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A salt is an ionic compound formed when the hydrogen of an acid is partly or complete

ly replaced by a metal ion or ammonium ion.

All salts are chemically and electrically neutral.
Examplewhen the hydrogen ion in nitric acid is replaced by Na+, Ca2+, NH4+ or Al3+
ions, salts are formed

i. barium nitrate<salt>

There are 4 types of salt that

ii. zinc sulphate<salt>

you need to know in the SPM syllabus:

iii. aluminium oxide<not salt>


iv. carbon dioxide <not salt>


v. tin nitrate <salt>

vi. glucose <not salt>


vii. ethanol<not salt>

Solubility of Salts
Solubility is the ability of a compound to dissolve in a solvent.
Table below shows the solubility of the salts of nitrate, sulphate, chloride and


Salt of potassium, sodium and ammonium

Salt of nitrate
Salt of sulphate

All soluble in water

All soluble in water

Mostly soluble in water except:
(Pb) Lead sulphate

(Ba) Barium sulphate

(Ca) Calcium sulphate
Salt of chloride

Mostly soluble in water except

(Pb) Lead chloride
(Ag) silver chloride
(Hg) mercury chloride

Salt of carbonate

Mostly insoluble in water except:

Potassium carbonate
Sodium carbonate
Ammonium carbonate

Lead halide such as lead(II) chloride (PbCl2), lead(II) bromide (PbBr2) and
lead (II) iodide (PbI2) are insoluble in cold water but soluble in hot water.
Oxide and Hydroxide


Mostly insoluble in water except: K2O and Na2O.

Mostly insoluble in water except: KOH and NaOH

Preparation of Soluble Salts

There are 2 things to be considered when preparing a salt:
What are the chemical used?
How to separate the salt from other substance?
Method used to prepare salt depends on the solubility of the salt.
Soluble salts are prepared from the reactions between an acid with a metal/
base/ metal carbonate.
the chemical reaction that can be used to prepare the soluble salts.

Write chemical equation(s) for the reaction that can be used to prepare the
following salts.
a. Sodium Chloride

NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O

b. Ammonium Nitrate
c. Potassium sulphate


KOH + H2SO4 K2SO4 + H2O

d. Zinc Sulphate (3 equations)

ZnO + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2O
Zn + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2
ZnCO3 + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2O + CO2
e. Lead(II) nitrate(3 equations)
PbO + 2HNO3 Pb(NO3)2 + H2O
Pb + 2HNO3 Pb(NO3)2 + H2
PbCO3 + 2HNO3 Pb(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2
f. Copper sulphate(2 equations)
CuO + H2SO4 CuSO4 + H2O
CuCO3 + H2SO4 CuSO4 + H2O + CO2
Preparing Salts Of Potassium, Sodium And Ammonium
Potassium, sodium and ammonium salts are usually prepared through the

reactions of acids with alkalis.

Reaction acid with alkali will produce salt and water.
Acid + Alkali Salt + Water
The salt is prepared by titration method of acid and alkali using an indicator.
Steps to Prepare the Salts of Potassium, Sodium and Ammonium through
Step 1 Titration to Find the End Point

2 reactants

1.The end point is the point in a titration at which the

have completely reacted.
2. An endpoint is often marked by a color

Step 2 Titrate Without Indicator
1.The product obtain in step 1 is contaminate by the indicator.
2.The reaction is repeated by using the same amount of reactants as in step
1, without using any indicator.
Step 3 Crystalisation

Step 4 Filtration and Drying