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City of Greater Bendigo

Waste & Resource Management


Strategy 20142019

City of Greater Bendigo Waste


and Resources Management Strategy
City of Greater Bendigo, 2014
City of Greater Bendigo
PO Box 733
Bendigo VIC 3552
T: 03 5434 6000
F: 03 5434 6200
E: info@bendigo.vic.gov.au
www.bendigo.vic.gov.au
A copy of this publication is available on
the City of Greater Bendigos website:
www.bendigo.vic.gov.au

Acknowledgements:

List of Initialisations:

Waste and Resource Management Strategy


Steering Team: City of Greater Bendigo staff;
Alex Malone, Gary Leech, Darren Fuzzard,
Neville Stewart, Ben Devanny, Ros Manning,
Simon Clay and Robyn Major; Calder Regional
Waste Management Group, Peter Chudek;
Environment Protection Authority, (Phase One:
Background paper) Paul Ratajczyk.

AWT

Alternative Waste Treatment

BAU

Business as Usual

BPEM

Best Practice Environmental Management

C&I

Commercial and Industrial

C&D

Construction and Demolition

CDL

Container Deposit Legislation

CoGB

City of Greater Bendigo (generally referred to as the City)

DEPI

Department Environment and Primary Industries

EPA

Environment Protection Authority Victoria

GFV

Getting Full Value Victorian Waste


and Resource Recovery policy

Disclaimer:

LGA

Local Government Area

This publication may be of assistance to you,


but the City of Greater Bendigo, its employees,
consultants and contractors do not guarantee
that the publication is without flaw of any kind or
is wholly appropriate for your particular purposes
and therefore disclaims all liability for any error,
loss or other consequence which may arise from
you relying on the information in this publication.

MRF

Materials Recovery Facility

MSW

Municipal Solid Waste

PPR

Public Place Recycling

SMEs

Small to Medium Sized Enterprises

SV

Sustainability Victoria

TS

Transfer Station

W&RMS

Waste and Resource Management Strategy

WRRG

Waste and Resource Recovery Group

Waste and Resource Advisory Committee:


Cr Peter Cox (Chair), Cr Barry Lyons, Cr Elise
Chapman, Jeff Cummins, Rebecca Dempsey,
Veronica Hall, Chris Harrington, Nicole Hood,
Verity Lougoon, Glenn Morrison, Danny Potter,
Brian Stanmore, Don Erskine.

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

Contents
1.

Executive Summary

2. Overview


2.1 Introduction

2.2 About Bendigo

2.3 Legislation and policy

2.4 Stakeholder contribution

and strategy development

4
5
6
8

Appendices
Appendix 1: Indicative waste cost modelling

41

Appendix 2: Specific waste streams

42

Figures
Figure 1: The municipality of Greater Bendigo
Figure 2: Waste stream volumes managed
by CoGB in 201213 (tonnes)

5
10

3.

Waste currently managed by the City

10

Figure 3: Detailed recent domestic garbage audit results 12

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

Domestic waste
Recycling composition
Commercial waste
Current cost of managing waste

11
12
13
14

Figure 4: Breakdown of domestic recycling


recovered at the MRF in 20112012

12

Figure 5: The Waste Hierarchy as it applies to


the Citys level of responsibility and control

15

4.

Drivers for Change


4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4


4.5

5.

Aligning with the waste hierarchy


Price a lever for change
Reducing greenhouse gas
Population growth, development
& future waste projections
Land use planning for waste infrastructure

Waste Services provided by


the City and its partners


5.1 Collection
5.2 Receiving and separating waste
5.3 Waste disposal
5.4 Past actions to establish a new landfill

or advanced waste treatment facility
5.5 Managing waste into the future
5.6 Education and awareness programs
5.7 Advocacy and leading by example

15
15
16
16
17
17
18
18
19
20

Managing other waste streams

29

6.1 Specific waste streams


6.2 Hard waste or bulky items

29
29

7.

Littering and illegal dumping

30

8.

Implementation Plan
Avoid and minimise waste generation
Reuse, recycle and recover
Infrastructure, innovation
and private sector waste
Littering and illegal dumping

Table 1: Municipal solid waste volumes


201112 and 201213.

11

Table 2: Current Commercial & Industrial


and Construction & Demolition waste
volumes 20112012 and 201213

13

Table 3: Summary of high-level modelling results

41

Table 4: Issues with problem wastes and


potential management strategies

42

21
22
27
27

6.


8.1

8.2

8.3


8.4

Tables

31
31
34
36
39

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 1

1. Executive Summary

1. Executive Summary
Greater Bendigo like many other communities across Australia
is facing major challenges with the collection and disposal of
solid wastes. Landfills are fast running out of space and there is
growing community concern that councils need to take a more
sustainable approach to the way waste is managed.
In recognising this need for change the City of Greater Bendigo
(the City) embarked on developing this Waste and Resource
Management Strategy (W&RMS) to provide guidance in meeting
the following objectives:
Reduce waste, increase resource recovery;
Focus on diverting organic waste from landfill to minimise
current and future financial and environmental liabilities;
Provide an efficient, convenient and safe resource
management system for residents;
Develop partnerships locally and throughout Victoria
to develop and deliver sustainable services;
Minimise the costs and risks to ratepayers;
Support innovation in resource management and
look for opportunities to maximise sector development
in Greater Bendigo;
Reduce the incidence of illegal dumping and littering.
The focus of this W&RMS is on the domestic waste stream,
known as Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), for which the City is
directly responsible. This Strategy also acknowledges the role
the City currently occupies in the delivery of waste services to
the business and industry sector on a commercial basis such
as operating a landfill.
Appropriately, legislation and policy of both a directive and
coercive nature steers Councils and the community toward
the right balance between social, economic and environmental
objectives for waste management. The State Governments
Getting Full Value policy on waste and resource management
will be particularly important in this regard.
Within these legislative controls however, Councils still have big
decisions to make based on what they believe is right for their
community and what their community cares about. While the
municipality of Greater Bendigo is enjoying terrific success at the
forefront of regional development in Victoria, our performance in
minimising waste going to landfill has languished at close to the
worst in the State for many years. Equally the amount of waste
that we are generating per person is higher than our neighbours
and other regional cities.

In developing this strategy significant time was invested in


consulting with key stakeholders, businesses and the general
community over a two year period to get their views and input
on what is important and valued. Utilising considerable initial
community feedback through forums, surveys and interviews the
Citys traditional waste services to the community were tested
and actions identified that aim to achieve the right balance
between accessibility, affordability and sustainability.
This strategy identifies and directly responds to those aspects
that will make our achievements in waste and resource management something we as a community can be proud of. While it
is clear there is still significant investigation required to provide
explicit detail in the implementation of some of the strategies
outlined in this document the key recommendations include: The City will introduce a solution for the food and garden
organics to reduce waste going to landfill;
The City will introduce optional 360 litre recycling bins to
residents wishing to increase their recycling capacity;
The City will not pursue the development of a new landfill
once Eaglehawk Landfill reaches its capacity;
The City will commit to a powerful and targeted education
and awareness program to support strategy initiatives;
The City will not introduce a kerbside hard waste collection
service, but will promote the range of existing enterprises
that service this need;
The City will continue to commit to reducing littering
and illegal dumping;
The City will continue to create the opportunity for
innovative responses to the management of our
waste streams.

Creating resource streams


Current trends in waste management call for us to think of waste
in terms of potential resource streams; each stream representing
a resource input for industry or a business opportunity. The City
as the manager of municipal solid waste currently separates
and offers recyclable material for reuse, and is looking towards
separating and offering the next biggest resource stream, food
and garden organics.
Organic material generated from the garden and kitchen makes
up approximately 50% of the residual waste stream and this
material could be treated to produce a useable product such
as compost or energy.

Improving recycling performance


at home and in public places
Opportunities to better capture the traditional recyclables that
continue to be discarded through our waste bins at home and
in our public places are explored and actions established.

2 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

1. Executive Summary

These actions will include information on how to improve our


recycling habits so we can make better use of our recycling bin
space such as crushing, folding and flattening items. However,
if lack of recycle bin space continues to be a problem residents
will be given the option of obtaining a 360 litre bin.
Public place recycling bins will be installed in high profile locations
to re-enforce the message that recycling is just what we do
wherever we are and retail complexes will also be encouraged
to provide recycling bins for shoppers.

No new landfill
It is a primary objective of this strategy to substantially reduce
the amount of waste going to landfill. The City has an obligation
to ensure that residual municipal solid waste is disposed of
appropriately however this does not mean that the City must
operate a landfill.
The City has been utilising a privately operated landfill over the
past twelve months at a cheaper rate than the waste can be
dealt with at the current Eaglehawk landfill. The ongoing use
and reliance on these private sector facilities is unlikely to pose
a practical problem as the waste sector continues to develop
and offer a broader range of waste and resource management
services.
A plan will be developed to guide the City in withdrawing from
offering landfilling services (other than Heathcote) when Eaglehawk
landfill reaches capacity. Concurrent to this, options for the future
infrastructure requirements of the Eaglehawk site, to facilitate
ongoing resource recovery and residual waste management
will be developed.

Education and advocacy


Education and awareness programs, in partnership with infrastructure solutions, play a critical role in the bid to teach residents
about waste management. The City commits to delivering a
powerful and targeted program to support initiatives emanating
from this Strategy.
The current approach to waste education focuses on encouraging
residents to view waste as a resource and providing them with the
knowledge and skills required to participate effectively in waste
avoidance and resource recovery. Key initiatives include a waste
services website, workshops, campaigns in local newspapers,
television and radio, displays and promotions for various events
throughout the year.
In addition to educating the community on ways to avoid creating
waste, the City advocates for legislative changes at a National
and State level to improve resource recovery and reduce waste
to landfill.

Hard waste collection


Approaches to the management of hard waste vary across
Councils. Historically the most common being the collection
on-mass of items from the kerbside but this has changed
significantly due to difficulties associated with OH&S, visual
amenity and pilfering of high value material inflating the cost of
collection. Some Councils have introduced on-call arrangements
to counter these difficulties.
In Bendigo, the Eaglehawk Eco-centre, along with various private
sector businesses currently respond to this demand with either
drop-off or on-call options available. The City will encourage and
provide information to support the community to utilise these
accessible and cost effective services.

Minimising littering and dumping


Littering and illegal dumping pose a threat to wildlife and the
community and can lead to long-term contamination. The City
is committed to reducing the occurrence of this activity. This will
be achieved through a combination of education, infrastructure
changes and compliance. The City aims to see the rate of these
incidences reduce dramatically in the future.

Addressing past legacies


Historical waste management activities such as old landfills have
the potential to cause environmental impacts where they were not
closed and rehabilitated in a manner that would reduce rainfall
infiltration or contaminate groundwater. Although the old landfills
in the LGA were closed and rehabilitated to the standard of the
day our collective understanding of the impacts from historical
landfills has increased. Some of the old landfills may now require
further investigation and rehabilitation to minimise environmental
and health risks. The costs associated with rehabilitating old
landfills is potentially large and needs to be well managed to
reduce the financial burden to council and ratepayers.

Implementation Plan
The City has included a comprehensive Implementation Plan
within this Waste and Resource Management Strategy to
ensure that the pathway to reaching the key objectives is clear
and achievable.

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 3

2. Overview

2. Overview
2.1 Introduction
This strategy focuses predominantly on solid, nonhazardous
waste commonly referred to as Municipal Solid Waste (MSW),
typically collected from households via kerbside collections as the
City has a legislative responsibility to ensure this waste stream
is managed on behalf of the community. For the purposes of
this strategy it includes material from:







Kerbside collections
Recyclables
Residual waste (garbage)
Transfer stations
Resource Recovery Centre (self haul or drop-off waste)
Street litter (including street litter bins)
Street cleansing and pit cleaning.
Festivals and events

The role of education in improving performance in waste avoidance and recycling is also considered and actions proposed. As
well as actions to address littering and illegal dumping of waste.
Also discussed is the Citys current and future role in relation
to the management of commercial and industrial (C&I), and
construction and demolition (C&D) streams. While the City has
no legislative responsibility for these two waste streams they are
very important to the municipality from an economic perspective.
The Citys role in these streams is conducted from a position of
advocacy and support for waste industry development, waste
reduction education and awareness for business and industry,
as well as service delivery e.g. landfill services at Eaglehawk.
Waste generated from large businesses including C&I, and
C&D streams are currently, in part, catered for at the Eaglehawk
landfill. However, the appropriateness of this extending past the
closure of that landfill is an important question that this strategy
also addresses.

2. Overview

2.2 About Bendigo


The City of Greater Bendigo is located in north central Victoria,
approximately 150km north-west of Melbourne. CoGB is one of
three member councils of the Calder Regional Waste Management
Group (RWMG). The local government area (LGA) is bounded by
the Shire of Campaspe in the north, the Strathbogie and Mitchell
Shires in the east, the Mount Alexander Shire in the south, and
the Loddon Shire in the west.
The population of the City of Greater Bendigo as at the 30 June
2012 was 103,550 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, Estimated
Resident Population (ERP)) from this ERP, the population forecast for 2013 is an estimated population of 109,199 (.id (2012)
Community Profile). Currently experiencing a growth rate of
approximately 1.61% per annum it is forecast that the LGA will
see a population change, between 2013 and 2031, of 36,409
or 33.34% (.id (2012) Community Profile).

Occupying a land area of almost 300,000 hectares the municipality has an overall population density of approximately 0.3
persons per hectare which is high compared to the average for
regional Victoria, although it does vary considerably across the
municipality; from a low of 0.03 persons per hectare in Elmore,
to a high of 15.60 persons per hectare in Strathdale.
In 2011, the census indicated that there were 38,494 separate
houses in the LGA, 4,520 medium density dwellings, and 7 high
density dwellings, with 91% of these dwellings housing up to 4
residents, with 9% housing 5 or more residents.
A map of the Greater Bendigo local government area, as shown
in Figure 1, also indicates the location of the Citys two landfills
and the two waste transfer stations within the area.

Figure 1: The municipality of Greater Bendigo

N
Legend
CoGB Boundary

Highway
Roads

Goornong TS

Crown Land
Waste Facilities

Eaglehawk Landfill

Strathfieldsaye TS

Heathcote Landfill

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 5

2. Overview

2.3 Legislation and policy

Policy

This Waste and Resource Management Strategy is influenced


and supported by a wider strategic context and legislative and
policy environment within which the CoGB operates.

Federal Policy
National Waste Policy: Less waste more resources was agreed
to by all Australian environment ministers in November 2009.
The aims of the policy are clearly described as to:

Legislation
National Legislation
Product Stewardship Act 2011 provides a framework for national
product stewardship schemes. The National Television and
Computer Recycling Scheme introduced in 2013, in requires
importers of televisions and computers to steward the material
recovery of goods they sell.
Clean Energy Futures Act 2011 provides a framework for reducing carbon pollution in Australia. The Act includes a cap and
trade scheme which will require emitters of greenhouse gases
to acquire a permit for every tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent
(CO2-e) they emit over specified thresholds. Implications of the
Act are relevant to the management of landfills.
State Legislation
Local Government Act 1989 assigns responsibility for providing
(either directly or through contractors) collection, transport and
reprocessing or disposal to landfill of municipal solid waste for
their communities. (This does not require local government to
manage disposal facilities such as landfills)
Environment Protection Act 1970 stipulates responsibilities
in relation to waste disposal, in particular the management
and operation of landfill sites and the rehabilitation of closed
landfill sites (including those managed by previous councils).
The Environment Protection Act also underpins the application
of a Landfill levy and how and to whom, the revenue from the
levy will be allocated.
The Public Health and Wellbeing Act 2008 requires Councils to
ensure the municipal environment is maintained in a clean and
sanitary condition.

6 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

Avoid the generation of waste, reduce the amount of waste


(including hazardous waste) for disposal, manage waste
as a resource and ensure that waste treatment, disposal,
recovery and re-use is undertaken in a safe, scientific and
environmentally sound manner, and
Contribute to the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions,
energy conservation and production, water efficiency, and
the productivity of the land.
National Packaging Covenant (NPC): A voluntary initiative by
government and industry to reduce the effects of packaging
on the environment.
State Policy
Getting Full Value (GFV) Victorian Waste and Resource Recovery
Policy: The Victorian government is primarily responsible for setting the policy and regulatory framework within which Victorian
councils must deliver waste services. The current Victorian
Waste and Resource Recovery Policy Getting Full Value, was
released in April 2013 replacing the Towards Zero Waste policy
adopted in 2005.
The 30 year vision for waste management in Getting Full Value is:
Victoria has an integrated, state-wide waste management
and resource recovery system that provides an essential
community service by protecting the environment and
public health, maximising the productive value of resources,
and minimising long term costs to households, industry
and government.
The state policy features six major goals:
1. Help Victorians reduce the waste they generate and save
Victorians money through efficient use of resources.
2. Facilitate strong markets for recovered resources.
3. Have a Victorian waste and resource recovery system that
maximises the economic value of waste.
4. Reduce the environmental and public health risks of waste.
5. Reduce illegal dumping and littering.
6. Reform and strengthen the way institutions work and are
governed to effectively implement waste policy.

Getting Full Value supports the development of an integrated


system of waste infrastructure to cater for the range and variety
of waste materials generated across the state, from both
households and businesses. The system described in the
policy involves waste facilities, such as large transfer stations,
landfills and materials recovery facilities, as hubs connected by
transport and collection routes (spokes). The State Government
has committed in the GFV to working with local government
and industry investors to plan for infrastructure and logistics to
support this connected hub and spoke network.
There will be specific focus on investment in infrastructure
hubs that is driven by the commercial pull from markets for
recovered resources and for maximum flexibility allowing the
market to adapt spoke activities to changing waste volumes,
compositions and flows that occur over time. To promote the
development of a cost-effective network of waste and resource
recovery infrastructure a state-wide infrastructure plan and
corresponding metropolitan and regional waste and resource
recovery plans will be developed.
The draft Statewide Waste and Resource Recovery Infrastructure Plan (SWRRIP) which was released in September 2013
provides an evidence base to inform planning and investment
to achieve the vision outlined in Getting Full Value. The plan,
when completed, will:
Provide an analysis of current and anticipated trends in
waste generation, composition and levels of resource
recovery.
Provide an analysis of the existing infrastructure for waste
management and resource recovery as well as anticipating
future processing needs.
Investigate opportunities for colocation of new waste and
resource recovery infrastructure with similar activities such
as waste water treatment.
Consider the transport impacts arising from the movement
of waste and materials.
Provide information regarding key infrastructure that
requires protection from encroachment.
Provide clear guidance to local governments and waste
management groups.
Provide an evidence base for future targeting of
government funding and investments.
The SWIRRP is expected to be finalised in 2014.

The Plan will also provide strategic direction for waste and resource
recovery planning for the next 30 years with an immediate focus
on the next five years. It will provide direction to the development of both the metropolitan and regional waste and resource
recovery plans to ensure a consistent integrated approach across
all levels of planning. This will ensure that planning at state and
regional levels are actively integrated, aligning state directions
with regional priorities.
Victorian Litter Strategy Creating Cleaner, Safer Places: Strategy
to prevent litter and improve litter management practices to
achieve clean and safe public places.
Regional Policy
The state government is progressing with changes to the waste
management groups, with the current 13 waste management
groups being amalgamated into six large regional waste and
resource recovery groups and one metropolitan waste and
resource recovery group. These changes will see the Calder
Regional Waste Management Group (RWMG), of which Bendigo
is currently a member, amalgamated with the Central Murray
and Mildura RWMGs to form the new Loddon Mallee Waste
and Resource Recovery Group (WRRG) which will extend
from Macedon Ranges to Mildura and comprise eight member
councils. The role of the new waste and resource recovery
groups will be expanded to include planning for all solid waste
streams, (i.e. commercial and industrial (C&I) and construction
and demolition(C&D)) rather than just municipal waste. This
planning will need to be consistent with any statewide strategies
developed by Sustainability Victoria. In addition the new groups
will be required to develop Waste and Resource Recovery Plans
which are consistent with the SWRRIP.
Although the CoGB does not plan directly for the management of
C&I and C&D waste streams (other than through management of
its own landfills) it will make a contribution to planning all waste
management and resource recovery infrastructure through its
role in the new Loddon Mallee WRRG.
The SWRRIP identifies the following significant infrastructure
and issues for the Bendigo region:
The Eaglehawk landfill precinct is identified as a significant
regional infrastructure hub because of associated C&D
reprocessing and potential for the landfill site to be used
as a site for additional resource recovery operations,
which should be protected from encroachment through
appropriate land use planning
A potential opportunity to increase the recovery of garden
organics across Ballarat, Bendigo and Geelong
Addition resource recovery infrastructure to reduce landfill
requirements once the Eaglehawk landfill ceases operation
as an active landfill

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 7

2. Overview

Local Policy
The CoGB Waste and Resource Management Strategy align with,
and build on, existing Council plans, policies and strategies that
may be directly or indirectly relevant to waste management issues.
Relevant policies include:
The CoGB Council Plan update 2013 2017
Litter Bin Strategy, 2007
Environment Local Law (Local Law 3) Section 11:
Domestic Waste and Section 12: Trade Waste and Waste
Hoppers
Natural Environment Strategy
Carbon Management Plan
Economic Development Strategy
The City of Greater Bendigo Council Plan 20132017 contains
Strategic Outcomes and Actions which are directly relevant to
the provision of waste services:
Sustainability
Reduce all waste to landfill and make productive use of
by-products.
Commence implementation of agreed priorities in the
Waste & Resources Management Strategy encompassing:
reducing resource consumption, a local landfill decision,
reducing waste to landfill and increasing resource recovery.
Container Deposit Legislation (CDL)
In 2009 the Greater Bendigo City Council resolved to support
the introduction of a Container Deposit Scheme in Victoria and
throughout Australia and advocate to State and Federal Ministers
about demonstrating the financial, social and environmental
benefits and actively promote the issue in the community.

2.4 Stakeholder contribution


and strategy development
To develop this strategy, the City invested significant time and
resources in consulting with key stakeholders, businesses and
the general community to get their views and input on what
is important and valued. In addition to the broad community
consultation (including community and business surveys, listening
posts, events and the use of a range of media), specific and
comprehensive input was received from the Waste and Resource
Management Advisory Committee and the Project Steering Team
including representation from Environment Protection Authority
(EPA) and Calder Regional Waste Management Group (RWMG).

8 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

Future Directions
It became apparent through community and industry consultation that there is a strong desire to drive a change in community
thinking away from that of waste management, to one of resource
management. This change would help community (industry, business and individuals) understand their role in managing available
resources wisely. As reducing the demand for new resources by
using less material through improved product design, reduced
packaging, reuse of items, use of recycled material, and the
separation or by reclaiming materials for further processing, all
result in increased productivity.
To encapsulate this drive for change the following statement of
intent has been developed:
Increase prosperity and protect the environment by
maximising our resource recovery and reducing our waste.
Guiding principles
The following 10 principles were also developed to guide decision
making in this strategy:
1. Minimise waste: Follow the waste hierarchy.
2. Maximise benefits: Reclaim resources,
waste sector development.
3. Sustainability: Environment protected,
public health and wellbeing maintained.
4. Shared responsibility: Community participation,
education, behaviour change.
5. Equity: Fair, affordable, accessible.
6. Collaboration: Solutions beyond municipal boundaries.
7. Best Practice: Compliant with regulation,
industry best practice.
8. Accountability: Progress and outcomes
measured and reported.
9. Financial responsibility: Full cost recovery,
user-pays, value for money.
10. Innovation: Consideration of options and opportunities

Key Objectives
Putting the principles into practice the City will:
1. Reduce waste, increase resource recovery.
2. Focus on diverting organic waste from landfill to minimise current and future financial and environmental liabilities.
3. Provide an efficient, convenient and safe resource management system for residents.
4. Develop partnerships throughout Victoria to develop and deliver sustainable services.
5. Minimise the costs and risks to ratepayers
6. Support innovation in resource management and look for opportunities to maximise sector development in Greater Bendigo.
7. Reduce the incidence of illegal dumping and littering.

Measuring performance
The following actions and targets have been established to quantify achievement of the key objectives:
Actions

Targets

Reduce waste collected from kerbside.


Key Objective: 1 & 2

Reduce average residual waste disposal from 642 kg/hh/year to


320 kg/hh/year by 2019 based on data provided to SV for the
Local Government Annual Survey.

Increase resource recovery from waste.


Key Objective: 1

Improve kerbside diversion rate from 26% to 60% (weight) by 2019,


based on data provided to SV for the Local Government Annual Survey.
Reduce the recyclables disposed of in the waste bin
from 77 kg/hh/year to 40 kg/hh/year by 2019.

Support economic development that


utilises waste streams as a resource.
Key Objective: 4, 5, 6

Resource streams such as organics made


available for private sector development.

Continue to provide an equitable service


meeting the needs of the community.
Key Objective: 3

Maintain or improve rating for waste management in


annual Victorian Local Government Satisfaction Survey.

Reduce incidence of littering


and illegal dumping.
Key Objective: 7

Reduce number of recorded instances of illegal dumping


by 5% per year over 5 years, compared to 2013 figures.

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 9

3. Waste currently managed by the city

3. Waste currently managed by the City


Available data indicated that the City managed a total of 113,331 tonnes of waste and recycling across the municipality in the
201213 financial years. Just over half of this material (53%) was MSW with C&I waste accounting for 25% and C&D waste 14%.
While MSW flows are well understood, data on C&I waste is relatively limited. Other than the commercial waste that is received at
CoGB landfills, the City has no direct control over the flow of commercial waste. This makes it difficult to directly correlate commercial
disposal and recycling volumes with the actual amount of commercial waste generated within the municipality. The data used to
generate the chart below is based on volumes of waste received at the Eaglehawk and Heathcote landfills.

Figure 2: Waste stream volumes managed by CoGB in 201213 (tonnes)

Materials
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
Commercial & Industrial (C&I)
Construction & Demolition (C&D)
Prescribed Industrial Waste (PIW)
Heathcote Landfill (mixed streams)

10 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

Tonnes
60,145
28,755
16,077
4,347
4,000

3. Waste currently managed by the city

3.1 Domestic waste


Of the 61,145 tonnes of MSW handled by the City in 201213,
approximately 3540% was diverted from landfill through kerbside
recycling collections and self-haul drop-off recycling and greenwaste services provided at the Citys transfer stations (Goornong
and Strathfieldsaye) and landfills.

A summary of current domestic waste flows is provided in the


following table. It is noted that kerbside waste collection in the
municipality also includes approximately 3,000 commercial
services, of which approximately 1,300 are rural farm properties
and the remainder includes businesses and schools.

Within the municipality approximately 600 kg/household/year


of household waste and 250 kg/household/year of recyclables
is collected from the kerbside with a resource recovery rate in
201213 of 25.8% (accounting for contamination in recyclables).
This represents no significant change from the 26% kerbside
diversion rate reported for the municipality in Sustainability
Victorias Victorian Local Government Annual Survey for the
financial year 201011.

Table 1: Municipal Solid Waste volumes 201112 and 201213.


Kerbside MSW (Domestic)

Tonnes/year
2011/2012

Rate
%

Tonnes/year
2012/2013

Kerbside Residual Waste (Garbage) collected

27,194

27,150

Kerbside Recycling collected

10,778

10,571

Total Kerbside Collected

37,972

37,715

Kerbside Recycling Contamination Rate


MRF Recycling rejects (contaminants)

8.7%
940

Kerbside Diversion Rate

Rate
%

7.8%
831

25.9%

25.8%

Self-haul and other municipal waste


Self-haul Residual (Garbage)

7,615

5,716

Other Council Waste (e.g. Street-cleaning)

5,365

5,105

Self-haul Recycling

6,856

7943

Self-haul Greenwaste

3,980

4043

Total MSW Generation

61,788

60,145

Total MSW Disposed to Landfill

40,174

37,588

Total MSW Recovered/Recycled

20,674

22,557

Overall MSW Generation

Overall MSW Diversion Rate

33.5%

37.5%

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 11

3. Waste currently managed by the city

The composition of the kerbside domestic residual waste


(garbage) stream within the municipality has been studied at
regular intervals over recent years. Comprehensive kerbside
audits were conducted in September 2011, May 2012 and June
2013, providing a detailed breakdown of material types disposed
at the household level. The results of those detailed audits are
summarised in the following chart and provide the best available
characterisation of the current waste stream.

Figure 3: Detailed recent domestic


garbage audit results.
100%

3.2 Recycling composition


The composition of domestic recyclables was obtained from
the breakdown of materials recovered at the materials recovery
facility (MRF) based on data provided by the processor.
Annual data for the past three years shows that there has been
very little variation in the breakdown of the kerbside recycling
stream over this period. Paper and cardboard is by far the major
recovered component of the recyclable stream, comprising
approximately 73%, of which cardboard makes up 50%. The
detailed recycling composition for 201112 is presented in the
chart below. Although not presented on this graph, it should be
noted that contamination of the kerbside recyclables stream (by
non-recyclable materials) is estimated at over 8%.

90%
80%

Figure 4: Breakdown of domestic recycling


recovered at the MRF in 20112012.

70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
September 2011

May 2012

Other (e.g. plastic film, non-recyclable


hard plastic and kitty litter)
Contaminated recyclables
Potentially hazardous
Clothing/textile/fabric
Building Materials
Metal
Plastic
Glass
Paper
Other organic
Garden waste
Kitchen organics

12 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

Cardboard
Paper
Glass - Fines
Glass - colour
Newsprint
HDPE Clear
Steel - Tin plate
PET Clear
Aluminium
LDPE Film
Polypropylene
HDPE Colour
PET Colour
PVC - Vinyl

50.7%
18.1%
10.5%
8.2%
4.3%
2.0%
1.7%
1.5%
1.4%
0.9%
0.5%
0.2%
0.1%
0.0%

3. Waste currently managed by the city

3.3 Commercial waste


Data available to CoGB on waste generation for commercial streams (i.e. all streams other than MSW) is limited to that which is
processed through the Citys waste facilities as follows:
Table 2: Current Commercial & Industrial and Construction & Demolition waste volumes 20112012 and 201213
Waste Stream Category

Tonnes/year
2011/2012

Tonnes/year
2012/2013

C&I Waste
CoGB Commercial Kerbside Collection

*2,192

*2,293

Commercial (self-hauled / private collectors)

23,798

26,462

**25,990

**28,755

9,386

3,733

629

591

Recovery (concrete / cover / fill)

11,885

11,753

Total Generation

21,900

16,077

4,000

4,000

315

4,347

Total Generation
C&D Waste
Waste to landfill
Recovery (Industrial Recycling)

Other Waste
Heathcote Landfill
Prescribed Industrial Waste (PIW)

* Waste collected
from commercial area.
** Of this volume, approximately
600 tonnes of C&I is
diverted from landfill
via existing processes.

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 13

3. Waste currently managed by the city

3.4 Current cost of managing waste


The total expenditure by the City on waste management services
in the 20122013 financial year was approximately $16.15M.
Revenue of approximately $16.5M was recouped; gate fees
($5,360,000), municipal garbage charge ($8,313,000) and
recycling charges ($2,668,000). The remaining income is stored
in a waste reserve that funds future capital expenditure such
as new kerbside bins, landfill cell development, capping and
rehabilitation.
Of the $16.15M spent on waste services in 2012/13, $1.73M
was used for street sweeping and pit/drain cleaning, $137,000
for operation of transfer stations and approximately $4.14M
was for the kerbside recycling and garbage collection services.
Expenditure of approximately $9M occurred in the operation of
the Eaglehawk and Heathcote landfills. With waste managed
primarily on a cost recovery basis, all costs associated with landfill
management, operation and development are built into the fee
structure and the gate fee allowing such costs to be recouped.
Currently the landfill operation expenses also include payments
covering the price on carbon (payable on waste disposed at
Patho Landfill), the landfill levy and GST. The increasing landfill
levy payable on each tonne of waste deposited is a major
contributor to the continual increase in fees. For every tonne of
waste deposited in Eaglehawk landfill, the City currently collects
on behalf of the Federal and State Governments approximately
$86 in levies and fees; this represents more than fifty percent
of the landfill gate fee and totals more than four millions dollars
each year.

While funds are being accumulated to help respond to the


rehabilitation obligations of the City, particularly for the White
Hills and Eaglehawk landfill sites, the extent of work required
and the timeframe for this to occur is unknown. However, it is
now apparent that historical contributions to this fund will not
be adequate to cover the estimated cost of remediation to
todays standards. In addition, the City has identified a further
21 sites that are known to have been used for the disposal of
waste materials. Most of these sites have been rehabilitated
to the standards relevant at the time and many are now used
for other purposes such as sports fields. However, the City still
retains a liability for restitution of any of these sites that prove
to be detrimental to human health or an environmental risk into
the future.

Albert Roy Reserve developed on the


site of a rehabilitated former landfill.
14 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

4. Drivers for Change

4. Drivers for Change


4.1 Aligning with the waste hierarchy
The concept of a waste hierarchy, ranking ways of dealing with waste in order of preference, has been almost universally adopted
as a guiding management principle by governments in Australia and internationally. The waste hierarchy sees avoiding the creation
of waste as the most desired outcome, and landfill disposal the least desired outcome.

Figure 5: The Waste Hierarchy as it applies to the Citys level of responsibility and control

AVOID &
MINIMISE
REUSE
RECYCLE
ENERGY
RECOVERY
DISPOSE

The City cannot directly control what items householders buy and dispose of
but can provide education to encourage steps that reduce the creation of
waste and put in place systems and process to minimise waste to landfill.
The reuse of materials that would otherwise end up in the waste stream can
provide a variety of social and environmental benefits. e.g. the City can
support community-based reuse organisations.
Kerbside recycling services provided by the City and some other local recycling
activities are a key way of reducing the economic and environmental impacts of
managing waste, while also supporting local employment.
Thermal treatment (Energy from Waste) technology is only in the early stages of
development in Victoria but offers potential to reduce disposal rates in the future by
recovering energy resources from materials that would otherwise be landfilled.

While disposal is the least preferred option, there will probably always be some residual
and/or hazardous wastes for which landfilling remains the best (or only) option. It is critically
important for the City to maintain cost effective access to a landfill in the foreseeable future.

MINIMISE

The City cannot directly control what items householders buy and dispose of
but can provide education to encourage steps that reduce the creation of
waste and put in place systems and process to minimise waste to landfill.

REUSE

The reuse of materials that would otherwise end up in the waste stream can
provide a variety of social and environmental benefits. E.g. the city can
support community-based reuse organisations.

RECYCLE

Kerbside recycling services provided by the City and some other local
recycling activities are a Waste
key way
reducingManagement
the economic
and environmental
andofResource
Strategy
20142019 15
impacts of managing waste, while also supporting local employment.

4. Drivers for Change

4.2 Price a lever for change


There are several factors that influence the cost of waste management. At times Federal and State governments use pricing as
a mechanism to influence change or introduce more stringent
regulation to achieve a desired environmental or social outcome.
These levers result in an increase in the cost of managing waste
which in turn drives the development of alternative and often
innovative solutions.
Approximately $86 out of the $148/tonne gate fee charged
at Eaglehawk and Heathcote Landfills goes to the State and
Federal Governments in fees and levies.
Significant price drivers influencing landfill gate price:
Landfill Levy: The Victorian Government applies a levy on every
tonne of waste disposed in landfills in order to encourage greater
resource recovery. The levy is set to increase by approximately
10% each year until 2015. A portion of the monies raised is
returned as grants to local governments through Sustainability
Victoria.
Carbon Liability: The Federal Governments Carbon Pricing
Mechanism applies to landfills emitting more than 25,000t CO2e
per annum. As waste disposed today can continue to produce
greenhouse emissions over several decades, future carbon
price risks for landfills can be high, and are difficult to manage.
At the time of finalising this document the Federal Government
has foreshadowed but not passed legislation to repeal the Clean
Energy Futures Act 2011 which is the framework for the Carbon
Pricing Mechanism. Changes to this Act will impact on the gate
price of many landfills including Eaglehawk and Heathcote.
Landfill Management: While disposal of materials to landfill is
the least preferred management option for waste, landfills will
continue to be required to manage those wastes that cannot
be practically removed from the waste stream. Todays landfills
must not leave an unacceptable environmental legacy for future
generations to address. Community expectation and increased
environmental concern has lead to more stringent requirements
for landfill management that has significantly increased the cost
of monitoring and maintaining all licensed landfills.

16 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

Landfill development and replacement: In 2010 EPA Victoria


reviewed the Landfill Best Practice Environmental Management (BPEM) standards for all licensed landfills in Victoria. The
review incorporated the latest technology and understanding of
sound environmental landfill management and also a number
of recommendations of the Victorian Ombudsmans report
Brookland Greens Estate Investigation into Methane Gas;
a direct result of the investigation into the Cranbourne landfill
failure. The changes to the BPEM have significantly increased the
difficulty and expense of developing new landfills and expanding
existing ones.

4.3 Reducing greenhouse gas


The City in 2009 adopted its first Carbon Management Plan
which aims to comprehensively quantify and manage the
organisations greenhouse emission profile as a result of the
operations and services it delivers to the community (including
landfill), and to work towards meeting any obligations the City
may have under a legislative approach. In 2011 the City adopted
a target of reducing carbon (greenhouse gas) emissions from its
own operations to 50% below 2011 levels by 2020. Reducing
waste related emissions will significantly contribute to achieving
this target.
A range of potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions are
associated with waste and recycling activities from fuel used in
collection vehicles through to processing and disposal emissions.
By far the greatest greenhouse impacts are associated with
landfill gas generation.
Methane gas (CH4) with a global warming potential of 21 times
greater than carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced when waste
breaks down in the anaerobic conditions of a landfill. Landfill
gas is responsible for nearly 3% of Australias total greenhouse
gas emissions profile and is usually one of the largest sources
of council-generated greenhouse emissions.
The amount of landfill gas generated depends on the type of
waste buried and conditions within the specific landfill. Waste
streams with more biodegradable content (such as paper, food
or garden waste) generate more landfill gas. Based on average
compositions, the National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors
(July 2012) specifies lifetime emission factors for each waste
stream. These lifetime emissions occur over a period of many
years as waste can take several decades to fully break down
and is one of the key reasons why liability for landfill rehabilitation
can span decades.

4. Drivers for Change

Existing kerbside recycling services are helping to reduce


greenhouse emissions in two ways;
Firstly by reducing the amount of bio-degradable waste
buried in landfill (especially paper and cardboard) and;
Secondly by returning useful materials to the productive
economy; thereby reducing the demand for raw materials
and the energy required to make new products, e.g.
recycling an aluminium can saves 95% of the energy
needed to manufacture a new can from virgin materials.

4.4 Population growth, development


& future waste projections
At the time of the 2011 census the number of residential dwellings
in the municipality was estimated to be 43,926 and is anticipated
to grow to 60,742 dwellings by 2031(.id (2012) Community
Profile). This would require an average increase of approximately
840 new homes each year. However, the residential development within Greater Bendigo is currently seeing the demand for
collection services rise by approximately 1,200 households per
year. As of March 2013 the City provides services to 46,616
residential properties.
Population growth has been identified as one of the biggest
challenges for waste management. The Victorian waste and
resource recovery policy Getting Full Value states that:
On average, each one of us generates just over two
tonnes of waste per year.
Over the last 10 years, there has been a 29% increase in
the average amount of waste attributable to each Victorian
every year.
Over the past decade Victorias annual waste generation
has increased from roughly eight million tonnes in 2000 to
12 million tonnes in 2011.
Between 2010 and 2011 alone there was a seven per cent
increase in the total amount of waste Victorias system had
to handle.
Victorian waste generation is expected to continue
increasing by around 4% per year, and may approach 17.4
million tonnes by 2022.

4.5 Land use planning for


waste infrastructure
Over the past decade planning for waste management infrastructure has primarily been focussed on landfills with proposed
sites identified in the Landfill Schedule of each Regional Waste
Management Plan (a requirement of the Environment Protection Act 1970). Currently, the only site within Greater Bendigo
listed on the Calder Regional Waste Management Plan Landfill
Schedule is at Huntly, a site no longer considered appropriate
for landfill development.
In 2008 a site was purchased at Bagshot after preliminary testing
determined its suitability for landfill development. To date, no
action has been taken to seek planning approval to develop the
site for waste disposal infrastructure.
It is increasingly difficult to secure sites for waste and resource
recovery infrastructure that are readily accessible, compatible
with neighbouring land uses and accepted by the neighbouring
community. The State Government policy Getting Full Value
recognises these constraints and has committed to working with
local government to better align land use and transport planning
with waste management and resource recovery planning. This
will be supported by ongoing reviews and amendments to the
State Planning Policy Framework, Victoria Planning Provisions,
and planning schemes to appropriately reference and facilitate
waste and resource recovery infrastructure requirements.

Using data from 201112 as a baseline and a business-as-usual


assumption that does not include the escalation in per person
waste creation predicted by the State, the total annual waste
generation in Bendigo could be approximately 150,000 tonnes
by 2030.

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 17

5. Waste services provided by the City and its partners

5. Waste Services provided by the City and its partners


The City currently provides a number of waste and resource
management services, including: kerbside garbage and recycling
collection for domestic and some commercial properties, management of the Eaglehawk and Heathcote landfills, management of
transfer stations, rehabilitation of old landfills, street litter collection,
public place litter bins, street cleaning, drain and pit cleaning,
and domestic waste education and awareness activities.

5.1 Collection
Kerbside Collection garbage and recycling
Most Australian councils provide a kerbside collection service
for household garbage (usually weekly) and dry commingled
recyclables (usually fortnightly). The variations in collection
systems and services are numerous and are usually tailored to
ensure a cost effective service that meets the specific needs
of the community.
Currently the City provides kerbside garbage and recyclables
collection services to over 46,600 households in all urban and
rural areas across the municipality with the cost of the services
recouped as garbage and recycling charges in the annual
rates process. The weekly garbage collection service offers bins
in two sizes; 140 and 240 litre. The 140 litre bin is offered at
a lesser fee to encourage residents to downsize from the 240

18 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

litre bin with approximately 55% of households already taking


up this option. The garbage collection service is conducted as
an in-house service by the City.
The City also provides optional commercial and non-residential
garbage collections on a fee for service basis. Properties zoned
within the commercial business districts have the capacity to
extend their weekly service to a multi-day service of one, two,
three, five or seven days a week collection.
Recycling collection is currently fortnightly with a 240 litre bin size
offered. Collection of kerbside recyclables is also provided to
small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). There are currently
1,275 businesses that make use of this recycling service. The
recycling collection service is provided under contract to the City.
Contamination of the recycling stream with waste material, as
well as recyclable material lost to the waste stream continue to
be problematic.

Public place litter and recycling bins


The City manages and collects garbage from over 1,300 public
place litter bins within the municipality. A small number of public
place recycling bins (a total of nine, located at Rosalind Park,
the Chinese Gardens and the Queen Elizabeth Oval) are also
provided and serviced under contract to the City.

5. Waste services provided by the City and its partners

Other collection services


Detox Your Home
Annual Mobile Service at Council Depot
The mobile Detox Your Home drop-off day held annually in
Bendigo accepts a wide range of household chemicals, including
fertilisers, solvents, acids and alkalis. This service is conducted
by Toxfree with the chemicals either recycled or destroyed in
an environmentally sound way. Sustainability Victoria coordinate
the program with advertising and site support from supporting
councils.
drumMUSTER
drumMUSTER is the national product stewardship program
for the collection and recycling of empty, cleaned, eligible and
non-returnable crop production and on-farm animal health
chemical containers. It is funded from a four cent per litre or
kilogram levy on crop production and animal health products. The
levy is initially paid to drumMUSTER by the manufacturer who
then passes the cost down the supply chain to the consumer.
The levy is used to reimburse local councils or other collection
agencies for any costs incurred.
In a bid to increase recovery rates, permanent drumMUSTER
collection points are provided at the Eaglehawk and Heathcote
Landfills and the Goornong Transfer Station. Also, a one-off
collection occurs annually (in October / November) at Elmore
and Raywood.

drumMUSTER collection points

Approximate
numbers of
drums collected

Eaglehawk (established July 2000)

1,400 per year

Goornong (established November 2003)


Elmore (established November 2003)

800 per year


1,500 per year

Raywood (established November 2003)

600 per year

Heathcote (established 2010)

300 per year

5.2 Receiving and separating waste


Transfer Stations
Transfer stations (TS) are sites for the sorting and temporary
collection of domestic waste and resources. There are currently two transfer stations in the municipality (Strathfieldsaye
and Goornong) and both are supervised and managed under
contract. A gate fee applies for waste received at the TS at the
same price structure as the Eaglehawk and Heathcote landfills
and recyclables are received at no cost.
The waste received at the two TS is domestic waste including
hard rubbish, metals and household recyclables. (C&I and C&D
waste streams are not accepted).
Sorting of materials occurs on site, the garbage is transported
to the Eaglehawk landfill, recyclables to the materials recovery
facility (MRF), and recovered materials and saleable items go
to the Eaglehawk Eco-centre. The revenue derived from the
gate fees at the TS does not cover the cost of providing these
services. In 2011/12 there was a deficit of approximately $97,000.
However, the TS offer an important service to residents in the
surrounding area.

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 19

5. Waste services provided by the City and its partners

Eaglehawk Eco Centre


The Eaglehawk Eco Centre is located at Upper California Gully
Road in Eaglehawk and is made up of a number of services
including the Recycling Centre, Recycle Shop, green waste
processing facility, loading facility (transport of waste), power
generation plant and the landfill.
Eaglehawk Recycling Centre
Located outside the landfill gate, Eaglehawk Recycling Centre
receives and sorts recyclable and recoverable goods from loads
before vehicles enter the landfill. This business is operated by
Future Employment Opportunities (FEO) and has a lease agreement with the City for use of the site.
Many materials can be dropped off free of charge and the types
of materials received at the Centre include: paper/cardboard;
plastics; electronic waste (such as TVs, computer monitors);
ferrous and non-ferrous metals; firewood and other timber;
and a range of hard waste (e.g. household goods, furnishings,
plumbing) that can be recovered and sold in the Recycle Shop
or sorted and baled and sold for further reprocessing. Fridges,
freezers and air-conditioners are also accepted but attract a
de-gassing charge.
Detox Your Home (permanent facility)
The Eaglehawk Eco Centre is home to a permanent Detox Your
Home drop off facility. This service only applies to the following
products: automotive and cooking oil, automotive and household
batteries, barbecue gas bottles, paint and compact fluorescent
lights and tubes.
Green waste processing
Located inside the landfill gate and managed by City staff,
green or garden organics are collected from self-hauled loads
dropped off at the landfill. The gate fee for green waste is less
than general waste to landfill. The Green waste is mulched and
stockpiled for use on site as part of the landfill cover or made
available for sale.
The City offers residents eight days (4 weekends) per year in which
green or garden waste can be delivered free to the Eaglehawk
landfill. Four of the free days are in autumn and four in spring
to encourage clean up for the fire season.

20 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

5.3 Waste disposal


Eaglehawk Landfill
The Citys main landfill site, Eaglehawk, is licensed to receive
MSW, C&I waste, C&D waste, and prescribed industrial waste
((PIW) such as asbestos and category C contaminated soil). The
last cell at the Eaglehawk landfill is under construction and on
completion, the remaining capacity of the landfill is estimated
to be approximately 350,000 cubic metres. Another smaller
facility, Heathcote landfill, is unlicensed, and receives MSW
and C&I wastes.
The City has transported waste to landfills outside the municipality
since August 2008 in a bid to prolong the life of the Eaglehawk
landfill. In the 2012/13 year, over 62% of waste received at the
Eaglehawk weighbridge was transported to a landfill outside the
municipality and while the final cell is under construction, the
majority of waste received will be transported away.

Heathcote Landfill
Goods sorted and processed at the Heathcote landfill include
the recovery of re-saleable goods, and collection of recyclables
and green waste. Green waste is mulched and sold to customers while recyclables (plastics, paper/cardboard, glass etc.) are
collected in a comingled skip bin.

Transporting waste for disposal


The Eaglehawk loading/transfer facility is a loading station for
trucks to collect and transfer waste to other landfill sites. In
2012/2013 91,195 tonnes of waste was received at Eaglehawk
landfill of which 56,959 tonnes was transported to the Patho
landfill for disposal. Both MSW and C&I were transported away
however asbestos and category C contaminated soils cannot
be transported off the licensed area.

5. Waste services provided by the City and its partners

5.4 Past actions to establish


a new landfill or advanced
waste treatment facility
In the early 2000s the City looked to establish a new landfill at
a site north of Huntly. The site was ultimately abandoned as an
option after the land adjacent to the site was declared National
Park and it was considered that the development of the landfill
could impact negatively on the biodiversity and aesthetic values
of the Park. This site, still owned by the City, is currently utilised
for farm forestry.

Landfill gas
Under licence requirements with the Environment Protection
Authority, the City is required to implement a gas management
system at the Eaglehawk landfill. This work is delivered via
contract by Landfill Management Systems Pty Ltd (LMS). The
contract agreement allows for LMS to construct all necessary
infrastructures on the sites to capture the gas. LMS is responsible
for all costs and expenses associated with harnessing the landfill
gas and have access to any revenue opportunities which may
become available as a result of the work.
Flaring of landfill gas commenced in August, 2005, and continued
until the power generation plant became operational in July 2008
and began generating electricity to feed into the grid. By the end
of March 2013, the generation plant had used 18,966,832m3
of gas to generate power. Currently, energy is exported to the
grid at an average monthly net generation rate of 415MWh,
which is equivalent to powering 68 households. Having the gas
extraction system in place ensured that at the time the Clean
Energy Futures Act 2011 was introduced, the City was able
to demonstrate that the emissions from the Eaglehawk landfill
(estimated 15,340 tonnes of CO2-e) were well below the Acts
mandatory reporting level (25,000 tonnes of CO2-e). As well, show
that the waste deposited at the site prior to the landfill reaching
capacity would not trigger a reporting threshold and incur a price
liability now or into the future. However, a significant proportion
of the municipalitys waste is disposed of at a landfill that will
generate emissions in excess of the reporting threshold in the
future so the gate fee at that site includes a Carbon Mitigation
Charge which is recouped through the garbage charge and
gate fees of the Citys landfills.

In 2009, following preliminary investigations to assess the feasibility


of the site for landfill purposes, the City purchased land in Clays
Road, Bagshot North. The investigations included geological and
hydrogeological studies, surface water evaluation, geotechnical
investigation, flora and fauna assessment and an Aboriginal
Cultural Heritage Assessment. At the time the investigations
did not reveal any obvious flaws associated with the use of the
site as a landfill. If the City chose to continue investing in this
site for landfill use, its viability would have to be assessed in
light of changing State policy and regulatory environments in
addition to appropriate detailed investigations, relevant land use
planning considerations and community consultation. Neither
this site, nor any other site within the municipality is currently
listed in an approved Calder Regional Waste Management Plan
Landfill Schedule.
The City also investigated a number of Advanced Waste Treatment options through a worldwide expression of interest process
in late 2010. Although a short list of 4 possible companies
was established a decision to not proceed was made due to
uncertainty over obtaining approval for such systems in the
Victorian regulatory environment.

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 21

5. Waste services provided by the City and its partners

5.5 Managing waste into the future


Avoid creating waste

Improving resource recovery

One of the best strategies for reducing waste to landfill is to


reduce the amount of waste we as individuals generate. It saves
money by reducing waste management costs and by maximising
the use of resources. Unfortunately, in spite of growing awareness in the community about the need to reduce waste, waste
generation rates have continued to rise in line with the growth
in our standard of living. This presents a tough challenge for the
future as our population also continues to grow.

Greater Bendigo has a diversion rate based on kerbside collections of 26% which gave it a ranking of 73 out of 79 councils in
the Sustainability Victoria, Victorian Local Government Annual
Survey 2010/2011 (79 being the poorest performer). The state
average is 44% diversion on this basis. When recyclables, green
waste and general waste collected at landfills and transfer stations are added, the total diversion rate grows to 33.5% of all
MSW (approximately 62,000 tonnes annually) in the municipality
(utilising the 2011/12 data relevant to the survey).

Councils have no control over the purchasing habits of the


community and neither do they wish to have. However, the City
will continue to be proactive in the delivery of programs that
encourage the community to avoid creating waste, such as the
recent successful Food Smart workshops that provided tips and
advice on how to buy right, save money and waste less food.
Programs aimed at working with industry to make changes that
reduce materials consumption through improved product design,
encourage reuse of by-products as a secondary resource, reduce
product packaging and divert material from landfill will continue
to be supported by the CoGB. Likewise, the City will promote
actions put in place by the retail sector to minimise the waste
from packaging that is passed onto the consumer.

22 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

However the biggest potential reduction in the amount of Greater


Bendigos MSW going to landfill can be achieved by addressing the organics (green and food) component that constitutes
between 45 and 60 percent (or 12,000 to 17,000 tonnes per
annum) of the content in our kerbside waste bins.
So too, with approximately 1213 percent (or 3,2003,500
tonnes per annum) of traditional recyclables continuing to be
sent to landfill through kerbside waste bins, tangible improvements are possible.
Public place recycling offers another opportunity for improvement.
Contamination with waste in recycling bins located in public
areas has been a deterrent to their wide spread introduction
in Bendigo. However, if such problems can be overcome, then
not only will more recycling be collected but the message will
be reinforced that recycling is not an optional activity but rather
just what we do no matter where we are.

5. Waste services provided by the City and its partners

Managing organics
In addition to their high prevalence in our waste bins, putrescible
organics make the most significant contribution to greenhouse
gas emissions. They produce methane when disposed to landfill
which has safety implications, cause offensive odours, can lead
to groundwater contamination and attract vermin.
Within the total volume of organics, garden organics represent
a significant but highly variable component of the residual waste
stream, ranging from 17% to 36% by weight (Waste bin audits
conducted September 2011 and May 2012). This observation
is not unusual, as the volume of garden organics naturally
fluctuates with seasonal effects, typically peaking in spring and
early summer.

Eaglehawk landfill received 28,755 tonnes of Commercial and


Industrial waste in 2012/2013 with only approximately 600
tonne diverted via existing processes. This would indicate that
there is significant scope for improvement. A well planned
withdrawal by the City in handling this waste stream could lead
to significant improvements in diversion performance with private
waste generators and processors adjusting their approaches
to create less waste and by introducing more sophisticated
recovery methods.
In the Construction and Demolition stream, while City processing is currently achieving a recycling rate of 57 percent this is
largely due to the re-use of materials for cover in the landfill cells,
rehabilitation of the site and maintenance of access track surfaces
within the landfill. On filling of the remaining cell, the onsite re-use
potential for such material will diminish significantly and, similar
to the commercial & industrial stream, greater recovery could be
achieved through existing or expanded private sector activity.
These major initiatives are now analysed and discussed in greater
detail and, unless otherwise indicated, all other existing services
would remain as is.

Kitchen (food) organics make up approximately one third of the


residual waste stream. Decomposing food waste has much
higher environmental and public health risks than garden waste.
It also generally requires different processing infrastructure to
garden waste and different end products can be manufactured.
There are a number of potential options for reducing organic
waste disposal to landfill. Household-level options such as
worm farming and home-composting are excellent as they
reduce the total amount of waste collected and disposed of
via more expensive means. However, while some 50 percent of
the 318 respondents to the resident survey indicated that they
use one or both of these systems, it is apparent from the other
data collected on waste composition in bins that this is an over
representation of the broader acceptance or effectiveness of
such systems. The survey also indicated that approximately 55
percent of respondents were supportive of a kerbside organics
service including approximately 30 percent supporting a combined
food and garden collection system.
Collection and treatment options for organics
Large scale reductions in food and garden waste to landfill are
generally achieved by providing either an additional collection
service (food and garden organics combined or in separate
containers) and treatment facility (e.g. composting) or by adopting
a technology solution to extract and recover organic material from
existing mixed residual waste (broadly known as an Advanced
Waste Treatment, or AWT). High level analyses of the various
options that are more likely to be possible in Bendigo are provided
in Appendix 1. While an AWT is less likely in the short term for
Bendigo for the treatment of kerbside collected organics, the
ability to transition to this in the longer term will be considered
when determining an initial organics management solution.

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 23

5. Waste services provided by the City and its partners

Where provided, the pricing of these services to the community varies considerably however, without external funding an
anticipated additional cost of at least $70 per service could be
expected for the cheapest of the options suggested. The option
that offers the best overall service to the Bendigo community
(as measured against the objectives of this strategy) would be
established through a tender process. A pre-commitment to fund
preparation of the required contract (including collection of any
further required data) has already been established with Sustainability Victoria and this would enable a service to commence in
2014/15. Sustainability Victoria has also indicated an interest
in investigating the possibility of a joint organics management
contract to service both Bendigo and Ballarat.
To enable a cost effective service to be offered, it is proposed
that processing of organics to remove it from the residual waste
stream would be made broadly mandatory (some exceptions may
be needed) for all households within the city limits of Bendigo
and Heathcote. It is acknowledged that such an approach would
impact on existing green waste service providers operating within
those areas and this would be considered in the tender process.
A further challenge to the introduction of a mandatory service
is that different families or individuals living in different circumstances are likely to have different levels of need for the service.
The extent to which this can be accommodated in any service
ultimately provided will be sought and tested in the tender
process. Notwithstanding the difficulties inherent in introducing a
service to prevent organics from going to landfill, doing so would
substantially lessen the impact to the environment of our daily
domestic lives now and for generations to come. Like many other
initiatives in this document, the process of removing organics
from landfill will also help to encourage a sense of community
pride and confidence that we are coming of age as a regional
city and that we are setting important examples for others to
follow. Irrespective of these noble objectives though, it is clear
from State and Federal Government policy and legislation that
there will soon come a time when continuing to do what we have
always done with organics will either simply not be allowed or it
will cost our community far more than what is now proposed.
While the final design of any organics treatment option is yet to
be decided, the biggest single affect can be made by a residential
kerbside collection. However, advice from councils that currently
have an organics kerbside collection system in place, suggest
that a multi-program approach consisting of kerbside collection
and education on the benefits and how to of composting and
worm farming, results in the best organics diversion outcome.
This is the approach supported by this strategy.

24 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

Traditional recyclables diversion


Feedback from the community survey indicated that approximately 51 percent of residents regularly fill their existing 240 litre
recycling bin within the fortnightly pick up cycle.
It is predicted that this is a primary reason for 1213 percent of
the waste bin composition being traditional recyclables that
have flowed over from the full recycling bins.
Given the relatively small additional volume of recyclables that
could be transferred from the waste bin to the recycling bin, an
increase in the frequency of service from fortnightly to weekly
is not justified. Such a change would almost double the cost to
households of that service.
A more practical and economic response is to undertake the
following:
Undertake periodic education programs for residents to
encourage flattening or compacting items as a simple and
free way of getting more capacity in their recycling bin.
Introduce 360 litre recycling bins as an option for residents.
This option will be allowed for in Councils upcoming
recyclables collection and disposal contract.
Continue to advertise the option of an additional
240 litre recycling bin for those residents with
very high volumes of recycling.

5. Waste services provided by the City and its partners

Infrastructure options to support changes


There is strong evidence to indicate that altering the size of
the general waste bin from 240 litres to 140 litres positively
affects the recycling performance of a community (Sustainability
Victoria Victorian Local Government Annual Survey). Given
the prediction by the State Government that volumes of waste
generated per person will continue to rise, this action would help
deliver an important message to our community that we wish
to reverse the trend. The practical impacts of such a move are
however appreciated and it is suggested that this be pursued
concurrently if a third bin option is ultimately introduced. This
would alter the existing service of approximately 45 percent of
households who presently have 240 litre waste bins and it is
expected that strong promotion and marketing of the new service
would be required to give comfort to residents that their needs
are being met. The introduction of the 360 litre recycling bin
option would occur irrespective of whether any or no organics
management system is introduced, however this would ideally
occur prior to or concurrently with any such system.

Public place recycling


In the past, public place recycling has proven problematic in
Bendigo with high contamination rates being experienced in the
nine bins located at the QEO, Chinese Gardens and Rosalind
Park. This has resulted in a reluctance to extend the service to
other locations.
There is however, good reason to change.
On the demand side we know that there has been significant
growth in the number of dining options in Bendigo with many
offering take-away food that is then consumed while walking
around the streets or enjoying our many passive and active
recreation areas. In this context, the message to the community
that is portrayed by the presence or not of recycling bins in public
places is too important to ignore. Recycling must not be seen
as an optional activity but rather just what we do wherever we
are and this cannot be achieved without convenient access to
recycling bins in public areas.
As Bendigo has shown however, achieving good recycling results
in public places is not simple and a well-planned approach to
changing community behaviour based on providing recycling bins
in the right places, and supporting this with the right education
programs, is essential. Sustainability Victoria offers both guidance
and, from time to time, funding to do this.
A program of introducing recycling bins to additional high profile
and popular public use locations in Bendigo, and supporting
this with a strong education campaign, is considered to be a
sensible response to this need and opportunity.

Commercial & Industrial and


Construction & Demolition
The Citys role in the C&I and C&D waste streams at Eaglehawk
has been on the basis of history rather than legal obligation.
That said these waste streams have proven to be important to
the City financially as their fees are more driven by the market
than they are on the basis of affordable cost recovery (in the
way that MSW fees are). Hence, the value of the airspace
associated with this waste is higher than that from MSW. While
the C&D waste stream is currently a relatively attractive financial
proposition and good rates of recycling are being achieved at
the landfill, these attributes will change once the final cell is filled.
From a community perspective, at that time it will no longer be
financially or environmentally advantageous to the community
for the City to offer these services. However, this is unlikely to
pose a practical problem as the private markets role in this
waste stream in Bendigo is growing rapidly in both number and
breadth of resource processed.
In regard to the C&I stream, Sustainability Victoria evidence
suggests that this may offer an attractive resource to tenderers
for the MSW organics contract. Provision will be made in the
contract for this waste stream to be considered when tenderers
are developing their proposed response to the MSW organics
service. Should this not be included in any such contract, the
City would continue to accept this higher income waste at
Eaglehawk and subsequently withdraw from that waste stream
once the final cell is full. This latter option would allow many years
in which to establish alternative providers of this service for the
community with much improved diversion rates being expected.
C&I and C&D future options.
Although the City has no direct legislative responsibility for
the holistic planning and management of C&I and C&D (other
than managing landfills that receive commercial waste), under
proposed new changes to the Environment Protection Act and
as a member Council in the new Loddon Mallee WRRG, the City
will make a contribution to planning for all waste management
and resource recovery infrastructure for the region. Proposed
changes indicate that the new WRRGs will have responsibility
for C&I and C&D waste streams. This will support the ongoing
provision of services for the management of these streams,
significant to the municipality for economic development and
environmental reasons.
It is expected that the services delivered to business and industry
by the City will change over time as the waste sector expands
and offers a broader range of cost effective and accessible
services. However, the Citys role in advocating and supporting
innovation and change will remain.

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 25

5. Waste services provided by the City and its partners

The City will continue to work in the C&I and C&D sectors in
the following ways:
Deliver services to business where practical and
complementary to existing MSW domestic services
i.e. kerbside collection for SMEs,
Deliver landfilling services at Eaglehawk (until landfill
reaches capacity) - licensed to receive MSW, C&I waste,
C&D waste, and prescribed industrial waste ((PIW) such
as asbestos and Category C contaminated soil).
Consider all waste streams when planning future
infrastructure needs such as transfer station options
for Eaglehawk site when landfill reaches capacity.
Support the development of the waste sector
(range of enterprises, capacity and capability),
Deliver and support education and awareness
programs for business and industry on resource
recovery and waste reduction,
Continue to work with business and industry to
identify and investigate ways to meet the
Citys waste management needs.
Consider all waste streams when investigating
future contractual options for the City
i.e. organics management contract.
Support innovation and promote innovative solutions.

What about a new landfill?


It is a primary objective of this strategy to substantially reduce
the amount of MSW going to landfill and the actions proposed
in the previous section will achieve that. Hence, the reliance
on any landfill for disposal would also diminish and so too the
associated risks.
At the same time, the actions in this strategy will reduce the
opportunity to achieve economies of scale in any new landfill
that the City might choose to develop and mean either a much
longer period to amortise very high up-front establishment
costs or the introduction of higher gate fees for the community.
Irrespective of the Citys strategy though, the State Government
has shown its strong intention by including in Getting Full Value
the following policy position:
Recognising the long-term impacts of landfills, the Victorian
Government is signalling its intent that in future landfills
will only receive treated, residual waste. Treated residual
wastes are materials that have been through a process to
extract all materials with economic value.

26 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

Councils have an obligation to ensure that residual MSW is


disposed of appropriately however this does not mean that they
must operate a landfill. In fact, there are very few metropolitan
councils operating their own landfills and the vast majority rely
on facilities owned by the private sector.
The City has been transporting close to 100% of its waste to
a privately operated landfill for more than 12 months and has
done so at a lower whole-of-life cost than is achievable in the
Eaglehawk landfill.
While fluctuations in prices for transport and disposal are
inevitable, there is no evidence to suggest that Bendigo would
pay a premium to the private sector if the City is not operating its own landfill. On the contrary, given the very high cost to
establish a new landfill, the reduced waste to landfill as a result
of this strategy and the results of the Citys last two open tender
contracts for transport of waste to other existing facilities, the
opposite is expected. On this basis the City will not pursue the
development of a new landfill.
In making the decision to not develop a new landfill and with
the expectation that Eaglehawk landfill will reach capacity within
the next 3 -5 years, the City will be required to develop an exit
strategy to guide the withdrawal from the provision of landfilling
services and accommodate the closure and the subsequent
rehabilitation of the landfilling operations at the Eaglehawk site.
(Heathcote landfill will continue to operate under its current
structure.) The City will also be required to develop options for
the future infrastructure requirements of the current Eaglehawk
landfill site to support increased resource recovery and to facilitate
the management of residual waste e.g. a transfer station.
It is important to note that the transportation of waste away is
not a waste management strategy in itself. The transportation of
residual waste as well as diverted materials such as recyclables
is part of the management process to ensure the best and
most appropriate environmental and economic solution for the
community. Recyclable material will continue to be transported
to Melbourne and in all probability unless Bendigo is successful
in securing an organics treatment facility in close proximity, so
too will organic material be transported to a location outside
of the municipality. This further emphasises the importance of
the strategies of this document in promoting the avoidance of
waste creation and minimising the flow of material into the waste
stream to minimise waste management costs.

5. Waste services provided by the City and its partners

5.6 Education and


awareness programs
The City currently develops and provides education and awareness
material for the community via print, radio, television and other
electronic media (such as Councils website). These programs
are often delivered in partnership with community groups such as
Bendigo Sustainability Group or with Regional Waste Management
Groups. Working together on advertising campaigns ensures
the information and messaging to the community is consistent
and the combined resources extend media coverage to a larger
audience for a longer period of time.
In recent years the cost of providing basic information on
waste services in a variety of formats to households has been
approximately $50,000 per annum. In addition, each year targeted
campaigns are conducted and cost between $20,000 and
$50,000 per annum depending on the message, communication
method, partnership opportunities and cost sharing options.
Calder RWMG and Central Murray RWMG (now Loddon Mallee
WRRG) also deliver education and awareness programs to schools
and community within the region and as a member council, the
City contributes to the development of these programs.
Research indicates that education has a critical role in the
success of behaviour change initiatives (such as aiming to
encourage waste avoidance or minimisation at the source and
reduction in cross contamination rates). While opinions vary
about the right level of financial investment, what is agreed is
that a well-planned, targeted, high quality and ongoing program
is needed to be successful.

As part of implementing this strategy a waste education plan will


be developed that supports and drives the initiatives nominated.
Without limiting this plan, the following matters will be addressed:
Creating less waste;
Increasing the capture of traditional recyclables in the
kerbside recycling service;
Increasing home composting of organics for those who
have the option;
Introduction of an organics collection and/or treatment
service for MSW and possibly C&I waste streams;
Increasing recycling through proper use of public place
recycling facilities;
Increasing awareness of existing services for hard waste
and household clean up;
Reducing littering and illegal dumping;
Increasing awareness and participation in other special
collection services (e.g. Detox Your Home).
It is also recognised that different matters will likely require
different styles of campaigns to be most effective. This need
will be addressed during the development and implementation
phases of the education plan.

5.7 Advocacy and leadership


In addition to educating the community on ways to avoid creating
and minimising waste, advocacy for legislative change at a National
and State level is one of the most significant contributions that
the City can make toward this most important strategic objective.
In the past the City has been active in supporting and lobbying
for the introduction of product stewardship schemes with the
most recent the National Television and Computer Recycling
Scheme and the Container Deposit Legislation (CDL). Continuing
a strong effort in this regard is a commitment of this strategy.

Container Deposit Legislation


In 2009 the Greater Bendigo City Council resolved to support
the introduction of a Container Deposit Scheme in Victoria and
throughout Australia. Even though significantly more is known
about it now the debate still continues with compelling arguments
and strong lobbying from both sides.
The Food and Grocery Council have labelled container deposit
legislation a container tax they say would drive up prices of most
canned and bottled goods by up to 20 an item. They claim the
tax could put Victorians out of jobs and cost the average family
in excess of $300 a year, when the current recycling system is
among the worlds best.

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 27

5. Waste services provided by the City and its partners

Councils with recycling contracts that are cost negative also


oppose the scheme, because their kerbside waste collection
would be less cost-effective. This could drive up waste costs
that are passed on to ratepayers.
Supporters of CDL say this is less an issue for councils that
pay for recycling contracts. A 2012 study by Mike Ritchie &
Associates showed that there would be less kerbside recycling
material to be collected and that 5% of the remaining recycling
would be unredeemed container deposit scheme material that
would increase the revenue of MRFs. Many councils across
Australia could save on overall recycling costs.
In overseas container deposit schemes, experience has shown
on average a beverage container recovery rate of approximately
80% (Manitoba 50% recovery at 13 cent deposit; Germany
98.5% recovery at 0.25 Euro (30 Aust.)). There is also a
reduction in contamination of specific streams due to collection
and separation through reverse vending machines. Currently,
in Australia the overall beverage container recovery rate is
approximately 62%.
Container deposit scheme containers in South Australia have
generally attracted a higher price than the same materials
collected through the Victorian kerbside collection.
The debate is occurring at the State and Federal levels, where
recently the Coalition of Australian Governments postponed
making a decision on Federal CDL at its December 2013
meeting. Given the complexity of the issue and the economic
impacts, it would be prudent for Council to revisit the
advantages and disadvantages based on current studies
and data as they apply to our local situation.

Find your guide to residential


recycling and waste services at:

www.bendigo.vic.gov.au/recycling

28 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

Leading by example
With more than one billion dollars in assets and approximately
one hundred different services offered to the community, the
opportunity to lead by example must also not be missed by the
City. In particular the City will, while balancing social and financial
objectives, seek out, utilise and promote (where appropriate)
products that reduce the depletion of natural resources and
negative environmental impacts while also minimising the waste
that is created by its operations.

6. Managing other waste streams

6. Managing other waste streams


6.1 Specific waste streams
Specific wastes include items that require special attention
because they either: have a very high resource value; contain
hazardous materials; reduce the effectiveness of current and
future resource recovery operations; often appear on the list
of illegally dumped items or often discarded as litter; or could
be better managed through other systems (such as Product
Stewardship program). A list of these specific items and how
they are dealt with is included as Appendix 2.
The City will continue to be proactive in working with the Loddon Mallee WRRG, Sustainability Victoria, and waste sector
enterprises to investigate and implement opportunities to divert
a larger range of items from landfill such as mattresses and
expanded polystyrene.

Approaches to the management of hard waste vary across


Councils. The most common being the collection on-mass
of items from the kerbside on a six or twelve monthly basis
and more recently a move to an on-call arrangement whereby
residents can pre-arrange a pick up. The change being as a
result of increased concern over liabilities associated with storage
of large items of waste on the nature strip and to address the
common concern about the impact on visual amenity. A further
complication with the traditional method has been the loss of
high value products due to pilfering which drives up the real
cost of the service. In either case, the costs associated with
conducting these services are either added into other garbage
charges or done on a fee-for-service basis.

6.2 Hard waste or bulky items


Hard waste is the non-putrescible waste that is too large to fit
into a garbage bin. Examples include old white goods, furniture,
household appliances, metals, wood and old car parts and tools.
In the residential survey, 64% of the 318 respondents said
that they would like the City to provide a kerbside hard waste
collection service. However, less than 25% of those surveyed
indicated that they would be prepared to pay for this service.
In 2009, the City introduced a tip voucher scheme to respond
to the request for some form of hard waste service. Under that
scheme, all ratepayers were offered an annual tip voucher and
in 2010/11 approximately 7,200 were redeemed at a direct cost
of over $100,000 to general ratepayers and with lost revenue in
excess of $200,000 at the landfill gate. In 2011/12, this scheme
ceased and was replaced with four weekends of free green waste
tipping at Eaglehawk and Heathcote. This was (and is) seen to
offer far greater benefits as it encourages residents to remove
vegetation fuel loads on their property prior to the fire season
(which can then be mulched and re-used) and to find ways to
recycle hard rubbish rather than simply discard it. Importantly, it
also avoids all ratepayers subsidising waste disposal by a relative
few. Since that change was made, suggestions have been made
that this has caused an increase in illegal dumping. The Citys
statistics do not bear this out and in fact recorded instances of
illegal dumping halved in the year following the cessation of the
tip voucher scheme.

In Bendigo, the demand for this service is currently being


responded to by various private sector businesses and the
Eaglehawk Eco Centre. The at-home services are provided asneeded, are completed within the property and may be free of
charge or on a fee for service basis depending on the provider.
Alternatively, a huge variety of hard waste can be dropped off
at the Eaglehawk Eco Centre free of charge for those able to
transport their items.
While the demand and need for such a service is appreciated,
the greatest shortcoming at present appears to be a lack of
knowledge about the services already on offer to residents by
private operators.
Introduction of a hard waste service by the City would be
counter-productive to the ongoing development of competition
within the private sector that has already produced an on-call
response which is free of charge. Greater promotion of existing
services could significantly improve community satisfaction in this
area without the undue additional cost of the City establishing a
duplicate service. This is considered to be a more appropriate
response.

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 29

7. Littering and illegal dumping

7. Littering and illegal dumping


Is it littering or is it illegal dumping? The EPA website describes
common litter as including small pieces of paper, chip and
confectionery wrappers, fast-food packaging materials, bottle
caps, plastic straws, glass pieces, glass alcohol bottles and soft
drink bottles (both plastic and metal). Whereas illegal dumping
is the deliberate or unauthorised dumping, tipping or burying
of waste on land that is not licensed or fit to accept that waste.
Illegal dumping can range in scale from a single bag of household rubbish to large household items such as TVs, appliances
and electronic waste, furniture, mattresses, industrial wastes,
construction and demolition materials, garden waste, packaging,
tyres, old cars and soil.
Illegal dumping can be a threat to wildlife and can also lead to
long-term contamination of land, waterways and groundwater,
particularly when the waste is from an industrial source or
contaminated soil. Waste dumped near residents can contribute
to an unsightly environment that looks and feels unsafe.

Research conducted by EPAs Illegal Dumping Strike Force


program has shown that on average, each council is paying
approximately $76,000 a year to clean up 38,697 incidents of
dumping, totalling more than 33,000 tonnes of illegally dumped
waste.
Over the past year the City received 420 notifications of illegal
dumping. City staff removed approximately 50 tonnes of waste
and 240 tyres from these sites with further regulatory investigations conducted on 113 of these reports.
Education campaigns, appropriate provision of infrastructure and
enforcement activity are the primary methods used to reduce
illegal dumping. The City will continue to coordinate its efforts
with other authorities such as Loddon Mallee WRRG, EPA, Parks
Victoria, Victoria Police, VicRoads and DEPI to address this need.

Public place recycling infrastructure.

30 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

8. Implementation Plan

8. Implementation Plan
8.1 Avoid and minimise waste generation
Waste Hierarchy: Avoid and minimise

Facts: Domestic kerbside waste collection

Key Objectives:

Domestic waste collected in Greater Bendigo


27,194 tonnes was collected from
43,900 properties in 2011/2012.
Greater Bendigo households generate on
average 642 kg of waste annually (SV Victorian
Government Annual Survey 2010-2011).
Victorian households generate on average
488 kg of waste annually (SV Victorian
Government Annual Survey 2010-2011).
Households using 80L garbage bins generate
38% less waste than those using 240L bins
(SV Victorian Government Annual Survey 2010/11)

Reduce waste
Focus on diverting organic waste from landfill to minimise
current and future financial and environmental liabilities.
Action: Reduce waste collected from kerbside.
Target: Reduce average residual waste disposal from 642 kg/
hh/year to 320 kg/hh/year by 2019 based on data provided
to SV for the Local Government Annual Survey.
Measure: Average kg/household of material collected in waste
bin as reported in Victorian Local Government Annual Survey.

Avoid and Minimise


Focus Area
1 A well informed
community that
chooses to create
less waste.

Action

Measure / Source

Priority

a Develop and implement waste avoidance


education programs for residents aimed
at reducing volume of waste generated
and disposed of in garbage bin.

Number of programs
conducted.

b Develop a Waste and Resource


Management Education Plan.

Plan developed.

c Promote on-site (home) organics management


and provide education information and
workshops to support the promotion.
Includes: composting, worm farming,
mulching, poultry care.

Number of promotions or
workshops conducted.

d Increase participation in waste minimisation


activities by supporting community lead
waste reduction activities.

Number of promotional
activities supported.

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 31

8. Implementation Plan

Avoid and Minimise


Focus Area
2 Infrastructure and
collection services
support sound
waste management
behaviours and
practices.

3 CoGB procurement and


work practices keep
waste generation to
a minimum.

Action

Measure / Source

Priority

a Continue to provide accessible


domestic waste collection services.

Rating in annual LG Customer


Satisfaction survey.

b Establish data on the current volumes and


types of contaminants or products incorrectly
placed in domestic garbage bins such as
recyclables, household chemicals,
and batteries.

Data established from bin


audits and service reports.

c Minimise the flow of household chemicals


into the waste stream by promoting the annual
Detox Your Home collection program.

Information available on
website and in print material.

d Continue to support and promote the


permanent Detox Your Home facility at
the Eaglehawk Eco-centre.

Information on web page


and in the CoGB Waste and
Recycling Services Guide.

e Implement mandatory change of all garbage


bins to 140 litre (implementation contingent on
the introduction of organics collection service).

Bin change over effected.

Number of disposal
sites available.

a Develop contract clauses indicating the level of


waste in the form of packaging that CoGB
is prepared to accept.

Contract clauses applied.

b Encourage the purchase of durable


and reusable products.

Ecobuy report.

c Develop and implement a workplace


waste avoidance and minimisation
program for CoGB staff.

Program developed
and implemented.

d Develop clauses for construction and


maintenance project contracts requiring waste
management plans that demonstrate how
waste and resources will be managed.

Clauses developed.

e Expand the range of waste diversion


opportunities and/or materials accepted
for recycling/reprocessing or reuse at
CoGB work sites.

Number of options investigated


and implemented.

Continue to work with Sustainability Victoria to


improve access to waste disposal services for
household chemicals, or goods containing
hazardous chemicals.

32 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

8. Implementation Plan

Avoid and Minimise


Focus Area
4 Influencing marketing
habits Want the
product, dont
want the waste.

Action
a Advocate for product stewardship across
a broader range of products such as
mattresses and refrigerators.

Measure / Source

Priority

Number of advocacy
opportunities.

b Advocate for reduced product packaging


through the National Packaging Covenant.

c Provide Council with information on


the expected impacts of CDL including
implications for current CoGB contracts,
business and the community.

Report provided to inform


CDL discussion.

d Encourage retail businesses to reduce product


packaging; to use recyclable or bio-degradable
packaging; and to consider reducing the
packaging passed onto consumers
particularly e.g polystyrene.

Number of businesses
approached.

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 33

8. Implementation Plan

8.2 Reuse, recycle and recover


Waste Hierarchy: Reuse and Recycle

Facts: Recycling:

Key Objectives:

10,571 tonnes of recyclable materials


collected in Greater Bendigo in 2012-13.
Materials currently accepted:
Aluminium cans and foil,
Cartons milk, juice and egg cartons,
Glass bottles and jars including lids,
Paper cardboard, envelopes, magazines, newspapers,
office paper, phone books, cardboard boxes,
Plastic bottles and containers rigid plastics
with identification codes 17,
Steel cans (including empty aerosol cans).
Greater Bendigo households generate on average
257kg/household recycling annually (SV Victorian
Government Annual Survey 2010-2011).
Victorian households generate on average
279kg/household recycling annually (SV Victorian
Government Annual Survey 2010-2011).

Reduce waste, increase resource recovery.


Provide an efficient, convenient and safe waste
system for residents
Action: Increase resource recovery from waste.
Target: Improve kerbside diversion rate from 26% to 60%
(weight) by 2019, based on data provided to SV for the Local
Government Annual Survey.
Measure: SV Victorian Government Annual Survey (20102011 survey CoGB ranked 73rd out of 79 LGAs).
Target: Reduce the recyclables disposed of in the waste bin
from 77 kg/hh/year to 40 kg/hh/year by 2019.
Measure: Residual waste bin audits.

Recycle, Reuse &


Recover Focus Area
1 A community that is
aware of the range of
options available to
deal with bulky or
hard waste items.

2 Infrastructure and
service standard
supports an informed
community to increase
volume of materials
recovered for recycling.

Action

Measure / Source

Priority

a Promote facilities for waste reuse and


recycling e.g. Eaglehawk Recycle Centre.

Tonnage of materials diverted


through Recycle yard.

b Advise residents of the facilities and


services available within the municipality
and/or region (including private operators)
for the disposal of hard waste.

Information included in CoGB


Waste guide and web page.

a Continue to deliver a recycling collection


service that meets the needs of the community.

Increase rating in annual LG


Customer Satisfaction survey.

b Promote good recycling practices and


habits e.g. crush, fold and flatten items,
to maximise recycling bin space.

Waste audits.

c Provide greater recycling capacity for


residential properties by introducing an
optional 360 litre bin.

360 litre bins introduced into


recycling collections services.

d Decrease the rate of contamination in recycling


bins by promoting sound separation practices
i.e. CoGB Waste and Recycling Services Guide
and State and regional programs such as
Get It Right on Bin Night and Kerbside Pride.

Annual contamination
tonnages reduced.

34 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

8. Implementation Plan

Recycle, Reuse &


Recover Focus Area
3 Understanding the
composition and flow
of domestic waste
streams including
recycling and organics
(garden and food).

Action

Measure / Source

a Determine waste stream tonnages and


composition data and develop baseline data.

Priority

Annual waste bin audits.

a Promote and support the National Television


and Computer Recycling Scheme drop-off
locations within the municipality.

Service information promoted.

b Investigate and implement options to


improve access to e-waste services
(e.g. free access at transfer stations).

Options investigated and


improvements made.

c Include current arrangements for the


appropriate disposal of e-waste in the City
of Greater Bendigo Waste Services Guide.

Information included
and updated annually
on the website.

a Investigate and implement changes to


infrastructure and operating procedures to
support improved materials recovery rates
at landfills and transfer stations from loads of
self-hauled waste (domestic or commercial)
e.g. changes to entry, signage, weighbridge,
drop-off procedure, manual sorting
procedures and adjustments to charges.

Tonnage of materials diverted


from landfill via Recovery yard.

b Continue to provide DrumMuster


collection points.

Number of drums collected.

c Investigate and if feasible implement options


for the separation and management of
specific waste streams e.g. polystyrene.

Number of options investigated.

b Establish data on the current volume


and type of contaminants in domestic
recycling bins e.g. household chemicals,
batteries, nappies, syringes.
c Determine recycling stream tonnages and
composition data and develop baseline data.
d Determine garden and food organics
stream tonnages and composition data
and develop baseline data.

4 E-waste management
services support
residents needs.

5 CoGB waste facilities


continue to improve
materials recovery
performance. (Transfer
stations, Eco-centre
and landfills)

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 35

8. Implementation Plan

8.3 Infrastructure, innovation and private sector waste


Waste Hierarchy: Energy Recovery and Disposal.
Key Objective:
Reduce waste, increase resource recovery.
Focus on diverting organic waste from landfill to minimise
current and future financial and environmental liabilities.
Provide an efficient, convenient and safe resource
management system for residents.
Develop partnerships throughout Victoria to
develop and deliver sustainable service.
Minimise the costs and risks to ratepayer.
Support innovation in resource management and
look for opportunities to maximise sector development
in Greater Bendigo.
Action: Support economic development opportunities utilising
waste streams as a resource.
Target: Resource streams such as organics made available
for economic development.
Measure: CoGB waste streams made available.

Action: Increase resource recovery from waste.


Target: Improve kerbside diversion rate from 26% to 60%
(weight) by 2019, based on data provided to SV for the Local
Government Annual Survey.
Measure: SV Victorian Government Annual Survey 2010-2011
(CoGB currently ranked 73rd out of 79 LGAs).
Facts: Organics
The City of Greater Bendigo does not provide a kerbside green
waste or food organics collection service however is currently
investigating options.
In 2011/2012, 3,980 tonnes of garden organics was
self-hauled to Eaglehawk and Heathcote landfills.
A local business offers a fee for service kerbside
greenwaste collection.
CoGB kerbside garbage bin audits conducted
in 2011 and 2012 identified:
On average approximately 30% of the bin
contents by weight was food organics; and
Between 10% to 35% of bin contents by weight
was green or garden organics, highlighting the
seasonal variations.
Facts: Waste to landfill
Total waste to landfill approximately 95,000 tonnes
in 20122013 (Eaglehawk and Heathcote)

Infrastructure,
innovation and
private sector
waste Focus Area
1 Opportunities
for innovation in
waste management
approaches explored.

2 Waste streams available


for use as a resource.

Action

Measure / Source

Priority

a Continue to stay informed of developments in


technology that may contribute to improving
diversion rates and show consistency with
guiding principles.

Ongoing.

b Support trials of innovative approaches


or technology.

Assess options as they arise.

a Develop opportunities to remove or recover the


organics fraction of the kerbside waste stream.

Options put forward for


consideration by Council.

36 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

8. Implementation Plan

Infrastructure,
innovation and
private sector
waste Focus Area
3 A well informed
business community
reducing waste
and recovering
resources.

4 A waste sector that


services the needs
of Greater Bendigo
commercial and
industrial sectors.

Action

Measure / Source

a Support the development of place-based


or precinct solutions for businesses
(particularly Small to medium enterprises)
e.g. Hargreaves Mall, CBD.

Ongoing.

b Promote and support partnership approaches


to managing C&I waste i.e. Industry groups or
local Chambers of Commerce contracting
waste services on behalf of local businesses.

Ongoing.

c Support programs that promote on-site


waste auditing, assessments and advisory
services for business and industry
e.g. VECCI programs.

Number of programs supported.

a Promote and support partnership


approaches to meeting the service demand
for C&I and C&D waste management.

Number of advocacy
opportunities.

Exit Strategy developed.

Infrastructure Plan developed


for the Eaglehawk site.

c CoGB future infrastructure requirements are


determined and recognised in the Regional
Waste and Resource Recovery Plan and in
the Infrastructure Schedule which is part of
the Statewide Waste & Resource Recovery
Infrastructure Plan.

Future infrastructure need


identified and included in
Infrastructure Schedule.

a Locate, assess, and record past landfill


sites and develop management plans
(where relevant).

Sites known and recorded and


future management planned.

b Plan and implement remediation of White Hills.

Remediation actions
commenced.

c Plan for the rehabilitation of Eaglehawk Landfill.

Rehabilitation planned.

5 CoGB waste and


a Develop an exit strategy to guide the
withdrawal of the City from ownership
resource management
and responsibility of operating a landfill.
infrastructure maximises
resource recovery and
b Develop options for the future infrastructure
minimises waste
requirements of the current Eaglehawk landfill
to landfill.
site to support ongoing resource recovery
and facilitate residual waste management
e.g. a transfer station.

6 Post closure
management
of landfills
meeting regulatory
requirements.

Priority

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 37

8. Implementation Plan

Infrastructure,
innovation and
private sector
waste Focus Area

Action

Measure / Source

Priority

7 Sustainable residual
waste disposal
meeting economic,
environmental and
social values.

a Develop a disposal plan that addresses security


of disposal for the domestic waste stream as
a priority (with consideration for commercial
waste disposal options where this does
not affect domestic waste management
performance targets).

Plan developed and adopted.

8 Planning waste
infrastructure that
supports resource
recovery in residential
and retail complex
development.

a Determine if local planning policy or other


planning scheme tools can be used to ensure
waste management infrastructure in housing
developments supports resource recovery
and waste minimisation e.g. access to
infrastructure to separate organics and
recycling from residual waste.

Investigations conducted
and recommendations made.

b Investigate the opportunity to require


waste management plans that support the
recovery of material for reuse e.g. recyclables
and organics, to be included in planning
applications for developments such as
shopping centre e.g. infrastructure for recycling
for both retailers and customers.

Option investigated and


action taken if approved.

38 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

8. Implementation Plan

8.4 Littering and illegal dumping


Key Objective and Action: Reduce the incidence of illegal
dumping and littering.
Target: Reduce number of recorded instances of illegal
dumping by 5% per year over 5 years.
Measure: Comparison to 2013 data.

Littering and
illegal dumping
Focus Area
1 A well informed
community that takes
pride keeping public
places litter free.

Facts: Illegal dumping


City received 420 notifications of illegal
dumping in 2012/2013
City staff removed approximately 50 tonnes
of waste and 240 tyres from dump sites.
Regulatory investigations conducted
on 113 of these reports.

Action

Measure / Source

Priority

a Develop policies and procedures to


support action on litter reduction.

Policy and procedures


developed.

b Provide information for the placement of


recycling and waste bins, signage and
collection at events across the City.

Information developed
and available to public.

c Provide information to clubs on how


to reduce litter and improve recycling.

Number of clubs
seeking information.

d Encourage and support participation in


the Resource Smart schools program.

Number of schools
implementing litter
reduction programs.

e Participate in the delivery of education


campaigns aimed at reducing the
incidence of littering.

Number of programs delivered.

Number of programs promoted.

Promote campaigns focussing on specific litter


items such as plastic bags and cigarette butts.

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 39

8. Implementation Plan

Littering and
illegal dumping
Focus Area
2 Public place
infrastructure support
the community in
keeping public places
clean and litter free.

3 A well informed
community that takes
pride in managing
waste appropriately and
keeping our surrounds
free of illegal dumping.

Action

Measure / Source

Priority

a Review existing public place litter, recycling


and cigarette butt infrastructure to assess
bin utilization and effectiveness of current
locations and plan recommended changes.

Report on adequacy
of current infrastructure.

b Expand the network of public place recycling


infrastructure to priority public places such
as the CBD shopping strips and parks to
support the communitys already
established recycling behaviours.

Number of PPR bins installed.

c Review and standardise (where possible)


arrangements for supply and collection
of litter bins at facilities such as sporting
grounds, reserves and open space areas.

Report of review plus


recommendations.

d Conduct trials and audits for event


recycling at specified events to
establish effectiveness.

Trial conducted and future


action identified and
implemented.

a Awareness information developed about the


potential risks to human health and biodiversity
of illegal dumping including air, soil and water
contamination, increased weed dispersal,
injury to wildlife, diminished aesthetic value
and the anti-social behaviour it represents.

Information compiled and


distributed via media.

b Record data on reported incidences


including location, action taken, waste
type and tonnage collected and any further
investigations undertaken to inform future
actions to deter illegal dumping and
determine the cost to CoGB.

Information gathered and


provided in Council Report.

c Work with EPA Litter Report Line initiative


to inform and educate the public
concerning illegal dumping and littering.

Promote initiative.

d Partner with land management agencies


to coordinate action on illegal dumping
and promote compliance activity
and prosecution successes.

Partnerships established and


action taken and number
of media releases.

40 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

Appendices

Appendix 1: Indicative waste cost modelling


Waste cost modelling was conducted by Hyder Consulting in
January 2013 to provide a high level analysis of the scale of
investment needed to provide a range of rates of diversion from
landfill of organic material. The model focuses on MSW only.
Commercial waste streams are excluded as the City has limited
control and responsibility for these. Self-hauled domestic waste
streams that are delivered to local transfer stations have been
included. The capture rate of dry recyclables is assumed to
remain constant. The capture of garden and food organics, on
the other hand, is based on the proportion available in the residual
waste stream, in accordance with the Citys waste audit data.
8 scenarios are considered, with the cost assessment covering:
Collection costs for each waste stream
on a per bin lift basis;

Considering the high portion of organic material in the domestic


waste stream, all scenarios (other than Business as Usual
(BAU)) focus on recovering additional organic material in order
to improve landfill diversion rates.
A variety of combinations have been considered for addressing
garden organics (GO) and food organics (FO), including a variety
of processing technologies from open windrow (OW) composting to anaerobic digestion (AD) for source-separated organics.
Scenarios where organics are recovered from the residual waste
(garbage) stream via the use of advanced waste treatment (AWT)
systems are also considered.
(For detail on specific processing technologies refer to Appendix
4: Resource Recovery Technologies)
The BAU scenario was found to have the worst landfill diversion rate but also the lowest total cost to the community. The
Table below provides a summary of the scenarios considered,
including the estimated landfill diversion rates and the expected
cost increase above BAU.

Equipment costs for new bins


and equipment for households;
Transfer costs to destinations outside
of the local area (where applicable);
Gate-fees for disposal and processing facilities;
Education and promotional costs for new programs.

Table 3: Summary of high-level modelling results


Scenario

No.
Bins

Organics
Collected

Organics
Process

Residuals
Destination

Landfill
diversion

Cost increase
from BAU

1 (BAU)

Patho Landfill

34%

AWT

73%

53.3%

GO

Open Windrow

Landfill

53%

17.6%

GO

Open Windrow

AWT

80%

54.7%

FOGO

AD

Landfill

62%

51.2%

FOGO

AD

AWT

78%

84.7%

FO + GO

AD + OW

Landfill

62%

48.3%

FO + GO

AD + OW

AWT

78%

81.8%

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 41

Appendices

Appendix 2: Specific Waste Streams


Table 4: Issues with problem wastes and potential management strategies
Problem waste

Why is it an issue?

Potential strategies to improve outcomes

Electronic waste
(e-waste, such as
TVs, computers
and peripherals)

E-waste is one of the fastest


growing components of the
Australian waste stream,
and can contain a range of
potentially toxic materials.

The Federal Governments Product Stewardship Act


2011 provides a framework for manufacturers, retailers
and consumers to share the burden of end-of-life product
management in a more equitable way. The CoGB supports
current take-back system and will continue to advocate for
an increase in drop-off facilities and promote current sites.

Mobile phones

Most Australians upgrade their


mobile phones every 18-24
months. Unwanted phones
contain some valuable and
some hazardous materials.

MobileMuster is the Australian mobile phone industrys official


product stewardship program, providing a free recycling service
for mobile phones and accessories. Councils can help the
community access this service and keep mobile phones out of
landfill (recovering valuable resources) by providing collection
points and by promoting the service. Many not-for-profit
organisations place collection points at various locations.

Car batteries

Lead acid batteries contain


hazardous materials, and
can contaminate outputs
from advanced waste
treatment systems

Lead acid batteries are considered a potential target for future


Product Stewardship programs. CoGB will advocate for this
outcome. This will be especially important as the CoGB looks
to adopt advanced waste treatment systems for recovering
additional resources from the residual household waste stream.
There is also a permanent Detox your Home facility at the
Eaglehawk Recycle Centre, where a range of materials
including car batteries can be delivered free for safe
treatment and recycling.

Household
chemicals (e.g.
paint, cleaning
products,
solvents)

Many household chemicals are


potentially hazardous to human
health and the environment. A
lack of safe disposal methods
can lead to increased risks to
both human health and the
environment.

Detox your Home is a free collection service for households


funded by the Victorian landfill levy, administered by
Sustainability Victoria (SV) and delivered in partnership with
local governments. The CoGB will continue to partner with SV
in delivering an annual service to the community through the
Mobile Service component of the program. CoGB will continue
to provide information and education to the community about
reducing household chemical waste generation, chemical-free
cleaning options and disposal options such as at the permanent
Detox your Home facility at the Eaglehawk Recycle Centre.

Fluorescent lights

Fluorescent lights contain


mercury, which in high
concentrations
can be hazardous to human
health and cause significant
environmental damage.

Fluorocycle is a voluntary, national recycling scheme for


fluorescent lights that began in 2010. The initial priorities for
the scheme are the commercial and public lighting sectors,
due to the quantities of waste lamps generated and associated
mercury content. The CoGB can provide information about
Fluorocycle to relevant businesses, and consider joining
as a signatory in order to further promote the initiative.
Fluorescent lights are accepted at the Eaglehawk Eco-centre.

42 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

Appendices

Problem waste

Why is it an issue?

Potential strategies to improve outcomes

Gas bottles

Gas bottles, if disposed of


incorrectly, can cause explosions
and fires, particularly when
compacted. This presents a risk
to the health and safety of waste
management employees and
also the general public.

Product Stewardship for gas bottles is relatively well


established. Examples of exchange services provided by
suppliers in Victoria include SwapnGo, Kwik Gas, SupaGas
and Bunnings Gas Swap and others. Limitations to the size
and type of cylinders exchanged may vary between suppliers,
therefore in general households should be encouraged to
purchase from a supplier known to offer the service.
Where reuse of cylinders is not possible, waste drop-off
facilities including the existing Eaglehawk Eco-centre
Detox your Home facility offer an efficient recovery
mechanism for reprocessing of the scrap metal.

Tyres

In addition to taking up valuable


landfill space, landfilling and
stockpiling of used tyres
can present a fire risk, and
also a breeding habitat for
mosquitos and vermin. Tyres
also contain valuable materials
which can be recycled into
a number of products.

In January 2014, Environment Minister Greg Hunt launched


a national tyre recycling scheme. The body established
to administer the scheme, Tyres Stewardship Australia, is
developing an accreditation regime that will include all parts of
the supply chain. Six tyre importers Continental, Goodyear
Dunlop, Michelin, Pirelli, Toyo and Yokohama have provided
seed funding for the scheme that will impose a 25 cent levy
on each new passenger vehicle tyre. The CoGB can support
the scheme by working with waste contractors and local tyre
recyclers to develop efficient and effective collection systems.
Councils can also support tyre recyclers and strengthen end
markets by using tyre derived product in internal contracts,
in such applications as sporting and playground surfaces,
and rubberised bitumen and asphalt. Whole tyres can also
be used in landscaping and civil engineering works.

Sharps and
clinical waste

Clinical waste and sharps


have the potential to cause
injury and infection to those
coming into contact with the
waste, and should therefore
be managed carefully.

The Victorian Needle and Syringe Program (NSP) has operated


since 1987 through a range of different service providers,
including hospital emergency units, community health
services, drug treatment agencies, youth organisations and
pharmacies. The CoGB can collaborate with the program to
ensure adequate services or offer fixed-site disposal services,
and further support and promote existing related services.

Pharmaceuticals

The disposal of pharmaceuticals


to landfill can pollute the
surrounding environment,
through the potential leaching
of associated hormones
and other compounds.

In 1998 the Commonwealth Department of Health funded the


establishment of a world-first collection and treatment system
for unwanted and out-of-date medicines, which is implemented
through the Return Unwanted Medicines (RUM) Project.
Community pharmacies collect these medicines at no cost to
consumers, and pharmaceutical wholesalers provide support
via a discounted charge for delivery and collection of RUM
Project containers, to and from pharmacies. CoGB can assist
the community to responsibly dispose of pharmaceuticals by
continuing to promote the availability of collection services
including the mobile Toxfree Detox Your Home collection.

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 43

Appendices

Problem waste

Why is it an issue?

Potential strategies to improve outcomes

Nappies

Nappies and hygiene products


account for a significant
proportion of the domestic
waste stream, approximately
5% of CoGB domestic waste.
Given the high organic content
of nappies, this has implications
for landfill gas emissions.

The CoGB can encourage reductions in disposable nappy


consumption by delivering education programs and promoting reusable and biodegradable nappy use. Information and
education on sustainable products and local nappy laundry
services should also be targeted at early childhood health
centres, baby expos, and day-care facilities. Nappy Loan /
Library schemes have been used effectively by some Councils
to encourage households to trial reusable nappy systems.

Asbestos

Asbestos fibres are hazardous


when inhaled. Fibres can
be released when asbestos
is not disposed of or
managed appropriately.

WorkSafe Victoria is responsible for safe handling of asbestos


materials, while EPA Victoria regulates the transport of this
material. The CoGB will continue to support those programs
that promote safe handling and disposal methods. Eaglehawk
landfill will accept both commercial and domestic asbestos.

Plastic bags

Australians use billions of plastic


bags every year. Plastic bag litter
creates visual pollution problems
and can have harmful effects on
aquatic and terrestrial animals.

Most major supermarkets and plastic recyclers offer


drop-off plastic bag recycling collections. CoGB
will develop education programs that help identify
viable alternatives to single-use plastic bags.

44 Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019

Notes

Waste and Resource Management Strategy 20142019 45

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