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# The power of received signal is affected in 5 ways:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## Path loss reduction of signal power due to radiation

Shadowing reduction of signal power due to going through the obstacles
Multipath reduction of signal power due to other
Refraction
Doppler effect

## The multipath itself has 3 different causes:

1. Scattering
2. Reflection
3. Diffraction
All of these effects reduce the received signal power ratio to the transmitter one. There are some
models which analytically compute the received signal power based on the environmental obstacles.
Here is a brief of these models (the most popular ones):
1) Free Space Path Loss Model (Path Loss): the received signal power fall off inversely proportional
to square of distance and straight proportional to the wavelength

## If distance < antenna Length

Then received signal power will fall off inversely proportional to distance
If critical distance >distance > antenna Length
Then received signal power will fall off inversely proportional to square of distance
If critical distance < distance
Then received signal power will fall off inversely proportional to distance^4

So its better to set the cell size in a cellular network equal to critical distance to gain the maximum
reduction in adjacent cells signal and minimum reduction in transmitter cells one.

3) Dielectric Canyon or Ten-Ray Model (multipath reflection from the ground and the behind
walls)
In this model 10 types of reflection was analyzed:
the ground-reected (GR)
the single-wall (SW) reected
the double-wall (DW) reected
the triple-wall (TW) reected
the wall-ground (WG) reected
and the ground-wall (GW)
There is two of each type of wall-reected path, one for each side of the street.
The summery of this analytical model is that this fallo exponent is relatively insensitive to the
transmitter height. This fallo with distance squared is due to the dominance of the multipath
rays which decay as d2, over the combination of the LOS and ground-reected rays (the tworay model), which decays as d4. Other empirical studies have obtained power fallo with
distance proportional to d, where lies anywhere between two and six. Page 35
There are some other complicated analytical models like Okumuras Model, Hata Model,
COST231 Extension to Hata Model, Walsch/Bertoni Model and Piecewise Linear (MultiSlope) Model.

But I think best idea is the simplified statistical model. I have passed two courses about
statistical pattern recognition and I think I could work well with these models. There is a good
example for this model:

I can use the solution of this example, sense the received power for the transmitted signals of
known power in different frequencies and calculate the , so we can predict the environmental
conditions by pattern recognition algorithms. Then use the predicted to identify the best
spectrum to allocate. In the next step we can expand this idea to cooperative sensing the
environment.