion point one character to the
right
Moves insertion point one character to the left
Ctrl +

Moves insertion point one word to the right

Ctrl +

Moves insertion point one word to the left

Ctrl +

Moves insertion point to the beginning of the


current paragraph
Moves insertion point to the beginning of the
next paragraph
Moves insertion point to the beginning of the
line.
Moves insertion point to the end of the line.
Moves insertion point up in the screen.
Moves insertion point down in the screen.
Moves insertion point to the top of the
document
Moves insertion point to the end of the
document

Ctrl +
Home
End
Page up
Page Down
Ctrl + Home
Ctrl + End

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Place the I-Beam pointer before h in have read and click.
Point the I beam behind d in read.
Keep the shift key pressed. Click once.
Press Delete key once.
Key in the word know.
Keep the insertion point in front of the word display-.
Double click on disabled OVR in the Status bar.
Note that this enables over writing mode and OVR appears in Status bar. But it is
always better to keep the OVR disabled.
Type the word identify.
Double click on OVR in the Status bar to disable it.
Inserting Text
Place the insertion point after the word this.
Press space once and key in lesson.
Note: OVR in Status bar must be in disabled mode.
Deleting Text
Place the I beam pointer before w in the word word processor in the first line and
click. The insertion pointer appears just in front of w. Press Delete key five times to
remove word-. You can press back space key also for this operation. Then place the
insertion pointer after learning in the second line and press backspace key thrice.
The backspace key deletes one character to the left of it and the delete key removes
a character to the right.
Complete the following steps to correct the other errors in any document, in
general.
Read the document on the screen and locate the errors.
Use either the cursor keys or the mouse to position the insertion point next to
your first error, use the Backspace or the Delete key to remove incorrect
letters, then enter your correction. Repeat this step as needed to correct the
document.
Selecting and Replacing Text- Changing a string of text (letters, words, sentences,
paragraphs or entire document) is usually a two step process. The first step is to
identify the text to be changed by selecting it. Selected text appears in reverse video
(or highlighted).The second step is keying in the new text.
Complete the following exercises to practice selecting, and replacing text.
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Move the I-beam pointer after the word about in second line.
Click to position the insertion pointer and then select the text some of the things
I can do with word so far by dragging the mouse pointer across the words until
they appear in reverse video. Release the mouse button once the text is selected.
When the proper text selected, enter the words the power of Word. The selected
text is deleted when the first keyboard letter is pressed, and also the
remaining text moves to maintain the proper spacing.
An easy way to select one word is to double-click on it. Locate the word will in the
last sentence. Place the I-beam anywhere the word will and double-click for
selecting. Type the word would. Double click on the word section. Press Delete to
remove it.
For selecting a word, double click in the word. For selecting an entire line, move the
mouse pointer to the left hand side near the margin area. The Mouse pointer
changes to laterally inverted arrow. Now click. The entire line will be selected. To
select the entire paragraph, move the Mouse pointer to the left hand side to the left
margin area and double click, after the mouse pointer changes to arrow. The entire
paragraph will be selected. To select the entire document, do the same operation as
you have done for selecting a paragraph but click three times.
In the Edit menu, click Select All to select the entire document.
Undo and Redo- While working in a document, you would have committed many
operations.. A click on the Undo button on the Standard tool bar will cancel the
latest committed operations one by one. Click on Redo will cancel the last Undo
operation.
Clicking on the underlined down arrow (also called a drop-down arrow) by the sides
of the Undo and Redo buttons, displays a list of actions committed (undone or
redone).
Complete the following exercise to practice using the Undo and Redo buttons.

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Move the insertion pointer to the beginning of the document. Select the phrase
Microsoft word.
Type Word star.
Click the Undo button to return Microsoft word.
Click the Redo button again to cancel a previous edit.
Click the Undo button to revert the action.
2.5.2 Indent Markers
The Ruler Provides Indent Markers displayed as refined triangles. Refer figure 3.4.
There are three types of indent markers.
First Line Indent: It is displayed by the inverted triangle in the ruler on the left side.
It indicates the indent of the first line of a paragraph.
Left Indent: Lower left triangle in the ruler is called left indent. It indicates the left
boundary of every line in a paragraph other than first line
Right Indent: It is the triangle on the right end of the ruler indicating the right
boundary for every line in a paragraph.
Setting the Indents

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Paragraph option in Format menu facilitates the user to fix how the text is to be
positioned between the left and right indents. Word provides four types of
paragraph alignment.
Left aligned: The text is aligned evenly along the left indent.
Centered: The text is centered between left and right indents.
Right aligned: The text is aligned evenly along the right indent.
Justified: The text with left and right indents. Word increases the space between
the words, if required.
Alignment choices are displayed in Formatting bar also. Refer figure 3.4.
Setting Line Space
Word offers six line spacing options. They are Single, 1.5 lines, Double, Atleast,
Exactly and Multiple.
By default it has single line spacing. To set line spacing, Paragraph option may be
chosen in Format menu of Standard toolbar. See fig 3.5.
Place the insertion point anywhere within the line to be centered. Click on the
Center button in the formatting tool bar to align the line.

Starting Paragraphs with a Drop Cap

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You can add visual attraction to a paragraph by starting it with a drop cap, a large
capital letter. When you select a drop cap format, Word places the selected text in a
frame. The rest of the paragraph wraps beside the frame.

To create large dropped capital letters, follow the steps given below.
Select the first letter, word of the paragraph.
Choose Drop Cap from Format menu. The Drop Cap dialog box appears. See
figure 3.6.

Select Dropped or In Margin in the Position group to place the drop cap.
Select a font from the Font box.

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In the Lines to drop text box, type or select the number of lines you want the
capital to drop into the paragraph.
In the Distance from Text box type or select the distance you want between the
drop cap and the paragraph text.
Finally click OK.
Note:
Dropped:

Dropped flush with the left margin, inside the main text area.

In Margin:

Dropped in the left margin.

Inserting Special Characters and Symbols

You can insert special characters and symbols in to the documents. To insert the
symbols do the following steps.
Position the insertion point where you want to insert the symbol.
From Insert Menu choose Symbol and click. The Symbol dialog box appears.
See figure 3.8.
From the Font box select the font. Symbols available in that font will be
displayed below it.
Select the symbol by clicking on it.
Click the Insert button and close the dialog box by clicking on Close.

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2.5.3 Headers and Footers
A header or footer is text or graphics that is usually printed at the top or
bottom of every page in a document. A header is printed in the top margin; a footer
is printed in the bottom margin.
Headers and footers can be as simple as the document title and a page number,
but you can create headers and footers that contain graphics, multiple paragraphs,
and fields. You can specify a different header or footer for odd and even pages or
use a different header or footer for the first page of a section or document. If you
divide a document into sections, you can use different headers and footers in each
section. For example, you might want the header for each section to reflect the title
of that section.
How to Add or Remove Headers and Footers
To create a header or footer, follow these steps:
1. On the View menu, click Header and Footer. Word displays the Header
and Footer toolbar and switches to print layout view.
2. To switch between the header and footer, click the Switch Between Header
and Footer button on the Header and Footer toolbar.
A non-printing dashed line encloses the header and footer areas. Text and graphics
in the document are visible, but dimmed. To display or hide the document text,
click the Show/Hide Document Text button on the Header and Footertoolbar.
You can type and format text in the header or footer area the same way you do in
the main document. After you have created your header or footer, click Close on
the Header and Footer toolbar to return to the main part of the document. In print
layout view (on the View menu, click Print Layout), the headers and footers are
Visible but appear dimmed.
To edit an existing header or footer, either click Header and Footer on
the View menu, or, in print layout view, double-click a dimmed header or footer to
Switch quickly to the header or footer.
To delete a header or footer, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point somewhere in the main text area of the
document.
2. On the View menu, click Header and Footer.

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3. Select the header or footer information you want to delete, and then press
DELETE or BACKSPACE on the keyboard.
4. To return to the document, click Close on the Header and Footer toolbar,
or double-click in the main text area of the document.
How Headers and Footers Affect Margin Settings
Word prints headers and footers in the top and bottom margins. If the header or
footer is too large to fit in the margin, Word adjusts the top and bottom margin to
accommodate the header or footer. That is, if the header or footer becomes too large
vertically to fit in the margin, it starts expanding downward (for the header) and
upward (for the footer), reducing the amount of text that can be displayed in the
body of the document.
To prevent Word from moving the main document text (downward or upward)
when the header or footer gets too large to fit in the margin, follow these steps:
1. On the File menu, click Page Setup.
2. Click the Margins tab.
3. Type a hyphen (-) before the Top or Bottom margin setting.
NOTE: If the header or footer is too large, it may overwrite (superimpose) the main
document text.
How to Position Headers and Footers
You may want to change the position of headers and footers. You can change the
horizontal position by doing the following:
Centering the header or footer between the left and right margins.
Aligning it with the left or right margin.
Running the header or footer text into the left or right margin.
The header and footer areas have two preset tab stops: centered between the
default left and right margins (3 inches), and right aligned at the default right
margin (6 inches). These tab stops make it easy to center a chapter title or place
the page number flush with the right margin. If you change the margins of the
document, you may want to adjust these stops.
To adjust the horizontal position of information inside a header or footer, follow
these steps:
1. On the View menu, click Header and Footer.

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2. On the Header and Footer toolbar, click the Show Next and Show
Previous buttons to find the header or footer that you want to adjust.
3. To position the header or footer, do one or more of the following:
o
To create left-aligned text in a header or footer, type the text. The
starting position for the insertion point is left aligned with the left
margin of the document.
o
To create center-aligned text in a header or footer, press the TAB key
once to advance the insertion point to the center-aligned tab, and type
the text. The text you type will be centered on the tab.
o
To create right-aligned text in a header or footer, press the TAB key
one more time to advance the insertion point to the right-aligned tab,
and type the text.
o
To create a header or footer that runs into the left or right margins,
you can set negative indents as follows:
e. On the Format menu, click Paragraph.
f. Click the Indents and Spacing tab.
g. Type a negative number for the left and/or right indentation. For
example, if you want the left-aligned text in the header to start 0.5
inches into the left margin, type -.5 for the left indentation. A negative
left indentation moves text into the left margin, whereas a negative right
indentation moves text to the right, into the right margin.
4. To make additional adjustments to the alignment, use the alignment buttons
on the Formatting toolbar, set different tab stops on the ruler, or drag the
indent markers on the ruler.
You can change the vertical position by adjusting the header or footer starting
distance from the top or bottom edge of the page. You can also adjust the amount
of space between the header or footer and the text in the main document. To
perform these adjustments, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in the specific area in the document that
contains the header or footer that you want to adjust.
2. On the File menu, click Page Setup and then click the Margins tab.
o
To change the distance from the edge of page to the header or footer,
change the From Edge setting. The default setting is 0.5-inch.
Increasing the setting moves the entire header or footer closer to the
center of the document. Decreasing the setting moves the entire header
or footer closer to the edge of the page.
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To change the distance between the document text and a header or
footer, change the Top and Bottommargin settings. Increasing the top
margin moves the document text farther down on the page, while
leaving the header in the same location. Decreasing the top margin
moves the text of the document farther up on the page, while leaving the
header in the same location. The same is true for the bottom margin
and the footer.
3. To return to the document, click OK.
o

2.6 Page Formatting & Printing


2.6.1 Formatting the Pages
Word enables you to apply Page Setup formatting options to, a section, multiple
sections, or entire document. What you format depends on the positioning of the
cursor before you execute the Page Setup command. From File menu, click on Page
setup option. Page setup dialog box appears with four tabs, namely, Margin, Paper
size, Paper source, and Layout. The default measurement, Word uses is, inch. You
can specify Centimeters(cm), points(pt) or picas (pl) by entering the two letter code
after entering a measurement value.

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Margin tab
Choose the Top, Bottom, Left or Right margins. For each setting, type the amount of
the margin or use the increment/decrement arrows (spin arrows). As you choose
your margin setting, notice that the preview box exhibits how your page or pages
will look like.
Click OK, after you have entered the new margin values.
2.6.2 Preview and Print a document
Before issuing the Print command, it is advantageous to preview (through your
monitor) how your printed document will appear. To have a preview of the
document, follow the steps given below.
When the document is opened on your screen, click the Print Preview icon.
The Print Preview window has its own toolbar and the pointer appears as a
magnifying glass when placed inside your document.
As the preview is miniaturised, it is difficult to read the document. Place the
magnifying glass inside the document and click once to display the document
at 100%. Now you should be able to read your document.
Keeping the pointer inside the document, click the mouse again to return to
the Print Preview appearance.
Locate the Zoom control box on the toolbar and notice that your document a
currently being displayed at approximately 34%. Clicking on the Zoom control
drop down arrow, results in display of a list of other percentages. To choose a
new viewing percentage, either click on one of the options, or type the
percentage directly into the Zoom control box.
Use the Zoom control box to display the document at 75%.
By default, the Magnifier button is activated when you click the Print Preview
option. Click on that Magnifier button changes from the magnifying mode to
the editing mode. The mouse becomes normal.
Make some changes.
Click on the Close button on the toolbar to close the Print Preview window.
Note if you want to print the document at this stage. Click on the Print button
in the Print Preview toolbar or Print icon in the Standard toolbar to print. All
the pages in the document will be printed.

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2.6.3 Adjusting margins in Print Preview
You can change any margins in Print Preview by using the rulers (Print Preview
window displays a horizontal ruler and vertical ruler). The margins adjusted in
Print Preview apply to the entire document. If you want a specific portion of
document to be adjusted then choose the option Page Setup in the File menu.
To change the documents margin in Print Preview
Choose Print Preview from File menu.
If the rulers are not displayed, click the Ruler from the View menu. The
horizontal ruler shows the width of the entire page and the vertical ruler
shows the height of the entire page. The margin areas are displayed in gray
color on the rulers and the text area in white color.
Position the mouse pointer in the margin boundary, the spot where the gray
and the white portion of the ruler meet. The mouse pointer changes in to a
double-ended arrow.
Press and hold the mouse button. A dashed line appears through the page,
indicating the margin position. Drag to adjust the margin and drop.
2.6.4 Printing of Document

Word gives a variety of printing options. The Print dialog box offers choices of what
to print.
Choose Print from File menu, the Print dialog box appears.

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Choose the printer from the drop down list if you have installed more than one
printer.
Select the Current page option to print the current page.
Select Pages option if you want to print some selected pages.
Select All for printing the entire document.
Select Document in Print what text box.
Enter the number of copies in the spin box.
Select All pages in range to print entire range or Even pages, to print only even
pages or Odd pages to print only odd pages from the drop down list of the
Print text box.
Finally click OK. Refer figure 6.2.

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UNIT III - FILE MANAGEMENT


The data that we work with on computers is kept in a
hierarchical file system in which directories have files and subdirectories beneath
them. Although we use the computer operating system to keep our image data
organized, how we name files and folders, how we arrange these nested folders, and
how we handle the files in these folders are the fundamental aspects of file
management. The operating system's organization of our data can be enhanced by
the use of cataloging programs, which make organizing and finding image files
easier than simply relying on the computer's directory structure. Another feature of
catalog programs is that they can streamline backup procedures for better file
protection.
Every Windows folder provides easy access to common
file and folder management tasks. When you open any folder on your computer, a
list of hyperlinked tasks is displayed next to the folder contents. You can select a
file or folder, and then click a task to rename, copy, move, or delete it. You can also
send a file in e-mail or publish it to the Web. In addition to the basic file and folder
tasks provided in all Windows folders, there are several folders that provide links to
specialized tasks. My Pictures and My Music folders provide task links that can
help you manage your picture and music files. In the My Computer folder, you can
view and select the drives on your computer, the devices with removable storage,
and the files stored on your computer. You can use the task links in this folder to
view information about your computer, change system settings using Control
Panel, and perform other system management tasks. Use the Recycle Bin tasks to
empty the Recycle Bin or restore deleted files and folders to their original locations.
The Recycle Bin is displayed on your desktop

3.1 Understanding the Importance of File Management


The file manager handles all files on secondary storage media. To perform these
tasks, file management must:
Be able to identify the numerous files by giving unique names to them
Maintain a list telling where exactly each file is stored, how many sectors on
the medium it occupies, and in which order those sectors make up the file
Provide simple and fast algorithms to read and write files in cooperation with
the device manager

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Give and deny access rights on files to users and programs
Allocate and deallocate files to processes in cooperation with the process
manager
Provide users and programs with simple commands for file handling

File names, naming conventions


In order to make users, programs and the file manager itself able to identify the
different files they must be given a unique file name.
The relative file name is what a user normally recognises as file name; it consists
of a name and an extension, for instance problem.txt or forloop.cpp. Apart from
some exceptions, relative file names look the same in all operating systems.
The name is normally given by the user, whereas the extension (which is separated
from the name by a dot) generally indicates what kind of file it is.
The absolute file name is normally much longer than the user thinks it is. Here,
the relative file name is preceded by the place on disk it is stored, that is: the drive
name and the directory names in which to find that file.
So the absolute file name consists of:
1. drive name
2. directory name(s)
3. file name
4. extension
File name and extension are separated by a dot. The directories are separated by
slashes (UNIX) or back slashes (Windows, DOS). Because drive names and file
organization differ from OS to OS, absolute file names look different depending on
what operating system is used.
For instance, a file with the relative name syllabus.doc, saved by the user Peter in
the directory data would look like that
in DOS: c:\data\syllabus.doc
in LINUX: /usr/home/Peter/data/syllabus.doc
Note that the absolute file name changes when the location is different. The relative
file name, however, stays the same. So, after saving that file on a floppy disk, the
absolute file name of the backup would be
in DOS: a:\syllabus.doc
in LINUX: /mnt/fdd0/syllabus.doc

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relative file name is restricted in length. How this restriction exactly looks like
again depends on the OS. DOS has the hardest restrictions, allowing the file name
and also all directory names only to be 8 characters long, and the extension 3. This
is properly known as "8.3"-restriction (speak: eight-dot-three). All other OS's allow
the relative file name to be at least 14, but most often up to 255 characters long.

3.2 Backing up files and folders


Backup lets you back up data to a file or to a tape. When you back up
data to a file, you have to designate a file name and a location for the file to be
saved. Backup files usually have the extension .bkf, but you can change it to any
extension. A backup file can be saved to a hard disk, a floppy disk, or to any other
removable or non removable media on which you can save a file.
When you back up data to a tape, you must have a tape device
connected to your computer. Tapes are managed by Removable Storage. Although
Backup works together with Removable Storage, you might have to use Removable
Storage to perform certain maintenance tasks, such as preparing and ejecting
tapes.
The following four steps describe a simple backup operation:
1.Select files, folders, and drives for backup
Backup provides you with a tree view of the drives, files, and folders
that are on your computer, which you can use to select the files and folders that
you want to back up. You can use this tree view the same way you use Windows
Explorer to open drives and folders and select files.
2.Select storage media or file location for backed-up data
Backup provides two options for selecting storage media:
You can back up your data to a file on a storage device. A storage
device can be a hard disk, a Zip disk, or any type of removable or
nonremovable media to which you can save a file. This option is
always available.
You can back up your data to a tape device. This option is available
only if you have a tape device installed on your computer or
connected to it. If you back up data to a tape device, the media will be
managed by Removable Storage.

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3. Set backup options
Backup provides an Options dialog box, which you can use to
customize your backup operations. Using the Options dialog box, you can:
Select the type of backup that you want to do. Backup types include: copy, daily,
differential, incremental, and normal. Select whether you want a log file to
record your backup actions. If you select this option, you can also select whether
you want a complete log file or summary log file.Select whether you want to back
up data that is stored on mounted drives.Designate file types that you want to
exclude from a backup operation.Select whether you want to verify that the data
was backed up correctly.
4. Start the backup
When you start a backup operation, Backup will prompt you
for information about the backup job and give you the opportunity to set advanced
backup options. After you have provided the information or changed your backup
options, Backup will start backing up the files and folders you selected.
If you have scheduled the backup to run unattended, you will still be prompted for
information about the backup job. However, after you have provided the
information, Backup will not start backing up files; rather, it will add the scheduled
backup to the Task Scheduler.
You must be an administrator or a backup operator to back up all files and
folders. If you are a member of the Users or Power Users group, you must be
the owner of the files and folders you want to back up, or you must have one
or more of the following permissions for the files and folders you want to
back up: Read, Read and Execute, Modify, or Full Control. For more
information about permissions or user rights,
The registry, the directory service, and other key system components, are
contained in the System State data. You must back up the System State
data if you want to back up these components.
You can only back up the System State data on a local computer. You
cannot back up the System State data on a remote computer.
You can schedule a backup so that it will run unattended at a specific time
or frequency. You can schedule a backup after you click Start Backup.
If you have Windows Media Services running on your computer, and you
want to back up the files associated with these services, see "Running
Backup with Windows Media Services" in the Windows Media Services online
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documentation. You must follow the procedures outlined in the Windows
Media Services online documentation before you can back up or restore files
associated with Windows Media Services.
If you are using Removable Storage to manage media, or you are using
Remote Storage to store data, you should regularly back up the files that are
in the following folders:
Systemroot\System32\Ntmsdata
Systemroot\System32\Remotestorage
This will ensure that all of your Remote Storage and Removable Storage data
can be restored.

3.3 Navigating Through My Computer and Windows Explorer


As the name of the Windows operating system indicates, most of the information
you view on your computer is displayed in a window. Files open in program
windows (windows that host the program controls), and folders open in Windows
Explorer windows (windows that display the folder contents). Regardless of the
content they display, all windows share certain common characteristics and can
be manipulated in the same ways. You can change the appearance of windows by
using controls built into their frames, as well as controls available from the
desktop and from the Windows Taskbar. Windows provides many new windowmanagement controls that are very cool as well as useful.

3.4 Files and Folders


3.4.1 Creating a New Folder
To create a new folder, do the following
In My Computer or Windows Explorer window,
On the File Menu, point to New, and then click Folder. The new folder appears with
a temporary name New Folder within a rectangle. Key in a new name inside the
rectangle and then press Enter. A filename can contain 255 characters maximum,
including spaces. But, it cannot contain any of the following characters viz. \, |, *,
?, , <, >, /.

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3.4.2 Changing the Name of a Folder


To change the name of a folder, do the following
In My Computer or Windows Explorer window, click once on the file or folder you
want to rename. You do not need to open it. In the File menu, click Rename. Type
the new name, and then press Enter.
3.4.3 Moving a file
There exist two methods to move a file from one folder to another.
Cut and Paste Method
In My Computer or Windows Explorer window, click on the file or folder.
In the Edit menu, click Cut.Open the folder in which you want to insert it.
In the Edit menu, click Paste.
Drag and drop method
In My Computer or Windows Explorer window, fix the file or folder to be
moved.Make sure that the destination folder is also visible. Drag the file or
folder to the destination folder and drop.You can use the right mouse button
also for these operations. If you drag a file to a folder in the same disk, it
will be moved. If you drag it to another disk, it will be copied.
Tips
You can hold down Shift or Ctrl key and drag for the following operations:
To move a file, use Shift.
To copy a file, use Ctrl.
To create a shortcut, use Ctrl + Shift
In My Computer or Windows Explorer window,
To select all the files and subfolders in a folder
Click on the Edit menu, and then click Select All.
To select a group of files those are next to each other,
Hold down the mouse button and drag to form a rectangle around the files.
Or
Press Shift while clicking on each member or
Click on the first file in the group and hold down the Shift key and click on the last
member.

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3.4.4 To select discrete items within a folder
Click on the first item.
Hold down the Ctrl key, and then click the items one by one.

To change
the appearance of items in a folder, do the following
In My Computer or Windows Explorer window,
Click on the View menu, and then click on one of the following options.
Large Icons, Small Icons, List or Details
Experiment to find the better display in View option
You can also sort the items by Name, Size, Date or Type while arranging Icons.
To see Hierarchy of Folders on a Disk drive
Click the Start button.
Point to Programs, and then click Windows Explorer.
Click on a folder on the left side of the window to display its contents on the right
side.
Click the plus sign (+) in the tree to get the display of more folders.
To change the size of either side of the windows, drag and drop the bar that
separates the two sides. To quickly open a folder and display its subfolders double
click on the folder on the left side of the window.
To see all Files and Extensions
In My Computer or Windows Explorer window, open the folder you want to see.
In the View menu, click on Folder Options

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Click the View tab, and then select Show All Files
If you want to see all extensions, make sure that the Hide MS-DOS File Extensions
box is not checked.
3.4.5 To open a File or Folder
Double-click on the My computer icon.
Double-click on the drive that contains the file
To open a file or folder, double-click on it.
To see whats on the Computer
Double-click on the My computer icon.
Double click on the icon for the drive you want to look at.
Windows displays the files and folders of the drive. Folders may contain files,
programs and other folders.
To open a file or folder or to start a program double-click on it
To use shortcut menu, do the following
Instead of using the standard menus to find the option you need, use the right
mouse button to click a file or folder. The menu that appears shows the most
frequently used commands for that file or folder.
3.4.6 Deleting a File or Folder
In My Computer or Windows Explorer window, locate and fix the file or folder you
want to delete.
Click on the file or folder.
In the File menu, click Delete.
After confirmation dialogue, the system puts them in Recycle Bin. If you want to
retrieve a file you have deleted, look into the Recycle Bin. Your deleted file remains
in it (until you empty it). You can also drag file or folder icon onto the Recycle Bin
icon and drop to throw it into the bin.
Warning:
If you press Shift while dragging, the item will be deleted from the computer
without being stored in the Recycle Bin.
To empty the Recycle Bin
Double-click on the Recycle Bin icon
In the File menu, click Empty Recycle Bin
If you want to remove only some of the items in the Recycle Bin, hold down the Ctrl
key while clicking each item to select it.

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Click on the File menu, and click Delete
To permanently remove Files when you delete them
Using the right mouse button, click on the Recycle Bin icon, and then click
Properties. If you want to use different settings for different drives. Click Configure
Drives Independently, and then click on the tab of the drove whose settings you
want to change. If you want to use the same settings for all drives, click Use One
Setting for All Drives. Make sure that the Do Not Move Files To The Recycle Bin box
is checked.
Warning:
If this box is checked, you will be unable to recover any files you delete.
Delete confirmation messages
When you are deleting a file a confirmation dialog box appears to confirm deletion.
If you want this confirmation, do the following.
Using your right mouse button, click on the Recycle Bin icon, and then click
Properties.Make sure that the Display Delete Confirmation dialog check box is clear
This setting is unavailable if the Do Not Move Files To The Recycle Bin box is
checked.
Capacity of the Recycle Bin
To change the capacity of the Recycle Bin, do the following.
Using your right mouse button, click on the Recycle Bin icon, and then click
Properties. If you want to use different settings for different drives, click Configure
Drives Independently, and then click on the tab of the drive whose settings you
want to change If you want to use the same settings for all drives, click Use One
Setting for All Drives Drag the slider to increase or decrease the quantum of disk
space reserved for storing deleted files.
Retrieving the deleted files or shortcuts
To retrieve deleted files or shortcuts, do the following.
Double-click on the Recycle Bin icon
Click on the file or shortcut you want to retrieve
To retrieve several items, hold down the Ctrl key while clicking each item
In the File menu, click Restore.

3.5 Sizing, Moving, and Arranging Windows


You can minimize, maximize, restore, or close a window by
clicking the buttons at the right end of the title bar. Additionally, you can use the
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following techniques to change the size or position of an individual window:
To change the location of a window, but not its size, drag it.
To change only the height of a window, drag the top or bottom border of its
frame.
To maximize the height of a window without changing its width, drag the
top border of its frame to the top edge of the screen or the bottom border of
its frame to the bottom edge of the screen.
To change the width of a window, drag the left or right border of its frame.
To simultaneously change the height and width of a window, drag any
corner of its frame.
To maximize the height and width of a window so that the window fills
the screen, drag it to the top edge of the screen, or click the Maximize
button.
To resize a window to the maximum height and half the screen width, drag
it to the left or right edge of the screen. When you release the mouse button,
the window expands to fill half the available horizontal space.
To restore a maximized or half-width window to its original size, drag its
title bar away from the edge of the screen, or click the Restore Down button.
Press this
Windows logo key+Up Arrow

To do this
Maximize the Window

Windows logo key+Down Arrow

Resize the window from maximized to


its original size or from its original size
to minimized

Windows logo key+Home

Minimize or restore all other Windows

Windows logo key+Left Arrow or


Windows logo key+Right Arrow

Snap the window to the left or right


edge of the screen

3.6. Power Point


Power Point is a very powerful tool for preparing live, multimedia based
presentation for conference, projects, planning and for showing details of existing
systems in a very effective way.
Creating a presentation using Autocontent wizard

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1. Open the Power Point program by clicking on the Start Programs Microsoft
Power Point option. The Power Point startup dialog box as shown in fig 1.1.
appears.
2. In the startup dialog box, select the Autocontent wizard and click OK.

Or
If the Power Point program is already started, on the File menu, click New. Under
New, click From AutoContent Wizard,
3. Follow the instructions in the wizard as follows. AutoContent Wizard will create
8-12 slides with suggested contents which you can change.
4. Click next button in the wizard. In next screen press a category button for the
type of presentation you are going to give and then select the presentation that best
suit your needs and click next. You can add one of your presentations by choosing
a category and then pressing add.

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5. In the next screen choose the type of output you will be using and the wizard will
select the best color scheme for your presentation.

6. In the next screen, enter the presentation title and the information that you want
to appear at the bottom of each slide and click finish button.

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7. The wizard will now finish creating your presentation which will be shown on the
screen.
8. In the presentation, replace the text suggestions with the text you want, and
then make any other changes you want, such as adding or deleting slides, adding
art elements or animation effects, and inserting headers and footers.
9. When you finish, on the File menu, click Save, type a name in the File name
box, and then click Save. The presentation is now saved to your hard drive of your
system. You should save your work from time to time to avoid loss of data in the
event of power failure.
Create a presentation using a design template
1. On the File menu, click New. Under New, click From Design Template.
Microsoft PowerPoint provides design templates that you can apply to a
presentation to give it a fully designed, professional look.

2. In the Design Template Window, click a design template that you'd like to
apply. Using the Design Template Window, you can preview and apply a design
template to your presentation. Whenever you apply a design template, a slide
master for that template is added to your presentation. If you apply a different

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template to all your slides, the old slide master is replaced by the master in the new
template.
3. To insert a new slide, on the toolbar, click New Slide, and click the layout you
want for the slide. The same Design templates will be followed for the newly
inserted slide. You can change that for the inserted slide using Format Design
templates.
4. Repeat step 3 and 5 to keep adding slides, and add any other design elements or
effects you want.
5. The text will not be inserted automatically here. So type the text for each slide
(explained later).
6. To save the presentation, on the File menu, click Save; in the File name box
type a name for the presentation, and then click Save.
Adding new slides:
After creating a presentation as above, you can add slides at any time as
follows.
1. From the Insert menu click new slide or Click the New Slide button on the
Common Tasks toolbar. The New Slide dialogue box appears.
2. It asks you to choose an Auto Layout format. Select the desired format and
click OK.

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Adding text to a slide
The Slide layout contains two text boxes one for a title and another for the
body. Try typing text into these boxes.
Click in the Title text box. A thick gray border appears around the text box
indicating that it is selected.
Type a title.
Click the body text box and type points. These points will come as a bulleted
text.
Selecting a new bullet style.
Click anywhere in the bulleted text to select it.
Click the Format menu, then click Bullet. The Bullet dialog box will appear.
Click the desired bullet in the symbol grid.
If you want, select a new color for the bullet in the color list box.
Click OK. The new bullet style will appear in your bulleted text.
Views of power point :
Power Point supports the following views.
Normal View (A combination of the following views)
o Outline view
o Slide View
o Notes Page
Slide Sorter View
Slide Show View
All View buttons are present at the lower left corner near the horizontal scroll bar.
Outline View.
By clicking the outline View button, the presentation appears as an outline,
made up of titles and main text from each slide. Because you can see all your
presentation in one window, rather than one slide at a time, it is an ideal place
to plan, organize, or edit the text for your presentation.
Click this to switch to outline View

Slide View
Used for inserting and manipulating various objects such as
_ Text box objects
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_ Word art objects
_ Auto shapes
_ Picture from clipart/file
_ Tables
_ Charts
_ Movies and sounds
Adding a new text box.
In Power Point, you can add your own text boxes to any slide using the Text Box
tool on the drawing toolbar.
Steps:
Click on the drawing toolbar Text Box button. The pointer will change to a cross.
Click on the slide where you want to place the text. A small text box will appear.
Type a word in the text box. As you go on typing, the box will expand to fit the
text.
After you finish typing, click outside the text box. The border around the box will
disappear.
Adding color to a text box
Click the text box to select it.
On the drawing toolbar, click the arrow beside the Fill Color button, then click
any color of your choice, the text box will turn to that color.
Bordering a text box
Click the text box to select it. A border will appear around the text box.
On the drawing toolbar, click the arrow beside the Line style button, and then
click on any line to get a line of desired width.
Finally, click the Dash Style button and then click the square dot dash option. A
dash style box will appear.
Adding a shape.
Power Point lets you add a variety of shapes to the slides of your presentation. Try
adding a star shape to your slide, using the AutoShape tool on the drawing toolbar.
Click the AutoShapes button, point to Stars and Banners and then click the 5point star shape. The pointer will change into a cross.
Click anywhere on the slide. A star of predefined size will be inserted.
To make the shape larger (or smaller), drag a resizing handle (an arrow pointing
in two directions). To resize the shape proportionally, hold down the SHIFT key as
you drag.
Adding color and texture to a shape.
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Click the star shape to select it.
Click the arrow beside the Fill Color button and then click More Fill Colors. A
Colors dialog box appears.
Click the Standard tab, then under Colors, click any color of your choice.
Click OK to close the Colors dialog box.
Next, try adding some texture to the shape.
Click the star to select it.
Click the arrow beside the Fill Color button, then click Fill Effects. The Fill Effects
dialog box appears.
Click the Texture tab.
Click on a texture, and then click OK.
Adding clip art.
You can add clip art (in-built images, cartoons and shapes in the software) to any
slide using the Insert then Picture buttons followed by Clip Art button on the
Standard Toolbar. Try adding a cartoon image to your slide.
On the Standard Toolbar, click the Insert button then select Picture button
followed by the Clip Art button.
In the Categories list, click Cartoons. Power Point displays clip art from the
Cartoons category.
Click an image to select it.
Click the Insert button. The cartoon image is inserted on your slide.
Power Point also lets you insert images from files by doing as follows:
Click the Insert menu, point to Picture, and then click From File. The Insert
Picture dialog box will appear.
In the Look in box, find the drive and folder where the artwork is located.
In the File name box, enter the name of the file. Then click the Insert button.
The drawing is inserted on the slide.
Resizing clip art.
Like text boxes and shapes, its easy to change the size of a clip art image. Heres
how:
Click the cartoon image to select it.
Place the pointer on a resizing handle (a two headed arrow, appears as the mouse
is moved over the image).
While holding down the mouse button, drag your mouse outwards. This will
enlarge the image. If you drag your mouse inwards, you will reduce the size of the
image.
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When the image is the size you want, release the mouse button.
Adding a chart.
To add a chart to any slide, click the Insert Chart button on the Standard Toolbar.
When you insert a chart, a sample data sheet and corresponding bar chart will
appear on your slide. Power Point has included some sample data in the first four
columns. The bars in the chart are the graphical representation of the numbers in
the data sheet. Notice how a higher number in the data sheet results in a taller
corresponding bar. To create your own chart, you can replace the data in the
sample data sheet with your own. Try adding a number to the chart to see how it
changes the corresponding bar on the chart.
On the data sheet, click in the first row of column A.
Type in the number 50, then press Enter. The corresponding bar on the chart
increases in height.

Try adding other numbers into the datasheet to see how they affect the bars.
Note: If you need to make any revisions to the chart, double-click the chart and the
data sheet will appear again. If the data sheet doesnt appear after you double-click
the chart, click the View Data Sheet button on the Standard Toolbar.
You can also change the type of chart by double-clicking the chart and then
Clicking chart type from the Chart menu
Formatting the background
Changing background color of your slide
Click the Format menu, then click Background. The Background dialog box will
appear.
In the Background fill section; click the arrow on the list box to open it.
Click More colors to open the Colors dialog box.
In the Colors section, click any color of your choice.
Click apply to change the color or OK to close the Colors dialog box.
Changing your background pattern.
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Click the Format menu, then click Background. The Background dialog box
appears.
Click the Background Fill list box, then click Fill Effects. The Fill Effects dialog
box will appear.
Click the Pattern tab, and then click the pattern you want in the pattern box. A
preview of the pattern will appear in the Sample box.
If you want to change the background and foreground colors of the pattern, select
them from the Background and Foreground drop down lists.
Click OK to close the Fill Effects dialog box. In the Background dialog box, click
the Apply button.
Slide Sorter View
In Slide Sorter View, you see miniatures of all the slides in the presentation,
complete with text and graphics. This view is useful for rearranging slides, and for
adding transitions to slides.
There are two ways to switch to Slide Sorter View:
Click the Slide Sorter View button in the lower left corner of the Power Point
window or you can click the View menu, then click Slide Sorter.

Presentation of Slides
Slide Show View
Slide show view takes up the full computer screen, like an actual slide show
presentation. In this full-screen view, you see your presentation the way your
audience will. You can see how your graphics, timings, movies, animated elements,
and transition effects will look in the actual show.
Running Power Point show
Starting the slide show can be done by clicking slide showView Show or by
pressing F5.
Navigation between the slides
Click the mouse/Press SPACEBAR or ENTER to goto next slide/point
Right Click & click previous to goto previous slide/point
Enter slide no & press Enter to goto a particular slide
Mark up slides during a slide show (Pointer Options->Pen)
Stopping the Slide Show.
Power Point lets you stop the slide show for any reason. Follow these steps:

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Move the pointer on the screen and wait for the button to appear in the lower,
left-hand corner of the screen.
Click the button, and then click End Show or press Esc. The show stops.

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UNIT IV - SPREADSHEETS
Microsoft Excel is a most comprehensive spread sheet application. It is not only a
tool for calculating, manipulating, analyzing data, but also a versatile
organizational tool and an excellent tool for presenting information and graphics
with many options.
Applications of Excel
Production planning: Quality control, Compiling test data.
Personal management: Payroll, Sales figures.
Investment management: Planning & auditing, Industrial statistic.
Warehouse management: Order entry - order processing & invoicing.

4.1 Starting Excel


Go to the Windows Start menu, then select Programs and click on Microsoft Excel
icon.
Getting Started
As you click on the Microsoft Excel option, a Blank Spreadsheet Book 1 (called as
a Workbook), appears on the screen (Figure 1.2) ; or you can select Open a
document and select a spreadsheet you have already created.

Understanding Excel Workbooks


All Excel documents are workbooks. A workbook contains one or more sheets,
which can be thought of as pages within the workbook. Workbooks can contain:
Worksheets: The names of the sheets appear on tabs at the bottom of the
workbook window ( See Figure below), To move from sheet to sheet, click the

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sheet tabs. The name of the active sheet is bold. Active sheet is the sheet that
you're working on in a workbook.

In Microsoft Excel, a workbook is the file, in which you work and store your data.
Because each workbook can contain many Worksheets, you can organize various
kinds of related information in a single file.
Understanding Worksheets
Worksheet, also called as spreadsheet, is the primary document to store and work
with data. The worksheet contains Rows and Columns.
The intersection of a Row and a Column is known as cell, where you can store the
data. Each cell is identified by their column letter and row number e.g. A1, B50,
C192 called address in CR (Column Row) format.
Cell can contain text, numbers or formula, which are used to perform
calculation.
Cells can be formatted using variety of formatting options, such as font,
borders, colour and alignment of data within the cell.
One Cell is always active and its Address is displayed in the Name box.
Various bars and buttons in a Worksheet

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Worksheet
Part

Purpose

Scroll Bars

Use these to view sections of the worksheet that are not


currently visible by clicking on the arrows, or by
moving the scroll box.

Row headers

Identifies each row and can be used to select rows (by


clicking on the headers).

Column
headers

Identifies each column and can be used to select


columns (by clicking on the headers).

Cursor

Indicates the currently selected (or active) cell.

Tabs

Selects each worksheet in the workbook.

Standard
toolbar

Provides buttons to access common operations, such


as opening and saving files, and cutting, copying, and
pasting data.

Formatting
toolbar

Provides buttons to access common formatting tasks,


such as changing the fonts and alignments used to
display data.

Formula bar

Displays the contents of the active cell.

Status bar
Scroll buttons

Displays the various messages as you use Excel.


Scrolls among the worksheet tabs in a workbook.

Create a new workbook


1. On the File menu, click New. You will get a dialog box as shown in Figure 4-1.

2.

Figure 4.1
To create a new, blank workbook, click the General tab, and then doubleclick the Workbook icon or click OK.

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4.2.Entering Text and Data


This Topic tells you how to write data into your worksheets,
how to insert cells and delete selected ranges, columns, and rows.
Entering Data
You can enter either a value or a formula in any cell of an Excel
worksheet. Values are numbers, sets of characters, date, or time; for example,
267.2, 04/08/81, 7:35 PM. Formulas are combinations of values, cell references,
and operators that Excel uses to calculate a result.
When you place the cursor in a given cell and begin typing, your entry appears in
the Formula bar at the top of window, as shown if Figure 2-1. In the Formula bar,
the insertion pointer (the flashing vertical bar) indicates where the characters that
you type will appear. As you type an entry, a Check button and an X (Cancel)
button appear enabled in the Formula bar. You can click the Check button when
you finish typing the entry to accept it, or you can just press Enter. If you decide
that you dont want to use an entry, you can either click the X button in the
Formula bar or press the Esc key.

You may notice two additional buttons in the formula bar: a Names List box (to the
left of the X button) and a Function Wizard button (to the right of the check
button).
The Names list box displays the name or cell reference of
currently active cell. Use the arrow next to Names list box to drop a list of name
ranges for the current workbook. The Function Wizard button displays the
Function Wizard, which helps you construct formulas.

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Entering numbers
You can enter numbers into your spreadsheet in several ways.
A wonderful feature is that when a number is entered, Excel tries to figure out how
the number will be used. This prevents your having to format each cell for each
number you want to enter. The worksheet in figure 4--2 shows some of the ways
that you can enter numbers in Excel. To enter a number, select the cell and then

type the numbers.


Figure 4.2
Entering text
Your text entries can be any combination of letters, numbers,
or other special characters. To enter text, select the desired cell and start typing.
When done with the entry, press Enter . By default, Excel aligns text at the left side
of the cell. Suppose the text is too long, e.g. title of a table, first of all simply go on
typing the text. Finally to fit the text in the cell , choose Format option from the
main tool bar menu . It has many options like, format cells, rows, columns; with
the help of which you can adjust the width and height of the cells.
Try this exercise
In the cell number

Enter this

A1
C8
F34
G5

1234567890
$100.56
2.1459E
41.87%

Editing data
Excel gives you two ways to make changes to cells. One way is to edit
the entry within the formula bar; the other is to perform editing within the cell
itself.
Editing using the Formula bar
Move the cursor to the cell containing the data that you want to edit.

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Move the mouse pointer to the area over the Formula bar. (As you do so, the
mouse pointer takes on the shape of an I-beam.)
Place the mouse pointer at the location where you want to start editing and
then click. A flashing insertion pointer in the formula bar indicates where your
editing will occur; you can then proceed to make your edits. Finally, press
Enter.
Using In-Cell Editing
Double-click the desired cell, or move the cursor to the cell and press F2.
When you do this, an insertion pointer appears within the cells itself.
Use the arrow keys to place the insertion pointer where you want it.
Make your edits and then press Enter.
Clearing Data from Cells
Excel provides different ways to clear, or erase, the contents of existing cells. The
most obvious way is to select the cell or range of cells and press the Delete key.
Copy data within a row or column
Select the cells that contain the data you want to copy.
Drag the fill handle across the cells you want to fill &, release the mouse button.
Existing values or formulas in the cells you fill are replaced.
What is a Fill Handle?
When you select a cell to copy the contents, the cell is highlighted with dotted
blinking lines .The fill handle is the small black square in the corner of the
selection. . When you point to the fill handle, the pointer changes to a black cross.

To copy contents to adjacent cells or to fill in a series such as dates, drag the fill
handle. To finish the work press Escape .

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Copy one selection to several locations
Select the cells you want to copy.
Click Copy

Hold down CTRL and select the upper-left cell of each paste area.
Click Paste
.
To paste the same copy area again on a different worksheet, switch to the other
sheet and repeat steps 3 and 4.
To cancel the moving border after you finish copying, press ESC.
Insert cells, rows, or columns
You can insert blank cells, rows, and columns and fill them with data.
Insert blank cells
Select a range of existing cells where you want to insert the new blank cells.
Select the same number of cells as you want to insert.
On the Insert menu, click Cells.
Click Shift cells right or Shift cells down.
Insert rows
To insert a single row, click a cell in the row immediately below where you
want the new row.
On the Insert menu, click Rows.
Insert columns
To insert a single column, click a cell in the column immediately to the right of
where you want to insert the new column.
On the Insert menu, click Columns.

4.3 Formatting
Sometimes you just need your spreadsheet to also look good.Whether you enter
data yourself or import it form another source, the information doesnt always look
good. Cells do not expand automatically to fit their contents, headings do not
appear bold, columns may need split or combined, the list goes on.
1. Adjusting columns width and row height.

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Depending on the size of text or numbers you enter into Excel, the cells do not
automatically expand. The fastest way to get ll of you column widths and height is
to use the double click method.
You can either adjust all of your columns and rows or just a few. To adjust all of
your columns and rows, select all of your worksheet.
1. Hit CTRL+A twice to select all cells on your work. book. (Hitting CTRL+A once
will select any cells that contain data)
2. However your cursor on any columns line, or on any row then just double click.
If you only want to adjust the row or column height of a particular cell
1. Hover your cursor above the header border between the column you want to
change and the neighboring column to its right.
2. Double click.
2. View your page breaks.
Before you even attempt to print your worksheet, one major time saving formatting
trick I use is to view my page breaks. This option is actually the default setting in
Excel 2007, but if you do need to display them for any reason:1. Office Button
2. Excel Options
3. Advanced
4. Show Page Breaks
Not only does this save a few trees with less waste paper, but time as well by
getting the printout correct first time. If you ware using earlier version of Excel then
hit
1. Tools
2. Options
3. View
4. Tick Page Breaks under Windows options
3. Use the Format Painter Option.
This is one of my favorite formatting tips. Its so easy to do that you literally kick
yourself for all the time you wasted before you knew it. Seriously!
Either format one set of cells or a cell as you want, highlight it, hit the Format
Painter option (its the little paintbrush on the Home Tab), highlight the cells you
want to format and bingo, your cells become formatted. I use this sometimes if
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there is formatting on an Excel sheet that I like. There is no messing around trying
to recreate it when you can in a few clicks copy it using Format Painter.
4. Freeze Your Column Headings.
One of the most basic tips, is one of the most useful. Scrolling through a large
spreadsheet with hundreds if not thousands of rows can become almost impossible
when you lose sight of your column headings. To keep those ever helpful headings,
just freeze them.
In Excel 2007
1. View Tab
2. Freeze Panes
3. Freeze Top Row
In earlier versions of Excel
1. Select the row directly below your headings
2. Window
3. Freeze Panes
Now you can scroll away without guessing what your column headings are.
5. Split One Column Into Many.
This tip is useful if you have inherited or imported data from an external source
which is not in the format you require. For example a name file may have both the
First Name and Last name in the one column. With the Text To Columns option in
excel, it is really easy to get your data exactly as you want. In this case into two
columns, First Name and Last Name split into separate columns.
1. Select your column of data
2. Data Tab
3. Text To Columns
4. Delimited (unless all of your entries are the same length then used fixed width)
5. Next
6. Check Which options applied best to you i.e Space, comma, semi colon (in a
CSV file for example its usually a Comma between the First Name and Last
Name).
7. Leave the Treat Consecutive delimiters as one checked.
8. Next
9. Finish
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4.4 Navigating within worksheet


The primary means of navigating within the worksheet is with the mouse. As you
move the mouse pointer around the worksheet, the pointer changes shape
depending on its location. In most areas of the worksheet, the pointer resembles a
plus sign . In most areas outside of the worksheet or over the scroll bars, the
pointer changes to shape to resemble an arrow . Table 1 below shows various key
combinations for navigating in the worksheet.
Function
Keys
Arrow keys

Moves the cursor in direction of the arrow.

Ctrl+ or Ctrl+

Moves the cursor to the top or bottom of a


region of data.

Ctrl+ or Ctrl+

Moves the cursor to the leftmost or


rightmost of a region of data.

PgUp or PgDn

Moves the cursor up or down one screen.

Ctrl+PgUp
Ctrl+PgDn

or Moves the cursor to the preceding or the


following worksheet.

Home

Moves the cursor to the first cell in a row.

Ctrl+Home

Moves the cursor to the upper-left corner of


the worksheet.

End

Moves the cursor to the last cell in a row.

Ctrl+End

Moves the cursor to the first cell of the last


row in a worksheet.

End+Enter

Moves the cursor to the last column in a


row.

4.5 Formulas Entering ,Handling, copying


Working with Formulas:
In addition to entering values, you will use formulas throughout your
worksheets. Excel uses the formulas that you enter to perform calculate based on
the values in other cells of your worksheets. Formulas let you perform common
math operations-addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division using the
clues in the worksheet cells.

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For example, say you want to add the values in cells B1 and B2 and then
display the sum in cell B5. You could do so by placing the cursor in cell B5 and
entering the simple formula, =B1+B2.
With Excel, you build a formula by indicating which values should be used
and which calculations should apply to these values. Remember that in Excel,
formulas always begin with an equal symbol.
Figure shows example of various formulas within a typical worksheet.
Creating formulas in the Formula bar or with edit directly in cell
If you place the cursor in any cell and then type an equal symbol, the
symbol and a flashing cursor appear in the Formula bar. As you enter the formula,
it appears within the Formula bar. When you press Enter, Excel performs the
calculation based upon the formula and then displays, in the cell, the results of the
calculation. If youve turned on Edit directly in cell as described earlier in the
chapter, you can double-click the cell and type the formula directly into the cell.
Creating formulas by pointing
One handy way to enter the cell reference that make up a major part of
formulas is to point at the cells. Typing the entire formula manually invites
mistakes that you can avoid by entering the cell references this way:
1. Place the cursor in the cell where you want to enter the formula.
2. Start the formulas by typing an equal sign (=).

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3. Point to the cell that you want as the first cell reference and then click.
(Alternatively, you can move the cursor there with the arrow keys.)
4. Type an operator (such as a plus or minus symbol) or other characters to
continue the desired formula.
5. Point to the next cell that you want to use as a cell reference and then click
(or move the cursor there with arrow keys).
6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete to formula.
Allowed elements
Formulas are used to calculate a value based on a combination of other values.
These other values can be numbers, cell reference, operators (+, -, *, /), or other
formulas. Formulas can also include names of other areas in the worksheet, as
well as cell references in other worksheets. Individual cells are referred to by
their coordinates (such as B5), and ranges of cells are referred to by the starting
cell reference, followed by a colon, followed by the ending cell reference (such as
D10: D18). Cells in other worksheets are referred to by name of worksheet,
followed by an exclamation point, followed by the cell reference (such as
Sheet2!E5).
The following table gives the math operators.
Arithmetic operators
Operator Function
+

Addition

Division

Subtraction.

Exponential

Multiplication

Percentage

In addition to the math operators, Excel accepts an ampersand (&) as a text


operator for strings of text. The ampersand is used to combine text strings (this is
known as concatenation). For example, if cell B12 contains Ram and cell B13
contains Mohan, the formula =B12 & B13 would yield the result, RamMohan.
Comparison operators are used to compare values and provide a logical value
based on comparison. The following table described them

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Operator
<

Function
Less than

>

Greater than

<=

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>=

Greater than or equal


to

Equal to

<>
Not equal to
In cell, the simple comparison operators with cell reference to determine
whether a desired result is true or false. For example, consider the worksheet
shown Figure 2-9. In this example, the formulas in cells C2 through C5 are
based on a comparison. Cell C2 contain the formula, =B2>48000. Cells C3, C4
and C5 contain similar formulas. The comparison translates to this: if the value
in B2 is greater than 48000, then display a value of True in C2; otherwise,
display a value of False in C2.

Excel has the following precise order of precedence in building formulas:


1. (unary minus or negation)
2. % (percent)
3. ^ (exponentiation)
4. * or / (multiplication or division)
5. + or (addition or subtraction)
6. & (text operator)
7. < > = (comparison operators)
Depending on how you structure your formulas, you may wish to alter the
preceding order of precedence. For example, if you want to add the contents of cells
B2 and B3 and divide the resulting total by 5, you cannot use the simple formula
=B2+B3/5 because Excel performs division before addition in its order of
precedence. If you used the formula above, the value in B3 would be divided by 5,
and that value would be added to the value of B2producing an erroneous result.
To change the order of precedence, insert parenthesis around calculation that is to

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be performed first. Calculations surrounded by parenthesis are always performed
first, no matter where they fall in the order of precedence. In our example then, the
formula =(B2+B3)/5 gets the desired result. Excel would calculate the expression
within the parenthesis first and then divide that figure by the constant.
Displaying and editing formulas
By default, Excel shows the results of the formula that you enter in cells,
and not the actual formulas. But you can examine any formula by moving the
cursor to the cell that contains it and then looking at the Formula bar. However
you can see all the formulas in your worksheet. Follow the following steps:
1. Choose ToolsOptions.
2. With the Options dialog box appears, click the View tab.
3. Under the Window options, turn on the Formulas check box and then click OK.
The worksheet will show all your formulas in the cells, and Excel will
automatically widen the columns to accommodate the formulas.

4.6 Charts
Charts graphically represent worksheet data. A collection of
values from worksheet cells that you select are illustrated in charts as columns,
lines, bars, pie slices, or other types of markers. Figure shows some example of
typical charts. In a bar or column chart, the markers appear as columns; in a line
chart, the markers appear as lines composed of small symbols. The markers in a
pie chart appear as wedges of the pie.

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Most charts (with the exception of pie charts) have two axes: a horizontal axis
called the X-axis or Category axis and a vertical axis called Y-axis or value axis
You can add descriptive text to a chart, such as a title and you can place the text in
different locations. Your charts can also contain legends which indicates which
data is represented by the markers of the chart.
Embedded Charts and Chart Sheets
You can add charts to Excel worksheet in one of two ways; as embedded charts or
as chartsheets. Embedded charts are inserted into a existing worksheet page;
hence, the page can show worksheet data with the chart. Chartsheets, on the other
hand, are charts that are placed on separate sheets of a workbook, a part from any
worksheet data.
Understanding the Parts of a Chart

The following parts can be found on two dimensional charts:


Chart - The chart is the entire area contained within the chart sheet.
Plot area - The plot area contains the chart's essential data: the value axis, the
category axis, and all the markers that indicate the relative values of your
data.
Markers - Markers are the bars, lines, points, or pie wedges that represent the
actual data in the chart. The form of the markers depends on the type of chart
that you choose such as the one shown in Figure 3-2, the markers appear as
columns.
Chart title - The title is a text label that Excel places as a title within the chart.
Axis - In two-dimensional charts, the horizontal X-axis is called the category
axis because categories of data are normally plotted along this line. The

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vertical y-axis is called the value axis because values are normally shown
along this line.
Tick marks - Tick marks are reference marks that separate the scales of the
value axis and the categories of the category axis.
Text - Excel lets you create text labels as titles and as data labels
Legends-A legend defines the patterns or shadings that are used by the chart
markers.
Create a chart using Chart Wizard
Excel makes adding charts a simple matter by providing a chart
wizard that automatically appears when you add a new chart to a worksheet. Let
us take an example for making a chart. Let there be two companies producing
computers. First of all enter the relevant data in the workbook and select it as
shown in figure 3.3.

Figure 3.3
Select Insert from the main menu, Click Chart Wizard

The Chart Wizard displays a dialogue box that displays the standard and
custom charts The first dialog box is shown in Figure 3.4 , You can select the
chart that you want from the available chart types offered by Excel. Choose

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the desired chart type and click on the Next button to move on to the next
dialog box.
Figure 3.4

The second dialog box of Chart Wizard, as shown in Figure 3-5

Figure 3.5
It displays the range of cells that you have selected. This dialog box lets you control
whether the data series should appear along the rows or along the columns,
After you make the desired selections and click on the Next button, the last
Chart Wizard dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 3-6. In this dialog box,
you can specify whether you want an optional title for the chart, whether a
legend should be included, and whether optional titles for the axes should be
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included. Write Production of computers for title, Months for x-axis and
number of units for y-axis then
click on the Next button.
You will get chart type dialog box. You can select whether to place the chart in
a separate sheet or as an object in the same sheet. Select according to your
will and click the Finish button. The Chart wizard adds the chart to your
worksheet.

Figure 3.7

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Adding Titles
Click the chart to which you want to add a title.
On the Chart menu, click Chart Options, and then click the Titles tab.
To add a chart title, click in the Chart title box, and then type the text you want.
Add a legend to a chart
Click the chart to which you want to add a legend.
On the Chart menu, click Chart Options, and then click the Legend tab.
Select the Show legend check box.
Under Placement, click the option you want.
Saving and Printing Charts
Because charts are stored with worksheet pages, the tasks of
saving and printing charts are no different from saving and printing worksheets.
When you save the worksheet by choosing FileSave, the chart gets saved along
with the worksheet. You can print the chart by activating the page that contains
the chart and choosing FilePrint. The Print dialog box that appears contains the
same options that you use for printing worksheets.

4.7 Header and Footer


If you click on the Header/Footer tab of the Page Set-up dialog box, you see
the options shown in Figure 4-4. You can use the Header/Footer tab's options to
control the appearance and placement of headers and footers printed with your
work sheet pages.

The Header/Footer tab options include the following:


Header and Footer: Use the Header and Footer text boxes to specify a
header (for example, a title that appears at the top of every page) or a
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footer (for example, a page number or the current date that appears at
the bottom of every page).
Custom Header and Custom Footer: Use the Custom Header and Custom
Footer buttons to open dialog boxes that enable you to design a
customized header or footer.

4.8 Centering data


Centering data within Excel is useful if you want to properly
organize your data. The various tools in Excel that make this possible are easy
enough to use. Here's how you center data within Excel:
Open the Excel file in question. Locate the Excel file and click on its icon
twice for it to be opened.
Center data using the Formatting toolbar. Click on the top left cell, the
A1 cell first. Now, drag your mouse in a diagonal manner to highlight all
of the other cells that need to have the data within them centered.
Another alternative would be to use your computer keyboard to perform
this step. To do so, click on the A1 cell to highlight it first. Now, press
the Shift key while simultaneously pressing the right arrow key.
Continue doing this until you highlight all of the cell headers in
question. Now, press the down arrow key while still pressing the Shift
key to highlight cells underneath the headers. Now, to finally center the
data, go to the Formatting toolbar first and locate the Center tool. This is
positioned in between the Align Left and Align Right tools. Simply click
on the Center tool once for all of the data in the highlighted cells to be
centered.
Center data using the Worksheet Menu Bar. Highlight all of the cells in
question first. Now, click on the Format tab for a dropdown menu to
appear. Select the first option Cells. Click on the Alignment tab from the
Format Cells dialog box. Go to the Text alignment section. Click the
dropdown arrow under the Horizontal: section and select the option
Center. Click on the button OK for the changes to finally be applied on
the Excel file.
Center and merge data if needed. Centering and merging data is
sometimes necessary. To do this, highlight all of the cells first. Now, go
to the Formatting toolbar and click on the Merge and Center tool that is

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found right beside the Align Right tool. Now, if you want to do it the long
way using the Worksheet Menu Bar, click on the Format tab once more.
Click on the Alignment tab and go to the Text alignment portion. Select
the option Center from the Horizontal: section afterwards. Now, go to the
Text control section and tick the box right beside the Merge cells option.
Finally click on OK and the changes will be applied to the Excel file.
Bear in mind that only the data contained in the upper-left most cell will be saved
when you use the Merge and Center tool so be very careful about using this
feature.

4.9 Printing
With Excel, you can print in several ways with typeset-quality
results from most laser printers. You have full control over different aspects of
printing that affect the appearance of a worksheet, such as margins, page
orientation, horizontal and vertical alignment, and the use of headers and footers.
You can also do many more than just print pages from a single workbook. You have
the flexibility to print entire workbooks, sheets from a workbook, or a section of a
sheet. These options are accessed via the Print button on the Standard toolbar or
by choosing FilePrint. And if you've used Excel under previous versions of
Windows, you will also find that printing is considerably faster with Excel 97. (This
speed is due more to the improved Windows-98 Print Manager than to Excel itself.)
The Basics of Printing
Because Excel makes a number of assumptions about how you want
information printed when you choose FilePrint or when you click on the Print
button on the Standard toolbar, you can perform basic printing with just a few
steps. These steps are as follows (you'll learn about each step as you work
through this chapter):
Select the area that you want to print.
Choose FilePrint to open the Print dialog box, as shown in Figure 4-1.
Use the options in the dialog box to decide what you want to print (the
current selection, selected sheets, or the entire workbook), a range of
pages (the default is All), and the number of copies.
Click on the OK button to begin the printing process.

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If you are sure that you can live with the default options that normally appear
in the Print dialog box, you can make the process of printing even faster. Just
select the tab of the worksheet that you want printed and click on the Print
button on the Standard toolbar.
Tips: If you have multiple sheets that you want to print one after the other in a
workbook by clicking on the Print button only once, you can easily do so. Click on
the tab of the first worksheet that you want to print and then hold down the Ctrl
key while you click on each additional worksheet tab that you want to print. When
you have selected all the desired tabs, click on the Print button on the Standard
toolbar.
Print dialog box:- After you choose FilePrint, the Print dialog box, which provides
a number of useful options, appears. In the Printer list box, you can choose any
printer that you have installed under Windows. In the Print What area, you can
choose Selection to print a selected area of a worksheet, Selected Sheet(s) to print
all the selected worksheets in a workbook, or Entire Workbook to print all the data
stored in all pages of the workbook.
In the Page Range area of the dialog box, the All option (the default) prints all
pages. If you select the Page(s) option instead, enter a range of pages in the from
and to boxes. This option works well when you know precisely which pages you

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want to print. For example, if you know that a worksheet produces a 12-page print
run in its entirety, and you know that you need only pages 4 through 8 of that
print run, you can turn on the Page(s) option and enter 4 in the from box and 8 in
the to box.
In the Copies area, you can enter the number of copies that you want, and
you can turn on the Collate option if you want the multiple copies to print in
collated order.
Page Setup dialog box:- You can use Excel's Page Setup dialog box to change a
variety of settings that will affect your printing of worksheets. After you choose File,
Page Setup, the Page Setup dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 14-2

This dialog box contains four tabs that affect four different areas of Excel
printing: Page, Margins, Header/Footer, and Sheet. In addition to the tabs, the
dialog box contains Print and Print Preview buttons. After making the desired
changes to the settings, you can click on the Print button to begin printing, or
you can click on the Print Preview button to see the worksheet in Print Preview
mode.

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The Page tab options:You can use the Page tab's options to control print-related settings that affect
all the pages of a print job, such as page orientation and paper size. The Page
tab options include:
Orientation: In the Orientation area, choose whether to print in portrait
(default) or Landscape orientation. Think of a photograph: a portrait is taller
than it is wide, while a picture of a beautiful mountain scene is wider than it
is tall. So it goes with printing: portrait orientation prints lengthwise (like the
pages of this handout), while landscape orientation prints "sideways" on the
paper.
Scaling: Use the options in the Scaling area to reduce or enlarge your
worksheets. These options are useful for making a worksheet that is slightly
too big for a page fit on a single page. You can choose a percentage in the
Adjust To list box, or you can use the Fit To option to fit the printed
worksheet to a specific number of pages wide by a specific number of pages
tall by entering the dimensions in the boxes to the right of the option.
Paper Size: Use the Paper Size option to set the paper size. By default, the
paper size is Letter (8.5x l1 inches).
Print Quality: Use the Print Quality option to set the level of print quality. The
higher the setting, the nicer the appearance; however, in many cases, your
printer takes longer to print documents at higher settings.
First Page Number: Use the First Page Number setting to start printing at a
page other than page 1. The Auto default assumes that you want to start at
page 1, but you can replace this entry by typing any number that you want
into the box.

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The Margins tab options

When you click on the Margins tab of the Page Setup dialog box, you see the
options shown in Figure 4-3. You can use the Margins tab's options to control the
settings that affect each page's margins, such as the size of the margins and
whether printing is centred horizontally or vertically between margins.
The Margins tab options include the following:
Top, Bottom, Left, and Right: Use the Top, Bottom, Left, and Right options to specify
a distance from the edge of the paper for the margins. Note that many laser
printers will not print closer than 0.5 inch from the edge of the paper.
From Edge: Use the settings in the From Edge area to indicate how far headers
or footers should print from the top or bottom edges.
Center on Page: The Center on Page options determine whether printing should be
centered horizontally (between the left and right margins) and vertically (between
the top and bottom margins) on the page.
The Sheet tab options
If you click on the Sheet tab of the Page Setup dialog box, you see the
options shown in Figure 4-5. You can use the Sheet tab's options to control
different print-related settings that affect individual worksheets.

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The Sheet tab options include the following:


Print Area: In the Print Area text box, you can enter a range of cells that you want
to print, or you can enter the name of a named range. If you leave the entry blank,
Excel prints all cells that contain data in the worksheet or workbook.
Print Titles: In the Print Titles area, you can specify rows or columns that, you
would like to see repeated on every page.
Print: Use the options in the Print area to tell Excel how to handle the printing of
certain aspects of a worksheet or workbook. You can determine whether gridlines
and notes should be included in the printing; whether the printer should use a
faster draft-quality printing; whether color printers should print data only in black
and white, even if the cells are formatted as colors; and whether row and column
headings should be included.
Page Order- In the Page Order area, you can specify whether printing of multiplepage worksheets should occur from top to bottom and then from left to right, or
from left to right and then from top to bottom.
Previewing Print Jobs
Previewing your work before you print it is very useful because you
can find mistakes in the layout of your document before you print it, and it helps
you to avoid wasting paper. You can also use the Zoom feature that allows you to
take a closer look at the document and its contents.
To preview a worksheet, click on the Print Preview button on the
Standard toolbar or choose FilePrint Preview to put Excel in Print Preview mode,
as shown in Fig. 4-6.

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In Print Preview mode, you can make modifications to the worksheet to further
improve its appearance by clicking on the Setup button at the top of the screen to
activate the Page Setup dialog box.
You can also modify the margins of your document in Print Preview by clicking on
the Margins button at the top of the screen. Clicking on the Margins button
activates the margin grid" (see Figure 4-7). You can move the margin lines by
using the mouse. The margin grid feature is very helpful because it lets you see the
document as it is being adjusted, and you can also get an idea as to whether the
document will fit on a single page. If you intend to set margins in Print Preview, you
may want to use the Zoom feature by clicking on the Zoom button at the top of the
Print Preview window. The Zoom feature helps you get a better look at what the
margins will look like.
Print a worksheet on a specified number of pages
Click the worksheet.
On the File menu, click Page Setup, and then click the Page tab.
Click Fit to.
Enter the number of pages on which you want to print the work.
Printed data will not exceed the specified number of pages. Microsoft Excel
will not enlarge the data to fill the pages.
Print a specific area of a worksheet
On the View menu, click Page Break Preview.
Select the area you want to print.
Right-click a cell within the selection, and then click Set Print Area on the
shortcut menu.

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Tips: You can add additional cells to a print area in page break preview. Select the
cells you want to add, right-click a cell in the selection, and then click Add to Print
Area on the shortcut menu.

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UNIT V - NETWORKS
5.1 INTERNET EXPLORER
Getting to know the Internet Explorer Window:
Title bar: Consists of:
Name of the current Web page
Minimize Button
Maximize Button
Close button
Location is at the top of the screen
Menu Bar: It contains a series of menus example: file print.
If a menu choice is followed by ellipsis (.) a dialog box is opened.
This bar is directly below the title bar.
Tool Bar: Consists of group of buttons, which can be clicked to run frequently
used commands.
Toolbar is made up of three sections:
Standard Section
Address Bar
Links Section
Standard section is directly below the menu bar. It displays a set of command
buttons that duplicate many of the most frequently used menu commands.
Address bar is below the standard section. In this you can enter web site
locations i.e. URL.
Link section is to the right of the address bar. It displays link buttons that
you can assign to your most frequently used web site locations.
Activity Indicator: This is to the right of the standard section. When Internet
Explorer is sending and receiving data from the Internet, the Internet Explorer
symbol in the indicator will be animated.
Main Window: This is the window below the toolbar. It displays the text,
images and other graphic elements of the current web page or file.
Status Bar: This is at the bottom of the main window. It supplies information
about the current web site, progress meter etc.

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Using Internet Explorer Effectively:
Stopping the downloading of a web page: If the page takes too long to display or
if you decide not to display the page the cross button on the tool bar is used for it.
Refreshing a web page: To start the downloading of the page afresh if the web
page has not fully downloaded due to any network problem. Or if the web page was
retrieved from memory, but you suspect that the page may have changed. The
button is on the tool bar.
Opening A New Internet Explorer Window:
The reasons may be:
1.To keep working while downloading. a lengthy document.
2. To keep reference information in one window
while you are reading
another document.
3. To keep a search engine visible in one window while you are exploring in
another window.
Ways to open a new window:
1.To open a specific Web Page:
In a new window, right-click a Hyper-Link and then click Open In New
Window command.
2.To open a blank new window:
Click the new window command on the file menu. In the blank new window,
type the address.
Copying, Saving And Printing Web Pages:
1. Selecting text in a Web Page:
Only text is selected. Graphics are not included.
Copying graphics:
1. Launch Internet Explorer.
2. Go to the web page that contains the graphic
3. Right-click a graphic and then click save picture as.
4. Give any relevant name for saving picture and save it.

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5.2 World Wide Web(WWW)


The World Wide Web is a system of hypertext documents that are linked to each
other. Internet is the means to access this set of interlinked documents. These
hypertext documents can contain text, images or even audio and video data. The
World Wide Web, serving as an enormous information base, has also facilitated the
spread of this information across the globe. It has led to the emergence of the
Internet age. It will not be an exaggeration to say that the Internet owes its
popularity to the World Wide Web.
Working of the World Wide Web
Asking how the Internet works is not the same as asking how the world wide web
works. Well, Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same, although
they are often used as synonyms. While the Internet is an infrastructure providing
interconnectivity between network computers, the web is one of the services of the
Internet. It is a collection of documents that can be shared across Internet-enabled
computers.
The network of web servers serves as the backbone of the World Wide Web. The
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is used to gain access to the web. A web
browser makes a request for a particular web page to the web server, which in turn
responds with the requested web page and its contents. It then displays the web
page as rendered by HTML or other web languages used by the page. Each resource
on the web is identified by a globally unique identifier (URI). Each web page has a
unique address, with the help of which a browser accesses it. With the help of
the domain name system, a hierarchical naming system for computers and
resources participating in the Internet, the URL is resolved into an IP address.
Presence of hyperlinks, the worldwide availability of content and universal
readership is some of the striking features of the World Wide Web. The interlinked
hypertext documents form a web of information. Hyperlinks present on web pages
allow the web users to choose their paths of traversal across information on the
web. They provide an efficient cross-referencing system and create a non-linear
form of text. Moreover, they create a different reading experience. The information
on the web is available 24/7 across the globe. It is updated in real time and made
accessible to web users around the world. Except for certain websites requiring
user login, all the other websites are open to everyone. This all-time availability of
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information has made the Internet, a platform for knowledge-sharing. Thanks to
the use of a common HTML format for rendering web content and a common access
method using the HTTP protocol, the web has achieved universal readership.
The World Wide Web, a compilation of millions of hypertext documents, has
brought together information from all over the world, 'just a click away'. But, before
leaving this web page, take a moment to thank the World Wide Web; for if it was
not for the web, you would not have landed here!
Browsing
When you first open the web browser it will automatically load a "homepage" usually that of the browser's manufacturer. E.g. Internet Explorer will load
the MSN homepage. Most people find this irritating and change the default
homepage setting to something they are more interested in like weather reports,
stock exchange info or their favourite search engine. To change your homepage to
your preferred page, browse to the page you want as your homepage. Then go
"View", "Internet Options", select the "Use Current" button.
As a page "loads" into your browser you will see the text come in, the pictures
arrive - all the basic elements of a web page. You will notice that some text is
underlined and in different colours - this is hypertext, if you click on it, you will
jump to another web page. When you move your mouse arrow over a link the
mouse's pointer will change to a hand. This indicates there is a hypertext link
associated with that text. The same applies to pictures, that is, if you move your
mouse over a picture and your mouse arrow turns from an arrow to a hand, you
know there is a link there. The process of clicking hypertext links, loading one
page after another, is called "browsing" or "surfing the web".
Searching
Searching the World Wide Web can be both beneficial and frustrating. You may find
vast amounts of information, or you may not find the kinds of information you're
looking for. Searching online will provide you with a wealth of information, but not
all of it will be useful or of the highest quality.
The World Wide Web is a superb resource, but it doesn't contain all the information
that you can find at a library or through library online resources. Don't expect to

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limit your search to what is on the Internet, and don't expect search engines to find
everything that is on the Web.
Studies of search engine usage show that search engines are increasing
exponentially in their indexing of new websites and information. Indexing is the
web term for finding and including new web pages and other media in search
results. For example, in 1994, Google indexed approximately 20 million pages. As
of 2004, that number is up to 8 billion! However, search engines still only index a
fraction of what is available on the Internet and not all of it is up to date. Search
engines may only "crawl" sites (or revisit them for purposes of indexing) every
month or so; information that has been updated since that time will be invisible to
the search engines. After you try several search engines, you will see that you get
different results from different sites. Also, remember that some information appears
and then disappears from Web sites. Finally, search engines don't always search
the entire page; if a page is larger than 100 to 500 k, many search engines will only
index the first 100 to 500k of the page. So there could be valuable information that
is being overlooked by a search engine even in pages that are indexed.
Not all of the information located on the Internet is able to be found via search
engines. Researchers Chris Sherman and Gary Price call this information the
"invisible web" (another name that is frequently used is the "deep web"). Invisible
web information includes certain file formats, information contained in databases,
and other omitted pages from search engines.
So, using search engines is not the only way to find material on the web, but they
are one tool you can use. Knowing a few search strategies and hints, as you use
these engines, can make the search more profitable.

5.3 Bookmark/Favorites
Internet Explorer is the most popular browser out there today, and while it has its
problems and critics, it still has a lot of useful features that make web search more
enjoyable. One of these features is the ability to save websites for later reference,
otherwise known as bookmarks, or favorites.
After you have collected enough favorites (aka "bookmarks") to merit some
organizing, you choose one of two ways to start: either click
theFavorites menu at the top of the screen, or Display and use the Favorites
bar at the left of the screen.
Choose organize Favorites
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There are now three sub-steps ahead for creating folder
Click create folder
Drag and drop your favorite icon into your new folder
Confirm that favorite has an indented (nested) appearance
Repeat the above 3 sub-steps until you have moved all your favorites into
folders that
Work for you
Technical note: you are allowed to create folders within folders. These
subfolders will result in sub-menus and even more organization for you. The
procedure is identical to the procedure above, just drag-and-drop your
folders as you would your Favorites.

5.4 Webpage
The structure of a web page:
Web pages are actually text files that are "tagged" with symbols to represent
structure and function. You can prepare and edit Web pages in any text editor or
word processor you like. The system of tags, called HTML (HyperText Markup
Language), is very logical and not difficult to learn. However, you don't really need
to speak fluent HTML in order to create your own Web pages. There are several
Shortcuts that have been developed to simplify the process.
The icons, pictures, sound bites, and video clips that are common on Web pages
are actually separate files that are referred to by special HTML codes. When the
page is viewed by a Web browser, such as Firefox or Internet Explorer, these HTML
codes are interpreted by the browser, which pulls in all the separate files and
assembles the Web page in the form you finally see it. This is in contrast to a
modern word processor, in which the editing and viewing functions are integrated
into one program and in which all the text, graphics and other elements of the
document are contained in one document file. For that reason, the process of
creating Web pages is less direct that creating an equivalent word processor
document.

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Writing HTML pages:
Text remains the most important part of most Web sites and thus will be the first
element considered here. All of the text of a Web page is contained in an ASCII text
file that is "marked up" with HTML codes and is usually given a file name that ends
in ".html". The "body text" of the page is simply written out in plain text in the html
file. You can use any convenient plain text editor to write your HTML files,
e.g. SimpleText on the Mac or Notepad on Windows.
There is no need to buy web editor program. All you really need is a Web browser
and the text editor that came with your computer. There is no need to be tied down
to a commercial Web editor that will eventually become obsolete or require
upgrading to a new version. Web editors do, however, make it easy to create fancy
Web pages with lots of bells and whistles. But you don't actually need to spend any
money; there are good free web editors that you can download, such
as Kompozer (Screen shot). These work a lot like word processors, but they include
extra features for creating links, site management, uploading pages to your
server, cascading style sheets, etc. There are also Web-based page editors that do
everything within a web browser, for example Google's easy-to-use but somewhat
limited Page Creator.
Tips on creating web pages:
If you are developing a Web page using a text editor to write HTML, it's convenient
to keep your Web browser and the html file open in a text editor (such as Notepad,
NoteTab, or SimpleText) at the same time. To view the page as it will appear in your
Web browser, click on the browser window, pull down the File menu and
select Open File , select the html file and click on Open. If you want to make a
change, click on the text editor window, edit the html text, Save it, then click on
the browser window and click on the Reload button.
You may find it easier to type up your text in your favorite word processor, where
you will have access to a spell checker, etc., then Copy and Paste the text into the
template. Don't attempt to format the text in the word processor, as all formatting
is lost when the text is copied and pasted, unless you "Save As..." in HTML format,
then copy and past the HTML code into your template. Rather, formatting codes
can be added to the text afterwards. Don't worry about line length and line breaks;

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Web browsers ignore carriage returns and other line break characters and
automatically format text to the width of the window (which is controlled by the
user, not by the author). To separate paragraphs, add a <p> tag between
paragraphs.

Print webpage
As you begin your Internet Explorer explorations, if you discover a Web page with
really interesting information that you want to have a hard copy of, all you have to
do is print the page. Make sure that your printer's turned on and ready to go and
then follow these steps:
1. Choose File --> Print.
The Print dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: The Print dialog box.


2. Stare at the Print dialog box for a moment.
If you have more than one printer at your disposal, make sure that the correct
printer is selected. If you want to print more than one copy of the page, change
the Number of Copies setting.
3. Click OK.
4. Wait a moment while your printer grinds and whirls.
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A faster way to print a Web page assuming that you want only one copy and you
know that the correct printer has already been selected as your default printer is
to simply click the Print button (the button that looks like a printer with a piece of
paper coming out of the top) on the toolbar.
Opting for print options
The Options tab in the Print dialog box lets you control several aspects of how a
Web page is printed. The first set of options are for pages that are laid out in two or
more frames, which display content independently of one another. Internet
Explorer gives you three options for dealing with frames:
As laid out onscreen: Prints all the frames together, as they appear on the
screen.
Only the selected frame: Prints only the frame you've selected. This option
is available only if you select a frame before calling up the Print dialog box.
All frames individually: Prints separately all the frames that make up the
page.
The Options tab also has two options related to links that appear on the page
you're printing:
Print all linked documents: Prints not only the current Web page, but also
any pages that appear as links on the page you're printing.
Print table of links: Prints a list of all the links that appear on the page.
Laying out your page
The File --> Page Layout command lets you tweak the appearance of your printed
pages by summoning the dialog box shown in Figure 2.

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Figure 2: The Page Setup dialog box.


The following paragraphs describe the page-layout options you can set from this
dialog box:
Paper size: The most common choices are Letter and Legal, but other page
sizes are available. The important thing about this setting is to make sure that
it corresponds to the type of paper you put in your printer. If you put letter-size
paper in your printer but set this option to Legal, your pages don't print
properly.
Paper source: If you have more than one way to feed paper to your printer,
this option lets you choose the one you want to use.
Header and Footer: These fields let you set up information to be printed at
the top and bottom of each page. The default settings for these options are to
print the page title and page number in the header and the URL and the date in
the footer.
You can customize the information you want to appear in the header and footer, if
you dare. Unfortunately, the road to customized headers and footers is paved with
nerdy ampersand codes, such as &w, &p, and &b. Take a deep breath and look
over the list of codes shown in Table 1. Then, twiddle with the header and footer
fields if you can still see straight.
Portrait or Landscape: This setting specifies the orientation of the printed
pages, either Portrait (the long edge of the paper is vertical) or Landscape (the
long edge of the paper is horizontal).

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Margins: Lets you set the top, bottom, left, and right margins.
Table 1: Nerdy Codes You Can Use in a Page Header or Footer
Code

Explanation

&w

The window title, which is usually the title of the Web page.

&u

The URL (address) of the Web page.

&d

Short-format date.

&D

Long-format date.

&t

Time in regional format.

&T

Time in 24-hour format.

&p

Current page number.

&P

Number of pages in document.

&&

Prints an ampersand (&).

&b

The first time this code appears, the text that follows is centered. The
second time the code appears, the text that follows is aligned with the right
margin.

Using Print Preview


If you want to see how a page will appear on paper before you send it to your
printer, choose the File --> Print Preview command. A Print Preview screen appears,
as shown in Figure 3.

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Figure 3: Print Preview lets you see how a page will appear before you print it.

5.5 E - Mail
With the growing popularity of the Internet, e-mail has become the most popular
communication method for the internet users. Email is the fast and effective
method of communication and it is probably the most preferred method for online
communication. At present, thousands of users are using e-mails every day.
Extensive use of e-mail makes it so interesting and so versatile. If you want to send
greetings to your grandfather or send some files to friends, you can easily use the
e-mail to do so.
Advantages of E-Mail
E-mail has come a long way since its introduction, but still, for the most part of the
world it used as a secured, fast and easy way to communicate. Electronic
communications policy is essentially a reference tool that is much more developed
now, and you can do much more with it than other medium. With an ordinary file,
you can send text messages via e-mail address and send greeting cards, manage email, duties or preventing unwanted emails by using a spam folder, and organize
and manage tasks in their daily number of mail servers. You can send a heavy file
within a minute by email.
However, this wonderful tool is not without fault. Some people use these
advantages of email to send viruses and worms through e-mail and in the process
they send a lot of emails on your address. If you open and use any file that is
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infected, it can make a major damage to your computer. An e-mail virus may often
be very difficult to understand, especially for someone who have a little or limited
knowledge about computer viruses and how they work. If you get an email with no
name mentioned on it and if you open that mail, there are high chances for your
computer to get infected by the virus and specious worm.
The privacy problems mentioned above is a big problem. Almost every e-mail goes
through a series of computers before it reaches the recipients inbox, and it is
possible that individuals can access e-mail and read it. Therefore, it is important
that you have a bullet-proof password. Thus you will be able to make your personal
emails secured. Keep your security question and answer in a safe place. Do the
best use of email and take the full advantages of email. Do not use it to harass
people, because it is the worst use of a good thing.

Creating E-Mail Account


Creating an email account is simple.
First, choose an email service that you prefer (major ones include Yahoo,
Hotmail, Gmail, etc).
Next, decide what screen name you wish to have. This will act as both your
login name and your email address name (ex. yournamehere@yahoo.com). If
the name is taken, try a variation of the name, or add numbers, spaces or
hyphens in it.
After you have chosen a name, you will have to create a password and a
security question/answer. Make sure to choose a password that you'll be
able to remember, but will be difficult for others to guess (as a warning for
those making an account for the first time, NEVER give out your password,
as there are many scam and phishing sites that will undoubtebly try to steal
your information) .
The final step is to fill out your personal information and activate your
account.
Once this is completed, you will be able to use your email to send and receive
messages, add addresses and phone numbers into your contact book, use your
calendar, and much more.

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Sending and Receiving E-Mails
The drafting and consultation of messages in Gmail differ little from those options
offered by a conventional email client. To send an email, click "Compose Mail"
located above the folder list. An entry form appears in the Gmail interface.
However, it is possible to open a separate window by clicking the icon consisting of
a blue square containing an arrow, superimposed on a blue square. This option
has the advantage of allowing access to all functions of the Gmail mailbox without
interrupting e-mail attachment.

In the "To:" box, type the address of the person you want to write. For multiple
recipients, separate addresses with commas. When entering, Gmail will suggest
possible addresses you use frequently, then those in your list of contacts (including
groups). In case of multiple proposals, press [Enter] to select the first suggestion or
move through the list to select another address. If Gmail does not suggest the
address you want, continue typing without taking into account the proposals.
Tip: You can select the contacts you want to write directly into the folder
"Contacts". Simply check the box before the name of the people want, then click on
"Write".
To view the "Cc:" tab click "Add Cc". Cc means "carbon copy", type here the
addresses of people who are not the main recipients of the message, but you still
want to send a copy.
To view the "Bcc:" tab click "Add Bcc". Bcc stands for "carbon copy invisible, type
here the addresses of people you want to send a copy of the mail, but the other
correspondents will not know.
In "Subject:", enter the subject of the email. Enter the text itself. By default, Gmail
to send a message in HTML format. You have options enrichment and text
formatting: bold, italic, underlined, choice of font and size, insertion of hyperlinks,
bulleted lists, numbered lists, etc.If you are unsure that your recipients can read
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rich text, click "Text only". Note that the spell checking works in both modes of
entry.
Adding attachments to Email
It is also possible to add attachments (pictures, videos, etc..) To the message.
To this end, click "Attach a file" then click "Browse" to select a file on the hard disk.
When you finish typing your post, click the "Send" to send it immediately or on the
button "Save" to save as draft. Things to know: Gmail backup at regular intervals
the mail that you are writing. Therefore, do not panic if for any reason it were to be
lost. You will find a copy in the folder "Drafts".Unfortunately, Gmail does not have
the "receipt" for the messages you send.You'll see that sending emails is a really
easy.
Receiving E-Mail
All emails received are stored in the inbox. The number of unread messages is
indicated in parentheses to the right of the folder "Inbox". Gmail automatically
checks every two minutes when new messages arrive. At any time, you can force
the check by clicking on the "Update".

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BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED


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