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# Tests reveal that a normal driver takes about 0.

## 75s before he or she can

react to a situation to avoid a collision. It takes about 3s for a driver having
0.1% alcohol in his system to do the same. If such drivers are traveling on a
straight road at 30 mph (44 ft/s) and their cars can decelerate at 2ft/s2 ,
determine the shortest stopping distance d for each from the moment they
see the pedestrians.

RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS

Moein Mehrtash

Plan:

## Use rectilinear Kinematics of particle

=

, =
=
=

s0(reaction)

d (braking)

RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS

## LEC01-Kinematics of Particles Solutions: Example 1

Solution:

Normal driver:
1. Reaction travel distance (s0)

s vt 44 ft / s 0.75s 33 ft
0

## 2. Braking distance d(constant deceleration) final velocity will be zero

vdv ads v v 2as s
v

v0

a cons tan t

s0

0 44 ft / s 2 2 ft / s d 33 ft d 517 ft
2

Moein Mehrtash

s0(reaction)

Solution:

Drunk driver:

## 1. Reaction travel distance (s0)

s vt 44 ft / s 3s 132 ft
0

d (braking)

## 2. Braking distance d(constant deceleration) final velocity will be zero

RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS

## LEC01-Kinematics of Particles Solutions: Example 1

0 44 ft / s 2 2 ft / s d 132 ft d 616 ft
2

Moein Mehrtash

## The vs graph describing the motion of a motorcycle is shown. Construct

the as graph of the motion and determine the time needed for the
motorcycle to reach the position s=400ft

Moein Mehrtash

RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS

Plan:

=
, =
=
=
= =

Solution:

## For each distance range the a-s graph can be found

RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS

## 1. Distance range : 0<s<200 ft

v 0.2 s 10 ft / s a v

dv

ds

ds

## 2. Distance range : 200<s<400 ft

v 50 ft / s a v

dv
d
50 50 0
ds
ds
Moein Mehrtash

Plan:

Time can be obtained using the v-s graph and the kinematic relation v=ds/dt

=
, =
=
=
= =

Solution:

## For each distance range the a-s graph can be found

RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS

## 1. Distance range : 0<s<200 ft

v 0.2 s 10 ft / s dt
dt
T

ds
ds

v 0.2 s 10

ds
t 5 ln0.2 s 10 5 ln 10 sec
0.2s 10

At s=200 ft
t 5 ln0.2200 ft 10 5 ln 10 8.05 sec
Moein Mehrtash

## 2. Distance range : 200<s<400 ft

ds ds
ds
s

v 50 ft / s dt
dt
t 4.05 sec
v 50
50
50

8.05

200 ft

At s=400 ft
400 ft

t
4.05 12.0 sec
50

Moein Mehrtash

RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS

## In a handling test, a car is driven through the slalom course shown. It is

assumed that the car path is sinusoidal and that the maximum lateral
acceleration is 0.7g. If the testers wish to design a slalom through which the
maximum speed is 80 km/h, what cone spacing L should be used?

Moein Mehrtash

CURVILINEAR KINEMATICS

Plan:

## The maximum of the normal acceleration is provided, using normal-tangent

kinematic to find a curvature that cause this acceleration at the max
velocity. Based on the obtained curvature, the cone spacing can be arranged
y

Solution:

defined as
y A sin x

T
L

## 2. Lateral (normal) acceleration:

v
a

CURVILINEAR KINEMATICS

T=2L
o

an
at

## To reach max lateral acceleration the radius

of the curvature must be minimized
Moein Mehrtash

3. The minimum of the curvature radius locates at T=/4 and this radius can
be found from
1 dy / dx 1 A cos x

d y/d x
A sin x
2

3/ 2

3/ 2

dy / dx A cos x
d y / dx A sin x
2

at T=/4

CURVILINEAR KINEMATICS

2 T

cos

1
T
T 4

2 T
A 4 A
A sin
T 4
3/ 2

min

## Maximum lateral acceleration is 0.7g

80kmh / 3.6
a 0.7 g 0.79.81m / s

T / 4 3m
2

n max

min

T
T 92.3m L 46.1m
2

Moein Mehrtash

10

## A tracking radar lies in the vertical plane of the

path of a rocket which is coasting in unpowered
flight above the atmosphere. For the instant
when = 30, the tracking data give r = 25(104)
ft, = 4000 ft/sec, and = 0.80 deg/sec. The
acceleration of the rocket is due only to
gravitational attraction and for its particular
altitude is 31.4 ft/sec2 vertically down. For these
conditions determine the velocity v of the rocket
and the values of r and .

Moein Mehrtash

CURVILINEAR KINEMATICS

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Plan:

## Unpowered (no thrust) and above

atmosphere (no aerodynamic drag)
Gravity is the only source of kinematic
changes
Use cylindrical (polar) coordinate system

CURVILINEAR KINEMATICS

Solution:

## 1. The component of velocity in cylindrical sys

v r v 4000 ft / s
r

v r 2510 0.8
3490 ft / s
180
4

v v v
2

## 4000 ft / 3490 ft / s 5310 ft / s

2

Moein Mehrtash

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CURVILINEAR KINEMATICS

Solution:

## 2. The rocket acceleration is due to gravity

a 31.4 cos 30 27.2 ft / s

## Acceleration in polar coordinate sys

a r r r 25 10 m 0.8
rad / s 27.2 ft / s r 21.5 ft / s
180

a r 2r 25 10 m 24000m 0.8
rad / s 15.7 ft / s
180

3.8410 rad / s
4

Moein Mehrtash

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