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MARPOL Annex VI

Regulations and
Future Compliance
Challenges

Dr Zabi Bazari
Energy and Emissions Solutions
London, UK
zabi.bazari@enemsol.com

Presentation at MISC,
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 8 October 2015

Content
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Introduction

Main regulatory developments

Key challenges

Alternative fuels and technologies

Conclusions

Introduction

MARPOL Annex VI on Air Emissions


Reg.12

Reg.13

Reg. 14

Reg. 15

Regs 16

Reg. 17

Reg. 18

Regs. 19-23

Reception
Facilities

Fuel Oil
Quality and
Availability

Energy
Efficiency
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ECA Emissions Control Area

Source: Lloyds Register

More ECAs are most likely in the future

NOx and Sulphur Regulatory Limits

NOx limits

Sulphur limits

Energy Efficiency Regulation and Future Measures

IMO Initiatives

Link between EEDI, EEOI and SEEMP [Source: Japan


submission to IMO ]

EEDI Reduction Rate (Regulation 21)


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Bulk carriers

Gas carrier

Tanker/Combi.C

Container

Gen./Ref. cargo

Implementation Phases

30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Phase 0
(2013-2014)

Phase 1
(2015-2019)

Phase 2
(2020-2024)

Phase 3
(2025 - ..)
Reduction Rate [%]

EEDI reduction factor

Legislated EU-MRV [Source: LR]


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Source: Bazari Z, LRTA papers, 2012, Lloyds Register

Proposed IMO Data Collection, Verification and Reporting


Applicable to ships > 5000 GT.
Annual reporting with no need for voyage data declaration.
IMO number for ship ship identification purposes.
Ships registered owner responsible for submission of data to

Administration. Responsibility of reporting remains with the ship.


Flag Administration responsible for verification of the data.

A Statement of Compliance (SOC) will be issued to the ship annually.


Port State Control will examine the SOC for enforcement.

Fuel Cost and Competiveness


Fuel cost is a major part of total ship operational costs.
Eco-ship concept now is a reality due to the EEDI regulations.
Eco-shipping is the ultimate objective and implies operational

efficiency as well.
Reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 has become an environmental

strategy for certain companies.


Despite the lower fuel prices these days, operational energy efficiency

is still important due to the market conditions.

Future Compliance Methods

Compliance Methods
Alternative fuels
Alternative Technologies
Alternative operations

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Low Carbon and Clean Fuels


Marine distillates (beyond 2020)
Supply issue

Price issue
LNG
Biofuel

Nuclear

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Low Carbon and Clean Fuel: LNG


Simultaneous reduction of:
SOx

NOx
CO2
Issues
Infrastructure for bunkering

LNG-fueled fleet (~100+ ships)

Ship economics:

Impact on cargo capacity


o Ship initial cost
o Fuel cost
o Exposure to ECAs
No major technological issues.
o

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Source: ABS, Future Ready Shipping 2015

Major issues with biofuels


Supply side:
Production potential.
Fuel-food competition.
Sustainability issues.

Cost: Production costs / subsidies.


Well to wheel emissions.
Land use pattern and related issues.
Technical issues: No major issue with

use of biofuels.

Key Technologies: Exhaust Gas Cleaning System


Scrubbers - SOx

SCR - NOx
Key issues:
How to integrate these systems?
What would be the impact on ship

design, ship economics and lifecycle maintenance and costs?


Main advantage:
Continue with use of low-quality

cheaper fuels

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Key Methods for EEDI Reduction


Alternative fuels (low

carbon)
Lower ship design speed

Energy efficient

technologies (eco-ship
concept)

Fuel cell here represents


alternative fuels, waste heat
recovery, and hybrid
systems
NYK concept ship super ECO 2030

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Eco-Shipping: Is it possible?
Ship operational for energy efficiency.
A large number of options are available.
Slow steaming
Voyage management for reduced passage speed (Virtual Arrival).
Weather routing
Hull and engine condition improvements
Ballast and trim optimisation
.
..

Eco-ship is good but eco-shipping is better


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Ship Energy Management (operation)

IMO SEEMP

Best Practice

ISO 50001

Continuous improvement is key for ecoshipping


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Conclusions
Environmental regulations and fuel cost are major concerns of maritime

industry today.
On air emissions, SOx, NOx and CO2 regulations have set a course

that will see major changes to shipping industry in the next 10-20 years.
The role of alternative technologies and fuels has become crucial in

achieving compliance.
There are major issues (economical, technical and operational) that is

being gradually addressed to prepare shipping for a more challenging


future.
There is a need for doubling our efforts to ensure a future-ready

shipping in particular in developing countries.


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THANK YOU

Any Questions?

EnEmSol: Dedicated to clean and sustainable marine transport


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