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Scientific and Religious Analytical Techniques: A Comparative Analysis

The similarities between scientific and the divinely revealed speech of the Seal of the Prophets is examined. It is argued that the procedures of evidence, proof and falsification utilized in science and the divinely revealed dialogues are identical as to construction and purpose. It is further suggested that what is now termed the scientific method was actually taught to mankind by the Holy prophets, Who had to establish the true criteria for judging Their claim to holding prophetic office in the minds of an unbelieving people. It later was used to build the edifice of science and rational analysis. Religion precedes science and technology, which are dependent upon it for their motive force. Historical examples will be offered to illustrate the dependence of human advancement—including scientific advancement—on the progressive revelations of God, that religion acts as the eyes and heart of Science’s body and brain, directing its endeavors.

If it is desired to trace the scientific and analytical advances which came in the wake of the revelation of the Holy Qur'an the unity of scientific and prophetic methodology must be established in order to allow for a rational interrogation of the divine verses in the Holy Qur’an, and follow their dispersion throughout various social arenas in historical and contemporary life. Science and religion share at least one specific goal, to explain the world in their own respective terms. It has been said, for example, in support of the essential complementarities of science and religion that science is the “how” and religion is the “why.” But this is only partially true; science is rarely so purely mechanistic as to preclude ontological questions altogether, and religion clearly has engaged in numerous discussions of process, considering them instructive and in support of end objectives to convince and thereby reform human consciousness. In the Holy Qur’an and earlier Holy Books, the divine Messengers dedicated numerous discussions to the subject of how the new teachings should be organized and propagated, adding force to the Dalton Garis 26-Apr-10 Page 1 of 23 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2682/32936662.doc

argument that the process of dissemination is also of importance—that the means determine the end. This is as true in science as in religious revelation. Good science is known by the quality of its methodology, insisting that only good methodology can assure accurate and useful results. The respective explanatory arenas of science and religion are generally divided between the material-temporal world, and the spiritual-infinite world respectively1. As will be argued, both lay bare the constructions and principles operating in these worlds and establish these using identical rules of argument, analysis, logic and exposition. We observe that as religions change and mature over the centuries so do the fortunes of the nations and regions associated with them. In their early days religions cause a great outpouring of scientific, economic and cultural development, which gradually diminishes as the religion turns inward, abandons analysis except in the service of maintaining its ancient forms, and ceases to be regarded by those outside of the religion's matrix as a socially regenerating force, moral or otherwise. In the following sections these arguments will be developed.

The Common Analytical Framework of Science and Divinely Revealed Speech Unity of method in exposition and analysis must be considered as evidence of the essential harmony of science and religion. Clearly, religion begins with a process of illumination; that is, religions are divinely revealed. This is entirely dissimilar from the process of science, which begins with an insight into the rules of how material creation functions and builds from that, iteratively. What is asserted is the unity of argument for both, that the divinely revealed dialogues themselves represent some of the purest examples of logic and rational analysis known, employed in this case to repudiate the ideologies extant among the people of those days, and to establish the new divine revelation upon the foundations of logic and reason rather than miracle and superstition. Following this dawning phase of the religion later derivative analysis—apostolic development of the religion after the ascent of the Prophetfounder—also proceeded in exactly the same way as in scientific research, using similar rational analysis and argument.

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Mathematics, the language of science can also be employed to model the infinite, if not the spiritual. Examples are shown in the calculus of variations, dynamic programming and optimal control theory applications.

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Elements of rational argument Several common constructions are found in all rational arguments. Their purpose is to eliminate false and misleading conclusions being formed from available evidence, and to establish the criteria of evidence that can be considered as evidence of an argument or hypothesis. These are largely based on elementary logic, whose antecedents are commonly thought to have originated with the ancient Greek civilization. Here are some of the most important elements.

1. Proof must relate to what is being proven. Being capable of flight is not evidence of skill in orthopedic surgery because it bears no relation to what is being asserted. Similarly, evidence of spiritual authority and ascendancy, the essential condition of divine prophethood, cannot be proven by executing a supernatural act, because that is not related to the condition of spiritual supremacy, however impressive it may be to onlookers. This is why the divine Prophets refused to work miracles on request, since such things can never prove the spiritual authority they claimed for themselves. However, their refusing to make an arbitrary display of a claimed skill is also not evidence that the capacity is not possessed. A judge sent to a district to fill a commission from the central government cannot sentence someone to death just to prove s/he is a judge. That act must conform to the requirements of the situation and not be used for the sake of an arbitrary request. And a divine Messenger refusing to perform an act arbitrarily must be similarly regarded. As servants of Allah, all their acts were required to conform to His Will and purpose for His creatures. 2. Assertions must falsifiable and submit to independent verification; and results must be repeatable using consistent evidentiary procedures. This means that if evidence is offered as proof of some assertion or argument it must be consistently applied, repeatable using the same data, and allow itself to be independently verified, according to accepted standards of evidentiary procedure. Statements must be falsifiable to be considered amenable to proof. Falsifiability means that a statement has in its structure what can prove it false. “The sun rose at 07:13 this morning” is amenable to proof: either the sun rose at that time or it didn’t. “The sun Dalton Garis 26-Apr-10 Page 3 of 23 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2682/32936662.doc

is great.” This is not a statement capable of being disproven, so it is not scientific but subjective. In this regard special attention must be paid to human interpretation of the divine Word, in order to have it conform to our own limited objectives, be they sincere or corrupt. The Prophets of Allah repeatedly blamed the people’s denial of the divine message with which they had been entrusted on a strict literal interpretation of the revealed verses then with them, and deliberately ignoring their evident meaning. "And verily, among them is a party who distort the Book (divine scriptures) with their tongues, so that you may think it is from the Book; but it is not from the Book. And they say, 'This is from Allah,' and they speak a lie against Allah knowingly" (Qur'an 3:78). 3. Lack of data does not invalidate an argument, especially if it is amenable to logical proofs. In many of its essential assertions Einsteinian physics was not empirically testable until recently. Nonetheless, it was conditionally accepted based on its logic and its systematic and comprehensive modeling of what had been observed, even without a body of affirmative empirical tests. This is also the case with many statements made by a divine Prophet referring to the after-life and other conditions not directly accessible for testing. But because these statements are part of a comprehensive and accepted model of the operations of creation, they were and remain accepted until data allowing for empirical testing are devised. An assertion becomes a structured argument, then a testable hypothesis. A methodology is chosen and a test of the hypothesis is made, with the results reported out. In many instances, especially during a period in science or religion where fundamental research is begun, the model is purely of logical structure, with no way to go further. If the model conforms to logic and reason then the assertion is proven for the listeners and readers in future times. Later, new methodologies may enable carrying out proper empirical tests generating data for analysis.

These are the main elements of rational analysis. They will be applied to religious statements found in the Qur’an for evidence that Qur’anic statements are indeed scientific, rational, logical and falsifiable. Dalton Garis 26-Apr-10 Page 4 of 23 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2682/32936662.doc

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Comparing religious and scientific statements on any level would seem to be impossible; scientific statements are narrowly literal, while divine speech seems to be open to myriads of interpretations. But this objection is internally inconsistent and mostly without foundation: On the one hand, it dismisses any attempt to acknowledge the existence of super-ordinary, divinely revealed speech; while on the other hand, it refuses to analyze the content of that speech or investigate the consistency, rationality, logical construction and the falsifiability of its arguments, or to independently verify its propositions and predictions2. A reading of the verses in the best-known Holy Books show that those which are quotes of the Prophet Himself fall into several known categories. (1) There is recitation of historical events, with an analysis of conditions, signs, portents and associated results with respect to spiritual and material outcomes. This is doctrinal, analytical speech. (2) Laws and rules governing personal and social intercourse are established, as well as laws and observances regarding prayer, fasting, inheritance, marriage, the calendar and holy days on which work must be suspended; pilgrimage, charity, etc. (3) Exhortations and encouragements toward ideal behavior and attitude. (4) Prophesies of future events, nearby and far distant, often clothed in symbolic images. ("When the heaven is cleft asunder. And when the stars have fallen and scattered. And when the seas have burst forth. And when the graves are turned upside down." Qur'an 82:1-4). (5) There are descriptions of the worlds beyond this material, phenomenal world, which employ metaphors and similes.

It is generally easy to separate these different forms of address. Clearly, insisting that the symbolic images of prophetic speech were meant to be taken literally, then dismissing them for
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By prediction is not meant prophesy. A prediction can be based on analyzing present conditions and projecting that, if the trend is not altered, certain results will assuredly be forthcoming. A prophesy, however, is a pronouncement concerning the nature of future events or conditions based on transcendental spiritual awareness or direct revelation, and is not obtainable from critical analysis of present conditions.

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their literal absurdity is not an acceptable position, is inadmissible. Seen and understood in their proper context and meaning, the mystical speech employed by the holy Prophets was an attempt by them to clothe with words what is essentially beyond the capacity of human speech to encompass. Thus, today, centuries after its initial revelation, we still discover new meanings and understandings from these divine words unknown to our ancestors of old.

The cult of literalism in interpreting the divine verses and its rejection by the divine Prophets. Excessive literalism in interpretation of the divine verses by the people and their leaders is a practice consistently and roundly condemned by the Prophets themselves, as testified to by the verses of the divine Qur'an. “Hearts have they with which they understand not; and eyes have they with which they see not." (Qur'an 7:178) “As oft as an Apostle cometh unto them with that which their hearts desire not, they swell with pride, accusing some of being impostors and slaying others” (Qur’an 2:87). And, "Say: It is Allah; then leave them to entertain themselves with their objections." (Qur'an 6:91). The divine Messengers without exception blame the people’s denial and rejection of every Prophet sent to reinvigorate the spiritual destiny of mankind on literally interpreting verses clearly meant symbolically; e.g., with respect to events signifying the advent of the return and resurrection of the Messenger of Allah and His chosen Ones, and the revitalizing of the spent fortunes of mankind, such as the raising of the dead from their graves, the splitting of the moon of His previously established laws, the cleaving of the heavens of the previous knowledge and the falling to earth of their exponents, the crushing of the mountains of knowledge into dust, the boiling of the seas of the spirit, the temporal and political triumph of the true believers and the utter subjugation of God’s enemies on the earth. “On the Day when the earth shall be changed into another earth." (Qur’an 14:48). This event has never been literally witnessed by any historical chronicler. "And the whole earth shall, on the Day of resurrection be but His handful; and in His right hand will the heavens be folded together. Praise be to Him! And far be He uplifted above the partners they enjoin with Him." (Qur'an 39:67). These and similar signs have been prophesied to occur at the advent of every one of God’s divine revelations; and never, according to all the historical chronicles, have they been literally fulfilled. That was the basis of Dalton Garis 26-Apr-10 Page 6 of 23 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2682/32936662.doc

the people’s objection to the messengers' claims of holding the office of prophethood; as the divine Qur’anic verses themselves prove. Therefore, the literal nonfulfillment of the prophecies is not evidence that the divine prophets never came, unless we are to reject the entire body of divine revelations from the beginning of history. And this argument and reasoning is precisely what was employed by the prophets themselves as evidence of their spiritual ascendancy. Note how this rational argument is in conformity with scientific principles of rational argument. Indeed, it is precisely this assertion—that the divine prophets were, by definition, masters of logic and rational analysis—that it should not surprise us when they employ what has now become regarded as rational analytic speech. The following verse represents a complete rejection of literally interpreting all the verses of Allah which, in symbolic language, have repeatedly been employed to foretell the appearance of the Return: “And indeed Joseph came to you in times before with clear signs from your Lord, but you ceased not to doubt in Him, until when He died, you said, ‘Surely, God will never raise up another One such as Him.’ Thus, God misguideth the doubter, the liar.” (Qur’an 40:34). Consider what is being argued in this statement, and the unassailable logic it employs. It states that there exists a process of acceptance, association, denial, etc. with respect to the acceptance or rejection of every divine message ever sent down to mankind. The repetition of this same pattern of the prophets' proclamations and their rejection by the people of their day is what is referred to in this verse. Were more evidence of this argument needed the Surah of Húd, from beginning to end, is an irrefutable evidence of this theme. Because of adherence to mythologized dogma, the advent of the previous Messenger is considered unique and irreplicable, signaling the last expected messenger from Allah. All now await the destruction of the earth and the decimation of their enemies, even as has been told to them by their religious doctors and leaders. This fact is immediately and conclusively verified by conversing with the followers of any of the existing world religions. All maintain that their prophet was the last and that the next coming will be the destruction of the earth as we know it. Again, a prophet appears but the people reject Him, until when he ascends to the forth heaven they realize how they have plainly erred, declare that He was without peer among Allah's messengers, and the pattern is repeated, even though it has been revealed, "Our cause is but one." (Qur'an 54:50). Dalton Garis 26-Apr-10 Page 7 of 23 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2682/32936662.doc

Also supporting this argument are the words, “And if they see the path of righteousness, they will not take it for their path; but if they see the path of error, for their path they will take it. This is because they treated Our signs as lies, and were heedless of them” (Qur’an 7:145) A principle of scientific modeling is parsimony, that if two models describe the same phenomenon the simpler one is preferred. Attempting to interpret these and similar verses literally, when a figurative interpretation illuminates the full spectra of meanings according with the spirit as well as the letter of all the other verses in the Holy Qur’an and of other existing holy books, is scientifically unacceptable. A figurative and abstract interpretation offers valuable results which literalistic interpretations destroy. The literal interpretation is thus nonparsimonious, and a marring of its true meaning. This is an example of scientific principles being applied to the verses of God. As argued herein, the Prophets and messengers of Allah attempted to give logical meanings to the verses known among the people, and to anchor their belief in God in rational argument. “Erelong will they wag their heads at Thee, and say, ‘When shall these things be?’ Say: ‘Perchance it is nigh.’” (Qur’an 17:51). “We will surely show them Our signs in the world and in their own selves” (Qur’an 41:53).

The Essential Complementarity of Prophetic Dialogues and Scientific Analysis The importance of analyzing these quotes is in recognizing that the prophetic verses, having been freed from the procrustean bed of literal fulfillment, represent valid and rational arguments within their own sphere, fully capable of independent verification and analysis, and which employ the same rules of argument and rational discourse, as are found in science. What ordinarily masks this realization is the nature of the spiritual world being expostulated, a world of relationships and exchanges between the created and Creator, between phenomenal and spiritual worlds of being. Both science and divine revelation share the objective of explaining the world in their own terms. As far as is known, the material-temporal world is devoid of the power of self-analysis. Not until the appearance of humans had any of the earth’s inhabitants attained the power to utilize the laws of nature to profoundly transform their own environment or attain a reflective knowledge capable of sophisticated linguistic analysis and the development of technology. Dalton Garis 26-Apr-10 Page 8 of 23 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2682/32936662.doc

Humans exist at the juncture of the material-temporal and the spiritual-intellectual worlds and by utilizing what exists in both, are capable of analyzing, abstracting and exploiting natural laws for their own understanding and benefit. Noting the precedent of religious revelation and the subsequent development of science and derivative technology, it is plain logic that the roots of scientific rationality are to be found in divine revelation. Consider again the respective purposes, goals and methods of science and divine speech: a. Science deals with process and instrumentality, the discovery, analysis and actualization of material laws, but does not deal in ultimate purposes. b. Religion deals with motive causes and the ultimate purpose of all life and creation, instructing by carefully constructed argument and rational analysis, as shown by the Divine texts themselves. Its goal is to effect a transformation in the character of society and a reaffirmation of the purpose of creation. c. Without religion science and engineering lack the power of ontological reflection, become a danger to civilization, and without independent verification of its tenants, religion becomes tautological and ideological, abandoning real analysis and exchanging it for preservation of ancient and outworn forms. Hermetically sealing one from the other, or each refusing to fairly analyze and examine the other for complementarities, has led to suboptimal scientific investigation and religious bigotry incapable of moral suasion and clarity. Life’s most infinitely expandable resource, human capital, becomes diverted into unpromising lines of analysis, with the best and the brightest of a generation being dedicated to enterprises beginning in words and ending in words. Each sphere acting independently is incapable of such self-correction and becomes ideologically defined. In the language of mathematics, only by utilizing both sets simultaneously can a global, rather than a local, maximum be found.

The nature of ideology The process of knowing as practiced in both science and divine revelation is in sharp contrast to the ideology. Ideologies are distinct from science or religion in that they must be believed and followed or they quickly wither and die; they live only so long as people subscribe to them (Besançon 1986). For example, the formula from physics, f = ma, is not in need of Dalton Garis 26-Apr-10 Page 9 of 23 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2682/32936662.doc

believers to be true. Its truth is independent of the number of believers. Similarly, the words, "And if ye are in doubt as to what We have sent down unto Our Servant, then ;produce a surah like it, and summon your witnesses, beside Allah, if ye are men of truth." (Qur'an 2:23), do not rely for their truth on believers; they are independent of any such need. But since ideologies refuse to allow their propositions to be independently verified and tested, they must be believed "as is," or rejected. There is no process of verification and reform. Scientific and religious propositions, on the other hand, rather than being destroyed by criticism, are sustained and enriched by it. This is evidence that each reflects a reality that is not dependent on people’s belief for its existence. Indeed, people are dependent on understanding reality for their existence. While generally acknowledged that science is capable of correction by way of its own processes, the belief exists that religion is not thus capable of endogenous reformation, and can exist only as tautological constructions within the human mind. It is asserted that religion is merely a belief and incapable of critical analysis of its tenants or predictions. Demonstrating the falsity of this supposition is the goal of this paper. it must therefore be demonstrated that religion is also revised and updated through an internally generated process that maintains its relevance and verifies its propositions3. In order to do this it is first necessary to carefully define the process of religious renewal. We are not talking about how Judaism can be renewed, or Christianity, or Catholicism or Shi’ah or Sunni Islam, can be revised and corrected, which assumes that the religions stand independently from one another. What is meant by renewal and continuous criticism and validation of religion is how the Cause of Allah itself is revised and renewed from age to age according to the changing needs of a developing humanity by the appearance of a succession of divinely appointed Prophets and s, Who Themselves, according to the dictates of God, renew the divine Purpose for mankind. By means of increasingly investing spiritual power and authority in the new Dispensation thereby validating it in the eyes of a skeptical population, while causing the opponents of the message to lose spiritual and moral authority, the new Dispensation is securely established in the fullness of time.
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In doing so it is not asserted that only endogenous processes are at work, since both science and religion utilize the entire plane of existence for evidence and modeling, which is, by definition, exogenous at least in part to any defined set of postulations.

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This process of withdrawal and investment of spiritual authority is fascinating in its details and is centered on the actions of the leading exponents of the status quo belief structure— outworn and ideologically burdened—in the face of the revelation of a new Message from Allah, is best understood by examining the nature of the objections to the new Messenger and His Cause by its opponents. It becomes clear that with whatever criticism they level against the new Cause is equally true, if not more so, when applied to the previous one. “Whatever verse do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, We bring a better one or similar to it. Know you not that Allah is able to do all things?" (Qur'an 2:106). "Verily, those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers, and wish to make a distinction between Allah and His Messengers, saying, 'We believe in some but reject others, and wish to adopt a way in between,' They are in truth disbelievers. . . ." (Qur'an 4:150-151). The Cause of God is a continuous revelatory process where it is impossible to accept one Messenger but reject others. Whatever proves the validity of one proves the validity of all; and whatever argument can be used to reject any individual Divinely appointed messenger is equally applicable to all the others. "O Children of Adam! If there come to you Messengers from amongst you reciting to you My verses, then whoever becomes pious and righteous, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve." (Qur'an 7:35). One of the objections leveled against Jesus was that He did not fulfill all the laws of Moses, but rather, moved to annul two of the most influential Mosaic laws, the laws of divorce and of the Sabbath. But this objection ignores the reality that the purpose of the appearance of a new Divine Messenger is to effect a change in the practices and thinking of the people, so that they may continue to develop and advance according to the Divine purpose. If the Messengers of God in every age were to sanction the beliefs and practices current among the people, the Cause of God could never advance, which in turn would mean, as demonstrated below, that civilization could never advance. This same objection is leveled against every chosen sent in fulfillment of prophesy to fulfill the promises of rebirth, return, and renewal, as shown by the verses of Allah recorded in all the Holy Books, of which the Qur’an provides perhaps the most thorough and complete record. For example, according to the Surah al A'raf (Qur’an Surah 7), the Prophets of God have appeared successively, each inviting the people to abandon what had become for them a ritual preservation of an ideological creed, without any true spiritual life, which holds that once upon a Dalton Garis 26-Apr-10 Page 11 of 23 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2682/32936662.doc

time, long, long ago, there was a magical period when a Messenger of God appeared, worked many miracles and signs, left us with a Book and departed. Now we all await the destruction of the world, as promised by a literal interpretation of the verses in the Book the Messenger left with us. But instead of the end of the world they expect, a Messenger appears inviting the people to a new faith, confirming the core truths of their current religion, comprehensively explaining the true meaning of the verses of the Divine Book in their possession, providing a new set of laws and ordinances that promotes economic, spiritual, social and material advancement and revitalizing the Cause of God. "And there came to them indeed their Messengers with clear proofs. But they were not such as to believe in that which they had rejected before. Thus, Allah seals up the hearts of the disbelievers." (Qur'an 7:101). Note that this verse also indicates that the denials of the people living during the appearance of any Prophet are repeated in subsequent revelations. Rather than fulfilling what the people expected of them, the Prophets and messengers propounded new teachings, annulled laws laid down by the previous divine , rejected as invalid many of the current religious practices, and using alliterative speech established the signs and portents that would herald the advent of yet another , who would in turn repeat the process; that is, reject existing religious practices that had been perverted by ideologies and condemn their exponents, restate the divine Purpose, establish new ordinances and laws as He saw fit, lay down the requirements of a true seeker after truth, and propound the appearance of signs signaling the advent of yet another dispensation from God to follow. Thus, the divinely appointed Revealers of religious teachings Themselves act to cleanse the Cause of God of accumulated dogmas, bigotries, ideologies and nonessential and debasing rituals, so that mankind may have at hand a useful tool of moral analysis and spiritual enlightenment. As can be observed, this is exactly the same process exercised in science. According to Kuhn (1962) new scientific developments follow a process of initial rejection; followed by serious investigation; followed by becoming the established structure; and finally being set aside as an ever larger body of external evidence shows that the structure is outworn and needs renewal—that rather than fostering intellectual growth it has become an insuperable barrier to its further attainment, and is then overtaken by superior models and explanations. Just as we observe that new scientific discoveries stimulate further research on older Dalton Garis 26-Apr-10 Page 12 of 23 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2682/32936662.doc

lines that had seemed unpromising before—for example, after a new discovery into cancer cures from the Japanese Yew tree, Amazonian vegetable species being sought to investigate their purported curative properties—the advent of a religious revelation also has the effect of reviving the older, established faiths in its midst. Judaism was spread throughout the world by Christians, who taught the Old and New Testaments together, and claimed that the Christ was the fulfillment of Mosaic prophesies. Islam also spread the word of Jesus and Moses in the process of disseminating the teaching of the Qur’an. Buddhism in the same way comprehended many of the teachings of Hinduism; but Hinduism grew as a direct result of the spread of the teachings of Buddha which claimed to be its direct fulfillment. These examples provide evidence that religion, like science, is capable of internal revision by a native process, and transformation into an ever more useful analytical tool of reality. While divine revelations are by nature revelatory rather than humanly accretive, it is sequential, comprehensive and progressive, as a comparison of the Pentateuch with the Holy Qur’an will show. Now we show that the progressive nature of the divinely revealed teachings of Allah pre-exists this same process in science, and could even be responsible for scientific renewal in every age.

The Motive Force behind Scientific Development That such renewal of the religious cause and purpose induces vastly expanded scientific research and discoveries is shown by historical developments arising after the appearance of a new divine Messenger. Consider the degraded state of Peninsular Arabia in the “days of ignorance” just prior to the advent of Islam, its level of commerce, statecraft, arts and literature, jurisprudence, science and technology, education, medicine, agriculture, etc., and what obtained in the centuries following. There is simply no other plausible explanation for the dramatic improvements in all these attributes of civilization among a people previously regarded as practically subhuman by its neighboring states, in the absence of the appearance of Islam. The growth path Arabia followed in those days was basically flat, becoming positively sloped only after the appearance of the Prophet Muhammad. Science’s seeming continuous regeneration could be masking its dependence on the appearance of successive religious revelation as its generating impulse. Assume that the Dalton Garis 26-Apr-10 Page 13 of 23 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2682/32936662.doc

previous discussion regarding the changes to Peninsular Arabia is a specific example of the general principle that a region’s cultural, scientific and material development is dependent on the character of its religious expression. Besides the changes to Arabia and later to North Africa and Asia with the advent of Islam, there are the earlier examples of Israelitish Palestine after the appearance of Moses; Rome after Christianity and Constantine; and India, China and Central Asia after the appearance of Buddha. As the religious development and expression went in those regions, so went the material civilization of that region; and so went its scientific advancement. In these examples, a new and progressive religious dispensation gave birth to an outpouring of scientific and cultural developments in that land and beyond. The reverse was also true: Each example cited above also demonstrates that as the religions associated with these regions turned away from the fundamental principles motivating constant improvement, analysis, spiritual and material development, and turned inward, rejecting the world and its difficulties, this caused an identical effect in society’s scientific and cultural strivings. Contrast the early days of the nations at the birth of one of the world’s established religions, when, as history repeatedly shows, its followers dedicated their lives to the investigation of the spiritual, metaphysical and material universes, documenting findings, establishing colleges and universities, in science, philosophy and engineering, recording new discoveries in books on anatomy, astronomy, geography, history, the natural sciences and mathematics; cataloguing and collating the great discoveries of the past; endowing libraries, establishing research chairs and adding to arts and literature, etc., etc.—with what obtained in their latter days, when discovery and scientific investigation, inventions and industry, turned into pure monastic scholasticism. Early Judaism: The early state of Israel, as has already been argued, became the dominant political, economic and cultural power in the Lower Mediterranean under kings David and Solomon, positively influencing the entire region. Middle and late Judaism turned inward, abandoned those things making it great, became disunited, occupied itself with endless and dissipating ideological and theocratic disputes. Israel became easy pray for its neighbors; first Babylon, then Rome completely subjugated and destroyed it. It would be over 2,000 years before another state of Israel would appear on the political landscape of the world. Dalton Garis 26-Apr-10 Page 14 of 23 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2682/32936662.doc

Early Christianity: After Constantine ascended the Roman throne, and Christianity became the state religion, Rome became the dominant religious, cultural, economic and intellectual power, exceeding its previous glories, most particularly in the wisdom of its political and juridical order. Later Christianity: The mighty edifice of Christianity was split in two between the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Churches. For over 1,000 years Europe, which had accepted Roman Christianity, descended into its Dark-ages, and did not emerge until after the Crusades, while in the East a similar intellectual decline was seen. The rise of Islam circumscribed the temporal power of the Eastern Church and reduced Byzantium’s influence. Finally, the Holy Roman Empire was reduced to a few acres in the center of Rome, and Pope Pious IX declared that he had become a “prisoner of the Vatican.” Early Islam has already been mentioned. To the previous list must be added advances in economics and trade, investment law, banking, contract law, the intimation of the joint stock company; insurance, taxation and transfer payments, and many other specifics in macroeconomics and public finance. Recent Islam4. The historical record will clearly show that a great “falling off” has occurred in Islam today as compared to its early centuries. Theologically, it has turned inward. From being guided by the most erudite and knowledgeable in its vast community of scientists it now is looking outside for such guidance. From its political and temporal leaders being esteemed throughout the world for their wisdom and understanding of statecraft, its leaders of today struggle to understand the globalized world, a world that has adopted in many of its particulars, and in all of its overarching principles, the teachings of Islam. Which of the recent important scientific discoveries or industrial processes can the Islamic world claim to have invented? Which of the medical discoveries and treatments? Which of the advances in statecraft or international relations can it be said to have authored or fostered? Politically, temporally and geographically, where Islam once expanded and dominated, it is now in severe retreat. The irony is that, on close observation, what the world is forcing Islamic states to accept are the very principles of consultation, jurisprudence and international relations championed by the Holy Qur’an, and which most Islamic state leaders currently
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Bearing in mind the sequence of time, Recent Islam corresponds to Middle Christianity and Middle Judaism with respect to the loss of temporal influence and intellectual leadership.

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oppose. The governmental basis for the nation-state is itself taken from the teachings of Islam. All over the globe Islamic communities are suffering from exogenous and endogenous difficulties. While the details can be argued over and while there are a few notable exceptions, the broad trend downward for most Islamic nations cannot be denied. This sweeping statement would be difficult to accept if it were not so obvious to even the most casual observer. This same comparison of intellectual, political, cultural and economic life in regions and nations characterized by association with one of the world’s great religions in their former days and then in their more recent days, can be made with very consistent results over the entire field of the world’s existing religions, showing initial growth and triumph of its ideas in defeating the outworn creeds of opposing nations, followed by a great decline from what obtained in earlier days. In all these cases, the observation most consistent with the facts is that a region’s output is governed by the stage of development of its dominant religious association, with those regions associated with a religion in its early days increasing in power and output, but falling off as that religion turns toward monasticism and pure scholasticism, becomes ideologically governed and ceases to foster intellectual curiosity and attainment. Those areas of the world not directly receiving a revelation from Allah nonetheless experience its influence, as reflected light, so to speak. Ancient Greece is an example. The Athenian, Socrates, is known to have visited the kingdom of Israel during the time of Solomon, and was influenced by its monotheistic teachings. Pythagoras followed a similar path, as did Herodotus. Ancient Rome built up its own jurisprudence on the bedrock provided by Greece in many respects, which in turn was influenced by previous developments in Israel. The Reformation in Northern and Central Europe is largely credited with giving a new impulse to its material development, in scientific, technological, economic and political realms. At one time it was Northern Europe that borrowed from Southern Europe and Andalusia (Moorish Spain), but the borrowings were often reversed in latter centuries. A similar story could be told for the development of Central and South America and the Indian subcontinent. There is no evidence that the causality of religion onto national development runs in reverse—that a nation’s development is responsible for the appearance of a Divine Prophet. In fact the s of God have always seemed to appear to a people or nation in the nadir of its history, when its fortunes have been reversed, its past glories forgotten and its life force spent. (The Dalton Garis 26-Apr-10 Page 16 of 23 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2682/32936662.doc

surrounding developed nations that circumscribe the recipient community would only later become co-opted to facilitate the spread of the new religion, but the recipient community itself is usually on its last legs when the appears to them as the Return of the previous .) In every known case of a nation or region becoming dominant from endogenous strivings and yearnings it has been preceded by the appearance of a divine Prophet, either addressing it directly, as in the case of Israel, or indirectly, as in the case of Rome and Europe. In those indirect cases, where a nation, by virtue of judicious borrowings, equals or exceeds levels of past glories of the previous state, the reason is its adoption of spiritual or philosophical teachings previously unknown to it, and which offer renewal of long-dormant capacities, as in the case of Europe and its regions, as just discussed. Thus, the dependence on religious and religiously derived philosophies of secular and material development, with science as its most potent messenger, is shown.

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Having demonstrated the dependence of material development and advancement on the sequential appearance of religious teachers and divine Prophets through the use of historical examples, the coexistent relationship of science and religion is now clear: Religious teachings define the nature of scientific advancement. If the religion is in the developmental stage the associated society will be inquisitive and analytical, science will be fostered and advanced, as well as statecraft, economics, literature, jurisprudence, art, etc. But if the character of religious expression has degenerated, becoming xenophobic and ideological in posture, then the region identifying with it and taking its national character from it will be in decline. Thus, the relationship of science and religion is that of parent to child: (1) Science receives its moral compass and initial impetus from religion. (2) Religion is supported and validated by science, just as material and political engineering validates scientific research results. The case of religious influence in China is interesting: Due to its philosophical and religious teachings, primarily associated with Buddhism, China became one of the most powerful nations in history, making contributions in every branch of knowledge, philosophy, culture, economics, exploration and statecraft. But Buddhism, with its intellectual and Dalton Garis 26-Apr-10 Page 17 of 23 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2682/32936662.doc

philosophical richness, turned ever inward and ceased to offer useful guidance in statecraft and secular spheres. After the revival of statecraft from Confucianism had spent its force, China fell prey to internal schisms and warfare. Finally, it was possible in the 19th century for a small number of Britons to take over its capital; and again in the 20th, for a much smaller Japan to conquer, sack and pillage it. With the rise Maoism, with its unique mix of native Confucianism, Hegelian and Marxist dialectics and reconstituted Leninism—and with its neighbors weaker or following international norms of peace—it again became its own master. With a measured and rising adoption of Western capitalism in production, labor management and financial institutions, and a weeding out of those aspects of socialistic ideologies hindering growth over time, it now is fast becoming a true world economic super state. The credit for this turn of events is in its shifting and pragmatic philosophical alignments, according to what is known of its history, rather than any overt association with one of the world's established religious teachings.

Ends, Means and Purposes Both science and religious teachings, being associated as child to parent, hold that the means determine the end result. In science this means that good scientific methodology validates research results, while a bad scientific methodology will invalidate results, no matter how important they may sound. Religion acts identically in that it teaches by example, by rational argument, and not by recourse to extraordinary events such as miracles to convince. It also condemns force in the spreading of its message. The verse, “There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the right path has now become distinct from the wrong path.” (Qur’an 2:256) clearly establishes this line. All witness, however, actions coming out of both science and religion based on a conviction that the end justifies the means. The source of this phenomenon and how has it been allowed to root itself in science and religion is ideology, which asserts that a good or worthy end justifies the use of nefarious means. The results of such behavior is not at all the fault of religion or science, but rather, of human thinking corrupting divine teachings. No matter how pure and exalted the instrument, it nonetheless can be utilized for corrupt and selfish ends. A lighted torch in the hand of a child will not illuminate the house but only set it on fire, destroying the house and killing the child. The undeniable power of religious forces, if placed at the disposal of Dalton Garis 26-Apr-10 Page 18 of 23 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2682/32936662.doc

the ignorant and corrupt, become as great a cause of evil as they had been of good when previously utilized by skilled and wise practitioners. In the revealed verses of the Messengers of Allah no statements can be found which declare that the end justifies the means. Indeed, divine revelation declares first and foremost that the means determine the end pursued. Besides the just quoted verse from the Qur'an there is this statement: "Verily, those who disbelieve in the ayat of Allah, and kill those who order just dealings, . . . appraise them of a painful doom." (Qur'an 3:21). This affirms the non-martial character of true religion in its dealings in the world, and that the means determine the end rather than being justified by it. In fact, the verses of Allah inform us that we become exactly what we do, what we sacrifice our God-given resources to become. This exercise is further demonstration that science and religion utilize a common set of principles regarding the criterion of truth and error. Ideologies also exist in science, of course, in the form of deep-rooted biases, which distort its explanatory value. The beginning of this chapter cited the example of science generally refusing to analyze the verses of the Qur’an for their rationality and falsifiability, or to independently verify the social states under various scenarios predicted by spiritual principles and laws. It has relegated all divinely revealed verses as constituting a special discourse, and has followed the religionist doctors in declaring that science stands apart from it and can have little useful to say about it. In social sciences especially, there can be fads and trends driven by ideologies, where evidence in opposition to accepted and established findings do not receive a fair hearing. Both in social and physical sciences outsiders who have made important discoveries or questioned scientific findings have been ridiculed and dismissed, only to have it discovered later that their findings were correct and beyond reproach, in the best traditions of scientific analysis. For example Heaviside in electromagnetism; Maxwell in physics; Velikovsky in astrophysics; Mandelbrot in finance. And science always takes a dim view to anyone challenging its paradigmatic orthodoxy, outsider or insider: Gould in paleontology; Keynes in economics; Pasteur in medicine. In religion, every Messenger of Allah was, as previously stated, a relentless critic of existing religious ideologies, attempting to turn the people toward the fundamentals of religion, Dalton Garis 26-Apr-10 Page 19 of 23 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2682/32936662.doc

the foundation on which all subsequent religious revelations were based. Therefore, They were denied, vilified, persecuted or martyred and Their followers relentlessly attached, killed and driven out. “They said, 'You have come to us that we should worship Allah alone and forsake that which our fathers used to worship. So bring us that wherewith you have threatened us if you are of the truthful.'" (Qur'an 7:70). "Those who reject our ayat We shall seize with punishment in ways they perceive not." (Qur'an 7:182) Since the relationship of religion to science is that of generating its initial impulse, their respective purposes must necessarily diverge. Science is encyclopedic in nature, dedicated to analyzing and describing the material, temporal world, including human relationships in all their causes and effects. Stripped of ideologies it lacks a political agenda, per se, and seeks only to understand. Blind to the harm or benefit of its own discoveries it relies upon religiously derived ethical sets and moral philosophies to light its path, and on engineering to translate its findings into useful goods, services and social policies.

Goals of scientific and divinely revealed teachings: A comparison What are the respective objectives of science and the divine messages? One possible answer is that science seeks to know while the divine message, which later becomes an organized, self-sustaining religious cause, seeks to reform. But are these actually two separate things over time? For example, whatever science discovers is tested for utility and applicability to solving problems and enhancing life in intellectual, emotional, and physical ways. Later, engineers devise new technologies, goods and services from the initial discoveries, be they natural laws or new materials. Commercial and educational enterprises develop to carry on the work, whose goal is to change the nature of life as it is lived. The divine Messengers have acted exactly the same way as pure science in this regard, revealing laws and explaining how spiritual creation operates. Later, religion organizes this opus into an institution with strategic and tactical objectives for transforming the spiritual character of mankind. Both processes similarly rely on mankind’s unquenchable desire to discover, comprehend, and manipulate universal laws in order to improve the experience of living. In that context, it is misleading to insist that the purpose of science is purely encyclopedic while that of religion is transformative. Taking into account derived science and engineering, Dalton Garis 26-Apr-10 Page 20 of 23 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2682/32936662.doc

commercialization and institutions for learning and knowledge dissemination, science is as transformative in its purposes as religion; and in light of the clear statements of the divine Prophets and Messengers themselves, religion is just as encyclopedic in nature. What the divine Messenger does is to reveal laws of spiritual life, and instruct mankind in their application and implications; religion follows after with the objective of organizing this opus into institutions capable of self-preservation. This is no different from the scientific paradigms and schools analyzed by Kuhn (1962), which are also for the purpose of self-preservation. Scientists achieve their findings by virtue of applying their intellectual and observational gifts to discovery and analysis, while the divine Messenger, according to all the historical records, is chosen, and apart from His or Her spiritual illumination, is otherwise unremarkable. Also, there are good and bad scientists; only time and testing can separate the two classes, and determine truly genuine discoveries from quackery; while divinely chosen Messengers all share the same exalted level of spiritual illumination and knowledge, even while each may have material and temporal differences. Nonetheless, the scientist and the Messenger have the goal of enlightening mankind with their knowledge and discoveries. We have this general result: The purpose of science and divine speech is to disseminate knowledge to the world, which has the latent capacity to transform life for mankind. Perhaps, this is what is meant by, “the creative Word”? And further, neither the scientist nor the Messenger has a plan to acquire power. Rather, it is the utilizers of their respective outpourings who will accomplish that, religion from the divine message, and institutional science and technology for the scientist. For better or worse, and drawing their authority from the root discoveries, it is scientific and religious institutions in society that display a desire for political power, the better to influence the direction of human advancement.

Conclusion This paper has explored the unity in purpose, methodology, means and ends of scientific and religious ways of investigation and analysis. It argued that both share the same methods and have complimentary ends, which include explaining their respective worlds in their own respective terms. It showed that both assert that the means employed determine the ends obtained. Dalton Garis 26-Apr-10 Page 21 of 23 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2682/32936662.doc

The Cause of causes reveals religion, which supplies the animating purpose to human endeavors. In its epistemology religion has established a process of rational explanation and analysis capable of defeating and throwing out established ideologies and falsehoods. This system found ready application in the material-temporal world, first in logic and argument and later in hypothesis testing and complex scientific methodology. Thus, although both religion and science utilize similar tools of analysis, religion is the motive idea while science is the tangible instrument begotten by Divine speech. Religion is reformer and motivator while science is utilizer; religion is the eyes and heart while science is the body and brain; religion is the soul while science is the spirit. It is likely a radical idea that science and religion share any similarities at all, much more, that they utilize identical procedures of rational argument and verification. But a close examination of the characteristics of each narrative shows this to be largely true. After its initial revelation religion has mostly been left to the community of believers to decide how it should be structured, disseminated and its teachings enforced into a codified body of laws and ordinances, which themselves find their way into secular jurisprudence. Sects are organized within the religion around closely associated world views or postulate instrumentalities arising from divergent attempts at achieving religiously adopted goals in the political sphere. Ideological forces are responsible for most of these differences. Ideological religious structures lack legitimate ways to revise, annul or extend the set of basic laws and findings that comprise the core revelation. This is the task of the Redeemer, Who appears at the nadir of that community’s fortunes to revive what had been spent or buried under man-made ideological accretions, and give a fresh impetus to human development. Since subsequent revelations comprehend all past revelations, the religious process continues to advance in sophistication, complexity, flexibility, and its capacity to address the changing conditions of mankind. The appearance of divine s continues to be responsible for motivating the scientific, political and economic progression in human society. Science, seeing a pattern established by the structure of religious organizational methods, organized itself in a similar manner, establishing various “paradigms” to shelter research. These paradigms are constructed out of accepted beliefs about how the world works. But being the Dalton Garis 26-Apr-10 Page 22 of 23 /opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2682/32936662.doc

sum of human research, which is unlike religious revelation in its discovery process, these paradigms can be endlessly revised on the basis of new information and research findings by its dedicant-participants, without any need for its own separate revelatory process. Its impetus is supplied exogenously by religion. These arguments for the preeminence of divine speech in the progression of the human world were supported with historical examples tracing the dispensation of religious teachings and their associated effect in the rise and decline of national and regional fortunes. Even the reflected light of religious revelations was shown to be responsible for national advancement. Nations exhibiting the most success in today’s global environment were shown to have a religiously-sourced philosophy of mixed origins rather than of firm adherence to one particular past religion. The case of China was specifically mentioned.

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