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GUIDELINE

Screw Compressors Testing

Contents
1. Principle of operation and classification of the compressors .............................................. 2
2. Basic parameters of the compression process. Nature of the compression ......................... 4
3. Screw compressors .............................................................................................................. 6
3.1. Construction ................................................................................................................. 6
3.2. Fundamentals of operation........................................................................................... 7
3.3. Volume Ratio .............................................................................................................. 11
3.4. Capacity Control ......................................................................................................... 13
4. Methods for testing of screw compressors ......................................................................... 17
4.1. Testing of pressure distribution in twin screw compressors for multiphase
duties ................................................................................................................................. 17
4.2. Testing of screw refrigeration compressors under superfeed conditions ................... 19
4.3 Testing of gas screw compressors ( for natural gas or other types of gas ) ................. 23
5. Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 26
6. Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 27

1. Principle of operation and classification of the compressors


Compressors are operating pneumatic machines that increasing the potential energy,
the pressure of gas or steam by converting them held to the shaft mechanical energy drive
motor.
All compressors according to the principle of action, which means according to
physical phenomena, which are used to transfer energy to gas can be divided into three
groups:
1) volume compressors ( positive displacement compressors);
2) dynamic compressors;
3) thermal compressors.
In some types of compressors combinations of several ways to increase the pressure
have been used. The volume compressors increase the gas pressure by reducing the
volume of closed chambers containing a certain amount of gas, which means definite
number of molecules of the gas. Reducing the chamber increases the concentration of
molecules in unit volume. The pressure of the ambient gas on the walls according to the
laws of kinetic energy of the gas is proportional to the total (aggregate) impact energy of
the gas molecules on the wall. Therefore, when reducing the volume and increasing the
gas molecules per unit volume increases the number of strokes of molecules per unit area,
resulting in increased gas pressure. The process of increasing the pressure in the volume
compressors is periodic. It is the first volume of the working chamber to increase and be
filled with gas, then reduce, increase gas pressure and tight (compressed) kind to be
forced from the compressor.
The pneumatic volume machines are rotational and non rotational. Typical
representative of non rotational compressors is the piston compressor. It features a large
economy, simple construction, maintenance, repair and reliability. Operating cycle of the
piston compressor consists of three phases: suction, compression of gas from the cylinder
and ejection from the chamber in the compression line.
In rotary compressors (lammelate, screw, eight figurative, at water ring, vortex)
working cycle occurs continuously rolling the working cameras with rotation of the rotor.
Compressors can be classified more of the following signs:
a) depending from the way of use - general and special (refrigeration, etc..);
b) a type - landline or mobile;

c) the type of compressible fluid - air, gas and steam;


d) according to the drive - electrically adjustable, with internal combustion engines,
steam and gas turbine;
e) according to the cooling - air and water cooled;
f) according to the stages of pressure - single stage and multistage;
g) according to the size of the flow - low flow (to 10 m3/min), with an average flow
rate (from 10 to 30 m3/min) and with high flow (from 30 to 25000 m3/min);
h) according to the developed pressure - vacuum, shrinking diluted gas to a pressure
slightly above atmospheric; compressors, shrinking gas to 0.3 MPa (without cooling); low
pressure compressors - from 0.3 to 1 MPa; an average pressure compressors - from 1.0 to
10 MPa; high pressure compressors - from 10 to 100 MPa; ultra high pressure compressors
- up to 250 MPa [3].

2. Basic parameters of the compression process. Nature of the compression


Thermodynamic compression is the process whereby the action of external forces
forcibly reducing the volume of gas to increase its pressure.
According to the kinetic theory of gases, their pressure is proportional to the total
kinetic energy of the molecules, which is converted into potential energy of pressure as a
result of their shots from the walls limiting gas volume. Upon compression of the gas
increases the number of hits of their molecules falling on unit area of restrictive walls, ie
increasing the gas pressure. As a result, the molecules hit the walls, and as a result of
blows between them, heat is released. This heat is converted back into kinetic energy,
which causes a further increase in pressure. The further increase of pressure is to increase
the impact energy on the walls as a result of the conversion of heat into kinetic energy of
the gas molecules.
Therefore, the increase in gas pressure in the ratio is due, and the reduction of its
volume, and by increasing its temperature.
If the pressure in the compression process is p 1 and at the end of the process p2,
then the ratio p2/p1 in theory compressors is we are referring to degree of pressure
increase and is written as pk :

pk

p2 .
p1

(1)

Similar concepts are introduced and the relationship of the volume and temperature
of the gas at the beginning and end of the process compression. If the volume of gas in the
trial ratio is V1 and at the end of the process is V2, then the relation V1/ V2 is called the
degree of compression and marked with

Vk

Vk

V2 .
V1

(2)

If the gas temperature at the beginning of the process of compression is T 1 and at


the end of the process - T2, then the ratio T1/T2 is called degree of the temperature
increasing and was marked with

Tk

Tk

T2 .
T1

(3)

If in equation (1) the pressures p1 and p2 will be expressed from the equation of state
of ideal gas:
p.V = m.R.T,

(4)

and taking into account equations (2) and (2) for the rate of pressure rise is obtained [3]:

pk Vk . Tk

(5)

3. Screw compressors
Rotary screw compressors are widely used today in industrial refrigeration for
compression of ammonia and other refrigerating gases, petrol and gas industry or for
compressed air for industrial applications (and,function of final parameters and
compositions of gas screw compressors are two types : oil free and oil injected-floodedscrew compressors)
3.1. Construction
A typical oil flooded twin screw compressor consists of male and female rotors
mounted on bearings to fix their position in a rotor housing which holds the rotors in
closely toleranced intersecting cylindrical bores (figure 1).

Fig.1. Construction and principle of work of rotary screw compressor


The rotors basic shape is a screw thread, with varying numbers of lobes on the male
and female rotors. The driving device is generally connected to the male rotor with the
male driving the female through an oil film. In refrigeration, four or five lobed male rotors
generally drive six or seven lobe female rotors to give a female rotor speed that is
somewhat less than the male speed. Some designs connect the drive to the female rotor in
order to produce higher rotor speeds thus increasing displacement. However, this
increases loading on the rotors in the area of torque transfer and can reduce rotor life.

3.2. Fundamentals of operation


A screw compressor is best described as a positive displacement volume reduction
device. Its action is analogous to a reciprocating compressor more than any of the other
common compressor types. It is helpful to refer to the equivalent recip. process to
visualize how compression progresses in a screw. Gas is compressed by pure rotary motion
of the two intermeshing helical rotors. Gas travels around the outside of the rotors,
starting at the top and traveling to the bottom while it is transferred axially from the
suction end to the discharge end of the rotor area.
3.2.1. Suction process
Suction gas is drawn into the compressor to fill the void where the male rotor
rotates out of the female flute on the suction end of the compressor. Suction charge fills
the entire volume of each screw thread as the unmeshing thread proceeds down the
length of the rotor. This is analogous to the suction stroke in a reciprocating compressor
as the piston is drawn down the cylinder (figure 2).

Fig.2. Beginning of suction


The suction charge becomes trapped in two helically shaped cylinders formed by the
screw threads and the housing as the threads rotate out of the open suction port. The
volume trapped in both screw threads over their entire length is defined as the volume at
suction, (Vs). In the recip. analogy the piston reaches the bottom of the stroke and the
suction valve closes, trapping the suction volume, (V s) (figure 3).

Fig.3. Maximum suction


The displacement per revolution of the recip. is defined in terms of suction volume,
by the bore times the stroke times the number of cylinders. The total displacement of the
screw compressor is the volume at suction per thread times the number of lobes on the
driving rotor.
3.2.2. Compression
The male rotor lobe will begin to enter the trapped female flute on the bottom of
the compressor at the suction end, forming the back edge of the trapped gas pocket. The
two separate gas cylinders in each rotor are joined to form a "V" shaped wedge of gas with
the point of the "V" at the intersection of the threads on the suction end (figure 4).

Fig.4. Beginning of compression


Further rotation begins to reduce the trapped volume in the "V" and compress the
trapped gas. The intersection point of the male lobe in the female flute is like the piston
in the recip. that is starting up the cylinder and compressing the gas ahead of it (figure 5).

Fig.5. Compression
3.2.3. Discharge Process

In the recip. compressor, the discharge process starts when the discharge valve first
opens. As the pressure in the cylinder exceeds the pressure above the valve, the valve
lifts, allowing the compressed gas to be pushed into the discharge manifold. The screw
compressor has no valves to determine when compression is over. The location of the
discharge ports determine when compression is over (figure 6).The volume of gas
remaining in the "V" shaped trapped pocket at discharge port opening is defined as the
volume at discharge, (Vd).
A radial discharge port is used on the outlet end of the slide valve and an axial port
is used on the discharge end wall. These two ports provide relief of the internal
compressed gas and allow it to be pushed into the discharge housing. Positioning of the
discharge ports is very important as this controls the amount of internal compression.

Fig.6. Beginning of discharge


In the recip., the discharge process is complete when the piston reaches the top of
the compression stroke and the discharge valve closes. The end of the discharge process in
the screw occurs as the trapped pocket is filled by the male lobe at the outlet end wall of
the compressor (figure 7).

Fig.7. End of discharge


The recip. always has a small amount of gas, (clearance volume), that is left at the
top of the stroke to expand on the next suction stroke, taking up space that could have
been used to draw in more suction charge. At the end of the discharge process in the
screw, no clearance volume remains. All compressed gas is pushed out the discharge
ports. This is a significant factor that helps the screw compressor to be able to run at
much higher compression ratios than a recip.

3.3. Volume Ratio


In a reciprocating compressor, the discharge valves open when the pressure in the
cylinder exceeds the pressure in the discharge manifold. Because a screw compressor does
not have valves, the location of the discharge ports determine the maximum discharge
pressure level that will be achieved in the screw threads before the compressed gas is
pushed into the discharge pipe.
Volume ratio is a fundamental design characteristic of all screw compressors. The
compressor is a volume reduction device. The comparison of the volume of trapped gas at
suction, (Vs) to the volume of trapped gas remaining in the compression chamber when it
opens to discharge, (Vd) defines the internal volume reduction ratio of the compressor.
This volume index or "Vi" determines the internal pressure ratio of the compressor and the
relationship between them can be approximated as follows:
Vi = Vs/Vd,
where: Vi is volume ratio or index;
Vs is volume at suction;
Vd is volume at discharge.

(6)

pi = Vik,

(7)

where: pi is internal pressure ratio;


k is specific heat ratio of the gas being compressed.
Only the suction pressure and the internal volume ratio determine the internal
pressure level in the trapped pocket before opening to the discharge port. However, in all
refrigeration systems the condensing temperature determines the discharge pressure in
the system, and the evaporating temperature determines the suction pressure.
If the internal volume ratio of the compressor is too high for a given set of operating
conditions the discharge gas will be kept trapped too long and be raised above the
discharge pressure in the piping. This is called overcompression and is represented in the
pressure-volume curve in figure 8.

Fig.8. Over compression p-V diagram


In this case the gas is compressed above discharge pressure and when the port
opening occurs, the higher pressure gas in the screw thread expands out of the compressor
into the discharge line. This takes more energy than if the compression had been stopped
sooner, when the internal pressure was equal to the system discharge pressure.
When the compressor volume ratio is too low for the system operating pressures this
is called undercompression and is represented in figure 9.

Fig.9. Under compression p-V diagram


In this case the discharge port opening occurs before the internal pressure in the
compressor trapped pocket has reached the system discharge pressure level. The higher
pressure gas outside the compressor flows back into the lower pressure pocket, raising the
thread pressure immediately to the discharge pressure level. The compressor then has to
pump against this higher pressure level, rather than pump against a gradual build up to
discharge pressure level if the volume ratio had been higher, keeping the trapped pocket
closed longer.
In both cases the compressor will still function, and the same volume of gas will be
moved, but more power will be required than if the discharge ports are correctly located
to match the compressor volume ratio to what the system needs. Variable volume ratio
compressor designs are used in order to optimize discharge port location and minimize
compressor power.
3.4. Capacity Control
Capacity control is used in screw compressors to vary the amount of gas drawn into
the compressor. This is necessary in order to provide accurate suction temperature control
as evaporator load varies. Common capacity control methods are:
- slide valve controlling discharge port;

- slide valve controlling discharge port and volume ratio;


- slide valve not controlling discharge port;
- plug valves;
- variable speed.
Slide valves controlling the discharge port are a very common type of capacity
control device used in screw compressors. They are popular because they can give
infinitely adjustable control of capacity, often from 10 to 100 %. This type of slide valve
works by opening a recirculation passage in the high pressure cusp which allows a portion
of the trapped gas in the "V" shaped compression chamber to be recirculated back to the
suction cavity before it begins compression (figure 10).

Fig.10. Slide valve controlling discharge port


This method offers good efficiency at part load for two reasons. First, the
recirculated gas only has to overcome a slight pressure drop in order to bypass back to
suction since the recirculation slot opens to the trapped pocket before compression has
started, avoiding a precompression loss. Second, as the slide valve moves, the radial
discharge port is also being moved. As the trapped volume at suction is decreased, the
discharge port opening is also delayed, thus maintaining approximately the same volume
ratio at part load as at full load for optimum part load efficiency.
A compressor designed to control capacity and volume ratio is shown in figure 11. In
this design a movable slide stop is adjustable in the same bore as the slide valve. In this
design the discharge port position and the recirculation slot position can both be adjusted.
This allows an infinite number of adjustable positions for both valves, which provides
volume ratio and capacity adjustment from full load to approximately 40 % load, with
continuing capacity adjustment down to 10 % load. This arrangement offers improved
energy efficiency at full and part load.

Fig.11. Slide valve controlling discharge port and volume ratio


Slide valves that do not control the discharge port come in several varieties, the
most common is a round slide valve intersecting with slots in the rotor bore (figure
12).This type of unloader still gives good reduction of capacity but not as good a reduction
in part load power because it does not maintain the volume ratio during unloading. There
can also be some leakage across the slots in the rotor bore which can hurt performance at
all loads. These devices are lower in cost than conventional slide valves and used in some
smaller compressors.

Fig.12. Slide valve not controlling discharge port


Plug valves are radial or axial devices which lift to open a recirculation passage from
the trapped pocket back to suction. They will typically give unloading in steps of 75, 50,
and 25 % of full load as each progressive plug is opened. These devices also do not give

part load volume ratio correction like the first slide valves, thus part load efficiency is
comparable to slide valves that do not regulate the discharge port. Plug valves also tend
to be lower cost and simple in control method (figure 13).

Fig.13. Controlling with plug valves


Variable speed is occasionally used as a method of capacity control with screws. This
can be provided with speed controlled engines, steam turbines, or variable frequency
electric drives. Compressor power does not decrease linearly with speed reduction but
rather decreases as a function of rotor tip speed, and operating compression ratio. In
general, the compressor part load efficiency will be slightly better at low compression
ratio and significantly better at high compression ratio with reduced speed compared to
slide valve control, but this is before taking into account the losses in the driver at
reduced speed.
Variable speed control with screws should not be implemented without consulting
the compressor manufacturer. There are lower speed limits for compressors below which
bearings may fail due to inadequate bearing lubrication. Large compressors will have
lower minimum speeds than small compressors. Many small compressors may be able to
accommodate drive speeds above the input line frequency, but separator limits, oil cooler
size, and other package limitations must be investigated. It is also possible to fill a
compressor up with oil and cause failure if the speed is reduced below an acceptable
range with the compressor unloaded. Many of these limits are not published but should be
investigated early in a variable speed proposal or study [4].

4. Methods for testing of screw compressors


4.1. Testing of pressure distribution in twin screw compressors for multiphase duties
Multiphase production system (MPS) is a relatively new technology which is seeing
increased industrial application in recent years. Multiphase transportation technology
enables the transport the mixture of oil, water and gas, occasionally sand, natural gas
hydrates and waxes from wells via a single flow line to the processing facilities. MPS can
reduce the cost of exploring and conveying about 70 % that of a conventional facility.
Especially designed for application in multiphase transportation are a rotor dynamic pump
of the helicon-axial type and a positive displacement pump of twin screw type. The twinscrew pump works on the principles of enclosing a defined volume on the suction side and
moving it to the discharge end by adding energy. It is used for liquids ranging in viscosity
from water-like consistency to polymers with a viscosity of millions of centipoise, and it
does a creditable job over a fairly wide range of gas void fractions (GVFs) including 100 %
gas for short periods.
Pressure distribution is showing large influences on the multiphase pumping behavior
especially during the boosting of two phase mixture. The pressure build-up has a very
important contribution to the fluid backflow recirculated through the internal clearance
back to the inlet of screws, which leads to the varieties of pumps delivered volume flow
rate, volumetric efficiencies and the power consumption. On the other side, the
inlet/outlet pressure, rotational speed and gas volume fraction (GVF) have a direct
influence on the pressure distribution inside the working chamber. Nevertheless, the
prediction of pressure distribution of twin-screw pump on multiphase mixture presents a
challenge. Since the twin-screw multiphase pump with isometric process do face problem
with changes in temperature as pressure increase when the pump is operating with high
GVFs, the twin screw compressor with built-in volume ratio are used for multiphase
transport in this work. With the help of unloading valve, the twin screw compressor for
multiphase duties can ran at a variety of flow conditions covering GVFs ranging from 30 %
to 100 %.
A schematic diagram of the multiphase compressor test rig is shown in figure 14:

Fig.14. Multiphase compressor test rig layout


The gas is taken from the pressurized air network, mixed with liquid phase in mixer
just in front of the compressor suction. There is a separator set up downstream of the
compressor to separate the multiphase flow.
The measurement of global operation parameters, like the suction and discharge
pressure are recorded by data acquisition system (DAS). The shaft power is measured using
a torque meter. The volumetric flow rates of both phases are measured by turbine flow
meters. The temperature of the oil phase can be controlled by means of a water heat
exchanger.
Figure 15 presents the measuring system for recording the pressure distribution in
the working chamber. With aid of a slip ring on the rotational female rotor, the pressure
signal from the working chamber is led out of the multiphase compressor and then
conveniently processed in the standard data acquisition system.

Fig.15. Transducer installation and data acquisition


By this method of testing the following results of investigation can be achieved:
1) Pressure distribution under different GVFs.
2) Effects of discharge pressure on pressure distribution.
3) Effects of inlet pressure on pressure distribution.
4) Effects of rotational speed on pressure distribution.
5) Multiphase compressor performances with different GVFs [1].

4.2. Testing of screw refrigeration compressors under superfeed conditions


The refrigeration equipments are widely employed in both commerce and industry.
To give rise to an increase in the cooling capacity and COP of the refrigeration system, an
economizer is usually arranged in the refrigeration plants. Due to the advantages of twin
screw refrigeration compressor, such as high efficiency, stable operation, high reliability,
and so on, especially the superfeed process is achieved easily in twin screw compressor,
the twin screw refrigeration compressors are broadly used in various refrigeration systems,
which have gradually substituted for the reciprocating refrigeration system employed in
small cooling capacity and part of centrifugal refrigeration system employed in large
cooling capacity.
In refrigeration system, the twin screw refrigeration compressor with an
economizer arrangement is the key equipment. The performance of twin screw
refrigeration compressor is very sensitive to a number of design parameters governing the
thermodynamic and flow process, especially when the compressor is working under

superfeed condition. With the help of the simulation model and the experimental
recording of p-V diagrams, the effects of the process of superfeed with an economizer
on the compressors performance can be described clearly.
The working process of twin screw refrigeration compressors can be described by
mathematical models.
The geometrical parameters of the compressors can be calculated by computer
programs and the results can be input to the simulation program as functions of the male
rotor angle of rotation, such as volume curve, inlet port area, outlet port area, superfeed
port area, oil port area, slide valve by-pass port area, and all at-rest clearance areas
(contact line, rotor tips, cusp blow hole, and rotor end faces).
In the refrigeration systems, the capacity and COP can be improved by use of
economizer. On the other hand, the performance of twin screw compressors is affected by
the superfeed gas injection into compression chamber from the economizer. The onestage compression from suction to discharge in the compressor becomes the quasi-twostage compression. A superfeed process is added in the compression process originally.
The superfeed process in the control process of the compressor is shown in figure
16.

Fig.16. Schematic plan for superfeed process


When the control volume is connected with the superfeed port, the superfeed
process is beginning. If this control volume is disconnected with the superfeed port, the
superfeed process is finished. As the refrigerant gas is added in this control volume, the
pressure of the refrigerant gas is increased too.

Due to the superfeed mid-pressure refrigerant gas injection into the compressor, the
refrigeration circle is changed, so the p-h diagram is changed as shown in figure 17.

Fig.17. p-h diagram of refrigeration circle with economizer


In this figure, the point 9 stands for the beginning of the superfeed process and the
point 3 stands for the end of the superfeed process. The superfeed gas mixes with the gas
in the control volume, which results in the increase in pressure of gas in the control
volume from point 2 to point 3. And then, the mixed gas in the control volume is
compressed to point 4 in the compressor.
As shown in figure 17, it can be seen that the liquid refrigerant from the condenser is
throttled two times. After the first throttling action, the intermediate pressure saturated
gas is drawn into the compressor and the superfeed process occurs, the rest of the liquid
is throttled again and then it is evaporated in the evaporator. In this way, the evaporator
is provided with a larger percentage of refrigerant liquid, which gives an increased cooling
capacity.
Using this method of testing the following results of investigation can be achieved:
1) Comparison between the calculated and measured graphical dependences mass
of superfeed gas superfeed pressure.
2) Drawing of p-V diagrams without and under superfeed process using the system,
shown in figure 18.

Fig.18. System of p-V diagram recorded


3) Comparison between the calculated and measured graphical dependences shaft
or indicated power superfeed pressure.
4) Comparison between the calculated and measured graphical dependences
isentropic efficiency superfeed pressure [2].

4.3 Testing of gas screw compressors ( for natural gas or other types of gas )

Fig.19 Diagram of experimental stand


Under the rules governing the positive displacement compressors-API619 and ISO
10440-1 - compression equipment before delivery must be subjected to tests, mechanical
running test, and- able to function in conditions certainly,at the nominal operating
parameters- the performance test. Stand configuration is according Diagram of
experimental stand, which takes into account the configuration mode of compressor: oil
required for injection compression chamber for lubrication of bearings, sealing is ensured
that during operation the compressor is pumped to the lubrication points the gas pressure
in the separator cushion of oil discharged from the vessel. Injected oil helps to dissipate
the heat from the compressor, the lubrication of bearings, providing space compression
seal, drive shaft seal. During operation must maintain a minimum pressure gradient,
specific to each lubrication point. Also it emphasizes that in order to avoid unwanted
seizure because mechanical consequences, it is recommended that, coupling between the
drive motor and compressor to make electromagnetic.

4.3.1.Mechanical test
To conduct mechanical compressor test on bench mounted, whose configuration is
according Diagram of experimental stand
Mechanical test takes at least 4 hours at rated speed. If measurements are made at other
speeds, steps will be 10% of nnom and measurements will be made only after approx.15
min constant speed operation in order to stabilize the system (temperatures, vibration,
etc.)
During the test, the following requirements must be met:
-mechanical operation must be correct
-vibrations must be within their normal limits. The values recorded in sample report
-buyer and seller may require variation should be able to pressure / temperature / flow
within the limits specified in the operating manual.

The equipment shall be run for a

minimum 4 hours.
Parameters are recorded during the test, measurements are presented in sheets
If replacement or modification of bearings or seals or dismantling of the case or
modify other parts is required to correct mechanical or performance deficiencies, the
initial test will not be acceptable, and the final shop test shall be run after these
deficiencies are corrected.

4.3.2. Performance Test


This test is conducted conf.ISO -1217:1996 E. We believe that performance testing should
be performed for the first compressor in a range of parameters. Among the most important
parameters when we refer to a compressor, parameters are guaranteed by the supplier of
the equipment are:
a) gas flow delivered
b) power consumption for gas compression
c) volumetric efficiency
a) for metering the flow, the stand

must have required instrumentation. It is

recommended that flow information can be used to calculate volumetric efficiency as to


measure the discharge flow (corrected to standard conditions of aspiration). Discharged
flow rate is due to the operator. Using that information flow intake, can introduce errors

because the compressor internal losses occur, due to report pressure / pressure difference
across the rotor, which reduces the flow discharged (compared to the measured flow at
inlet)
b) power consumption for gas compression
There are several ways to measure power absorbed. Stand measurement function
facilities can be made by:
- Electronic torqmeter, between engine and compressor
- Double-watt meter method or equivalent method
With measured power consumption, can be calculated isentropic efficiency as the
ratio between theoretical isentropic power and measured power. Theoretical
Isentropic power is given by:
Pt, is = Gxk/k-1 xRxTaspx (

k-1/k

-1) [kW] where

G = mass flow [kg / s}


k = isentropic exponent of the gas
R = gas constant [kj/kg 0K]
Tasp = temperature at the inlet [0K]
= compression ratio
c) Volumetric efficiency is defined as the ratio of the volume of gas delivered to
the discharge (corrected to standard conditions suction) and theoretical volume, specific
to each type of compressor (swept volume or theoretical volumes)
Because, in practical terms of measurement of volume is much more difficult on
the discharge side compared to the suction side-and this leakage is usually small- it is
often acceptable to simply use the suction volume in the calculation of volumetric
efficiency instead of the delivered volume ,converted to suction conditions

4. Conclusion
Rotary screw compressors are widely used today in industrial refrigeration because
of its inherent efficiency, safety, and flexibility.
The conditions in the refrigeration industry are changing and screw compressors are
also changing to meet customer's demands.
Modern machine tools and automated inspection equipment are making it possible to
hold tighter tolerances in day to day manufacturing environments. This improves
compressor performance and consistency from one compressor to the next.
The testing of the screw compressors is very important activity for checking of their
condition and work parameters. Therefore the improving of the compressor testing
methods is one of the ways for improving of the compressors.

6. Bibliography
[1] Feng Cao, Tieyu Gao, Songshan Li, Ziwen Xing, Pengcheng Shu. Experimental
analysis of pressure distribution in a twin screw compressor for multiphase duties.
Sciencedirect.com, 2010.
[2] Huagen Wu, Jianfeng Li, Ziwen Xing. Theoretical and experimental research on
the working process of screw refrigeration compressor under superfeed condition.
Sciencedirect.com, 2007.
[3] Grozev G., S. Stoyanov, G. Gujgulov. Hydro and pneumo machines and driving
installations. Sofia, 1990.
[4] Pillis J. W. Basics of Operation, Application & Troubleshooting of Screw
Compressors. 1998.
[5] API 619
[6] ISO 10440
[7] ISO 1217