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Tests reveal that a normal driver takes about 0.

75s before he or she can


react to a situation to avoid a collision. It takes about 3s for a driver having
0.1% alcohol in his system to do the same. If such drivers are traveling on a
straight road at 30 mph (44 ft/s) and their cars can decelerate at 2ft/s2 ,
determine the shortest stopping distance d for each from the moment they
see the pedestrians.

RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS

LEC01-Kinematics of Particles Solutions: Example 1

Moral: If you must drink, please dont drive!


Moein Mehrtash

Plan:

Use rectilinear Kinematics of particle


=


, =
=
=

s0(reaction)

d (braking)

RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS

LEC01-Kinematics of Particles Solutions: Example 1

Solution:

Normal driver:
1. Reaction travel distance (s0)

s vt 44 ft / s 0.75s 33 ft
0

2. Braking distance d(constant deceleration) final velocity will be zero


vdv ads v v 2as s
v

v0

a cons tan t

s0

0 44 ft / s 2 2 ft / s d 33 ft d 517 ft
2

Moein Mehrtash

s0(reaction)

Solution:

Drunk driver:

1. Reaction travel distance (s0)

s vt 44 ft / s 3s 132 ft
0

d (braking)

2. Braking distance d(constant deceleration) final velocity will be zero

RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS

LEC01-Kinematics of Particles Solutions: Example 1

0 44 ft / s 2 2 ft / s d 132 ft d 616 ft
2

Moein Mehrtash

The vs graph describing the motion of a motorcycle is shown. Construct


the as graph of the motion and determine the time needed for the
motorcycle to reach the position s=400ft

Moein Mehrtash

RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS

LEC01-Kinematics of Particles Solutions: Example 2

Plan:

A-s graph can be determined from the kinematics

=
, =
=
=
= =

Solution:

For each distance range the a-s graph can be found

RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS

LEC01-Kinematics of Particles Solutions: Example 2

1. Distance range : 0<s<200 ft


v 0.2 s 10 ft / s a v

dv

ds

0.2s 10 d 0.2s 10 0.04s 2


ds

2. Distance range : 200<s<400 ft


v 50 ft / s a v

dv
d
50 50 0
ds
ds
Moein Mehrtash

Plan:

Time can be obtained using the v-s graph and the kinematic relation v=ds/dt

=
, =
=
=
= =

Solution:

For each distance range the a-s graph can be found

RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS

LEC01-Kinematics of Particles Solutions: Example 2

1. Distance range : 0<s<200 ft


v 0.2 s 10 ft / s dt
dt
T

ds
ds

v 0.2 s 10

ds
t 5 ln0.2 s 10 5 ln 10 sec
0.2s 10

At s=200 ft
t 5 ln0.2200 ft 10 5 ln 10 8.05 sec
Moein Mehrtash

2. Distance range : 200<s<400 ft


ds ds
ds
s

v 50 ft / s dt
dt
t 4.05 sec
v 50
50
50

8.05

200 ft

At s=400 ft
400 ft

t
4.05 12.0 sec
50

Moein Mehrtash

RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS

LEC01-Kinematics of Particles Solutions: Example 2

In a handling test, a car is driven through the slalom course shown. It is


assumed that the car path is sinusoidal and that the maximum lateral
acceleration is 0.7g. If the testers wish to design a slalom through which the
maximum speed is 80 km/h, what cone spacing L should be used?

Moein Mehrtash

CURVILINEAR KINEMATICS

LEC01-Kinematics of Particles Solutions: Example 3

Plan:

The maximum of the normal acceleration is provided, using normal-tangent


kinematic to find a curvature that cause this acceleration at the max
velocity. Based on the obtained curvature, the cone spacing can be arranged
y

Solution:

1. The car sinusoidal motion can be


defined as
y A sin x

T
L

2. Lateral (normal) acceleration:


v
a

CURVILINEAR KINEMATICS

LEC01-Kinematics of Particles Solutions: Example 3

T=2L
o

an
at

To reach max lateral acceleration the radius


of the curvature must be minimized
Moein Mehrtash

3. The minimum of the curvature radius locates at T=/4 and this radius can
be found from
1 dy / dx 1 A cos x

d y/d x
A sin x
2

3/ 2

3/ 2

dy / dx A cos x
d y / dx A sin x
2

at T=/4

CURVILINEAR KINEMATICS

LEC01-Kinematics of Particles Solutions: Example 3

2 T

cos

1
T
T 4

2 T
A 4 A
A sin
T 4
3/ 2

min

Maximum lateral acceleration is 0.7g

80kmh / 3.6
a 0.7 g 0.79.81m / s

T / 4 3m
2

n max

min

T
T 92.3m L 46.1m
2

Moein Mehrtash

10

A tracking radar lies in the vertical plane of the


path of a rocket which is coasting in unpowered
flight above the atmosphere. For the instant
when = 30, the tracking data give r = 25(104)
ft, = 4000 ft/sec, and = 0.80 deg/sec. The
acceleration of the rocket is due only to
gravitational attraction and for its particular
altitude is 31.4 ft/sec2 vertically down. For these
conditions determine the velocity v of the rocket
and the values of r and .

Moein Mehrtash

CURVILINEAR KINEMATICS

LEC01-Kinematics of Particles Solutions: Example 4

11

Plan:

Unpowered (no thrust) and above


atmosphere (no aerodynamic drag)
Gravity is the only source of kinematic
changes
Use cylindrical (polar) coordinate system

CURVILINEAR KINEMATICS

LEC01-Kinematics of Particles Solutions: Example 4

Solution:

1. The component of velocity in cylindrical sys


v r v 4000 ft / s
r


v r 2510 0.8
3490 ft / s
180
4

v v v
2

4000 ft / 3490 ft / s 5310 ft / s


2

Moein Mehrtash

12

CURVILINEAR KINEMATICS

LEC01-Kinematics of Particles Solutions: Example 4


Solution:

2. The rocket acceleration is due to gravity


a 31.4 cos 30 27.2 ft / s

a 31.4 sin 30 15.7 ft / s

Acceleration in polar coordinate sys

a r r r 25 10 m 0.8
rad / s 27.2 ft / s r 21.5 ft / s
180

a r 2r 25 10 m 24000m 0.8
rad / s 15.7 ft / s
180

3.8410 rad / s
4

Moein Mehrtash

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