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STEAM TURBINE AND CONDERSER DATA SHEET

Observe Data
6 bar
Number of opened nozzle and its location
Time
Barometric pressure
Turbine: steam pressure
Turbine: steam temperature
Turbine: steam pressure at nozzle
Turbine: steam temperature at nozzle
Turbine: exhaust temperature
Turbine: speed
Turbine: torque
Condenser: Inlet steam temperature
Condenser: Inlet steam pressure
Condenser: Inlet water temperature
Condenser: outlet water temperature
Condenser: Temperature
Dynamometer: current
Dynamometer: Voltage
Condensate: Cooling water flow
Dryness factor at the inlet of turbine

secs
mmHg
bar.g
celcius
celcius
bar.g
celcius
RPM
Nm
celcius
bar.g
celcius
celcius
celcius
amp
Volt
ltr

600
1.013
5.6
38
5.5
161
45
3446
5.7
45
-0.8
22
25
23
4.2
363
17986.3
0.75

7 bar
600
1.013
5.8
39
5.7
161
46
3450
6.0
46
-0.81
23
26
24
5.4
348
0.75

8 bar

Average

600
1.013
5.9
41
6.0
161
49
34455
7.0
49
-0.82
23
26
24
5.8
348
18009.6
0.75

600
1.013
5.77
39.33
5.73
161
46.7
3450
6.23
46.7
-0.81
22.7
25.7
23.7
5.13
353
17998
0.75

Cooling water flow rate


Inlet steam pressure
Nozzle steam pressure
Exhaust pressure
Steam consumption rate
Inlet steam enthalpy
Steam enthalpy at nozzle
Exhaust enthalpy
Isentropic exhaust enthalpy
Brake power
Electrical generator power
Specific steam consumption
Supplied steam energy
Supplied steam energy at nozzle
Supplied exhaust energy
Decrement of energy at the control valve
Decrement of energy at turbine
Energy of brake power
Energy of friction and loses
Energy of cooling water
Energy of condensate
Isentropic energy decrement
Supplied Rankine energy
Mechanical efficiency
Isentropic efficiency
Rankine efficiency
Electrical conversion efficiency
Thermal efficiency

Calculated Data
kg/min
bar.abs
bar.abs
bar.abs
kg/min
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kW
kW
kJ/Kw
kJ/min
kJ/min
kJ/min
kJ/min
kJ/min
kJ/min
kJ/min
kJ/min
kJ/min
kJ/min
kJ/min
%
%
%
%
%

10.01
-0.798
5.501
-0.798
10.01
2663
2753
2580.8

10.01
-0.808
5.701
-0.808
10.01
2664
2754
2584.3

10.01
-0.818
6.001
-0.818
10.01
2665
2757
2591.4

10.01
-0.808
5.734
-0.808
10.01
2664
2754.7
2585.5

2.05
1.5246
4.88
26656
27557
25833
-901
823
123
700
125.52
962.36

2.17
1.8792
4.61
26666
27567
25868
-901
798
130.2
667.8
125.52
1004.2

2.53
2.0184
3.95
26676
27597
25939
-921
737
151.8
585.2
125.5
1004.24

2.25
1.807
4.48
26666
27573.7
25880
-907.7
789
135
657
125.52
990.3

26594
14.94

26562.8
16.32

26592.8
20.59

26583
17.28

3.09
74.37
0.462

3.0
86.59
0.49

2.77
79.78
0.57

2.95
80.25
0.507

ANALYSIS AND CALCULATION

To convert steam and exhaust pressure to abs. (bar.abs)


Pressure gauge reading + Barometric pressure (mmHg)
750
1. Inlet steam pressure
= 0 .8

1.013
750

= - 0.798 bar.abs
2. Nozzle steam pressure
= 5.5

1.013
750

= 5.501 bar.abs
3. Exhaust pressure
= 0 .8

1.013
750

= - 0.798 bar.abs
4. Steam consumption rate
=

601
60

= 10.01kg/min
5. Brake power
= 2NT

1
1000 60

= 2 (3446)(5.7)
= 2.05 kW

6. Electrical generator power

1
1000 60

= Dynamometer ampere x dynamometer voltage


1000
=

4.2 363
1000

= 1.5246 kW
7. Specific steam consumption
= Steam consumption rate per hour
Brake power
=

10.01
2.05

= 4.88kJ/kW
8. Supplied steam energy
= Inlet steam enthalpy x steam consumption rate
= 2663 x 10.01
= 26656 kJ/min
9. Supplied steam energy at the nozzle
= Inlet steam enthalpy at nozzle x steam consumption rate
= 2753 x 10.01
= 27557 kJ/min
10. Supplied exhaust energy
= Enthalpy at exhaust x steam consumption rate
= 2580.8 x 10.01
= 25833 kJ/min

11. Decrement of energy at the control valve

= Supplied steam energy - Supplied steam energy at the nozzle


= 26656 27557
= -901
12. Decrement of turbine energy
= Supplied steam energy - Supplied exhaust energy
= 26656 25833
= 823 kJ/min
13. Energy of Brake power
= Brake power x 60
= 2.05 x 60
= 123 kJ/min
14. Energy of friction and loses
= Reduction of energy at turbine Energy of brake power
= 823 123
= 700 kJ/min
15. Energy of cooling water
= Cooling water mass rate x 4.18 x temperature rise
= 10.01 x 4.18 x 3
= 125.52 kJ/min

16. Energy of condensate

= Cooling water mass rate x 4.18 x temperature of condensate


= 10.01 x 4.18 x 23
= 962.36 kJ/min
17. Isentropic energy decrement
= Supplied steam energy at the nozzle (Isentropic exhaust enthalpy x steam
consumption rate)
= 27022 ( 6.1659 x 10)
= 26960 kJ/min
18. Supplied Rankine energy
= Supplied steam energy at the nozzle Energy of condensate
= 27557 962.36
= 26594 kJ/min
19. Mechanical efficiency
=

Energy of brake power


Reduction of energy in turbine

x 100

= 123 x 100
823
= 14.94 %
20. Isentropic efficiency
= Reduction of energy in turbine
Isentropic energy reduction
= 823 x 100
26960
= 7.56
21. Rankine efficiency

x 100

= Reduction of energy in turbine


Rankine energy

x 100

= 823 x 100
26594
= 3.09 %
22. Electrical conversion efficiency
= Power of electrical generator
Turbine brake power
= 1.5246 x 100
2.05
= 74.37 %
23. Thermal efficiency
= Energy of brake power x 100
Rankine energy
= 123 x 100
26594
= 0.462 %

x 100

OBSERVATION

During the experiment, we notice that water in the boiler is boiled. When the water in
boiler changed from phase of liquid to steam and achieved required temperature and
pressure, steam from boiler will delivery to turbine. Safety valve with the boiler will
release if pressure inside the boiler exceed limit. After steam reached the turbine it turn
the plate in turbine in generate electric. So turbine acts as a device to change energy in
steam to mechanical work. In this system water from turbine recycled to boil again boiler.
In this experiment only one nozzle was opened for three different pressures, they are
6bar, 7bar and 8 bar. The experiment observation was done for each pressure after
10minutes or 600s. All the related parameters were recorded. They are temperature and
pressure for steam, nozzle, exhaust, and condenser. Other than that velocity, torque load,
voltage, current, cooling water flow, temperature and pressure of cooling water,
condensate temperature, and barometric pressure. From the observation data we found
that steam pressure, steam temperature, steam pressure at nozzle, exhaust temperature,
speed, torque for turbine were increased due to the increment of the nozzle pressures but
steam temperature at nozzle remained at 161C. The same thing can be observed for the
values that has been gotten for the condenser where inlet steam temperature, inlet steam
pressure, inlet water temperature, outlet water temperature increased due to the pressure
increment. The current, voltage, and condensate cooling water flow also increased. The
dryness factor at the inlet of turbine is 0.75.

DISCUSSION
The cycle that result is the ideal cycle for steam power plants. The ideal cycle
does not involves any internal irreversibilities and consist of the for process:1. Isentropic compression
2. constant heat addition in a boiler
3. Isentropic expansion in a turbine
4. Constant heat rejection in a condenser
The superheated steam enters the turbine, where it expands isentropically and
produces work by rotating the shaft connected to an electric generator. The pressure and
the temperature of the steam drop during this process to the values at condenser stage,
where the steam enters the condenser. At this state, steam usually a saturated liquid-vapor
mixture with a high quality. Steam is condensed at constant pressure in the condenser,
which is basically a large heat exchanger, by rejecting heat to a cooling medium such as a
cooling tower.
a) After draw the characteristic of a steam graph we notice that experimental graph
is same with theory graph. According to energy distribution chart, cooling water
energy is highest. It follows by condensate energy, loses and friction, brake power
and radiation is the lowest energy. Only different with experiment energy
distribution and theory energy distribution is the brake power. In theory energy
distribution the brake power should be third highest. But in experiment energy
distribution brake power is the fourth highest. This result maybe because of the
error in the experiment.
b) The factors that affect the experimental result.
I. Students face difficult to take the value in digital meter of turbine because
the values always change. This maybe became as an error in this experiment
because student failed to take exact value.

II. The turbine is connected with the boiler. Any error in boiler will affect the
output of turbine. Maybe poor handling or any mistakes in boiler contribute
to the wrong output of the turbine. So this is the factors that affect the
experimental result.
III. The turbine which is used in this experiment is quite old. So many small
problems in the equipment will affect the result for this experiment. Maybe
this also will be one of the reasons why the experiment value is little bit
different from the exact value.
c) Suggestion to improve the experiment.
i.

Make sure the value in digital meter is static before we take the data. This can
be done with new reader or system with high technology. By doing this we
can reduce the error in this experiment and improve the experimental result.

ii.

Do regular maintenance to the turbine to prevent or reduce the defect in


machine.

CONCLUSION
As the conclusion we can say that, the objective of this experiment was achieved
where the performance of the steam turbine which is set to a certain speed, with different
inlet pressure was determined. Steam power plant is commonly used for the production of
electric energy. Steam at high pressure and temperature has a large amount of internal
energy, but a device is needed to convert this energy into mechanical work or power. The
steam turbine is the machine that does this conversion and its operates on exactly the
same principal as the historic waterwheel or the gas turbines.