You are on page 1of 28

THE DECREES OF THE FATHERS

AND THE WISDOM OF THE ANCIENTS


IN HERIGER OF LOBBES' VITA REMACLI
The large number of rewritten saints' lives reveals how the past was
reevaluated and reinterpreted during the middle ages. As scholars have
noticed
the

for

new

time
for

of

some

rewriting

variety

aimed

at

prime

should

of

be

prologues

their

exemplars.

tunity

to

such

important

saint

had

place

which

in

saint
the

of

as

now

possessed

rewriting.

the

an
of

had

that

to

political

rewritten

or

but
vita

the

with

be

other

stressed

cultural
were

part

fallen

of

the

of

that

the

in

the
we

believe

been

dispute,

the

same

not

given
that

time

institutions,

for

or

and

and
that

emphasized

at

the

time

intellectual

hagiographer,

to

oppor-

contemporary

fact

were

from

changes

perfect

of
in

of

when

However,

us

important

forum

goal

concern

written

into

certain

values

be

had

saints

by

stylistic

details

considered

could

have

beyond

since

rewritten

period,

vitae

provided

saint

the

be

writing,

matter.

would

and

oft-mentioned

many

with

land

the

texts

illuminate

could

Vitae

Carolingian

vita

that

can

most

of

nothing
a

hagiographic

vitae

subject

who

of

deem

biography

friendships

on

to

their

indication

needed

reflections

the

made

rewriting

biography

style

of

to

The

in

churchmen

they

The

clarity.

and

hagiographers

that

formed

clarity

unworthy

tract

earlier

cultural

led

made

rewritten

purposes.

beginning

update''

relevance,

into

remarkable

the

reforms

wary

alterations

different

centuries

their

with

improving

preceding

the

introduced

importance

educational

an

time,

elements

it

is

of

and

largely

this aspect which concerns the present exploration.

1.
tium
de

la

2.
tures

For
:

this

sur

Classe

See
de

method

t
re
l'inte
des

de

saints

2005), pp. 33-45.

demonstrated,
textes

Goullet

Lettres

Monique

Vies

des

et

des

dans

see

opold
Le

hagiographiques,''

Sciences

morales

Ecriture

et

et

Genicot

mie
Acade

politiques ,

e
criture
re

Discordiae

royale

de

latin

hagiographiques :

die
val
me

Bulletin

r. 5, vol. 51 (1965) : 65-75.


se

l'Occident

concordan-

Belgique :

(VIII

essai

sur

les

e
crire

-XIII

sie`cles)

(Turnhout,

REVUE BENEDICTINE

32

In the 970s, Heriger,

the schoolmaster of the monastery of Lobbes,

was called upon to refurbish the biography of St. Remaclus, a seventhcentury

bishop-abbot

Sigisbert
the

III

to

Ardennes.

monk

had

several
on

written
in

which

Heriger

particularly
order

to

draws

on

and

contemplative
flood
and

of

wisdom

from

of

ancient

of

who,

like

expands

final

episode,

social

most

proverbs

many

of

in
his

Heriger

episcopal
of

the

incorporates
notably

amidst

pagan

his

as

to

benefits

Remaclus

harmonize

points

office

of

At

saw

speech

issue

liberally

at

Notker)

first

authors,

century.

occur

in

where

episcopal

the

the

of

these

to

the

the

of

pagan

attempt

ninth

Bishop

King

Malmedy

Stavelot,

Heriger

with

speech

placement

the

of

In

defense

from

of

Remaclus'

grapple

farewell

author

and

persuaded
and

expansions

patron,

living.

to

remarkable
an

Remacli ,

life,

with

in

abdication

The

Heriger's

shows

way

follows
life.

quotations

Cicero.

ideals

Remaclus'

sources

patron

lengthiest
his

had

Stavelot

biography

the

monastic

or

of

main

secunda

of

right

legal

the

probably

the

the

was

Vita

founded,

monasteries

earliest

Two

pivotal :

from

abdication

(and

pursue

brethren

his

his

exemplar.

had

the

Remaclus

points

his

who

found,

Horace

Christian

and

Christian

contemporaries,

was

steeped in both sacred and profane literature.


Both

expansions

traditions

3.

On

von

Lobbes,

Die

new

Heriger

ge :
a

moyen

in

in

of

tude
e

ways,

Lobbes,

critique

990-1007

deutsche

show

how

and

see

Heriger

how

he

Sylvain

(Brussels,

used

Balau,

1903),

pp.

des

Mittelalters :

from

long-established

hagiography

Les

sources

121-143;

(Leipzig, 1910); and F. J.

Literatur

drew

de

as

means

l'histoire

Oskar

Hirzel,

(Berlin,

Lie` ge

de

Abt

Worstbrock, Heriger von

Verfasserlexikon

1981),

to

au

Heriger

Lobbes,''

cols.

1044-

1048.
4.

Vita

(1910),

prima

pp.

volving

Remaclus'

693C-694F,
(BHL

the

it

prima

de

la

7113-7114),

indicated

interaction

with

borrowed

Godefroid

Bulletin

Vita

(hereafter

because

8321).

macle,''

(BHL

Remacli

104-108

Kurth,

harshly

royale

as

ed.

B.

(Trond),

from

sur

la

the

plus

d'histoire ,

mere

Krusch,

prima).

Vita

Trudo

loosely

Notice

Commission

Remacli

St.

as

series

MGH

Krusch
in

SS

omits

AASS

Sept.

seventh-century
ancienne

rer.

the
I

Merov.

episode

(1746),

Vita

biographie

de

in-

cols.

Trudonis

saint

Re-

r. 4, vol. 3 (1876) : 355-368, treats


se
of

borrowings

from

other

local

hagi-

ography.
5.

The

ger's

Vita

Gesta

secunda

pontificum

Remacli

(BHL 7115) was subsequently incorporated into Heri-

Tungrensium ,

a history of the diocese from its imagined founda-

tion in the first century to Remaclus' life in the seventh. The only modern edition of
the

Vita

ficum

secunda

MGH

SS

reflect those of the


ancies

with

no. 12 :
Remacli

1180,
Vita

f.

the

saec.
(e.

1r-24r).

Remacli

(1846),
Gesta

better

xvi)

g.

is

Remacli

or

pontificum

the

Krusch's
later

in

166-189.

manuscripts

Vatican,

(and

contained
pp.

edition

of

the

Reg.
of

Gesta

cite

(c. 40-56 =
the

independently
BAV,

Rodulf
I

Vita

Gesta

615,

Epistola

pontificum

edition

Ko
pke's
Remacli)

pontificum

circulating

lat.

the

Ko
pke's

from

f.
ad

and

Tungrensium),

Gesta

the

ponti-

chapters

uses

Averbode
of

the

Vita

Brussels

Werinfridum,

circulating manuscripts, MGH SS rer. Merov. 5, pp. 109-111.

the

and note any discrep(e.g.

manuscripts

2v-50r,

of

edition

which
these

Abbey,
secunda

KBR

prefaced

II.
the

independently

33

J. R. WEBB

address important issues of his own time. By projecting his views onto
one

of

the

great

founder-saints

of

the

diocesan

past,

the transmission of these ideas to future generations.

he

was

assuring

The Vita secunda Remacli (972-980)


We

are

relatively

rewriting

of

well-informed

Vita Remacli

the

pontificate

of

Notker

monastery

of

Stavelot,

the

revision

among

of

the

century.

which

Notker
of

Werinfrid
of

was

the

the

abbot

asked

Remaclus,

who

where

the

the

impressed

recent

irascible

of

Heriger's

beginning

(954-980),

likely

handled

Lobbes,

circumstances

of

by

to

see

early

crisis

(freshly

to

counted
as

the

efficiency

leadership

Rather

the

imperial

been

as
the

of

the

Notker
had

Tongeren-Maastricht-Lie` ge

of

Werinfrid
had

the

Towards

(972-1008),

biography

bishops

eighth

monastery

the

` ge
Lie

of

of

with

at

chased

the
from

the see of Verona for a third and final time) had usurped control from
the

young

abbot

encouraged
Aulne.

Rather

Rather,

century,

had

turbulent
driven

Folcuin.

one

by

he

of

been

with

most
a

monk

even

inquiry

Notker

and

secretary

6.

at

Lobbes

Heriger

and

first

As

was

as

we

In

of

see,

The

the

latter

associate

for

As the later incorporation of the entire

of

the

course
before

would

serve

next

and
of

tenth
of

his

being

career

and

circumstance

the

the

Lie` ge

Rather's

Vita Remacli

favor

monastery

figures

bishop

will

Folcuin's

nearby

Lobbes.

perhaps

met.

intellectual

at

served

factions.

in

the

impressive

writings had an impact on Heriger's


The

decided

content

the

had

local

Notker

be

originally

career,

out

to

as

decade

Vita secunda Remacli

under
the
or

which

former's

so.

While

into the larger dio-

` ge suggests, Heriger's intended audience may


cesan history of Tongeren-Maastricht-Lie
not have been limited to the monks of Stavelot.
7.

E.g.

in

Donatus'

(1913), p. 279
the bishops

cidentalis
8.

14-15

Vita Trudonis

c.

5,

ed.

c.

28,

excerpt
Rather
velles

` ge, in
of Tongeren-Maastricht-Lie

ed.

from
had

G.

an

been

recherches

Pertz,

earlier

version

Folcuin's
sur

les

MGH

SS

of

On

Folcuin's

godfather

manuscrits

Rather,

see

Erich

et

was

1968);

1958]),

and

pp.

Peter

1991), pp. 3-20.

133-152;

L.

D.

rer.

Merov.

70.

See

Alain

Gesta abbatum LobienAbbayes et


Dierkens,

(Sigmaringen, 1985), pp. 121-122. An

work

which

de

by

includes

Franois

Rathier,''

the

detail

Dolbeau,

Sacris Erudiri

27

that

Nou(1984) :

Literary language and its public in late Latin

, trans. R. Manheim (London, 1965 [original German

Learning in the tenth century


The complete works of Rather of Verona

Benny

Reid,

p.

discovered

l'uvre

Auerbach,

antiquity and in the Middle Ages


edition,

SS

Series episcoporum ecclesiae catholicae oc-

(1841),

373-431, here, pp. 421-423.

MGH

Folcuin himself provides us with the details of the affair :

RB

Levison,

5.1, ed. S. Weinfurter and O. Engels (Stuttgart, 1982), pp. 43-83.

sium
chapitres entre Sambre et Meuse : VIIe-XIe sie` cles

9.

W.

. Jean-Louis Kupper does not include Remaclus in his critical list of

Reece,

(Greenville,

(Binghamton,

REVUE BENEDICTINE

34

writing

Vita

the

record

the

Remacli ,

deeds

` ge
Maastricht-Lie
only

completed

of

gesta episcoporum
Heriger
relics

wrote

of

Bavo

St.

of

the

is

in

of

and

the

the

life

degree

is

of

and

main

are

of

it

authors.

author''

status,

10.

seems

12

by

of

the

In

from
980,

sometime

of

of

the

Saint-

Gesta

the

we

first

addition,

monastery

June

though

was

10

to

Tongeren-

discovery

draws

19

idea

endeavor,

church.

the

Remacli

the

this

text

predecessors

see

in

level

can

place

between

by

972

the

if

level

of

as

in

the

Notker's

author of

letter-preface
were

Notker

collaboration

to

the

to
and

name.

vitae

the

Werinfrid

written

cannot

on

Notker's

Heriger

Vita Remacli

the

letters

Remacli

even

his

that

Heriger

that

the

commissioned

fact

Vita

the

of

he

prefaced

unlikely
of

regarding

that
the

Nonetheless,

Vita Remacli

On

their

the

Remaclus,

for

formula

texts

both

portion

different

in the

diocese

posthumous

text

uncertainty

complicated

Landoaldi

question
the

of

last

secunda

hatched

This

Ottonian

associates

dating

hagiographic

This

Vita

and

the

time.

and

Independent medieval authors name


in

of

own

this

Vita

the

of

his

Notker

biography

the

Because

of

some

the

compose.
the

the

out

account

bears

bishops

Notker's

grow

Landoald

and

the

and

11

There
input

to

an

composition

and 980.

to

through

Ghent.

pontificum

all

up

up

Heriger

by

be

issues

two

awarded
presented

was potentially very high.

J.

R.

Webb,

Lotharingia,

Cathedrals

950-1100''

of

words :

(Ph.D.

bishops

dissertation,

and

the

Harvard

deeds

of

University,

2008), pp. 123-181.


11.
died

The

that

composition

date

is

probably

Annales Stabulenses,

year :

ed.

closer
G.

to

Vita, translatio, et miracula Landoaldi et sociorum


inal

manuscript,

A.C.F.

one

large

lem.

50

cm)

piece

than

MGH

to

SS

980,

13

since

(1881),

p.

Webb,

Werinfrid
43

10

The

(BHL 4706c) is preserved in its orig-

of

parchment,

ed.

M.

Gysseling

Koch, Diplomata belgica ante annum millesimum centesimum scripta

1950), pp. 235-244. See


12.

(63

972

Waitz,

and

1 (Brussels,

Cathedrals of words,'' pp. 107-118.

This is not the place to enter into a detailed discussion of the authorship probHeriger

probably

performed

epistolary

functions

for

Notker

similar

to

those

of

Gerbert of Aurillac on behalf of Archbishop Adalbero of Reims around the same time.
The

letter

to

Werinfrid

may

well

have

been

Kurth, Notger de Lie` ge et la civilisation au X


whose

analysis

Literatur
Heriger,
which
thor :

des
but

is

not

without

Mittelalters
did not

establishes,

at

(1888), p. 610

(Munich,

address the
least

Elevatio Landoaldi
40-44

problems.

for

. Robert

p.

288,

Vita Landoaldi,

4708),

c.

3,

effort.

(Brussels,

questioned

ed.

that

O.

from a

the

monk

Heriger

was

Holder-Egger,

revisited

the

crivain,'' in
e
ing.

attributes
issue

and

the

Godefroid

pp.

332-342,

attribution

to

of Saint-Bavo,
indeed
MGH

the
SS

au15.2

Babcock, Heriger of Lobbes and the Freising florilegium : a

study of the influence of classical Latin poetry in the middle ages


pp. 181-182,

Cf.

1905),

Brunholz, Geschichte der lateinischen

Franz

1992),

collaborative

sie` cle

contemporary evidence

the

(BHL

a
e

texts

argues

in

for

Notger et son temps,

question

to

Notkerian

ed. A.

Heriger.

Clemens

authorship;

Wilkin

and J.-L.

see

(Frankfurt,

Bayer

his,

Kupper

has

Notger

1984),

recently

de

Lie` ge

` ge), forthcom(Lie

35

J. R. WEBB

Abbot

Werinfrid

predecessors
the

plished.
of

had

magnitude

13

He

donation

compiled
earlier

managed

of

was

the

of

its

placed

larger

goals

this

of

13.

called

new

between

We

learn

century

Vita

to

not

early

which

been

incorporating

his

light

have

the

of

that

in

prima

of

codex

had

by

Vita

some

details

believed

that

to

Heriger's

politics

Jean-Louis
secunda

diocesan

and

its

Epistola

in

of

accomcharters

had

utilized

portions

Kupper

been

in

of

the

these

and

to

help

16

the

One

quell

p.

109

during

Philippe

George

the

of

main

burgeoning

Malmedy.

21-22

an
one

context

of

the

monastery,

Werinfridum,

as

Remacli

within

Remacli

sister

ad

Vita

Lotharingia

consolidation.

was

Remacli

the

the

of

15

Vita

of

in

was

obliged

phases.
the

from

kings

attention

Stavelot

this

assemble

ecclesiastical

efforts

paucity

Remaclus

Remacli .

for

the

concerned

Heriger

Vita

formative

recently

rivalry

14

have

Notker's

at

Merovingian

source

most

have

especially

biography.

Scholars

to

deeds

mid-tenth

charters into his

important

the

from

in

marveled

17

By

...obtulisti

libel-

lum de vita tam nostri quam vestri specialis patroni, domni scilicet Remagli, conquestus

propter

incuriam

tamen

praedecessorum

vestrorum

brevius

quam

ut

res

expostularet pro magnitudine gestorum eius esse editam.''


14.

The

Codex

Stabulensis''

Bamberg

Staatsbibliothek,

Hist.

161)

was

first

com-

piled a few decades before Heriger's writing and later added to as new diplomata were
acquired.

Werinfrid,

(938-954),

perhaps

miniatures,

one

head

saw

of

St.

of

to

the

the

abbey's

original

Remaclus

and

writing

office

compilation

another

of

of

King

during

the

the

codex

Sigisbert

of privileges on Remaclus, appear at the beginning of the

abbacy

himself.

III

bestowing

Ko lzer

Vita

beginning of the charter-section (f. 109v), respectively. Theo

of

prima

Odilo

Two
a

color
scroll

(f. 11v) and the

labels two of the

five Merovingian charters copied into the codex Stabulensis forgeries, and one interpolated :
124,
der

MGH

139.

DD

For

ko
niglichen

pp. 17-19.
schriften

For

des

Merov.

the

full

1:

Bibliothek

10.

Die

contents
zu

the

see

kritische

der

MGH

39

in

27-28

p. 109

pp.

that

manuscripts of the

the

Vita

additional

passages

Remacli,

secunda

in

the

84,

108,

Stabulensis

(Vienna,

1882),

Bamberger

Hand-

(1995),

Notger

et

pp.
son

independently

which do not appear in the

138-139.

temps.

Balau

Epistola

: ex cartulario vestro non desit notitia.'' I agree with

133-134,

81,

Codex

Untersuchung

Hartmut

Schriften

nos.

Der

Heriger expresses familiarity with Stavelot's cartulary in the

fridum,
ces,

(2001),

Karl

Now see the forthcoming contribution of Nicolas


15.

Reiger
Hoffmann
Mazeure

Merowinger

see

eine

analysis,

Jahrhunderts ,

11.

der

codex,

Bamberg :

paleographic
und

Urkunden

of

ad

Werin-

Sour-

circulating

Gesta

pontificum

(c. 54), are slightly later interpolations from Stavelot-Malmedy and not the result of a
decision

by

Heriger

tially edited by
Heriger's
Echte
Kloster

Vita

und

to

edit

Krusch

Remacli

in

der

out

Vatican

nachgeahmte

Fulda

them

of

Fuldaer

Welt

der

BAV,

16.

Jean-Louis

l'an

mil :

Renard

sanctorum

E.

Kupper

que
ve
l'e

gesta :

et

de

Recueil

al.

Gesta

and

` ge
Lie

aus

Karolinger

Philippe
Notger

tudes
d'e

(Turnhout,

Reg.

Schrift

1996), pp. 285-297, here, p. 289.

de

the

pontificum.

The

additions

are

par-

, MGH SS rer. Merov. 5, p. 111. On the earliest manuscript of

und

l'abbaye

pp.

615),

Ottonen ,

George

et

d'hagiographie

2005),

lat.

ottonischer

see

Hartmut

und

ed.

G.

Schrimpf

Hagiographie
de

et

See

Webb

offert

also

`
a

Zeit,''

politique

Guy

in

(Frankfurt,

Stavelot-Malmedy,''

die
vale
me

441-450.

Hoffmann

fru
hsalischer

in

autour
Scribere

Philippart,

Cathedrals

ed.
of

words,'' pp. 99-104.


17.

Indeed,

nearly

all

of

the

subsequent

hagiography

produced

by

the

monasteries

REVUE BENEDICTINE

36

asserting Remaclus' preference for Stavelot


on

the

specific

unknown

until

location

its

of

Remaclus'

(re)discovery

during

and providing more details

burial

place

which

mid-eleventh-century

was

building

improvements Heriger affirmed Stavelot's dominance over Malmedy


as

well

as

the

legal

precedent

preside over both houses.


On

preface
on

more
to

saintly

that

cultural

the

power,

Heriger,

saints
This
also

Vita

in

provide

is

indeed

Remaclus'

plane,

free

will,

contrast

borne
the

prevalence

of

Lotharingia

to

as

out

thanks

to

elect

an

abbot

his

abbot,

for

which

northern

the

to

Remacli .

as

to

saints

led

attribute

the

aid

that

world.

Scholars
of

19

have

Aquitaine,

land

20

views

suggesting

present

description

hagiography.

missionary
France

viewed
the

perceived

local

Heriger's

theological

ultimately

to

Vita

Heriger's

Heriger

other

his

Folcuin,

largely

in

considered

of

predestination,

elsewhere

to

has

indication

pertaining

Aquitanian

and

right

Philippart

an

and

sources

birthplace,

abundance

Stavelot's

Guy
as

Remacli

humans

explored

for

18

of

In

saintly

fact,

the

hagiographers

Aquitanian

of

origins

to

21

their heroes whenever possible.

of Stavelot and Malmedy in the eleventh century attests to the efforts of the monks of
Malmedy

Baix

18.

extricate

themselves

from

their

103,

anno

pp.

1038

et

`
a

siastique
cle

Guy

dedicatio

Recueil

215-220,

Malmedy

19.

subservience

des

on

ecclesiae

chartes

which

l'honneur

vers

de

see

1040 :

Stabulensis

anno

George

l'abbaye

de

Philippe

Dedicatio

et

le

Philippart

20.

monde

Le

de

occidental

Heriger

(Historia

Les

inventio

Inventio

(BHL

1040

See

Franois

60 (1950) : 120-162.

7139),

Halkin

corporis

ed.

Re-

1 (Brussels, 1909), no.

reliques

de

Stabulensis ,''

Stavelot

Revue

et

de

d'histoire

ec-

99 (2004) : 347-370.
saint

comme

39.

Stavelot.

Stavelot-Malmedy

parure

de

` s les hagiographes lotharingiens du X


terrestre d'apre
dans

to

ne
dictine
be

Revue

The discovery of Remaclus' tomb is commemorated in the

Roland

macli

and

to

`
dy,''
, L'hagiographie a
Stavelot-Malme

Vita

adversum

l'Aquitaine

(III

riger
He

par

c. 41, p. 181

1.2.67),
de

(Rome,

sie`cle)

-XIII

Remacli,

paganos

ros
he

Dieu,

` cle,'' in
sie

ducteur
se

Les

et

fonctions

patron

des

saints

14-21

pp.

123-142.

See

below,

n.

. In addition to Heriger's use of Orosius

Stiennon

Jacques

Lobbes

1991),

(1007),''

Une

Annales

du

description

Midi

72

peu

(1960) :

connue

273-286,

posited a number of inspirations for Heriger's vision of Aquitaine, including a personal


acquaintance

with

native

of

the

region,

Gerbert

of

Aurillac

(then

at

Reims).

How-

ever, Robert Babcock has recently revealed that the main passage in question was in
fact

adapted

description

from

of

Hilduin

Aquitania

duin of St. Denis,''


21.

of

by

Latomus

St-Denis'

Heriger

of

description
Lobbes

of

and

Athens;

the

see

Passio

Babcock

R.

sancti

Dionysii

The

of

Hil-

67 (2008) : 1010-1016.

For instance, later manuscripts of the

Vita

Vedastis

endow St. Vaast with Aqui-

tanian origins even though his earlier hagiographers, Jonas of Bobbio and Alcuin, place
him in Toul :

Vita

de la Neustrie (VI -VII


giographique,'' in
here,

pp.

Aquitaine.
become

Les

173-174,
St.

(BHL 8503), ed.

Me riaux

Vedastis

413-414. See Charles

Hubert

Aquitanian :

, MGH SS rer. Merov. 3 (1896), pp.

` cle)? Re
alite
historique et poste
rite
litte
raire d'un the
` me hasie

hommes

who

Krusch

, Des missionnaires venus de toute l'Europe dans le nord

is
of

en

Europe,

nonetheless

ed. P.

willing

` ge
Maastricht-Lie

Nicolas of Lie` ge

Marcilloux

to believe

(727)

Vita

(Paris, 2002), pp. 171-194,

that

waited

Lamberti

Vaast

until
(BHL

the

was

actually

twelfth

4688),

from

century

AASS

Sept.

to
V

37

J. R. WEBB

Heriger's

Vita

theological
potential
an

preface

to

and

reveal

influential

contains

Remacli

geographical

the

mind

of

many

program

of

more

set-up.

studies,

late-tenth-century

expansions

Each

the

than

expansion

level

Lotharingia.

of

22

has

the

learning,
The

his

and

schools

of

` ge peaked in the first half of the eleventh century, when Lie` ge was
Lie
perhaps

the

Heriger
link

in

is

most

an

the

esteemed

early

center

testament

intellectual

chain

to

of

learning

this

between

in

flourishing

the

western

and

Carolingian

an

Europe.

important

period

and

the

eleventh century.

Abdicatio

The

episcopii

Vita

episcopal

obtains
king.

23

of

Stavelot

charge

monastic

had indicated that, shortly after the founding of the

prima

monasteries

over

solitude.

the

and

the

For

necessary

Remaclus'

Malmedy,

diocese
the

of

appears

had

abandoned

Tongeren-Maastricht

ninth-century

permission

flock

Remaclus

to

relinquish

helpless

to

in

hagiographer,
his

prevent

search

of

Remaclus

office

this

the

from

the

accompli ,

fait

and their role is limited to a few lines of futile protest :

What

are

Where

we

will

guardian?
caretaker

wretched

we

find

Who
for

will

our

people,

who

consolation,
comfort

bodies

us

and

from

souls?

such a pastor has abandoned us?

(1755), col. 611C (though cf.


23-24

13, p. 227

Baix

Annales

). According to

have

when

he

now

lost

such

had

been

our

on,

when

he

are

we

Where

24

Lobienses,

to

pastor,

to

do?

consoler

and

had

find

written in the 970s, ed.

been

hope,

Waitz

the

when

, MGH SS

` Stavelot-Malme
dy,'' p. 122 : les
, L'hagiographie a

' le nom de cette terre fertile et populeuse', a


`
hagiographes ont emprunte
l'honneur de
tait douteuse ou inconnue.'' This issaints personnages dont la provenance me me leur e
sue will presumably be addressed in proceedings of the 2005 CESCM conference held at
Poitiers, to be published as

Bozoky
22.

Heriger's

calum

ac

AASS

Jan.

contemporaries

musicae
I

artis

(1643),

p.

attest

peritum.''
111 :

to

abbas

37-38

Vita

qui

Sigebert of Gembloux

(1844), p. 353
gerus

d'Aquitaine

sans

frontie` res

his

reputation

(BHL 4708 : written 982-990), c. 3, p. 610

Landoaldi

mus.''

Saints

au

haut

ge,
a

moyen

ed. E.

, Hagiologia 7 (Turnhout), forthcoming.

eo

secunda

tempore

Chronica,

41-42

for

Adalhardi

inter

anno

994,

learning :

e.g.

Elevatio

: domnum Herigerum didas(BHL

sapientes
ed.

L.

60 :

saec.

habebatur

Bethmann

xi

),

prol.,

sapientissiMGH

SS

: Florebant hoc tempore in scientia litterarum in Lotharingia Heri-

Lobiensis,

Adelboldus

episcopus

Vultrajectensis;

in

Francia,

Fulbertus

episcopus Carnotensis, Abbo abbas Floriacensis.''


23.

Vita

prima

Remacli ,

24.

Vita

prima

Remacli,

amittimus
munimen?

pastorem?
Quis

c. 5, p. 107
c.

Unde

medebitur

5,

p.

1-3

107

6-9

recipiemus
nobis

ultra,

Quid

facturi

consolationem,
cum

ipse

fuerit

sumus

cum

nos

ipse

curator

miseri,

esset

qui

talem

consolator

corporum

et

et

anima-

rum? Unde nobis spes, cum destituimur tanto pastore?'' This particular episode is derived

from

Krusch

the

seventh-century

Vita

Arnulfi

episcopi

Mettensis

(BHL

689),

c.

18,

ed.

, MGH SS rer. Merov. 2 (1888), p. 440, where Arnulf too is met with the pro-

REVUE BENEDICTINE

38

Reminiscent of an earlier scene in diocesan history, when St. Servatius


had abandoned his flock at Tongeren to the oncoming slaughter of the

25

Huns, Remaclus commends his followers to God and departs.


Heriger

develops

abdication

with

permission

was

initial

laments

this

episode

greater
only

of

obtained

the

significantly

tension.

flock

in

First,

with
the

by

Heriger

great

difficulty.

prima ,

Vita

portraying

stresses

but

Remaclus'

that

26

He

then

this

royal

retains

uses

the

the

scene

to dive into an argument about the legality of episcopal abdication. He


places

in

the

( prudentiores )

mouths

against

Remaclus'

history.

At

fathers''
not

the

27

Pope

group

it

results

Great,

the

canon

an

law

to

has

the

been

voluntarily

Heriger

more

sensible''

sophisticated

appeal

charge

from

which

from

prudentiores

Once

calls

flock

drawn

renounce

assertion
the

he

Remaclus'

the

patrum )

to

This

Gregory

of

abdication

outset,

(statuta

permitted

illness.''

of

members

and

diocesan

decrees

of

accepted,

unless

to

the

one

compelled

interpretation
proceeds

argument

of

quote.

letter

28

At

is
by
of

issue

tests of his flock as he retreats to a monastery. Arnulf's initial request to leave his see
is met with violent threats from the king, c. 17, p. 439.
25.

The

(BHL

Essen

Vita

7611),

Etude

5,

ed.

critique

(Louvain,

gique

(see previous note) also inspired the

Krusch

Arnulfi

c.

raire
litte

et

1907),

passim,

MGH
sur

for

SS

les

rer.

vitae

the

Merov.

des

3,

of

89.

the

Vita

Van der

antiquissima

on
Le

See

rovingiens
me

saints

influence

Vita

p.

de

Servatii

l'ancienne

on

Arnulfi

Bel-

subsequent

hagiography.

Heriger

26.
tamen

rege,

Vita

ut

Remacli,

alius

sibi

c. 49, p. 185

succederet,

et

41-42

sibi

: Tandem

diu

licet

desideratam

impetravit

difficillime

heremum

adire

liceret,

ubi remotus a curis secularibus liberius inhiaret caelestibus.'' Cf. above, n. 23.

Heriger

27.

Vita

Remacli,

c. 50, pp. 185

58

-186

: Gregem, ut patrum statuta de-

cernunt, quem semel regendum susceperis, nisi infirmitate cogente, et ultroneus renuntiare non permitteris.''
28.

Heriger's use of Gregory the Great in this instance has not been hitherto noticed.

Heriger
p. 186

1-6

Remacli ,

Vita

c.

50,

regory

Nov.

I,

602),

Registrum

ed.

13.6

epistolarum

Norberg

D.

CCSL

140A

(JE

1872 :

(1982),

pp.

1000-1001 :
Quamdiu
quem

ab

mitatis,

loco

natio

to,
est

non

ejus

scripto

enim

officio

si

sinit .

solitus ,

Enimvero

sanae

mentis

da ,

tum

ac

qui

mente

debet

si

nullo

redit

vitae

vices

suppleat,

ejus
et

eo

cap-

eius,

nisi

tervalla

tione

Enimvero

ad

est

eligen-

vivente

tan-

ordinari

se

et
si

quae

ad

disciplinae
curam
bus

vincla
et

ac

ad

uitae

ecclesiae

ratio

solitus ,

sanae

est

restringere,

ordinari,

tat, superstes exstiterit, loco

fateatur

ordinandum...

mentis

redit

possit

exsistere

inquietos

efficacem
qui

debeat

se

offi-

eligenda ,

ecclesiasticarum

eius

in-

peti-

intellectualia

probabilis

episcopo,

ne-

loco

si

data

posse

cogitare,

atque
si

suo

alium

ipse

expetat

idonea

utilitate

etiam,

officio

ministerium,

suo

maturum

Qui

sinit

est

ab

abducit,

infirmitate,

tempore

fidelis

regimen

gerere

hoc

loco

animarum

exhibere.

nulla

subuertente

nullo

persona

de

ad

quem

crimen

habere

alium

cium,

atque

eo,

ulterius

officia

peticione

persona

requirente

episcopo,

non

aegritudinis

nec

nempe

vivente

infirmitatis,

assurgere

tempore

defuncto

digne successor valeat.

ordi-

succedere

officium,

probabilis

et

Et ideo quia
cessitas

habere

egritudinis

non

alius.

fidelis

probante,

nihilominus nisi

annuat,

alium

recusante

Etiam

intervalla

infir-

abducit,

ipso

peticionem

episcopus,

necessitas

crimen

nisi

nulla

data

vivit

suo

in

nunc

sub

rerum
omniaegro-

consecrari.

39

J. R. WEBB

for

Gregory

was

affliction

of

Gregory's

solution

sanity

returned

another

be

Heriger

on

to

him,
in

incapacity

or

admit

that

induced

complete
stead

issue

abdicate.

suffered

encourage

to
his

this

who

which

was

to

voluntarily

people

head)

placed

seizes

physical
not

the

bishop

in

on

order

they

ailing

written

to
for

would

do

his

that

some

if

short

it :

things.

moments

own

crime

(an

requesting

of

29

of

that

infirmity.
mental

bishops

rendered

rejected

illness

crazy''

bishop,

of

even

have

serious

petition

argue

Remaclus

to

account

deposition
Had

him

the
a

from

30

or

could

petition,

the

reasons

for

his

departure did not meet the criteria outlined in Gregory's letters.


The protests of the flock continue along legalistic lines. Remaclus is
warned
will

that

make

evokes

the

bishop

and

ultimately
are

by

an

his

bishops

by

set

from

legal

forth

and

their

31

the

the
of

New

is

the

spiritual
the

well.

(e.g.

stressed

the

The

of

marriage

Heriger's

assertion
and

fathers''

notion

terminology

5 :32

by

by

This

Testament,

as

Matthew

sees

promulgated

church.

Though

sources

in

way

of

image

church.

stems

this

out

traditional

inspired

adultery

disobeying

adulterer

between

for

that

Pseudo-Isidore,

the

copy

of

to

an

eleventh-century

Gregory's

Registrum;

manuscrits de Lobbes aux XI

inventory,

see

Franois

et XII

the

library

Dolbeau,

` cles,''
sie

of

rules

of

to

apply

to

and

it

points

to

Lobbes

Un

Recherches

here

are

the use of this important legal collection at this time and place.

According

adultery

arguments

19 :9)

he

adultery

did

nouveau

not

32

possess

catalogue

augustiniennes

des

13-14 (1978-

1979) : 3-36, 191-248. JE 1872 was included in the manuscript group R'' of Gregory's
Registrum,

which had a relatively wide circulation; see Detlev Jasper, The beginning

of the Decretal tradition,'' in

Papal

letters

in

the

early

middle

ages

(Washington, 2001),

pp. 71-81. Heriger may well have gotten the text of the letter from John the Deacon's
Vita

Gregorii

4.39 (BHL 3641), who quotes it directly : PL 105, col. 203. If so,

magni

Heriger would have had to disregard John's statement to introduce this group of letters :
Pontificibus
denegabat,''

voluntarie

col.

202B.

suis

The

renuntiantibus

Lobbes

sedibus

catalogue

lists

successores

two

vitae

Gregorius

Gregorii

nullo

modo

Dolbeau,

nos.

190 and 196.


29.

Gregory

busdam

I,

13.6

Registrum

referentibus

quendam

(JE

1872),

episcopum

p.

ita

1000

7-9

Pervenit

passionem

capitis

igitur

ad

incurrisse,

nos
ut,

quiquid

mente alienata agere soleat, gemitus et fletus audire sit.''


30.

similar

case

appears

emperor himself sought

in

an

earlier

letter

the deposition of an ill

of

Gregory's

bishop :

(JE

1819),

11.29,

Registrum

where

the

pp. 917-918.

Gregory's response is similar to JE 1872 : the bishop can fill out a petition to request
that

he

be

emperor's

relieved

bidding,

of

his

stating

duties.
that

he

But
will

Gregory
bear

the

refuses

to

emperor's

depose

the

violation

of

bishop
canon

at

the

law

in-

sofar as he can avoid sinning.


31.
riage

die
val : le maOn this theme see Jean Gaudemet, Note sur le symbolisme me
de

que,''
ve
l'e

McLaughlin,
the

eleventh

clerical

32.

and

celibacy

e
L'anne

The

twelfth

and

Decretales

Zechiel-Eckes,

bishop

canonique

as

centuries,''

religious

22

(1978) :

bridegroom :

reform ,

Pseudo-Isidorianae

in

71-80,

marital

Medieval

and

imagery

purity

and

more

and

recently,

clerical

piety :

essays

Megan

celibacy
on

in

medieval

ed. M. Frassetto (New York, 1998), pp. 209-237.


(Evaristus

2:

JK

21),

ed.

K.-G.

http ://www.pseudoisidor.mgh.de/html/016.htm;

cf.

Schon
ed.

and

Kl.

Hinschius

REVUE BENEDICTINE

40

Heriger
deterrent
history

employs

to

of

Remaclus'

the

abandoned

lessons

his

the

departure.

diocese
flock.

from

of

diocesan

This

was

past

not

the

Tongeren-Maastricht

Servatius,

not

invoked

by

as

first

that

potential

time

in

prudentiores,

the

the

pastor

had
could

have been accused of deserting his people, though he had been ordered
to

do

so

Amand,
from

directly

had

soon

who

is

their

evading

flock

evade

your

withdrew
your

his

from

us,

successors

has

of

in

detail

temporal

those

of

the

dust

us]

his

in

predecessor,

and

his

anchor

in

the
of

his

feet,
by

speech

will

it

leave

While

predecessor
may

fleeing,

of

Remaclus,

who

martyrdom :

merely

Heriger

Gesta pontificum

actions

your

withdrawn

insolent.

successors,

and

from

not

feet''
too

the

through

subterfugis),

abandon

his

proved

contrast

but

immediate

from

more

the

with

us

dust

clergy

them

flight

shaking

[will

33

cases

charge,

through

direction

cast to death.''

he

Remaclus'

the

local

abandons

when

not

the

these

Heriger

prudentiores

Peter.

shaken

when

describe

Tungrensium.
the

St.

famously

Maastricht

would

by

you

Amand

happen
but

by

that

being

Heriger was alluding to the martyrdoms of Remaclus'

immediate successors, Theodard and Lambert.


In

final

reiterate

appeal

that

abandonment
invoked

earlier

committed
their

the

them,

an

and

adultery.

of

the

argument

are

as

their

merit

linked

the

marriage

result
with

Jonah's

prefers penance to the death of sinners.''

(Leipzig, 1863), p. 90. See


This

letter

from

rum libri viginti


33.

Amandus

6 :11),

the

sed
qui

morti
te

in

later

et

the

who

to

and

has

ignominy

Remaclus'

allusion

wishes,

voluntary

God's

adds

not
that

sparing

that :

God

34

used

2-5

22-25

tu

by

B urchard

of Worms, Decreto-

pulverem

: successores fortassis tuos non modo

nostrum

pedum

Vita prima Amandi

the

(c. 42, p. 182


34.

dum

pulverem

expression

Merov. 5 (1910), p. 443

cli

of

an

wife

imagery

die
val,'' pp. 74-76.
Note sur le symbolisme me

was

c. 50, p. 186

obitiendos,

praecessit

biblical

used

with

people

Remaclus'

1.76, PL 140, col. 568B-D, see below, pp. 47-48.

Heriger, Vita Remacli,

fugandos,

tains

Gaudemet,

Pseudo-Evaristus

to

divorcing

the

to

concerned

plea

against

responsibilities,

nothing

of

very

suffer

closes

Nineveh

pastoral

done

injustice

They

will

Heriger

city

Remaclus'
have

reputation

departure.
of

of

to

they

regimen

recedens

pedum

(BHL

in

recedens

332),

c.

subterfugis,

nobis

18,

in
ed.

excussit.''
nobis

); he repeats it again in

Heriger, Vita Remacli,

c.

50,

p.

Gesta pontificum,

186

25-27

Verum

Krusch,

MGH

c. 36, p. 180

Deus

beatus
re-

( Mark

excussit''

, not only in this chapter, but also earlier in the

2-5

et

Heriger

SS

rer.

Vita Rema-

5-6

omnipotens

ad

propi-

tiandum facilis et clemens, prophetam super edera repente marcida increpans contristatum

(Jonah

4 :10),

constristandum, et
the

approbat

se

super

opus

creationis

suae

si

malle poenitentiam quam mortem peccatorum.''

Gelasian Sacramentary

1.15,

ed.

H.

A.

Wilson

(Oxford,

pereat

1894),

perhaps gotten there by way of Jerome, Tertullian, or ultimately a


ing of Ezek. 18 :23.

multo

magis

This last phrase is in


p.

14,

and

Vetus Latina

had

read-

41

J. R. WEBB

These

strong

significant

break

medieval

charge

the

of

of
fit

the

would

retreat

have

from

of

we

The

know

world

as

were

nothing

the

for

spiritual

superior

to

early
their

in

flock

of
the

episcopal

were.

35

The

does

not

Heriger's

rewriting

monks

Stavelot,

vocation

the

of

abdication

purpose

leaving

new

their

Remaclus'

destined

their

of

show

traditions

bishop-saints

protests

of

was

considered

the

the

abdication

greatest

of

against

text

episcopal

the

monastery

extent

what

of

Accounts

arguments

with

against

some

the

and

Vita Remacli

the

who

for

nature

strength
exactly

with

hagiography.

pastoral

vitae

arguments

of

of

pastoral

prayer

activity

and

of

the

secular clergy.

36

Heriger affords Remaclus a rebuttal.


that

the

injure
done

arguments

and

not

nothing

popular

to

motif

plative

and

actions

of

your

to

lead

happened to
Biblical

against

him.

him

Mary

active

have

forth

deter

of

earlier

time

put

He

to

and

lives,

done

this

contemplativa

serve

37

as

were

people
He

then

Remaclus
that

to

meant

that

they

the

extols

many

the

similar
before

if

only

of

the

38

examples

in

Remaclus'

defense

the

contem-

saints

monasteries],

to

have

considers

represented

out

retired

be their equal in merit.''

figures

who

pointing

[i.e.

the

decision.

respectively.

likewise

abdication

assures

Martha,

bishop-saints,

Remaclus begins by stating

his

we

vita

: Moses fought not with arms but with prayers. Abraham,

Elisha, Elijah, and John the Baptist each chose the eremitical life over
the

social

one.

Compelling

archetypes

may

have

Remaclus
here

and

lies

now,

Remaclus

35.
than

One
that

in

not

will

would
of

the

be

be

Peter

though

been,

saint's

ability

through
more

the

hard-pressed
in

to

his

(Munich,

1988),

no.

72,

pp.

to

to

cf.

and

his

to

emulate

Heriger's
helping

care,

flock

better

Pope

Reindel

326-366;

effort

of

continue

compile

letter

to resign his own see ca. 1060, ed. K.


4.2

to

instruction

valuable

Damiani,

the

crux

as

list

but
a

of

Nicholas

his

flock

through

warrior

bishops

II

these

argument

for
the

prayer.

in

who

requesting

in

prayer

abdicated
permission

, MGH Briefe der deutschen Kaiserzeit

no.

57,

pp.

162-190.

St.

Arnulf

appears

among Damiani's 30 examples (pp. 348-350); Remaclus does not. Cf. above, nn. 24-25.
36.

The

chapter

title,

Item

excusatio

Gesta pontificum
Gesta pontificum Anselm Epistola ad

ejusdem

sancti

viri,''

was

the canon Anselm, the continuator of Heriger's

supplied

later

by

. In his letter of dedi-

cation to Anno II of Cologne (written in 1056), Anselm describes how he had provided

Annonem
chapter

37.
tation

headings

to

Heriger's

Ko pke
Heriger Vita Remacli
, ed.

of

portion

of

, MGH SS 7, p. 162

Mary

and

the

7-9

Heriger Vita Remacli

in

35-38

Constable

Three studies in medieval religious and social thought

, c. 51, p. 186

Martha,''

.
. See Giles

, The interpre-

(Cambridge, 1995), pp. 3-141, esp. pp. 31-43.


38.

c.

51,

p.

186

42

Fecerunt

itidem

sancti, quorum nos suppares esse meriti utinam contingeret.''

ante

tempora

vestra

REVUE BENEDICTINE

42

than

as

snares

of

pastor

the

in

devil

and

here [i.e. on earth].''


Remaclus'
two
as

sides

the

of

text

He

assures

through

my

them

prayer,

that

look

he

can

after

your

for

debate.
of

abdication

For

some

monastic

written

by

the

of

spiritual

monks

was

these

of

the

less

biblical

in

the

early

matter-of-factly,
Theodard,
vocation.
waged

and

John

warfare,

Stavelot :

original

Heriger
a

battle

tenth

century

mean

for

strong,
social

the

or

extent

in

Heriger

proculcare
valeam

it

of

et

evil,

likely

merely

to

from

desert

the

the

fathers

found

the

as

in

monastic

spiritual

homily,

read

prima ,

abdication

was
for

from

be

Vita

Remaclus'

successor

the
well

drew

homily

justification

illic

forth

monks

by

was

as

warfare

which

heroes

5-7

lucra

to

his

touts

of

the

how

flock

in

the

monks

of

the

vocation.

the

to

extent

in

Heriger
it

serve

prudentiores

grasp

Certainly

c. 51, p. 187

instruendis

their

valued

and

life

to

closely

the

to

clergy?

Stavelot

active

continue

justified

failure

secular

of

will

corresponds

put

Remacli,

Vita

inservire.''

treats

regarding

part

the

have

our

by

the

the

de

and

Remaclus

against

would

Werinfrid

pressures

39.

that

played

counterparts

large

Moses,

and

language

in

It

worthy

praise

militant

arguments

is

role

with

40

of
as

41

solution,

spiritual

century.

that

stems

Baptist,

eremitical life.
The

follows

monks

the

tenth

noting

Heriger's

by

the

interests

examples

on Remaclus' feast-day. This homily was written after the


probably

fight

39

justification
the

language

another

action.

Did
have

to

Notker,

and

Lobbes,

clashed

with

been

which

comparison

of

Heriger

to

all

their

so

the

to

their

lesser

felt

the

monastic

: ut et ego versutias illic antiqui hostis

cumulare

et

vestris

hic

This evokes the sentiment expressed by Guy

Philippart

commodis

mea

oratione

, Le saint

ros se
ducteur et patron terrestre,'' pp. 138-142, who noticed
comme parure de Dieu, he
Heriger's

tendency

to

emphasize

the

aid

that

saints

could

provide

people

in

the

present world, as opposed to their soteriological role.


40.

in

langes
Me

p. 278,
in

Baix

Homilia

I differ from

in

natale

sancti

(BHL 7118), AASS Sept. I, pp. 726-728.

Remacli

d'histoire

offerts

a`

Charles

Moeller

(Louvain,

who argues that the homily was written before the

881 because it

century

Codex

Here

, Nouvelles recherches sur les deux biographies de saint Remacle,''

makes

no mention of it.

Stabulensis''

Bamberg

1914),

pp.

266-285,

here,

Viking attack on Stavelot

The homily first appears in


Staatsbibliothek,

Hist.

161,

the

mid-tenth-

87r-102v),

on

which see above, n. 14.


41.

Homilia

inesse

perspexit.''

tores

Dei

pum

sponte

aspectu
bant,

in

natale

sancti

Remacli ,

: vel ducatus ovium suarum, sed

tualis

teneri

Cf.

Heriger

intra

prosiliebant,

luporum

claustra
non

Vita

c. 6, col. 726E-F : Non

ut

bonus

Remacli,

requietionis
desertores

subterfugientibus

c.

praeliator,

51,

p.

nolebant,

pugnae

comparandi,

ubi

186

sed

in

spiritualis
sed

ubi

desertor

minus

45-49

ut

aut

fortissimi

apertum

effecti,
minus

pugnae

praeliantes

praelia-

certaminis

nec

spiri-

milites

cam-

mercenariis

praeliantes

ab

aspicie-

aut hostes in comminus insistentes incumbebant, illic se fortiter congressuros in-

gerebant.'' The textual affinities were first noticed by


les deux biographies de saint Remacle,'' p. 279.

Baix

, Nouvelles recherches sur

43

J. R. WEBB

sensibilities.
famous

Notker,

monastery

monasteries

who
of

most

likely

Saint-Gall

throughout

the

held

the

earlier

diocese

in

` ge
Lie

of

post
his

of

career,

despite

founding houses of canons within the city walls.

provost

42

his

of

the

patronized

proclivity

for

Heriger, as Notker's

secretary, often formed part of the episcopal entourage before receiving


the

abbacy

of

administrator
becoming
the

Odilo

abbot,

abbey's

the

Lobbes

world

suggested
against

varied :

that

43

he

The

Stavelot's

to

the

provide

this

he

all

three

set

have

of

able

prior

to

were
as

to

increase
active

bishop
not

legal

found

the

office

if Notker had

particular

would

of

efforts

responsibilities

heaviest. Even

abdication,

writing

Odilo's

which

Notker's

ge

prote

the

continued

degree

certainly

Heriger

Werinfrid,

headed

which

weighed

episcopal

990.

(954),

after

possessions.

imperial advisor

in

in

and

himself

arguments

this

chapter

of

great interest.
At

time

monasticism,
keep

the

after

Heriger

come

to

holy

when

episcopal

bishops
men

of

wrote

head

in

were
their

the

the

ideals

actively
time

tending

Remacli ,

Vita

career

of

were

heavily

seeking

flocks.

these

Notker's

influenced

arguments
A

couple

contrasting

close

that

friend,

of

decades

ideals

St.

by

would

would

Adalbert

of

Prague (997). Adalbert twice abandoned his episcopal-missionary post


in

Bohemia

for

monastic

solitude

at

Rome

and

was

forced

back

both

times by synods convened at the urging of the archbishop of Mainz. At


these

synods,

abandon

the

his

reinstatement,
martyrdom,

debate

see

was

which

it

set

was

on

42.

Notker's

tioned

the

veracity

Kupper,

Louis
in

position

tions

and
of

grande
Revue

43.
lor,

Ergo
viro

de

de

signs
and

principaute

Vita

antiquior

Poloniae

multis

Notherio

Adalbert's

path

leading

who

freedom

On

his

ultimately

personally

to

second
to

escorted

his
the

44

is

information,

uniquely

Notger

in

` ge,
Lie

et

d'histoire

1995),

Hubert
dans

reported

in

the

Annales

Hildeshei-

Lie` ge,

de

pp.

37-38,

though

cf.

Jean-

(1909),

from
nos.

dy
Stavelot-Malme

de

das

Silvestre,

` se
dioce

1000 ,

Jahr

143-153,

de

here,

Sur

` ge
Lie

the

mid-940s

66-69,

pp.

n.s.

4.1

fratrum

H.-W.

144.
des

On

Herr-

founda-

causes

et

XI

de

la

` cles,''
sie

as

the

dulce

monastery's
See

Baix,

chancel-

Etude

sur

(Paris, 1924), p. 135, and above, n. 14.

(Warsaw,

Alpes

ed.

p.

une

aux

153-161.

(BHL 37), c. 18 and 22, ed. J.

Adalberti

ultra

le

um

pp.

31 (1953) : 65-74.

charters

Roland

episcopo

see

canonial

several

historica ,

lacrimis

Kernlandschaft

(Saarbru
cken,

l'ordre

philologie

Halkin
et

of

grande ).

MGH SS rer. Germ. [8] (1878), p. 30. Kurth had ques-

europa
ische

canons

Werinfrid

l'abbaye

44.

eine

secular

belge

on

` ge
Lie

of

Saint-Gall

this

Schneider

expansion

ed.

menta

R.

of

issue

( litigium

que lotharingien aux alentours de l'an mille,''


` ge : un e
ve
Notger de Lie

Lotharingia :

mann

at

Waitz,

anno 1008, ed.

legal

Adalbert

Notker

expulsed monk from Italy.

menses,

the

heated

1962),

monasterium
proficiscitur.''

pp.

26-27

linquens,
On

this

Karawasinska,
and

cum

text,

33-34,

summae
cf.

esp.

Monu-

p.

34 :

discrecionis

Johannes

Fried,

REVUE BENEDICTINE

44

The
serious
of

rules

concerns

the

best

to

deal

best

example
coup

of

legal

how

failed

regarding

bishops

minds

with

of

833.

those

45

well
the

bishops

being

of

episcopal

before

the

mid-ninth

who

had

bishops

This

abdication

incident

late

out

sided

not

of

Lothar
a

Some

occupied

political

became

were

century.

were

with

only

deposition

tenth

century

fallen

who

and

with

favor,

the

during

the

lasting

concern

of the legally-minded archbishop Hincmar of Reims (882), it may well


bring

us

close

Decretals.

Heriger
though

one

subtleties

Gnesen
zum

may
need

of

and

the

original

have
not

been

look

episcopal

Aachen

a
lteren

golte

to

composition

of

the

Pseudo-Isidorian

46

Rom :

Scheller

far

Otto
in

III.

(Berlin,

der

und

2002),

ninth-century

the

and

und

Polen

with

into

abdication

Adalbertsleben,''

B.

familiar

that

past

expulsion

Kult

des

Deutschland

pp.

to

235-279,

hl.

were

the

hot

goes

at

Beobachtungen

so

ed.

far

Bor-

M.

as

Dunin-Wasowicz,

gest that Notker himself was its author. See also Teresa

legal

topics

Jahren ,

1000

even

incidents,

why

Adalbert :

vor

who

see

to

sug-

Le culte

glise Saint-Adalbert a
`
` ge,'' in
de saint Adalbert vers l'an 1000 et la fondation de l'e
Lie
La

giale
colle

Saint-Jean

de

Lie`ge :

mille

ans

d'art

d'histoire ,

et

ed.

Deckers

J.

` ge,
(Lie

1982), pp. 35-38.


45.

Of the several bishops tried for their rebellion against Louis the Pious, the case

of Ebbo of Reims was the most important. It is significant that the Thionville synod
of 835 which deposed Ebbo required of him a written confirmation of his own unworthiness.
naria

See

indignum
mensis

like

capitale

proclamans

ecclesiae

an

Bertiniani,

Annales

sinodo

effort

2.20,

to

crimen

propriaque

ed.

M.

conform

Grat

ed. F.

confessus,

to

Gregory

the

tanto,

id

confirmans ...''

scriptione

Stratmann,

et al. (Paris, 1964), p. 17 : Ebo in ple-

seque

MGH

SS

Great's

36

est

episcopali,

Flodoard,

Cf.

(1998),

pp.

instructions

183-189.

and

thus

ministerio

Historia

This

make

Re-

looks

Ebbo's

deposition canonical, and we see the first mention of JE 1872 in the Carolingian period

in

this

(1984),

pp.

context.

The

290-293,

lists

of

Libellus

several

Bishop

letters

Theoderich

from

Gregory

resignation (p. 292). For the context of Theoderich's


que
archeve

mar,

de

(845-882),

Reims

vol.

of

on

Cambrai,

the

libellus,

(Geneva,

MGH

procedure

pp.

Conc.

71-95,

episcopal

Devisse,

see Jean

1975),

for

who

Hinc-

gives

it

great import.
The see of Reims would again face arguments about canonical deposition/abdication
in the 990s, when Gerbert vied with Arnulf for the office of archbishop. Gerbert's legal
defense against his own dismissal appears in his letter to Wilderode of Strasbourg (late
995), ed.

Havet,

Lettres

de

(Paris, 1889), no. 217, pp. 203-230, a copy of which

Gerbert

Weigle,

` ge along with Epist. no. 193, ed.


Gerbert had also sent to Notker of Lie
Briefe

der

peated
306.

in

Ebbo

deutschen

Richer,

Kaiserzeit

Historiae

frequently

comes

(Weimar,

4.102-106,
up

in

ed.

1966),

pp.

Hoffmann,

Gerbert's

Acta

234-235.
MGH

concilii

SS

This
38

Remensis ,

defense

(2000),

is

pp.

Pertz,

ed.

MGH
re-

302-

MGH

SS 3 (1839), pp. 658-686, where, at the end of his long series of proofs, Gerbert reproduces
plar

Arnulf's

own

libellus

abdicationis

abdicationis praedecessoris

Politics

and

history

in

the

tenth

suis

which

Ebonis,''

century :

the

he
c.

notes

53-54,

work

and

was
p.

written

685.

world

See

of

secundum
also

Richer

Jason

of

exem-

Glenn,

Reims

(Cam-

bridge, 2004), pp. 98-109.


46.
early

See

Horst

middle

ages

Fuhrmann,

The

(Washington,

Pseudo-Isidorian

2001),

pp.

170-173.

Forgeries,''

Perhaps

the

in

Papal

most

letters

plausible

in

the

place-

ment of Pseudo-Isidore'' (an extremely complex issue) is within the circle of Ebbo in
his

controversy

with

Hincmar.

Fuhrmann

notes,

p.

171,

that

would have been almost impossible according to Pseudo-Isidore...''

Ebbo's

deposition

45

J. R. WEBB

` ge
Lie
of

in

the

Rather

from

the

and

bitterly

of

of

canon

placed
or

not

Rather's
status

polemic

canon
were
late

expulsion

49

We

invoked
as

972,

how

for

when

48

highly

of

imagine

that

against

Notker

Rather

listened

to

the

in

variety
the

hostile

him

out

his

Rather

found

ample

in

specifically

invokes

indissolubility
Scholars
that
could

have

places

47.

of

have

Lobbes

the

the

the

not

seen

become

where

he

of

his

At the beginning of his

Pope

marriage

Rather's

time,

that

adultery

remarkable

Phrenesis,

through

appeal

legal

from

with

he

and

even

as

monks

of

use
a

of

in

voluntarily

one

which

bishop

and

Pseudo-Isidore

copy

it

been

At

of

the

Verona
or

his

many

otherwise.

De translationis sancti Metronis,

treated

point

52

he

clear

of

ed. P.L.D.

51

proof

since
the

But

the

church.

collection,

or

50

asserts

as

to

arguments

the

had

Evaristus

of

for

entitled

of

Pseudo-Isidore.

of

possessed

familiar

spent

of

decree

spiritual

` ge
Lie

or

justification

Decretals

and

whether

uncertain

Lobbes about Rather's seizure of the monastery from Folcuin.

unlawfully

lines

justifications

mid-950s,

testimony

of

clergy,

the

asking

In

Trier

see

complained

language

expulsion
a

expelled

the

along

been

relevant.

Rodbert
his

of

the

fell

pope

have

making

been

driven

the

One

may

writings

he

laymen,

had

wrote

and

from

writings,
of

Verona

` ge
Lie

see

his

had

thrice

frequently

protested

well

and

of

career

Rather

hands

very

thus

his

he

can

the

the

times,

In

bishop.

from

and

47

Rather

Archbishop

recounts
law.

see,

Verona,

bishop

against

at

on

told,

four

itself.

clergy

the

legally

of

All

of

complaint

the

on

still

bishop

regarding

Rather

When

was

later

as

converges

total

treatment

The

rival

` ge
Lie

from

unfair

local

he

evidence

bishop

bishops.

law.

of

once

his

fellow

The

` ge/Verona.
Lobbes/Lie

of

office

Verona

and

970s.

he

other

even

if

it

Reid

, CCCM

46 (1976), p. 11, Rather refers to himself thus : ex Laubiense Veronensis ex monacho


exulis, ex exule presulis, infelicissimi Attali ritu facti infecti refecti defecti iterum (quo
solus factor infector refector defector nouit), omine facti infecti refecti...'' Here Rather

Rather

draws from Orosius' account of Priscus Attalus :


48.

deutschen

Epistola ad Agapetum papam

Kaiserzeit

(Weimar,

1949),

no.

Historia adversum paganos

(951),
7,

pp.

ed.

F.

33-43.

Rather Phrenesis
Reid
Rather De contemptu canonum
Ruotger Vita Brunonis
Folcuin Gesta abbatum Lobiensium

Weigle

Rather

MGH

may

7.42.7.
Briefe

have

der

written

this letter while at Lobbes; cf. below, n. 53.


49.

, c. 11-12, ed.

ten

at

, CCCM 46A (1984), pp. 206-208. See also

Verona

in

963),

and

(BHL

MGH SS rer. Germ. n.s. 10 (Weimar, 1951), p. 40.


50.

pitres,

Ott

, MGH Briefe 1, no. 16, pp. 82-83 (this text was writ-

, c. 28, p. 70. Cf.

1468),

c.

Dierkens

38,

ed.

I.

Abbayes et cha-

` ge had doubled as the abbots of Lobbes for the


pp. 111-122. (The bishops of Lie

Rather

first half of the tenth century).


51.
52.

De contemptu canonum,

p. 79.

This presence of manuscripts containing the

` ge has not
diocese of Lie

Decretales Pseudo-Isidorianae

been demonstrated; see Horst

Fuhrmann

in the

Einflu und Ver-

REVUE BENEDICTINE

46

cannot

be

Isidore

proven

while

at

the

Rather

Lobbes,

works

in

codex

containing

` ge
Lie

by

late

way

abdication

that

tenth

his

wrote

home

century.

Rather

increases

the

texts

monastery

53

It

Pseudo-Isidorian

of

any

is

also

excerpts

himself.

54

plausibility

drawing

clearly

that

had

possible

ended

Heriger's

from

copies

that

up

in

his

diocese

of

Pseudo-Isidore

of

canon-law

the

account

Pseudo-

of

Remaclus'

was

known

in

` ge in the late tenth century.


the diocese of Lie
Heriger's

insertion

ramifications
this

period.

was

of

parallels
were

our

While

legal

pontificate,
issues

for

it

does

legal

legal

use

of

in

show

law

local

of

does

When

Augustin

up

to

the

other

decades.

breitung
Zeit,

emperor's

scholars

56

der

from

to

who

Bishop

meddling

pointed

From

posited

to

Wazo's

pseudoisidorischen

in

the

to

pontificate

gradual

Fa
lschungen :

von

ihrem

leave

the

what

his

for

reform

for

faint

of

see

legal

55
pulse

bishop

affairs

after,

address

are

Lie` ge

first

evidence

and

to

of

years later.

(the

to

question

wished

there

Notker's

There

the

Wazo

Wazo

of

how

has

during

that

during

knew

ecclesiastical

lack

establish

texts.

answer

text

Lotharingia

` ge
Lie

legal

bishop

Rather

in

churchmen
to

asking

Fliche

stretching

hagiographic

not

of

opinions on ecclesiastical questions some 70

Lotharingia

studies

diocese

attempt

emperor

into

legal

recourse

Heriger's

the

of

canon

repercussions

and

sources

the

that

through

between

the

his

school''

office

voluntarily

of

knowledge

in

the

the

in

stand

1040s),

intervening

legal

Auftauchen

to

activity

bis

in

die

at

neuere

Schriften der MGH 24.2 (Stuttgart, 1973), pp. 462-466, esp. n. 108.

53.

Rather seems to have been especially keen on disseminating copies of his works.

Folcuin refers the reader in search of more information to Rather's letter to the pope :
Gesta

abbatum

works

at

Lobiensium ,

Lobbes,

c.

Dolbeau

see

19,

p.

63

42-44

Nouvelles

de Rathier,'' pp. 374-407. Rather wrote his

For

the

recherches

Conclusio

manuscripts

sur

les

of

manuscrits

deliberativa

(ed.

Reid

Rather's

et

l'uvre

, CCCM 46

[1976], pp. 3-37), another text showing the influence of Pseudo-Isidore, on the

eve of

` ge in 955.
his expulsion from Lie

Brussels

54.
site

codex,

f. 15v-16v)
l'abbaye

were

495-505. The Dionysio-Hadriana forms the core of this compo-

KBR

though

variety

added

d'Orval,''

centenaire

de

Calabrian

monks

in

later.

of
See

Aureavallis :

l'Abbaye

d'Orval

who

first

texts

(including

rard
Ge

langes
me

` ge,
(Lie

inhabited

brief

Fransen
pp.
were

portions

Les

historiques

1975),
Orval

unis
re

111-132.

of

manuscrits
a`

canoniques

l'occasion

Fransen

responsible

Pseudo-Isidore,

for

du

suggests

its

de

neuvie` me

that

eventual

the

appear-

ance in Lotharingia, however, the marginal comment on f. 66r, recognovi semel Mantue,'' may well be from the hand of Rather himself, who was once based not far at all
from

Mantua

manuscript,
vierten

bis

in

Verona.

though

at

sechzehnten

Bischoff

f.

205v :

has

already

Bernhard

Jahrhunderts

discerned

Bischoff

(Stuttgart,

1984),

Rather's

Anecdota

p.

11.

own

hand

novissima :

hope

to

in

Texte

investigate

this
des

this

issue further.

Anselm
Fliche

55.

See

56.

Augustin

(Paris,
im

1924),

Zeitalter

pp.

des

Gesta

pontificum
La

74-128.

forme
re

Cf.

Gerd

Investiturstreites

Leodiensium ,

Tellenbach

gorienne
gre

(Stuttgart,

c. 58 and 65, pp. 224, 228-229.

1 :

1936),

la

formation

Libertas :

p.

124,

n.

des

Kirche

15

(=

es
ide
und

goriennes
gre
Weltordnung

Church,

state

and

47

J. R. WEBB

` ge
Lie

becomes

chapter

in

authentic

more

the

and

visible

of

vita

forged

in

the

sources.

bishop-saint

papal

letters

reveals

to

clarify

57

However,

how
a

Heriger

legal

one

mere

drew

from

position.

Perhaps

an insistence on manuscripts of canon-law collections at the expense of


legal issues,

concepts,

encouraged
steam

us

earlier

collection
Their

to

than

of

and

legal

previously

Burchard

students

terminology

overlook

were

of

thought.

Worms,

instilled

hidden

tradition

with

Decades

there

the

later

Sigebert

credits

Burchard's
issues

of

Christian

abbot

of

with

famous

society

at

the

value

59

of

of

the

and

had

role

in

has

gather

influential

and

Heriger.

the

decrees

` ge,
Lie

of

the

gave

Contest ,

to

Heriger in turn taught

room

citing

trans.

whom

compilation

ample

expulsion,

Investiture

the

consulting

58

sources

begun

Notker

St-Jacques

Burchard

abdication

time

and

fundamental

Decretum .

episcopal

1959], p. 102,

Gembloux

narrative

before

were

of the fathers'' for a variety of pressing issues.


Olbert,

in

that

the

the

letter

Bennett [

R.F.

of

to

of

Oxford,

n. 1 : The Lotharingian law schools' play a great part in recent

liter-

ature. It has been usual to rate their influence very highly, but there has rarely been
any attempt to bring forward evidence of their existence. Thorough examination suggests the need for great caution in discussing them.'').
57.

See Charles
e

Annales

du

Dereine

congre`s

33

de

cole canonique lie


geoise et la re
forme gre
gorienne,'' in
, L'e

la

de
ration
Fe

ologique
arche

et

historique

de

(Brussels,

Belgique

1951), pp. 79-94.


58.

This

is

the

milieu

in

which

Wazo

was

educated.

Bishop

Adelbold

of

Utrecht,

another student of Notker and Heriger, was influential in the composition of the
sio

(BHL

Friderici

predecessor

at

3157),

Utrecht.

an

On

account

the

use

of

of

the

martyrdom

canon

law

in

, hagiographie et politique : la
Interdits de parente
sis

(ca.

1024),''

Ius

commune :

Zeitschrift

fu
r

of

this

passio,

passio

europa
ische

Adelbold's
see

Friderici

Pas-

ninth-century

Patrick

episcopi

Rechtsgeschichte

23

Corbet

Traiecten-

(1996) :

1-

98, esp. pp. 37-51; Corbet also discusses the Lotharingian legal schools on pp. 93-97.

Sigebert of Gembloux

59.

18-32

SS 8, p. 536

Gesta

Gemblacensium,

abbatum

c. 27, ed.

Pertz

, MGH

: Is [Burchardus] Baldrico iuniori Tungrensium episcopo fiducialiter

mandat eius nempe contubernalis et amicus in palacio regis fuerat, ut sibi aliquem
litterali

scientia

praeditum

dirigat,

cuius

ope

et

doctrina

ipse

in

eruditione

scriptura-

rum proficere valeat. Quis tanto viro mitti dignus esset diligenter quaeritur, et tandem
ad hoc nullus Olberto magis idoneus invenitur, et bona omnium de eo estimatione, ad
urbem

Vangionum

dirigitur...

Episcopus

nobilis

et

potens

non

dedignatur

se

submit-

tere ad formam discipuli, monachus humilis et peregrinus non timet in tanto viro operam

exhibere

magistrante

magistri...

magnum

own

education

En

lisant

at

Lobbes

Sigebert

[on

illud

de

the

was

specifically]

Decretum

canonum

volumen

shown

Gembloux,''

to

be

Revue

dum

centonizavit.''
later

belge

invention

de

Olberto

Even

philologie

(see
et

dictante

though
Andre

d'histoire

et

Burchard's

Boutemy

15

[1936] :

987-996), there are no strong reasons to doubt Sigebert's testimony on his own teacher, or to look for centers other than Lobbes for where Olbert had gained a solid legal
education.
Gesta

Gembloux
belge

that

For

abbatum

de

Olbert's

faussaire?

philologie

Sigebert

education

Gemblacensium,

et

Le

c.

at
26,

chroniqueur

d'histoire

embellished

his

55

et

(1977) :

account

hance the prestige of Gembloux.

Lobbes,
p.

of

536
les

then

6-13

sources

989-1036,
Olbert's

Paris,

Cf.

Troyes,

Michel

anciennes'
here,

role

in

and

de Waha
de

son

Chartres,

Sigebert

abbaye,''

pp.

1027-1028,

the

Decretum

who

in

see
de

Revue

suggests

order

to

en-

REVUE BENEDICTINE

48

Pseudo-Evaristus

as

well

as

several

from

Gregory

Vita Remacli .

from which Heriger drew in the

I,

including

the

one

60

Exhortatio ad fratres

The

second

expansion

Vita Remacli.

Heriger's

that

The

scene

will

explore

of

saint's

vita;

as the dramatic pinnacle of his or her

vitae

the

saint's

of

last

fledgling
overly
old

words

could

community.

elaborate

age,

God,

bishop-saints.

63

heaven.''

This

outline

some

It

farewell

the

end

farewell''

of

of

the

merely

to

of

monastic

guiding

affords

states

everyone

life

he

at

the

end

frequently

of

served

this was especially true for

vitae

the

Vita prima Remacli

scene.

said

reaching

For

The

death

Remaclus

and

62

61

comes
death

that

the

not

worn

his

the

for

the

contain
out

commended

rendered

Heriger

principles

does

and

founders,

them

to

soul

to

blessed

opportunity

an

with

to

present

a long speech in which Remaclus imparts his final words of wisdom to

64

his followers and establishes morals for them to live by.


In

Remaclus'

philosophy
the

modern

morals

and

combine

60.
op :

of

eye

Burchard

end

his

his

monks,

unique

seems

an

However, it

strains

reproduces

of

result

wisdom.

two

to

reflective

the

pagan

these

Decretum

exhortation

living

of

three of

Gregory's

place,

uneasy

was

thought.

Heriger

time,

not

As

letters

on

blend

strange

the

abdication

cols.

who

uses

mind.

of

for

To

Christian

Heriger

Benedictine

monk

of

to

and

an ill

bish-

1.188-189, 191, PL 140, cols. 602D-606B, the same letters and order (JE

Vita Gregorii

1819, JE 1663, and JE 1872) as found in John the Deacon's


105,

presents

and

201-203.
John

the

Cf.

Peter

Deacon

Epist.

Damiani,

(is

qui

registri

no.

72,

volumen

MGH

Briefe

explicuit'')

to

4.2,

4.39, PL

pp.

reinforce

331-332,
his

view

that JE 1819 conveys a bishop's right to abdicate (see above, n. 35). JE 1872 appears

Collectio canonum in libris V,

in a slightly altered form in the eleventh-century Italian


1.162,

ed.

Gratian,
61.
in

M.

Fornasari,

Decretum

CCCM

(1970),

pp.

109-110,

and

in

its

original

in

See Georg Scheibelreiter, The death of the bishop in the early middle ages,''

The

end

of

strife,

ed.

D.

M.

Loades

(Edinburgh,

1984),

pp.

32-43,

ge,''
moyen a
One

Mommsen,
McCormick

ge
Le Moyen A

early

example

MGH

SS

for

this

rer.

and

vitae

` ne de la mort dans les


Lauwers, La mort et le corps des saints : la sce

62.

form

II.7.1.14, ed. Friedberg (Leipzig, 1879), cols. 572-573.

Michel

du haut

94 (1988) : 21-50.

is

Eugippius'

Germ.

particular

[26]

Vita

(1898),

reference

in

Severini

pp.

50-51.

addition

to

(BHL
I

would

great

7655),
like

c.

to

many

43,

thank

others.

ed.

Th.

Michael
See

also

Lauwers, La mort et le corps des saints,'' p. 25.


63.

Vita prima Remacli,

omnibus

eosque

opifici

Deo

c.

7,

p.

108

18-20

commendans

...ultimo

metam

mortis

jam

senio

attigit,

fessus,

vale

beatamque

dicens

caelo

ani-

mam reddidit.''
64.
iam

Heriger,

senior,

nere,

quo

sed

Vita Remacli,
moribus

recompensaret

quam
honor

c.

55,

annis
in

p.

188

10-13

maturior,

caelis

quod

Eo

diem

tempore

sibi

triverat

et

vocationis

labor

in

beatus

Remaclus

intelligens

terris,

morem

immigerere

decrevit subjectis. Quos accersitos et de abcessu patris suaque desolatione mestos, his
ultimis solatus est verbis...''

49

J. R. WEBB

prominent

theologian,

immersed

in

the

but

style

inform

his

the

to

Heriger

felt

faith

literature

also

own

claimed

his

the

of

been

of

Over

five

question.
he

writings

his

of

the

years

own

dozens

As

allowed

of

hundred

by

placing

in

antiquity,

the

tormented

comfortable

not

classical

content

worldview.

have

was

scholar

not

only

ancients

after

Ciceronian

proverbs

to

Jerome
leanings,

from

pagan

65

authors into the mouth of a seventh-century bishop-saint.

Unlike the debate on abdication, scholars have certainly been aware


of Heriger's use of ancient authors and have endeavored to identify the
precise

quotations

quotations
(mainly
Noting

is

from
the

that

he

striking :
Horace,

proverbs

followed

shared

Babcock

compilation.

an

to

display

from

by

as

in

the

likely

classical

borrowings

exhortatio

Vita

classical

of

thirty

the

Heriger's

of

quantity

over

Cicero)

between

Heriger

exhortatio,

the

Werinfrid

intellectual

the

sheer

alone.

Remacli

authors
author

in

of

and

66

an

Freising,

this

proverb

67

Generally,
preface

named

The

identified

florilegium

early-eleventh-century
Robert

employed.

Ko
pke

like

of

classical

of

Heriger

knowledge
authors

combined

Stavelot,
added

through

marked

with

are
to

the

an

the

the

seen

as

highly

the

vita.

rewritten

abundance

text

with

the

stylized

literary

of

In

erudite

style

letter-

polish

that

this

case,

quotations

held

as

an

ideal

` ge at that time. The style served to


at the schools in the diocese of Lie
increase
author

the

Stavelot),
does

prestige

(Heriger),

the

content

and

of

effort

of

the

of

the

the

course,

at

commissioner

recipients
the

saint

ornamentation

message

of

the

(Werinfrid

contained

work

and

(Remaclus).
end

in

and

these

But

an

(Notker),

the
at

what

approbation

words

of

the

monks

pagan

of

point

of

the

wisdom

begin?
In
view

65.

contrast
the

See

to

the

classical

Jerome,

exhortatio ad fratres ,

citations

Epistola

in

the

22.29-30,

ed.

one

might

letter-preface

I.

Hilberg,

to

CCSL

be

content

Werinfrid

54.1

as

(Vienna,

to
an

1910),

pp. 189-190.
66.
iger's

Ko
pke
warning

identified
against

most

sloth,

of

the

quotations

Vita Remacli,

c.

from

55,

p.

1-2

tardis mentibus non facile comitatur virtus' ( Cicero,


67.
For

Horace

189

and

Tuscul. disp.

Florilegium

citations

of

the

Caecilius

(Munich,

Bayerische

pp.

Balbus''

collection,

175-177.

Staatsbibliothek,

Their

Herquia

5.24).''

clm

see

Babcock, Heriger of

appearance

6292,

f.

Babcock to identify of Heriger of Lobbes as the compiler of this

except

devitate,

Babcock also noted the use of certain ancient proverbs that had eluded Ko
pke.

Heriger's

Lobbes and the Freising Florilegium,

RB

Cicero,

Segnitiem

in

84r-94r)

the

Freising

encouraged

florilegium.

REVUE BENEDICTINE

50

68

exercise in stylistic embellishment.


impress

readers

signaled
reader.
hints

This

to

never

with

their
is

true

prepare

in

at

ground
ethics.

an

literary

between

seems

case

polish.

the

for

of

the

me

no

69

is

to

locate

morality

presents

Heriger

and

coherent

from

use

of

considered

the

provides

drawn

Heriger's

be

trying

Christian

often

often

to

Remarkably,

being

that

they

ones,

Heriger

is

longer

classics,

obscure

where

author

Heriger

truths

of

more

quotation.

to

can

exhortatio ad fratres

The

the

ancient

It

latter

knowledge

letter-preface,

reader

that

this

own

especially

the

exhortatio.

Remaclus'

effort

of

his

indicates

proverbs

their

citations,

When medieval authors wanted to

in

pagan

merely

the

those

an

common

of

ancient

philosophy

of

life

and death.
Heriger's
universal

method

harmonization.

quia

and

two

Remaclus
God

and

tells

that

the

cherish

he

cultivation.''

to

Tibullus,

Rule

offer

fools

if

hides

only

from

revealing

he

followed
For

followed

unhealed
no

lend

sloth,

and

these

issues

of

faults

by

Horace's

is

70

so

They

ear

envy;
at

to

savage

patient

are

by

instance,

sores.''

one

or

attempted

confession
is

would

peace :

Horace,
a

ethics

Cicero,

passage

of

occurs

and

right

At

reminds

many
used

places

an

in

him

this

epistolary

that

letter,

style.

he

how

when

the

out

must

Heriger

See

to

cherish
the

Heriger

he

much

of

heart

unfurls

lesser

used
a

the

triad

known

of

poet,

Regula Benedicti .

the

E.g.
ut

Epistola ad Werinfridum,

verbis

cuiusdam

sapientis

pp.

give

borrows

Robert

philosophy at Lobbes in the tenth century,''


69.

are

support.

Horace)

demonstration

Christian

reinforce

and

also

ro]...

this

their

pride,

and

for

complete

(again

against

chastity,

precepts

Christian''
an

The

warns the abbot against overly concerning himself with transitory

things

68.

moral

in

and each admonition is supported by ancient adages.

support

to

to

with

other

quotations

because

Guard

proverbs

the

temptations;

of

calmed,

patience,

quotations

who

be

particularly

pagans

Christian

hidden

shame

pagan

reinforces

classical

patience,

71

couple

followers

all

evil

exhortatio ,

of the
A

three

his

cannot

obedience,

to

one

Generally,

or

uncover

warning :
should

is

teachings;

from

Babcock

Traditio

109-110 :

[Horace]

account

...cui

the

for

prefaces

Heriger

the

of

and

souls

Boethius,

the

study

of

40 (1984) : 307-317.

ut
et

ait

oratorum

poeta

maximus

praecipitur

[Cice-

[Horace]...

quod etsi eloquentissimum quendam dicentem [unidentified author].''


70.

Heriger

Vita

Remacli,

c.

55,

p.

188

35-37

Confessionem

veram

Deo et praelatis offerte, temptationum pulsationes in ipso aditu detegite,


rum incurata pudor malus ulcera celat' (
71.
tus

Heriger

est'

tescere
40).''

Vita Remacli,

[=Caecilius
possit,

si

Balbus]

modo

c.

55,

p.

Horace

188

amplectimini;

culturae

pacientem

47-50

Epist.

Nemo

commodet

Stulto-

1.16.24).''

Pacientiam,

quoniam

delictorum

quia

quae

adeo

aurem'

ferus

miseriarum
est,

Horace

ut

non

Epist.

pormi-

1.1.39-

51

J. R. WEBB

entrusted
should

to

not

his

care.

complain

entire community :

Heriger

for

turns

want

of

the

statement

resources

into

the

warning

abbot

for

the

72

Heriger
And

that

Source

you

should

not

complain

of

the

potentially

Regula Benedicti

meager

2.35

resources

Et de minori forte substantia non queramini


For he

who makes

sufficient use of things

is not poor

Horace,

Epist.

1.12.4

Pauper enim non est, cui rerum suppetit usus


And

Nature

cheap, and

herself

little

reminds

us

everyday

how

few,

how

Tusc. disp.

Cicero,

5.35

her needs are

Ipsaque nos cotidie natura ammonet, quam paucis, quam


vilibus, quam parvis egeat rebus
Let it be, the minds and cares of men are not relieved by

Tibullus,

Eleg.

3.3.21

wealth

Esto, non opibus mentes hominum curaeque levantur

Heriger's

use

Benedict

himself

Scripture :
he

one

should

kingdom
unto
fear

classical

of

you''

should

God,

sayings

not

His

6:33),

(Psalm

pagan

in

is

and

again :
Heriger

message,

poets

and

of

case

all

is

of

things

shall

want

to

This

was

from

because
first

be

the

added

them

pagan

biblical

Regula Benedicti

the monks of Stavelot with the

resources

uses

the

striking.

passages

therefore

no

only

philosophers.

two

ye

these

There
not

particularly

lack

Seek

replaces

he

is

with

the

written

justice,

73

this

admonition

complain

and

33:10).

Benedict's
of

this

what

and

(Matt.

Him''

authors

supports

remember

corroborate
the

of

that

wisdom

passages

something

to

with
that

ingrained into their

minds were sure to have noticed.


Horace's

pithy

throughout
much

72.

as

in

are

Babcock

A.

both

parvis

This

ages,

tenth

ne

in

the

pp.
in

78

the

and

c.

Freising
and

moral

55,

p.

189

Ko
pke's

assured

works

were

centuries,

15-18

Florilegium,

quotation,

living

his

eleventh

108).

Cicero

on

though

f.

The
117v

edition

but

(p.

189

f.
17

from

132v,
)

gives

Brussels, KBR

popularity

aetas

the

quotations
and

his

never

II.

copied

as

Horatiana

Tibullus

and

respectively

(ed.

vos

1180

for
(f.

nos

and

23r)

and

no. 12 (p. 49) give the more accurate reading reproduced here.
borrowing

de Vogu
e

Et

the

[1984],

for

Averbode,
73.

statements

middle

Heriger, Vita Remacli,

Horace

pravis

the

and J.

causetur

de

from

the

Regula Benedicti

Neufville,
minori

forte

has

not

been

hitherto

identified,

ed.

tiennes 181 (Paris, 1972), vol. 1, p. 450 :


Sources Chre
substantia,

meminerit

scriptum :

primum

quaerite

regnum Dei et iustitiam eius, et haec omnia adicientur vobis,' (Matt. 6 :33) et iterum :
Nihil deest timentibus eum' (Psalm 33 :10).''

REVUE BENEDICTINE

52

according to Ludwig Traube.

74

Several of Heriger's Horatian citations,

including Heriger's preliminary remark in the

exhortatio

: to flee vices

is virtue, and the beginning of wisdom is to abandon foolishness,'' all


stem from Horace's first

Epistle

75

In the lines immediately preceding

those Heriger chooses to quote, Horace lists what he saw to be the


principle

vices

of

his

day.

Remarkably,

Horace's

list

is

almost

identical to the vices which became the cardinal sins of Christianity.

76

Some of Horace's moral sentiments were more easily applicable to


Christian ethics than others. At the end of Remaclus' admonitions,
Heriger presents a cluster of quotations from the ancients relating to
the theme of death. The speech was after all a farewell address, so
the theme of death and the afterlife had an appropriate place. In
contrast to Cicero, Horace was unequivocal about the finality of
death; for him it marked the last line of things.'' 77 Heriger employs
this phrase as well as Horace's we are but shadow and dust'' (
umbra

sumus

pulvis

et

). Nearly every famous Horatian line on death appears in

Remaclus' final speech, except his statement that death does not
discriminate social classes, but visits rich and poor alike.

78

However,

Heriger changes Horace's original emphasis on the uncertainty and


finality of death to apply only to a death without the proper penance
and absolution, which Remaclus describes as crossing over in vain''
74. Traube had originally referred to an
, sandwiched between the
in the ninth century and the
in the twelfth. Ludwig
,
, Vorlesungen und Abhandlungen 2, ed. P.
(Munich, 1911), p. 113. See also Birger
,
e
e
La popularite des textes classiques entre le IX et le XII sie`cle,''
14-15 (1986) : 169-181.
31-32
: Virtus sit vitium fugere, et sapientia
75.
,
, c. 55, p. 188
prima stulticia caruisse (
,
1.1.41).''
76.
,
1.1.33-38 : Fervet avaritia miseroque cupidine pectus : / sunt
verba et voces quibus hunc lenire dolorem / possis et magnam morbi deponere partem.
/ Laudis amore tumes : sunt certa piacula quae te / ter pure lecto poterunt recreare
libello. Invidus, iracundus, iners, vinosus, amator, / nemo adeo ferus est...'' That is,
avarice/cupidity, love of praise (
), envy, wrath, sloth, drunkeness, and lust.
Cf. the clearest statement on the cardinal sins in the early middle ages,
I,
31.45(87), ed. M.
, CCSL 143B (1985), p. 1610 : Primae
autem eius [= superbiae] soboles, septem nimirum principalia vitia, de hac virulenta
radice proferuntur, scilicet inanis gloria, invidia, ira, tristitia, avaritia, ventris ingluvies, luxuria.'' Even the order of the vices is the same! See Morton
,
aetas

Traube

aetas

Virgiliana

Einleitung

Lehmann

in

die

lateinische

Philologie

Horatiana

aetas

Ovidiana

des

Mittelalters

Munk Olsen

Revue

Heriger
Horace

textes

Vita

Horace

in

Epist.

Epist.

Gregory

laudis

Adriaen

Job

Bloomfield

seven

deadly

des

Remacli

amor

Moralia

d'histoire

sins :

an

introduction

to

the

history

of

religious

concept,

with

special

The

refer-

(East Lansing, 1952), pp. 45-46.


77.
,
. 1.16.79 : Mors ultima linea rerum est.'' Horace often evokes
this sentiment on the finality of death. Even the phrase for which he is best known
to the modern world, carpe diem,'' is tied to the transitory nature of life. See L. P.
,
(London, 1968 [1945]), pp. 34-43.
78.
,
1.4.13-14 : pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas
regumque turris.'' On this frequently cited passage, see below, n. 84.

ence

to

Horace

medieval

Wilkinson
Horace

English

literature

Epist

Horace

and

Carm.

his

lyric

poetry

53

J. R. WEBB

( transire

incassum).

Remaclus'

borrowed

from

Cicero,

about

soul's

fate

the

afterlife,
position.

Heriger

who

in

the

attempts

final

was

statement

bit

79

afterlife.
to

use

more

Thus,

pagans

death

positive

even
to

on

is

passage

than

Horace

the

support

issue

his

of

the

Christian

80
exhortatio

Heriger himself seems to acknowledge the

Vita Remacli.

achievement of his
( dulces

on

admonitiones )

as the crowning

He refers to the sweet admonitions''

that Remaclus had just uttered. He has Remaclus

say that if anyone benefits from his words of exhortation, then he will
consider

it

his

palmarium,

masterpiece.''

Heriger's

rendering

of

modern

scholar

against

in

middle

ages

the

philosophical

fathers

questions

of

79.

Heriger

to

faith

antiquity,

employed

their

style

pagan

for

masterpiece,

and

the

Cicero's remark
34-35

c. 55, p. 189

of

were

Of

course,

arguments

as

that death will

well.

release

the

authors

employed

theological

ages

warns

classical

elegance.

major

middle

81

exhortation

Philosophical

engendered
in

of

appreciation

antiquity

effect.

indeed,

closes with

words

the

of

often

and

Remaclus'

great

Vita Remacli,

and envy.

word

limiting

to

systems

Christian

late

The

is taken from the ancient playwright Terence.

the

by

the

applied

to

controversies

in

Heriger's

of

the

soul

use

from desire

: In bono autem opere finientes, beati eri-

mus, cum relictis corporibus, cupiditatum omnium et emulationum expertes fuerimus'


(

Cicero

Tusc. disp.

1.19).''

In

this

particular

chapter

in

Tusculan disputations,

the

Cicero describes the soul's journey to the heavens and its pursuit of the contemplation
of truth.
80.

All of the passages on death that Heriger borrows from Horace are found in the

Freising Florilegium, though Heriger alters some of them slightly in the


c. 55, p. 189

22-33

Vita Remacli,

: Vos quoque, karissimi, morituros scitote, ideo poenitentiae tempus

indultum non paciamini, queso, transire incassum. Veniet, veniet dies certissime, cum
frustra
mini

desideretis

bonum

ad

unius

usuram

omnes,

quia

Carm.

2.14.1-2, 2.18.15). Iam

nus et

album

est'

Horace

velut

unda

4.7.16).
16).''
in

Epist.

Heriger's

brackets.

alterations
mortalia''

1.16.79).

supervenit

Omnes

If

una

alterations
Heriger

laeti''

Vita secunda Remacli,


81.
5.4.8)

Heriger
as

quoted

id

Terence

to

was
My

e.g.

erit

Perpetuus
( Epist.

mors

Catil.

fugaces

from

id

palmarium,''
5.4.1)

are

in

of

the

Brussels

Terence's

(Adelphi

et

compiler

rendering

nulli

1.12).

Dum

dieque

tempus

truditur

est

dies'

opera-

Horace

[immortalia ne speres] monet an-

datur

2.2.175).

[nox]

Horace

the

comes

renders

mihi

Cicero

anni

mortalia non speranda

undam'

manet

consciously.

and

quae rapit hora diem' (Carm. 4.7.8). Mors ultima linea [rerum]

[almum]
,

horae'

labuntur

calcanda

noted
of

the

iam

in

verost

et
et

semel

italics

mortalia''

heres

loeti'

he

loeti''

circulating

alterius
(Carm.

sumus'
(Carm.

Horace's

then

and

heredem

umbra

via

with

florilegium,

independently

KBR

1.28.15-

original

likely made
for

text
these

Ko
pke's

manuscripts

im-

of

the

II. 1180, f. 23r-v.


quo

ego

Vita Remacli,

the

usus,

Pulvis

c.

mi

puto

55,

p.

palmarium''

189

21

Epistola ad Werinfridum,

( Eunuchus

Heriger

p.

110

11-12

had
.

also

Terence

was a favorite author of Rather of Verona. In addition to over a dozen identified uses
of Terence in Rather's works, a statement from one of his students, Bishop Everacrus
` ge (959-971) calls Terence that familiar comic'' ( illud
of Lie
bert

Silvestre

Comment

` ge a
`
rone,''
Lie
Rathier de Ve

on

digeait
re

une

ge
Le Moyen A

lettre

au

comicum nostis).

` cle :
sie

ptre
l'e

See Hu-

d'Eracle

58 (1952) : 1-30, here, pp. 4 and 13.

de

REVUE BENEDICTINE

54

the

wisdom

different.

of

In

this

incorporated
seeking

the

the

as

ancients

case,

it

method,

manner

of

in
was

but

living

not

rather
well

clearly presents pagan proverbs to


This

does

scientific,
antiquity.
ancients.
same

not

mean

logical,

82

and

Indeed,

In

his

that

he

of

the

ancient
the

that

the

mutual

is

fundamentally

philosophical

adages

of

appealed

did

not

mathematical

on

Remacli

ancient

to

systems

humanists

Heriger.

Heriger

reinforce an initial Christian ideal.

Heriger

cherished

treatise

technique

Vita

the

the

also

works

ideas

as

Eucharist,

appreciate

that

well

Heriger

reinforcement

of

he

as

the

more

knew

the

ideals

would

Christian

from
of

the

employ

the

and

profane

ideas, only this time in reverse. He reinforces his forays into dialectical
and

mathematical

However,
have
a

the

been

forum

medium

the

for

reasoning

first

an

is

through

important

medieval

attempted

appeal

in

these

to

use

author

harmonization

to

cases,

the

of

biblical
and

passages.

Heriger

hagiographic

elements

of

may

genre

pagan

83

as

wisdom

and Christian teaching.


Did
there
of

Heriger

were

bishops

and

expect

probably
and

abbots

Christians.

phrases

of

discontent

mediums

On

ancient

to

point

some

universal

medieval

though

82.

These
of

works

ancient

graphischen

were

science,

Werken

transmitted
see

des

Fidel

most

largely

Ra
dle,

Heriger

von

his

truths

churchmen

84

through

Zur

the

After

shared

by

pagans

invoked

found

the

the

epistolary

Boethius.

On

der

Heriger's

Antike

in

positive

den

Gli umanesimi medievali,

in

all,

hagiography

We should point out that

Bewertung

Lobbes,''

readers?

than

hagiographers

form more suitable for this type of display.

view

of

appropriate

out

occasion,

poets,

from

more

hagioed.

Cl.

Leonardi (Florence, 1998), pp. 539-550.


83.

Heriger,

De corpore et sanguine Domini,

PL 139, col. 185. As noticed by Bab-

cock, Heriger and the study of philosophy at Lobbes,'' p. 313, two of Heriger's biblical quotations in the
follow passages lifted

De corpore et sanguine Domini


from Eriugena's

(Gen. 1 :24 and Sap. 11 :21) both

De divisione naturae

on the justification of dia-

lectical and mathematical argumentation. Sap. 11 :21 : omnia mensura et numero et


pondere

disposuisti''

reflect

on

Sap.

often

served

Etymologiae

dore of Seville,

11 :21

again

to

justify

the

pursuit

of

mathematics;

see

e.g.

Isi-

3.4, ed. W. M. Lindsay (Oxford, 1911). Heriger would

at

the

beginning

of

the

Gesta pontificum Tungrensium,

c.

2, p. 166.
84.

above,

notable

n.

78.

example

This

in

quotation

hagiography
appears

in

is

Horace's

Notker

Carm.

Balbulus'

1.4.13-14,

2.2a (BHL 3256, ed. Strecker, MGH Poet. lat. 4 [Berlin, 1914], p. 1106

Theodardi,

c. 11 (BHL 8046, AASS Sept. III [1750], col. 590C), the

tionis ecclesiae sancti Albani Namurcensis


Gembloux's

sanctae Luciae
ten

by

regards,

ed.

G.
c.

Philippart,

14

(BHL

p.

4999,

5-6

), the

Acta

Memoriale funda48),

ed.

Sigebert

T.

Licht,

of

Acta

[Heidelberg, 2008], p. 118), and others. The last three texts were writ-

geois
Lie

Saint-Aubain

(ed.

Sermo de translationibus Luciae,

mentioned

Vita metrica sancti Galli

hagiographers.

(vers

Ph.

1070) :

Jacquet

Guy

crivain
l'e
et

al.

Philippart,
et

les

(Namur,

Le

scribes,''

2005),

of this passage by Cervantes, among others.

pp.

in

Memorial

de

la

fondation

de

Histoire de Namur : nouveaux

23-60,

here,

p.

38,

notes

the

use

55

J. R. WEBB

Heriger's
to

use

many

with

of

its

citations

his

are

not

fared

other

education
the

One

recognizing

was

believed

to

have

monastery
Heriger's
Notker)

of

to

as

is

been

is

His
that

of

same,

the

pagan

the

Vita

text
one

Hadelin
to

This

trend

Hadelin's

the

decline.

early

85.

89

1020s

perhaps

finds

century,

known

as

subordinate)

With

the

the

use

exception

of

Remaclus

often

of
an

possible

much

if

rarer

Vita

Hadelin

was

had

so

in

founded

liberally

Heriger

Hadelin's

reasons

speech

to

own

speech

much

retains

(or

discount

valedictory

though

the

from

none

of

the

of

the

88
in

the

that

proverb

the

use

of

compilations
pagan

composed

ratis

classical

Heriger's

Heriger's

However,

Even

farewell

in
St.

awarded

strongest

advice

Fecunda

of

those

identified

only
and

who

drew

87

well.
the

schoolbook

the

these
monks

needed

have

was

Horace,

quotations

have

as
of

own

suggest

` ge,
Lie

At

of

gives

parallel

which

that

than

have
to

Hadelini .

Remaclus'.

pagan proverbs used by Heriger.

eleventh

and

hagiographer

is

identically

would

Heriger's

classical

that

Stavelot's

references

Cicero,

scholars

this

followers

author.

up

of

the

fact

While

Remacli ,

Vita

of

the

apparent

of classical authors.

companion

86

Remacli

the

the

Celles.

his

set

notice

of

readily

most
to

one
to

proverbs,

works

florilegia

did

us

been

Heriger's

of

these

Europe,

these
the

of

manuscripts.

equivalent

author

authorship

Heriger

advice

of

Vita

exhortatio

which

who
the

of

nearly

sources

the

blind

better

possessed

writer

to

in

in

have

edition

indicated

poets, or had access to

Remacli

not

demarcation

potential

letters

school

may

Ko
pke's

and

monasteries

in

ultimate

one's

the

authors

85

readers.

has

have

many

classical

identification

references,

may

of

shows

authors

alteration

of

by
a

healthy

Regula

the

the

was

Egbert

alongside

the

of

authors

in

on
the

(though

Bible,

the

discussed

Benedicti

above, p. 51.
86.

Celles

(5013'45''N,

0'27''E),

southeast

of

Dinant.

Vita

(BHL

Hadelini

3733),

AASS Feb. I (1658), pp. 372-376.


87.
370,

Jean

Bolland

suggested

Hadelinus,

Notker

was

the

commentarius

author.

thorship was first laid out by Alain

The

Dierkens

`
poque me
rovingienne : la
Gaule du Nord a
l'e
e et de Franchimont,''
logiques d'Anthe
88.
au

Indicated

pays

de

lation of the
89.
ms.

authors
val

633 :

pick

proverb

Courtauld

et

Vita

Observed

Bodl.

up

Meyers

by Jean

Vise

saint

Hadelin

Hadelini.

by

C.

secunda

again

the
the

La

West

Vita

pp.

1956),

European

55 (1992) : 19-35.

Hadelini

sancti

1988),

century.

AASS

Feb.

Herigerian

or

I,

pp.

368-

Notkerian

au-

couvertes arche
oet les de

8 (1980) : 613-628, here, pp. 618-619.


Hadelini,''

51-64,

Introduction,''

(Louvain,
twelfth

Vita

to

, Un aspect de la christianisation de la

Francia

,
(Vise

Talbot

pars

in

collections :

Institutes

H.

praevius,''

challenge

pp.

In

in

who

sors
Tre

also

Florilegium

13-14.

morale

Compilations

general, see

tradition,''

d'art

provides

Barry

Journal

of

trans-

Oxoniense,

with

Taylor

the

religieux

pagan

Medie-

Warburg

and

REVUE BENEDICTINE

56

church
years
on

fathers,

later,

biblical

collection

and

the

imperial

models.
of

interestingly,

91

chaplain

The

proverbs

oral

to

Wipo

monk

Otloh

serve

as

based

of

of

the

the

decrees

ancients.

guilt

classics.

felt

93

century
and

of
I

by

Let

after

the

fathers

will

not

us

otherwise)

here

medieval
only

Heriger,
for

had

Christian

something

explore

and

the

churchmen

consider

against

as

Gratian,

assembled

much

the

his

Writing

few

exclusively

intended

alternative

to

his

those

of

92
to

say

long

they
who,

of

only

proverbia

Saint-Emmeram

Seneca'' and Cato'' currently in circulation.


The

90

tradition.

the

important

about

and

the

rich

read

tradition

and

though

wisdom

enjoyed

writing

earlier

over

evidence

question

of

the

of

the
a

(legal

place

of

secular learning within the church. He begins this issue with a conciliar
canon

from

reading
not

the

himself

pagan

to

own

aside,

90.

own

course.

to

use

use

of

the

and

The

spoils

those

of

the

95

read

read

bishops

from

Gratian

does

for

use

(Exod.

for

of

fathers
12:35-

Gratian,

the

them

the

church

Egypt''

erudition.
who

who

that

argument

precedent :

classical

those

prohibited

however,

94

biblical

between

voluptatem )

avoid

therein,

of

the

they

sacred

Indeed,

Fecunda

ratis,
Liber

Witte

c. 147, ed. R.

errors

de

96

the

pagans,

invert

Gratian

similar

Voigt

ed. E.

in

classics

his

for

learning''

( ad

and

( devote

that

would

have

sentiment

which

invertant )

they

for

the

approved

appears

of

already

in

(Halle, 1889). Sigebert of Gembloux refers

aenigmatibus

rusticanis

in his

Catalogus

de

viris

illus-

(Bern, 1974), p. 93.

91.

Wipo,

92.

Otloh of St-Emmeram,

Proverbia,

of

devoutly

learning.''

synthesis.

Egbert,

to

clear,

He praises the latter group because by reading [classical

to Egbert's work as the


tribus,

harsh

command

they

useful

Heriger's

this

Carthage, which

becomes

linked

their

(ad

literature],

purpose

It

distinguishes

eruditionem ).

find

was

Moses'

justify

pleasure''

Synod of

books.

advocate

wisdom

invoked
37)

398

profane

Bresslau,

ed. H.

Liber

MGH SS rer. Germ. [61] (1915), pp. 66-73.

proverbiorum ,

prol., ed. W.

Korfmacher

(Chica-

go, 1936), p. 1.
93.

See

e.g.

pp. 108-141,

Jean

and

Leclercq,

Idem,

L'amour

L'humanisme

des

des

lettres

et

moines

le

au

sir
de

de

Dieu

ge,''
a

moyen

(Paris,

Studi

1957),

medievali

ser. 3, vol. 10 (1969) : 69-116, which treats Otloh specifically on pp. 98-102.
94.
D. C.

Gratian,
Munro,

classics

in

the

Decretum

The
early

I,

dist.

attitude
middle

of

37,

the

ages,''

ed.

Friedberg

western

American

church

Society

(Leipzig,
toward

of

1879),

the

Church

cols.

study

History

of

135-140.

the

Latin

(1890) :

181-

194, closes with this example.


95.

See

Augustine,

De

doctrina

Christiana

2.40(60-61),

ed.

J.

Martin,

CCSL

32

(1962), pp. 73-75.


96.

Gratian,

Decretum

I,

dist.

37,

c.

8,

col.

138 :

Sed

seculares

litteras

quidam

legunt ad voluptatem, poetarum figmentis et verborum ornatu delectati; quidam vero


ad

eruditionem

eas

addiscunt,

ut

errores

gentilium

legendo

detestentur,

et

utilia,

que

in eis invenerint, ad usum sacrae eruditionis devote invertant. Tales laudabiliter seculares litteras addiscunt.''

57

J. R. WEBB

Heriger's

contemporary,

Stephen

the

ways

the

central

scholars

in

elegance.

middle

clearly

the

and

shows

inserted

by

of

contemporaries

as

an

ancillary
affected
authors

and

what

Christian

of

and

than

by

held

tradition.

transmission

of

of

at

(i.e.

the

be

in

and

not

common

universal

to

he
the

be

to

given

ground

found

monks

of

as

in

of

between

praise

of

this

Horace

and

tribute

their

in

to

beliefs

through

vehicle

than

It

who

enjoyed

greater

better

one

the

have

Stavelot

quite

well

millennium.

gain

literary

and

revealed
a

of

antiquity,

shows

viewed

may

truths

have

first

sentiments

have

of

their

alive

the

he

for

followers

order

(though

schools

tradition

classical

was

not

demonstrating

long

only

his

of

should

words

could

could

ideas

end

quotations

finding

to

copied)
to

of

that

causa

the

97

cathedral

from

ancients

erudition
The

between

job

the

to

texts

speech

Lobbes

he

Nor

these

of

the

milieux

his

belongs

content

preserved

benefit).

he

Heriger

classical
for

him,

extraordinary
penetrated

valedictory

Heriger

flood

98

distinguishes

of secular learning.

an

ideals

wisdom

his

these

and

imperial

that

done

the

Remaclus'

how

monastic

others

ages.

honored

99

has

classical

impacted

ostensibly

also

Jaeger

which

who

instrumentum

of the Bible and the


C.

Ruotger,

the

for

the

the

final

words of their founder.

Through
dom
we

of

these

the

see

two

themes,

ancients

that

schools

of

the

the

eleventh-century

apex.

important

in

figure

generations.
authors,
Rather

Rather

was

was

of

probably

fond

of

decrees

canon

diocese

Just

the

the

is,

as

of

with

transmission
Verona,

influential

inserting

pagan

the

and

` ge
Lie

of

the

law,

the

and

verge

to

well-versed

area

proverbs

as

into

well.
his

the

wis-

scholarship
of

Heriger

classics

very

this

fathers

classical
on

canon

also
in

of

law

their

was

an

subsequent
in

ancient

Like

Heriger,

writings,

and

he

often defended the study of the classics by likening them to the spoils
of

Egypt.''

97.
98.

100

Ruotger

And

C. Stephen

Heriger's

Vita Brunonis,

Jaeger

of courtly ideals, 935-1210


ist learning, 950-1150,''

student

Olbert

of

Gembloux

again

c. 8, MGH SS rer. Germ. n.s. 10, p. 9.

The origins of courtliness : civilizing trends and the formation


(Philadelphia, 1985),

Idem

Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift

, Cathedral schools and human-

61 (1987) : 596-616, and

envy of angels : cathedral schools and European social ideals, 950-1200


1994).
99.

sum

For

100.
pp.

later,

and

striking,

(written in 1522), in
See Peter L. D.

31-42.

Rather's

proves

example,

Opera omnia

Reid

favorite

see

Erasmus

The

Colloquia : Convivium religio-

1.3 (Amsterdam, 1972), pp. 251-252.

Tenth-century Latinity : Rather of Verona

proverb

Idem

(Philadelphia,

collection

seems

to

have

been

(Malibu, 1981),

those

of

Publilius

REVUE BENEDICTINE

58

to be an essential link in the chain : Olbert is credited with the copying


of classical texts for the library of Gembloux.

St.

Remaclus

represented

` ge.
Tongeren-Maastricht-Lie
to

us

like

golden

first

millennium

that

Heriger

or

that

the

his

wake

left
in

Notker
was

this

have

cache

knew

of

possibility

to

of

the

` ge
Lie

drawing

the

open.
and

to

could

otherwise.

have

subtleties
that

The

figure

ideal

century

claim

the

of

see

that

101.
fifty

vita.

By

values

longer

` cle,
sie

Olbert

43-85,

here,

of

secular

de

Gembloux,''

pp.

69-75,

geberts von Gembloux

works

and

copied.

See

say

However,
invasions

103

or

The

in

their

carved
and

this

goal

endowing
of

the

tenth,

continuity.

others,

Heriger

Freising

R. W ebb

Florilegium

con-

clm 6292, f. 143v-162r.

c. 42, p. 540, claims that Olbert had

Andre

Boutemy,

Un

grand

abbe

Annales de la Societe archeologique de Namur

Tino

classics,

was

cultural

Horace,

52.

to

accomplish

the

Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek,

Sigebert, Gesta abbatum Gemblacensium,

volumes

p.

not

Heriger

J.

Reece, Learning in the tenth century,

the

law.

Harvard University

Syrus;

of

the

Remaclus

of

look

end

barbarian

to

of Lobbes was innovative in his use of tradition

tains these proverbs :

is

in

canon

of

earlier

much

the

not

documentation

means

Great,

at

diocese

does

That

traditions

with

the

steeped

various

historical

Remaclus'

Gregory

been

of

century

churchmen

cultural

The

history

seventh

for

time

102

seventh

from

to

valuable

stress.

expansions
from

the

seemed

Heriger's

intellectual

through

diocese

venerable

learning,

Remaclus

of

wished

bishop-saint
the

might

belief

the

now

Whether

of

parishioners

destroyed

anew

it

believed

common

had

age

the

Though

101

41

du

XI

(1935) :

Licht, Untersuchungen zum biographischen Werk Si-

(Heidelberg, 2005), pp. 134-135, who notes Sigebert's attempt to

style Olbert as another Cassiodorus.

G.

Webb,

102.

On this concept see

103.

This article went to press before I was able to examine two articles by Robert

Babcock

Heriger

of

Lobbes

Cathedrals of words,'' pp. 304-306.

and

the

theological

tractates

of

Boethius,''

68:3 (2009) : 458-464, and Heriger or Notger? The autorship of the

Leodiensium,

the

Vita Remacli,

and

the

Vita Landoaldi,'' Latomus

Latomus

Gesta episcoporum

68:4

(2009) :

1027-

1049. The latter is relevant to my n. 12. In addition, Babcock (p. 1040) identifies the

quidam eloquentissimus

in my n. 69 as Paul the Deacon.