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concrete technology

QUESTION 1-WHAT ARE THE ASSUMPTIONS IN BOGUE


EQUATIONS? WHAT ARE ITS DRAWBACKS?
ANSWER 1Assumptions in bogue equation are: No secondary minerals present- (inaccurate!! )
A/F>0.64
All aluminoferrites are present in the form of C4AF- ( not true!
Many solid solutions exist)
System is in equilibrium.
DRAWBACK :- Do not account for the presence of free lime.
QUESTION 2-How can you distinguish alite and belite in a
microscopic image?
ANSWER 2Alite- Grains which are large irregular crystals. (C3S)
Belite-These are more rounded smaller crystals. (C2S)
QUESTION 3-WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF PPC COMPARED
TO OPC?
ANSWER 3Advantages of ppc over opc are as given below: Higher durability of concrete structure due to less permeability of
water.
More resistance towards the attack of alkalies, sulphates, chlorides,
chemicals.
Better work ability.
Low heat of hydration.
Due to high fineness, PPC has better cohesion with aggregates and
makes more dense concreteness.

Comparative lower Water-Cement ratio provides an added advantage


for the further increase of compressive strength of the concrete.
Better surface finish.
QUESTION 4- Write short note on special cements.
ANSWER 4 Special cements, manufactured to meet specific needs, are also
available. Expansive cements lead to an expansion upon
hydration in the first few hours, which offsets the shrinkage at
later stages. As a result, the net shrinkage for concrete in the
long term is close to zero. These cements are based on aluminosulphate additives that cause extensive ettringite formation in
the early stages of cement hydration.
Rapid setting cement consists of a mixture of Plaster of Paris or
Calcium Aluminate Cement with OPC, and is used where setting
within 10 - 15 minutes is desired (plugging holes and leaks in
water tanks etc.).

White cement, low in Fe2O3, is used for architectural purposes,


and to make coloured concrete (by the addition of pigments).

Oil Well Cements are used for cementing steel casings to rock
formations during oil drilling. The cement is pumped as slurry,
which needs to be fluid under service conditions, and then
harden quickly. These cements have reduced C3A and fineness,
and sometimes retarders are used for setting and accelerators
for strength gain.

Masonry cements consist of a mixture of OPC clinker, gypsum,


and limestone powder, along with an air-entraining plasticizer.
The primary use of this cement is to provide better applicability
to masonry mortar.

Supersulphated cements are based on blast furnace slag, with a


high amount of gypsum, along with a little PC clinker. These
cements are highly resistant to sulphate and marine
environments. Because of their slow hydration, they also evolve
very little heat.

Calcium aluminate cements, which are highly resistant to acidic


and sulphate environments.

QUESTION 5- How blended cements are classified according to


ASTM?
ANSWER 5-

Blended cements governed by ASTM C595 pertain to four classes for


both general use and special applications. Significant changes have
recently been approved for this new 2012 specification. These changes
will permit the interblending of naturally occurring limestone both
independently and in conjunction with pozzolan or slag, up to a
maximum of 15%. There will now be four major classifications:
1. Type IS Portland blast-furnace slag cement up to 95% slag
permitted
2. Type IP Portland-pozzolan cement up to 40% pozzolan permitted
3. Type IL Portland-limestone cement up to 15% limestone
permitted
4. Type IT Ternary blended cement3 up to 70% of pozzolan +
limestone + slag, with pozzolan being no more than 40% and
limestone no more than 15%