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(Common to All Branches)
Compiled by

Suresh. H. K & Sanjeev. K

(Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
With the support of:
Dept. of Civil Engineering.
Dept. of Electrical Engineering.
Dept. of Computer Science Engineering.
Dept.of Electronics & Communication Engineering.

BVBCET, Hubli-31.


Production and manufacturing processes

Many engineering processes are potentially hazardous and these include activities
such as casting, cutting, soldering, welding, etc. In addition, some processes
involve the use of hazardous materials and chemicals. Furthermore, even the most
basic and straightforward activities can potentially be dangerous if carried out
using inappropriate tools, materials, and methods. In all cases, the correct tools and
protective equipment should be used and proper training should be provided. In
addition, safety warnings and notices should be prominently placed in the
workplace and access to areas where hazardous processes take place should be
Restricted and carefully controlled so that only appropriately trained personnel can
be present. In addition, the storage of hazardous materials (chemicals, radioactive
substances, etc) requires special consideration and effective access control.
Processes that are particularly hazardous include:
I. Casting, forging and grinding
II. Welding and brazing
III. Chemical etching
IV. Heat treatment
V. Use of compressed air.
Before you get started on developing your engineering skills it is essential to have
an understanding of the appropriate statutory regulations as well as the safety rules
that apply in your school or college (and also the company in which you might be
working). Later you will put this knowledge to good use as you begin to practice
your skills and get to experience some real engineering activities.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS:1) Wear apron, shoes, Gloves and tight fitted clothes.
2) Use proper tools on each operation.
3) Dont keep any sharp tools on your pocket.
4) While using chisel cutting should be in direction away from yours body.
5) Tools being used should be well sharpened.
6) Be careful and attentive while working in the workshop.

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Department of Mechanical Engineering, BVBCET.


Materials and equipment handling

What do you already know? You are probably already well aware that many
engineering Processes, such as welding, casting, forging and grinding, can be
potentially dangerous. You will probably also be aware that some of the materials
used in engineering can be dangerous. These materials include fuels and fluids
such as isopropyl alcohol and ferric chloride. What you might not be aware of is
that many processes and materials that are usually thought of as being safe can
become dangerous as a result of misuse or mishandling. For example, soldering is
generally considered to be a safe process however the fumes produced from molten
solder can be highly toxic. Here, the combination of the process (soldering) with
the material (flux) can result in a hazardous condition (the generation of toxic

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These days small, medium and heavy industries are using automatic machines. But bench and
fitting work also plays a significant role for completing and finishing a job to the desired
accuracy. Most of semi-finished works can be accomplished with fairly good degree of accuracy
in a reasonable time through various kinds of quick machining operations. They still require
some minor operations to be performed to finish the job by hand. The term bench work denotes
the production of an article by hand on the bench. Where as fitting is the assembling of parts
together and removing metals to secure the necessary fit, and may or may not be carried out at
the bench. These two types of work require the use of a large number of hand tools and other
devices or equipments that involve a number of operations for accomplishing the work to the
desired shape and size. Some of the commonly used tools are discussed as under.


Tools used in bench and fitting shop are classified as under.
1. Marking tools
2. Measuring devices
3. Measuring instruments
4. Supporting tools
5. Holding tools
6. Striking tools
7. Cutting tools
8. Tightening tools, and
9. Miscellaneous tools

Measuring Tools:
Steel Rule

Steel rule is generally employed for purpose of measuring rough dimensions and laying out
them. It is always advisable to start measuring from 1 cm mark because the end of the rule is
generally worn out

Circumference Rule
It is commonly used for measuring or laying out or as a straight edge. The specialty in this rule is
that the circumference can be taken directly, below the diameter dimension.

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Fig. 19.2 shows the various types of scribers, which are sometimes called the metal Workers
pencil. These are made up of high carbon steel and are hardened from the front edge. Scriber is
used for scratching lines on the sheet metal during the process of laying out a job.

Prick Punch

Fig. 19.4 shows the prick punch, which is used for indentation marks. It is used to make small
punch marks on layout lines in order to make them last longer. The angle of prick punch is
generally ground to 30 or 40

Centre Punch
Fig. 19.4 shows the centre punch, which is used for locating centre for indentation mark or
drilling purposes. The angle of centre punch is generally ground to 60 or 90.

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Surface Plate

Fig. 19.10(a) shows the surface plate, which is a cast iron plate having generally a square top
well planed and square with adjacent machined faces. The top surface of the plate is finished true
by means of grinding and scrapping. It possesses a cast iron base, which is also machined true to
keep the top surface of the plate in a perfect horizontal plane. Its specificuse is in testing the
trueness of a finished surface, testing a try square, providing adequate bearing surface for Vblock and angle plates, etc. in scribing work.

Try Square

Fig. 19.11 shows the try square, which is also known as engineers try square. It is very
important tool required for scribing straight lines at right angles to a true surface or testing the
trueness of mutually normal surfaces. It is made in different sizes out of steel pieces. In
construction, it is similar to a carpenters try square but is comparatively more accurate. It can be
made either in one piece or in two pieces. It consists of a steel blade fitted into a steel stock of
rectangular cross-section. It is sufficiently hardened and tempered to suit the need.

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Measuring Instruments
Some common measuring instruments generally used in bench work or fitting shop are
Micrometer, vernier caliper, depth gauge, and vernier height gauge.

Steel Rule

It is the simplest measuring tool just like a scale used in fitting shop. A six inch semi flexible rule
is shown in Fig. 19.15 Other types of rules are described in the chapter on carpentry shop. Most
of the dimensions are measured by the steel rule in workshops.


Calipers are generally of two types inside and outside to make internal or external measurements.
They do not have direct scale reading. They transfer the measurement from jobs to scale or vice
versa. Fig. 19.16 shows a simple outside caliper. The caliper is held in a rule as shown in Fig.
19.17 to read the size. It is used to make external measurement such as thickness of plates,
diameter of sphere and cylinders. Fig. 19.18 shows the standard spring joint outside caliper.

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Vernier Caliper

Fig. 19.19 shows the vernier caliper, which is commonly used to measure accurately
(1) outside diameters of shafts,
(2) thicknesses of various parts,
(3) diameters of holes or rings and
(4) internal dimensions of hollow jobs or articles.
It works on the principle of vernier and can measure the dimensions to an accuracy of 0.02 mm.
For making a measurement of external dimensions, the job is placed between the fixed and the
movable jaws. The movable or the sliding jaw is moved until it almost contacts the job kept
against the fixed jaw. The sliding jaw assembly of the vernier caliper that carries the fine
adjustment screw should be clamped to the graduated beam with the help of adjustment clamp.
The two jaws are then brought into contact with the job by moving the sliding jaw with the help
of fine adjustment screw. The jaws should make now definite contact with the job but should not
be tight. The main slide assembly is then locked to the beam with help of clamp. The caliper is
then carefully removed from the job to prevent springing the jaws and the reading is taken. For
making a measurement of internal dimensions, the job is placed outward between the fixed and
the movable jaws meant for measuring inner dimension.

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Vernier Height Gauge

Fig. 19.20 illustrates the vernier height gauge, which is employed for measuring the height of
parts and in precision marking work. It consists of a heavy base, an accurately finished bottom, a
vertical bar mounted square to the base, carrying the main scale, a sliding head with vernier, an
auxiliary head with fine adjustment screw and nut and a bracket attached to the sliding head.
This bracket is provided with a clamp by means of which interchangeable jaws can be fixed over
there. The jaws can be fixed for measuring height or replaced by scribing jaws according to
requirement or need. The graduations on the height gauge are given in Fig. 19.21.

Holding Tools
Holding tools used in fitting shop comprises of basically vices and clamps. The clamps are C or
G clamp, plane slot, goose neck, double end finger, u-clamp, parallel jaw, and clamping block.

The vices are hand vice, bench vice, machine vices, carpenter vice, shaper vice, leg vice, pipe
vice, and pin vice.

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Bench vice

Fig 19.32 shows a bench vice commonly used in fitting shop for holding a variety of jobs
The most commonly used vice is the bench vice, it is also called parallel jaw bench vice because
it has two parallel jaws ,one is fixed and one is movable both made of cast steel. The vice
consists of a cast iron body, a handle, a square-threaded screw, and a nut-all made of mild steel.
It is used to hold work.

Clamping Divices

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There are two types of clamps namely C clamp and tool maker clamp. A C-clamp is shown in
Fig. 19.38 which is used for gripping the work during construction or assembly work. Whereas
tool maker clamp (Fig. 19.39) is used for gripping or holding smaller jobs.

Cutting Tools
The important common cutting tools are discussed below


The widely used hand cutting tool in workshops is the file. It is a hardened piece of high grade
steel with slanting rows of teeth. It is used to cut, smooth, or fit metal parts. It is used file or cut
softer metals. It consists of the following parts as shown in Fig. 19.40. The tang is the pointed
part, which fitted into the handle. The point is the end opposite the tang. The heel is next to the
handle. The safe edge or side of a file is that which has no teeth. It is classified on bases of type
or cut of teeth and sectional form.

Size of a File
Size of a file is specified by its length. It is the distance from the point to the heel, without the
tang. Files for fine work are usually from 100 to 200 mm and those for heavier work from 200 to
450 mm in length.

Classification of Files
The files are classified on basis of type of cuts, grade and shapes. These are further sub classified
as under

(A) Type of Cut

The most commonly used files according to cuts of teeth are shown in Fig.19.41.
(i) Single
(ii) Double and
(iii) Rasp

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(B) Grade of Cut

Files are cut with teeth of different grades. Those in general are
(i) Smooth
(ii) Second cut
(iii) Bastered
(iv) Rough

Cut or teeth on files

(a) Single cut file

(b) Double cut file
(c) Rasp cut file.
Teeth or cuts of files can be categorized into two groups namely single cut and double cut. In
single cut files, the teeth are cut parallel to other across the file at an angle of about 60 to the
centre line of the file. Such types of file are named as flats and are widely used on hard metal.
A double-cut file possesses two sets of teeth, the over-cut teeth being cut at about 60 and the up
cut at 75 to 80 to the centre line. Single-cut and double-cut files are further classified according
to the coarseness or spacing between the rows of the teeth. In descending order of roughness,
such files are listed as:
(i) Smooth
(ii) Dead smooth
(iii) Rough
(iv) Bastard
(v) Second cut
(vi) Super smooth
These files are used for finishing general surface work. Both faces of file are double cut and both
edges are single cut. Such files are commonly tapered in width and thickness. General
classification of files based on shapes or cross sections are shown in Fig. 19.42 along with their
uses are as under:

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(C) Shape of File

Common shapes of files are having different cross sections, which cover most requirements

Hand files
Hand files are commonly used for finishing surface work. Both faces of the file are double cut.
Either both edges are single cut or one is uncut to provide a safe edge.

Flat files
Flat files are generally used for filing flat surfaces in fitting shop.

Triangular files
Triangular files are commonly used for filing corners between 60 and 90. They are double cut
on all faces.

Square files
Square files are commonly used for filing in corners in jobs. They are double cut on all sides and

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Round files
Round files are generally used for opening out holes and rounding inside corners. Rough,
bastard, second cut and smooth files under 15 cm in length are single cut.

Half round files

These files comprises of flat and half round sides. The flat side of half round file is used for
general work and the half round side for filing concave surfaces. These files are double cut on
the flat side. The curved side is single cut, smooth or second cut.

Knife-edge files
These files are commonly used for cleaning out acute-angled corners. The two faces of these
files are double cut, while the edge is single cut. These files are made in sizes from 10 to 20 cm
of various shapes and cuts. They are extremely delicate and are used for fine work such as
pierced designed in thin metal.


Scrapers are made up of old files and the cutting edge of scraper is hardened and tempered. They
are mainly used to scrap metal surfaces by rubbing the work surface. They also produce a
bearing surface, which has been filed or machined earlier. The scrapers are hand cutting tools
used for removing metal from surfaces in form of thin slices or flakes to produce smooth and
fine surfaces. Machined surfaces are not always perfectly true. If a very true surface is needed,
the high spots must be located and removed. It is normally done with the help of a scraper. The
scrapers are made in a variety of lengths from 100 mm upwards and in many shapes, depending
upon the type of work to be done. The following types of scrappers according to shape are
commonly classified as
(i) Flat
(ii) Hook
(iii) Triangular
(iv) Half round

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Chisel is one of the most important tools of the sheet metal, fitting and forging shop. It is widely
used for cutting and chipping the work piece. It is made of high carbon steel or tool steel. It is in
the form of a rod having cutting edge at one end, hexagonal or octagonal body and striking head
at the other end. The size of a chisel is described by its length and width of edge. When the
cutting edge becomes blunt, it is again sharpened by grinding. For cutting the job or work piece
with the chisel, it is placed vertically on the job or work piece and hammering is carried out upon
its head. But for chipping, the chisel is inclined at 40-70 with the job or work piece. The angle
of the cutting edge of the chisel is 35-70according to the metals to be cut.

A drill is a multi point cutting tool used to produce or enlarge a hole in the work piece. It usually
consists of two cutting edges set an angle with the axis. Broadly there are three.

Types of drills:
1. Flat drill,
2. Straight-fluted drill, and
3. Twist drill
Flat drill is usually made from a piece of round steel which is forged to shape and ground to size,
then hardened and tempered. The cutting angle is usually 90 deg. and the relief or clearance at
the cutting edge is 3 to 8 deg. The disadvantage of this type of drill is that each time the drill is
ground the diameter is reduced. Twist drill is the most common type of drill in use today. The
various types of twist drills (parallel shank type and Morse taper shank type) are shown in Fig.

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Bench drilling machine (Sensitive Drilling Machine)

It is a small machine used for drilling small holes in light jobs. In this drilling machine, the work
piece is mounted on the table and drill is fed into the work by purely hand control. High rotating
speed of the drill and hand feed are the major features of sensitive drilling machine. As the
operator senses the drilling action in the work piece, at any instant, it is called sensitive drilling
machine. A sensitive drilling machine consists of a horizontal table, a vertical column, a head
supporting the motor and driving mechanism, and a vertical spindle. Drills of diameter from 1.5
to 15.5 mm can be rotated in the spindle of sensitive drilling machine. Depending on the
mounting of base of the machine, it may be classified into following types:
1. Bench mounted drilling machine, and
2. Floor mounted drilling machine

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Hand hacksaw
Hand hacksaws are made in two types namely a fixed frame and adjustable frame oriented as
shown in Fig.19.49 and Fig.19.50. The former possesses solid frame in which the length cannot
be changed and where as the latter comprises the adjustable frame which has a back that can be
lengthened or shortened to hold blades of different sizes. The hand hacksaws are commonly used
for sawing all soft metal. They consist of a frame, handle, prongs, tightening screw and nut, and
blade as shown in figure. Its frame is made to hold the blade tightly. However a power operated
hacksaw can also be used for cutting raw materials in sizes in case of continuous cutting
generally occurring frequently in fitting or in machine shops

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Striking Tools

Various types of hammers (such as ball peen hammer, straight peen hammer, cross-peen
hammer, double face hammer and soft face hammer) are acting as striking tools. These types
have been described in chapters relating to sheet metal work and forging work. The common
type of ball peen hammer and their parts are shown in Fig. 19.51.

Ball peen hammer: This is also called as engineers hammer or chipping hammer. The peen
as a shape of a ball which is hardened and polished. This hammer is chiefly used for chipping
and riveting. The size of this hammer varies from 0.11 to 0.91kg.

Cross peen hammer: This is similar to ball peen hammer in size and shape except the peen
which is across the shaft or eye.. This hammer is chiefly used for bending,stretching,hammering
in to shoulders, inside curves, etc. The size of this hammer varies from 0.22 to 0.91kg.
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Straight peen hammer: This hammer has a peen straight with the shaft. This hammer is
chiefly used for stretching or peening the metal. The size of this hammer varies from 0.11 to


The operations commonly performed in bench and fitting work may be classified as under.
1. Marking

2. Chipping

3. Filing

4. Scrapping

5. Sawing

6. Drilling

7. Reaming

8. Tapping

9. Grinding and

10. Polishing

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Welding is a process for joining two similar or dissimilar metals by fusion. It joins different
metals/alloys, with or without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler
metal. The fusion of metal takes place by means of heat. The heat may be generated either from
combustion of gases, electric arc, electric resistance or by chemical reaction. During some type
of welding processes, pressure may also be employed, but this is not an essential requirement for
all welding processes. Welding provides a permanent joint but it normally affects the metallurgy
of the components. It is therefore usually accompanied by post weld heat treatment for most of
the critical components. The welding is widely used as a fabrication and repairing process in
industries. Some of the typical applications of welding include the fabrication of ships, pressure
vessels, automobile bodies, off-shore platform, bridges, welded pipes, sealing of nuclear fuel and
explosives, etc.
Most of the metals and alloys can be welded by one type of welding process or the other.
However, some are easier to weld than others. To compare this ease in welding term
weldability is often used. The weldability may be defined as property of a metal which
indicates the ease with which it can be welded with other similar or dissimilar metals.
Weldability of a material depends upon various factors like the metallurgical changes that occur
due to welding, changes in hardness in and around the weld, gas evolution and absorption, extent
of oxidation, and the effect on cracking tendency of the joint. Plain low carbon steel (C-0.12%)
has the best weldability amongst metals. Generally it is seen that the materials with high
castability usually have low weldability.

Welding joints
Some common welding joints are shown in Fig. 17.3. Welding joints are of generally of two
major kinds namely lap joint and butt joint. The main types are described as under.

Lap weld joint

Single-Lap Joint
This joint, made by overlapping the edges of the plate, is not recommended for most work. The
single lap has very little resistance to bending. It can be used satisfactorily for joining two
cylinders that fit inside one another.
Double-Lap Joint
This is stronger than the single-lap joint but has the disadvantage that it requires twice as much
Tee Fillet Weld
This type of joint, although widely used, should not be employed if an alternative design is

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Butt weld joint

Single- Vee Butt Weld
It is used for plates up to 15.8 mm thick. The angle of the vee depends upon the technique being
used, the plates being spaced approximately 3.2 mm.
Double-Vee Butt Weld
It is used for plates over 13 mm thick when the welding can be performed on both sides of the
plate. The top vee angle is either 60 or 80, while the bottom angle is 80, depending on the
technique being used.

Welding Positions
As shown in Fig. 17.4, there are four types of welding positions, which are given as:
1. Flat or down hand position
2. Horizontal position
3. Vertical position
4. Overhead position

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Horizontal Welding Position

In horizontal position, the plane of the work piece is vertical and the deposited weld head is
horizontal. The metal deposition rate in horizontal welding is next to that achieved in flat or
down hand welding position. This position of welding is most commonly used in welding vessels
and reservoirs.

Veridical Welding Position

In vertical position, the plane of the work piece is vertical and the weld is deposited upon a
vertical surface. It is difficult to produce satisfactory welds in this position due to the effect of
the force of gravity on the molten metal. The welder must constantly control the metal so that it
does not run or drop from the weld. Vertical welding may be of two types viz., vertical-up and
vertical-down. Vertical-up welding is preferred when strength is the major consideration. The
vertical-down welding is used for a sealing operation and for welding sheet metal.

Overhead Welding Position

The overhead position is probably even more difficult to weld than the vertical position. Here the
pull of gravity against the molten metal is much greater. The force of the flame against the weld
serves to counteract the pull of gravity. In overhead position, the plane of the work piece is
horizontal. But the welding is carried out from the underside. The electrodes held with its
welding end upward. It is a good practice to use very short arc and basic coated electrodes for
overhead welding.


1. Welding is more economical and is much faster process as compared to other processes
(riveting, bolting, casting etc.)
2. Welding, if properly controlled results permanent joints having strength equal or sometimes
more than base metal.
3. Large number of metals and alloys both similar and dissimilar can be joined by welding.
4. General welding equipment is not very costly.
5. Portable welding equipments can be easily made available.
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6. Welding permits considerable freedom in design.

7. Welding can join welding jobs through spots, as continuous pressure tight seams, end-to-end
and in a number of other configurations.
8. Welding can also be mechanized.

1. It results in residual stresses and distortion of the workpieces.
2. Welded joint needs stress relieving and heat treatment.
3. Welding gives out harmful radiations (light), fumes and spatter.
4. Jigs, and fixtures may also be needed to hold and position the parts to be welded
5. Edges preparation of the welding jobs are required before welding
6. Skilled welder is required for production of good welding
7. Heat during welding produces metallurgical changes as the structure of the welded joint is not
same as that of the parent metal.


Welding processes may be classified on the basis of the basic principles employed as: (1)
Pressure Welding, (2) Fusion Welding.
In Pressure welding, the parts to be joined are heated only up to the plastic state and then fused
together by applying external pressure. The different types of pressure welding are: Forge
Welding, Spot welding, Resistance Welding, etc.
In Fusion welding, which is also called as non-pressure welding, the joint of the two parts is
heated to the molten state and allowed to solidify. The different types of the fusion welding are:
Arc welding and Gas welding.


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The process, in which an electric arc between an electrode and a work piece or between two
electrodes is utilized to weld base metals, is called an arc welding process. The basic principle of
arc welding is shown in Fig 17.9(a). However the basic elements involved in arc welding process
are shown in Fig. 17.9(b). Most of these processes use some shielding gas while others employ
coatings or fluxes to prevent the weld pool from the surrounding atmosphere. The various arc
welding processes are:
1. Carbon Arc Welding
2. Shielded Metal Arc Welding
3. Flux Cored Arc Welding
4. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
5. Gas Metal Arc Welding
6. Plasma Arc Welding
7. Atomic Hydrogen Welding
8. Electroslag Welding
9. Stud Arc Welding
10. Electrogas Welding

Arc Welding Equipment

Arc welding equipment, setup and related tools and accessories are shown in Figure. However
some common tools of arc welding are shown separately through Fig. 17.10-17.17. Few of the
important components of arc welding setup are described as under.

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Arc welding power source

Both direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) are used for electric arc welding, each
having its particular applications. DC welding supply is usually obtained from generators driven
by electric motor or if no electricity is available by internal combustion engines. For AC welding
supply, transformers are predominantly used for almost all arc welding where mains electricity
supply is available. They have to step down the usual supply voltage (200-400 volts) to the
normal open circuit welding voltage (50-90 volts). The following factors influence the selection
of a power source:
1. Type of electrodes to be used and metals to be welded
2. Available power source (AC or DC)
3. Required output
4. Duty cycle
5. Efficiency
6. Initial costs and running costs
7. Available floor space
8. Versatility of equipment

Tools Used In Welding Shop

Welding cables
Welding cables are required for conduction of current from the power source through the
electrode holder, the arc, the work piece and back to the welding power source. These are
insulated copper or aluminum cables.

Electrode holder

Electrode holder is used for holding the electrode manually and conducting current to it. These
are usually matched to the size of the lead, which in turn matched to the amperage output of the
arc welder. Electrode holders are available in sizes that range from 150 to 500 Amps.
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Welding Electrodes
An electrode is a piece of wire or a rod of a metal or alloy, with or without coatings. An arc is set
up between electrode and work piece. Welding electrodes are classified into following types(1) Consumable Electrodes
(a) Bare Electrodes
(b) Coated Electrodes
(2) Non-consumable Electrodes
(a) Carbon or Graphite Electrodes
(b) Tungsten Electrodes
Consumable electrode is made of different metals and their alloys. The end of this electrode
starts melting when arc is struck between the electrode and work piece. Thus consumable
electrode itself acts as a filler metal. Bare electrodes consist of a metal or alloy wire without any
flux coating on them. Coated electrodes have flux coating which starts melting as soon as an
electric arc is struck. This coating on melting performs many functions like prevention of joint
from atmospheric contamination, arc stabilizers etc.
Non-consumable electrodes are made up of high melting point materials like carbon, pure
tungsten or alloy tungsten etc. These electrodes do not melt away during welding. But
practically, the electrode length goes on decreasing with the passage of time, because of
oxidation and vaporization of the electrode material during welding. The materials of non
consumable electrodes are usually copper coated carbon or graphite, pure tungsten, thoriated
or zirconiated tungsten.

Hand Screen

Hand screen (Fig. 17.12) used for protection of eyes and supervision of weld bead.

Wire brush
Wire brush (Fi. 17.14) is used to clean the surface to be weld.
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Chipping hammer
Chipping Hammer (Fig. 17.13) is used to remove the slag by striking.

Protective clothing
Operator wears the protective clothing such as apron to keep away the exposure of direct heat to
the body.

Electrode materials

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The electrode material may be tungsten, or tungsten alloy (thoriated tungsten or zirconiated
tungsten). Alloy-tungsten electrodes possess higher current carrying capacity, produce a steadier
arc as compared to pure tungsten electrodes and high resistance to contamination.
Electric power source: Both AC and DC power source can be used for TIG welding. DC is
referred for welding of copper, copper alloys, nickel and stainless steel whereas DC reverse
polarity (DCRP) or AC is used for welding aluminium, magnesium or their alloys. DCRP
removes oxide film on magnesium and aluminium.

Safety Recommendations for ARC Welding

The beginner in the field of arc welding must go through and become familiar with these general
safety recommendations which are given as under.
1. The body or the frame of the welding machine shall be efficiently earthed. Pipe lines
containing gases or inflammable liquids or conduits carrying electrical conductors shall not be
used for a ground return circuit All earth connections shall be mechanically strong and
electrically adequate for the required current.
2. Welding arc in addition to being very is a source of infra-red and ultra-violet light also;
consequently the operator must use either helmet or a hand-shield fitted with a special filter glass
to protect eyes
3. Excess ultra-violet light can cause an effect similar to sunburn on the skin of the welder
4. The welders body and clothing are protected from radiation and burns caused by sparks and
flying globules of molten metal with the help of the following:
5. Gloves protect the hands of a welder.
6. Leather or asbestos apron is very useful to protect welders clothes and his trunk and thighs
while seated he is doing welding.
7. For overhead welding, some form of protection for the head is required
8. Leather skull cap or peaked cap will do the needful.
9. Leather jackets and 1ather leggings are also available as clothes for body protection.
10. Welding equipment shall be inspected periodically and maintained in safe working order at
all times.
11. Arc welding machines should be of suitable quality.
12. All parts of welding set shall be suitably enclosed and protected to meet the usual service
13. Welders and workers need to be protected from welding rays, f1ying sparks, metal globules
and metal spatter, hot slag particles, hot stubs, fumes and gases when welding in confined
spaces, e.g., rail tank wagon, falling when welding at a height from the ground.
14. In AC arc welding machines, in transformers, the secondary circuit shall be thoroughly
insulated from the primary. Input terminal shall be completely enclosed and accessible only by
means of tools.
15. The primary side of the transformer shall be provided with suitable wire terminals inside the
machine case.
16. Welding (secondary) terminals shall be so arranged that current carrying parts are not
exposed to accidental contact.
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17. In a transformer, the welding circuit should be quite separate from power circuit, so that there
is no risk of the welder suffering serious shock or burns through power voltage appearing across
the electric holder.
18. At or near each welding machine, a disconnecting switch shall provide.
19. Control apparatus provided with the welding machine shall enclose except for the operating
wheels, levers, etc.
20. Transformer windings be suction or compressed-air cleaned periodically.
21. Before undertaking any maintenance work on welding machine disconnects them from the
main supply.
22. As regards other arc welding equipments, electrode holders should be soundly connected to
the welding lead
23. They should be of adequate rating for the maximum welding current to prevent them from
heating up and be coming too hot to handle.
24. Electrode holder sha1l be provided with discs or shields to protect the hands of the welder
from heat of the arc. Installation of all metallic of current carrying parts, including the jaws
which grip the electrodes, is recommended.
25. Hot electrode holders shall not be permitted to dip in water because the retained moisture
may cause an electric shock.
26. Welding cables shall be of completely insulated, flexible type. They should be capable of
handling the maximum current requirements of the work in progress, taking into account the
duty cycle under which the welder is working in case the cable insulation is damaged, do not
operate the equipment.
27. The welding cable should be free from repair or splices up to a minimum distance of three
metres from the electrode holder.
28. Fully insulated cable connectors of capacity at least equivalent to that of the cable shall be
used to connect two cables together.
29. Welding cables shall be kept dry and free from grease and oil to avoid premature breakdown
of insulation.
30. Arc welding machines should be properly ground (earthed).
31. Construction of arc welding machines should be such that

Like soldering, brazing is a process of joining metals without melting the base metal. Filler
material used for brazing has liquidus temperature above 450C and below the solidus
temperature of the base metal. The filler metal is drawn into the joint by means of capillary
action (entering of fluid into tightly fitted surfaces). Brazing is a much widely used joining
process in various industries because of its many advantages. Due to the higher melting point of
the filler material, the joint strength is more than in soldering. Almost all metals can be joined by
brazing except aluminum and magnesium which cannot easily be joined by brazing. Dissimilar
metals, such as stainless steel to cast iron can be joined by brazing. Because of the lower
temperatures used there is less distortion in brazed joints. Also, in many cases the original heat
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treatment of the plates being joined is not affected by the brazing heat. The joint can be quickly
finished without much skill. Because of the simplicity of the process it is often an economical
joining method with reasonable joint strength. The brazed joints are reasonably stronger,
depending on the strength of the filler metal used. But the brazed joint is generally not useful for
high temperature service because of the low melting temperature of the filler metal. The color of
the filler metal in the brazed joint also, may not match with that of the base metal. Because the
filler metal reaches the joint by capillary action, it is essential

Soldering is a method of joining similar or dissimilar metals by heating them to a suitable
temperature and by means of a filler metal, called solder, having liquidus temperuatre not
exceeding 450C and below the solidus of the base material. Though soldering obtains a good
joint between the two plates, the strength of the joint is limited by the strength of the filler metal
used.Solders are essentially alloys of lead and tin. To improve the mechanical properties and
temperature resistance, solders are added to other alloying elements such as zinc, cadmium and
silver in various proportions. Soldering is normally used for obtaining a neat leak proof joint or a
low resistance electrical joint. The soldered joints are not suitable for high temperature service
because of the low melting temperatures of the filler metals used. The soldering joints also need
to be cleaned meticulously to provide chemically clean surfaces to obtain a proper bond. Solvent
cleaning, acid pickling and even mechanical cleaning are applied before soldering. To remove
the oxides from the joint surfaces and to prevent the filler metal from oxidizing, fluxes are
generally used in soldering. Rosin and rosin plus alcohol based fluxes are least active type and
are generally used for electrical soldering work. Because of the content of acids, these are
corrosive at soldering temperature. They can be easily cleaned after the soldering. The organic
fluxes such as zinc chloride and ammonium chloride are quick acting and produce efficient
joints. But because of their corrosive nature the joint should be thoroughly cleaned of the entire
flux residue from the joint. These are to be used for only non-electrical soldering work. Fluxes
are normally available in the form of powder, paste, liquid or in the form of core in the solder
metal. It is necessary that the flux should remain in the liquid form at the soldering temperature
and be reactive to be of proper use. The most commonly used soldering methods include
soldering iron (flame or electrically heated), dip soldering, and wave soldering. A soldering iron
is a copper rod with a thin tip which can be used for flattening the soldering material. The
soldering iron can be heated by keeping in a furnace or by means of an internal electrical
resistance whose power rating may range from 15 W for the electronic applications to 200 W for
sheet metal joining. This is the most convenient method of soldering but somewhat slower
compared to the other methods. In dip soldering, a large amount of solder is melted in a tank
which is closed. The parts that are to be soldered are first cleaned properly and dipped in a flux
bath as per the requirement. These are then dipped into the molten solder pool and lifted with the
soldering complete. The wave soldering is a variant of this method wherein the part to be
soldered (e.g. an electronic printed circuit board, PCB) is not dipped into the solder tank, but a
wave is generated in the tank so that the solder comes up and makes a necessary joint.

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Wood obtained from tree is the chief product of forest. It has been universally acceptable as raw
material for manufacturing wooden products or appliances. From the pre-historic times, wood
has been utilized an important source of getting heat by firing it. It has been utilized as an mazor
construction material for making shelter for the basic need of human being. As the civilization
advanced, it gained tremendous importance as special material for boatbuilding, for piling to
support docks and railroad tracks. But in modern times, with the advance of wood chemistry, the
uses of wood have recognized its importance in manufacturing cheap useful products used in day
today life such as paper, furniture, textiles, plastics and hundreds of chemicals and extractives.
The wooden products as plywood have superseded in some products in comparison metallic and
ceramic materials. Compressed wood has also replaced some metals for gears and die casts. In
war-time, in Europe, wood has been used as a source of wood gas for propelling automobiles.
Similarly clothing has-been made from wood cotton and wood wool. The useful work on wood is
being generally carried out in a most common shop known as carpentry shop. The work
performed in carpentry shops comprises of cutting, shaping and fastening wood and other
materials together to produce the products of woods. Therefore, carpentry shop deals with the
timber, various types of tools and the art of joinery. In wood, there are two types of cells namely
radiating outward from the center of wood cross-section and running parallel to the length of
wood. Trees are generally classified into exogenous and endogenous types according to manner
of growth. Exogenous types are also known as outward growing trees which produce timber for
commercial use. They grow outward and the additional growth which occurs each year takes
place on the outside of the trunk just underneath its bark, while the innermost timber continues to
mature. Each time the growth cycle is completed the tree gains one more growth ring or annual
ring. In counting these rings, the age of a tree can be determined, as each ring represents one year
of growth. Endogenous trees are also known as inward growing. They grow inwards i.e., every
fresh layer of sapwood is added inside instead of outside. Cane, bamboo and coconut are
examples of such endogenous trees. Timber is a common name imparted to wood suitable for
engineering, construction and building purposes. Timber is obtained from trees by cutting the
main body of tree in the suitable sizes after the full growth of tree. The timber structure is
consisting of annual rings, heartwood, sapwood, pith, cambium layer, bast, medullary rays and
bark. Commercial timbers are commonly classified into hardwoods and softwoods. Hardwoods
comprises of oak and beech that have a broad leaf. Whereas softwoods include pine and spruce
which have narrow needle like leaf.

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Commonly used tools to shape wood for various types of joints by driving in and driving out nail
involve cutting and smoothening of wood surfaces. A broad classification of tools used in the
wood working or carpentry shop are measuring and marking tools, supporting and holding tools,
cutting tools, striking tools and miscellaneous tools. Most of commonly used tool and measuring
devices as mentioned above are in chapter of fitting and sheet metal work also. Other some
important such tools and instruments are discussed as under.

Marking and Measuring Tools

Marking in order to make wooden components of the required size or the marking of exact
dimensions on the wooden piece is essential to produce quality jobs. A number of marking and
measuring instruments namely Rules, Try Square, Combination Set, Bevel Gauge, Marking
Gauge, Mortise Gauge, Cutting Gauge, Spirit Level, Trammel and Compass are commonly used
for this purpose. Some of commonly used marking and measuring instruments are discussed as
in chapter of fitting and sheet metal work under.

Wire Guage:

The wire gauge is a flat and circular steel sheet metal piece having slots all along its periphery as
shown in Fig. 19.22. These slots have different standard sizes, which are engraved near their
bottom. The size of each slot represents the correct diameter of the wire or thickness of the sheet
of which it represents the gauge. The gauge number varies inversely as the size of the wire. That
is the higher the gauge number, the thinner the wire and vice versa.

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Rules are straight edge of wood or steel engraved in millimeters- centimeters or in inches-foot or
in both. Theses are used to mark, measure the length, widths and thicknesses of wood part. Figs.
9.4.-9.6 show steel rule, folding rule and flexible steel rule. These rules are available in different
sizes and designs. Metallic taps bearing sizes 6", 12" or 18" are used for general measuring work.
For example 24" folding tape and 5" or 6" steel tape are used measuring larger dimensions. An
important small instrument in any shop is a good quality straight-edge bench rules. These rules
are manufactured of either metal or wood. They are used to check for straightness and to
measure and mark straight lines. The bench rule may be graduated in inches, millimeters or both.
The length of the bench rule may be 12", 24" or 36". The 36" rule is called yardstick. Another
type of rule is folding two-foot rule which is more convenient than a straight 24" rule. The
zigzag rules are used to measure longer stock when exact measurements are not so important.
One of These rules, when open may be of usually 6 or 8 feet long. The push pull steel tape or
tape rule is a very compact metal rule that comes in lengths of 6, 8 or 10 feet. There is a hook at
the end to slip over the edge of the bold. It is flexible to bends easily and can measure curved
surfaces too. It is very good for measuring the inside depth of the hole of components also.

Try Square
Try square is generally utilized for measuring and checking of squareness, perpendicularity,
dimensions, testing of finish of planned surfaces and drawing parallel and perpendicular lines.
The steel blade and metallic or wooden handle of try square are at right angles to each other. Try
square is used for testing the level, edge and square ness of the wooden surfaces. It is also used
for marking lines across the face or edge of wooden block. There are graduations along the blade
of the rule that are used for measuring and marking purposes on the wooden jobs. The blade of
try square is made of hard tempered steel of non-rusting kind. It is seldom used for hammering

Bevel Gauge
Bevel gauge is also known as an adjustable bevel which is mainly used for marking, measuring
and inspecting angles from 0 to 180 degree. Its blade can be adjusted and set to any desired

Marking Gauge
The marking gauge is made of wood which is important tool utilized to make lines at a uniform
distance from the edge of a board or piece of work and is used principally when preparing
wooden components to size before jointing. The marking gauge like the mortise gauge and
cutting gauge in use should be positioned correctly. For marking purposes, the gauge is drawn
towards the body or pushed away from it but in either case, if the spur does not trail. It will tend
to jump and run with the grain. Thumb screw of the marking gauge locks the stock at any
position. The spur made of hardened steel should be ground to a fine point. And for ease of
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working, it should not project too far from the face of the stem. It is commonly used to mark or
scribe line parallel to and at any desired distance from a finished edge or face of a surface

Cutting Gauge
Cutting gauge is similar in construction to the marking gauge but having a knife in place of the
marking pin or spur. It can be utilized for gauging and marking deep lines across the grain of
wood in thicker sections. It is also used for setting out the shoulder-lines of lap dovetails and
similar joints, as well as for trimming veneers parallel to the edge of surface before laying a
cross-band. Cross banding is the laying of a strip of cross-grained veneer around the edge of a
surface for example the edges of a table top, box lid or drawer front. This gauge is very useful
for making very small rebates to receive inlay lines and may be used in place of marking gauge.
Inlay lines are thin strips of wood which can be glued into a rebate cut around the edge of a
veneered surface.

Mortise Gauge

Figure shows a mortise gauge. This is an improved form of marking gauge which consists of
main components as fixed pin, sliding pin, brass strip, stem, rose wood stock and thumb screw.
The fixed pin of the gauge is attached to a short brass strip which is screwed to the stem. The
sliding pin is fixed to a long brass strip or slider is adjusted by means of a thumbscrew. The
threaded portion of which engages in a cylindrical nut which is embedded in the stem. The stock
is locked in position by a metal set screw. This gauge is used for marking out of the parallel sides
of a mortises or tenons and other similar joints.

Holding And Supporting Tools

Sometimes it is desirable to support and gold a wooden board in a special manner while the work
is being carried out. For these purposes, various supporting and holding devices are needed some
of which are discussed as under.

Work Bench
Every carpenter generally needs a good solid bench or table of rigid construction of hardwood on
which he can perform or carry out the carpentry operations. Work bench should be equipped
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with a vice for holding the work and with slots and holes for keeping the common hand tools.
One jaw of the vice is tightened to the table and is kept moveable for holding the articles Work
benches are built solidly with good heavy tops for providing a good working surface for cutting,
as well. The vice on the bench is equipped with an adjustable dog that is, a piece of wood or
metal can be moved up and down in the outside jaw of the vice.

Carpenter Vice

Carpenter vice (Fig. 9.8) is very important tool in wood working shops for holding wooden jobs.
There are several varieties of vices, each possessing its own particular merit.

Cutting Tools
Various kinds of cutting tools namely various kinds of saws, planes, chisels, scraper, files, and
rasp adze and axe and boring tools such as brace and bits, bradawl, auger, gimlet are used in the
carpentry shop. Few important types of cutting tools are described as under.

Saws are wood cutting tools having handle and a thin steel blade with small sharp teeth along the
edge. They are utilized to cut wood to different sizes and shapes used for making the wooden
joints that hold parts together. They can be further classified into three major types namely hand
Saws (Rip, Cross-cut, Panel, Keyhole and, Pad saw), Snuff Saws (Tenon and Dovetail) and
Frame Saws (Coping, Bow and Fret). Few important types of saws are
Crosscut Saw
Turning Saw
Dovetail Saw
Compass Saw
Keyhole Saw
Rip Saw
Rip Saw: The rip saw is shown in Fig. It is used for cutting timber along the grains. The teeth
of rip saw are chisel-shaped and are set alternately to the right left. A 24" long point sawis a

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good for sawing work. Depending upon the saw is designed to rip or cross-cut, theshape of the
teeth will also vary. In the case of a ripsaw, the teeth are shaped like chisels.

A plane is a special tool with a cutting blade for smoothing and removing wood as shavings. It is
just like a chisel fixed in a wooden or steel body. Fig. 9.13 shows a simple plane. The modern
plane has been developed from the chisel. They can also be classified as jack plane, smooth
plane, jointer plane, trying plane, rabbit plane, circular plane and fore plane. Few important
planes are discussed as under.

Jack Plane

Jack plane is most commonly used plane which is shown in Fig. 9.14 which comprises of its
body about 40 cm long, blade 5-6 cm wide and handle. It is good for rough surfaces that require
a heavier chip. It is ideal for obtaining a smooth and flat surface. There are actually forty-six
different parts of jack plane, the carpenter needs only acquainted with the working or regulating
parts. The main working parts are the cutting blade or plane iron. The adjusting nut is operated to
raise or lower the blade and the adjusting lever which regulates the blade so as to make possible
an even or slanted cut. The cutting blade of the jack plane is guarded with a metal cap which is
adjusted on top of the blade to within about 2.4 mm of the cutting edge. The metal cap of the
jack plane eases the cutting action by curling and breaking off the wood shavings evenly, thus
preventing splitting or splintering of the wooden part.

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Files and Rasps

Files and Rasps are shown in Fig. 9.24. They are of used for maintaining other wood working
tools and equipment. They are made of hardened tool steel which is tempered and they should
never be dropped as they are very brittle to break. They are of various types depending upon
their size, shape, cuts and degree of their coarseness.


An adze (Fig. 9.25) is used for rough cutting, squaring, to chop inside curves and to produce on
cave surfaces. Its outer face is convex, inner face concave and edge is beveled to form a cutting
edge. It is made of carbon steel.

The auger (Fig. 9.29) is a carpentry hand tool (made up of steel bar) and is used to make holes in
the wooden jobs. It possesses a screw point to center the tool at the point where hole is to be
produced in the wooden part. Fluted body of the auger is to allow removal of wooden chips from
wooden jobs using handle to apply pressure to rotate the auger for making the hole. Holes up to
25 mm diameter can be produced.

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Striking tools
Mallets and various types of hammers are generally used as striking tools in carpentry shop. A
hammer delivers a sharp blow, its steel face being likely to damage the chisel handle whereas the
softer striking surface such as mallet will give better result. Some of important such tools are
discussed as under.


A mallet is a short handled wooden hammer with a large head as shown in Fig. 9.30. It is used to
strike a chisel for heavy cutting waste wood, from joints such as mortises and halving joints and
also for removing unwanted, wood on shaped work etc. Mallet is frequently also used to tap parts
of a project together during the assembly process. always necessary for carrying out the task. Is
driven into former by means of a screw driver. Bolts and nuts are used only where very heavy
components are to be fastened together viz., wooden roof trusses and folding type furniture etc.
The standard B.S.W. mild steel bolts and nuts are used.

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All wooden objects whether doors, windows, furniture, pattern, core boxes, handicrafts, toys,
cots, etc., are all assembled with joints. The various common used wood working joints are given
through Fig. 9.34 to Fig. 9.41.

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A modern bicycle by definition is a rider-powered vehicle with two wheels in tandem, powered
by the rider turning pedals that are connected to the rear wheel by a chain, and having
handlebars for steering and a saddle like seat for the rider.

The first contraption that can realistically be said

resembles a bicycle was constructed around
1790 by Comte Mede de Sivrac of France. Called
a celerifere, it was a wooden scooter-like device
with no pedals or steering.
When using, the rider perched on a seat
between two wheels similarly sized wheels, and
using the feet, propelled the bicycle a bit like a

Some historians credit the invention of the pedal

bicycle to Kirkpatrick MacMillan, a Scottish
blacksmith who lived from 1812-1878. One day
back in 1839, MacMillan was out watching people
riding bikes, which at that time were driven by
kicking the ground with your feet. Thrilling, eh?
Seemed to him that there must be a better way. . .
According to later research done by family
members, after musing on the matter a bit
MacMillan came up with an idea for the first pedal
set-up that could more effectively drive the bike. Using his blacksmith tools, he put his idea into
place, and voila! bicycling suddenly took a giant leap forward.
Macmillan's contraption had a wood frame and iron-rimmed wooden wheels. The front wheel,
which provided limited steering measured 30 inches (760 mm) in diameter, while the back had
a 40 inch (1016 mm) wheel and was attached to pedals via connecting rods. In total,
Macmillan's bike weighed 57 lb (26 kg).
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Many historians credit Pierre and Ernest Michaux as

being the true inventors of the modern bicycle. This
father and son duo operated a company that made
carriages in Paris when they first assembled a twowheeled vlocipde around 1867. This bike was was
propelled like a tricycle, with its cranks and pedals

By 1870, metalworking had improved to the point

that bicycles began to be constructed entirely of
metal, an improvement in both performance and
material strength, and bike design began to
change accordingly. The pedals were still attached
directly to the front wheel but solid rubber tires
and long spokes on a much large front wheel
provided a greatly improved ride. Also, the bigger
the wheels, the faster you could go, and the Penny
Farthing as they were called enjoyed a great
popularity in the Europe and the United States in
the 1870s and 1880s.
The main hazard to this design was its (un)safety
factor, as the riders (usually young men) sat so
high up that they were very vulnerable to road
hazards. The braking mechanism was almost more
symbolic than functional, and there was really no way to slow the bike.
The next stage of bicycle development came with the creation of the safety bicycle, which
transformed the bicycle from a dangerous contraption limited to the realm of reckless young
men to a reliable and comfortable device that could be safely used by people of all ages for
everyday transportation.
Recognizing the design limitations of the high-wheeler bicycles, tinkerers continually looked for
ways to improve the bike's basic form. A major breakthrough came in 1885 with John Kemp
Starley's the creation of (or maybe "return to" is more accurate) a bike design that featured a
rider perched much lower between two wheels of the same size, coupled with a sprocket and
chain system that drove the bike from the rear wheel. This was the same basic "diamond
frame" design still in use in today's bikes.
When Starley's new design was coupled with inflated rubber tires that ended the jolting and
painful ride inflicted on cyclists when hard rubber tires were the norm, suddenly cycling was
safe and fun again. Plus, the price of bicycles were dropping continually as manufacturing
methods improved.
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All these factors combined to create the

golden age of cycling. People rode them
for practical means and for leisure. It was
transportation and recreation all
wrapped up in one package. The number
and influence of cycling grew so rapidly in
the 1880s and 1890s that they formed
groups like the League of American
Wheelman (now called the League of
American Bicyclists), to lobby for better
roads in the days before automobiles
were common.
Of course, once people started building
bikes, it didn't take long for them to want
to race each other.
History holds the first recorded bicycle race to have taken place May 31, 1868 at the Parc de
Saint-Cloud, Paris. The 1.2 km jaunt was won by Englishman James Moore on a wooden bike
with iron tires inlaid with ball-bearings that helped speed him past the competition.
Interest in bicycle racing grew in proportion to its great rise in general popularity, and so it was
only natural that bike racing was included as one of the events in the first modern Olympic
games held in Athens, Greece in 1896.
As the number of bicycle riders increased among the general population in Europe and North
America, so did its application in commercial and
military ways.
During WWI and WWII, armies from many
nations fielded bicycle-mounted troops
Over the 20th century, bicycles have been
adapted to haul heavy loads over long distances,
particularly in third-world countries, and even
today in the world's crowded cities, bike messagers and pedicabs play a valuable role in moving
people and packages in the most efficient means devised to date.
Over the years, bicycle design, materials, components and manufacturing processes have
improved to create bikes of today, increasingly sophisticated and efficient machines.
And while the basic frame design has stayed the same for over a hundred years, the use of
space age material like titanium and carbon fiber have created bikes far lighter and stronger
than creators of the early iron and wooden models could ever have imagined.
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Other innovations like shifters and derailleurs allow riders to work themselves through a range
of gears that allow bikes to go far faster as well as to climb much steeper hills than a single
speed bike would ever have allowed.
Bike styles have morphed too, to allow the incorporation of design features that specifically
enhance and embrace one particular style of riding to the exclusion of others. This
specialization means that you can go into any given bike shop and select from mountain bikes,
road bikes, hybrids, cruisers, tandems, recumbents, and more, all based on where and how you
plan to ride.
Parts of bicycle:

A bicycle is very simple in its design. It is very easy to understand the different bicycle parts and
quickly realize how these parts work in conjunction with each other to produce a beautiful and
very useful vehicle. Except in the case of some advanced high-end bicycles, it is often true that
almost all the bicycle parts are so that they are directly visible to the eyes. This simplicity of the
bicycle is what attracts innovators, resulting in various frequent design changes and
The most basic bicycle parts would be a frame, the wheels, the pedals, the handle-bar and of
course a chain and sprocket arrangement to transmit power from the pedal shaft to the rearwheel shaft.

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Frame: The frame just consists of an arrangement of metallic tubes to form the backbone of
the bicycle. To this frame are attached every other component of the bicycle. Thus the frame is
central to the whole bicycle and performs the function of holding together all the parts
together and keeping the whole vehicle steady.
Pedals: The pedals are where the human effort is applied. This effort is transmitted through
respective crank bars onto a shaft. This shaft revolves within a hole in the frame of the bicycle.
Sprocket and chain system: Now, on the revolving shaft is mounted a sprocket. The use of
the sprocket and chain system is to transmit the rotary motion from this revolving shaft onto
another shaft. Thus, this other shaft too rotates. Consequentially, the rear wheel mounted on
this shaft now starts rotating. So the pedals, the crank arms, the shafts and the sprockets-chain
system work together to convert the pedaling effort into revolutions of the rear wheel.
Wheels: The wheels, obviously, are most important for the linear motion of the bicycle. We
have already seen how the rear wheel is caused to rotate. The front wheel is attached, again via
a shaft, to a front fork attached to the frame (the picture shows the fork clearly), and so, is
designed to be free to rotate. Thus, being completely free from constraints, the front wheel too
revolves as soon as the rear wheel does so. And in the process, the whole bicycle moves
forward. Thus, like any other wheel, these wheels too convert the rotary motion of the shafts
into linear motion of the whole bicycle.
Handle-bar: The function of the handle bar is to enable the rider to control the direction of
movement of the bicycle. For this, the handle-bar is connected, through the frame, to the front
fork that holds the front wheel. Thus, whenever the handle-bar is turned, the front wheel too
changes its direction linear movement, thus leading the whole vehicle towards the intended

Schrader Valve:
The Schrader valve was invented by August
enterprising GermanAmerican immigrant who set up a shop
dealing in rubber products
The complete valve consists of a valve stem
into which a valve core is threaded. The
valve core is a poppet valve assisted by a
spring. Schrader valves are used in a wide
range of applications, some of which
include the fuel rail of fuel injected engines and for access ports in refrigeration and air
conditioning systems. A Schrader valve consists of a hollow cylindrical metal tube, typically
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brass, with the exterior end threaded. The interior end takes a variety of forms depending on its
application. Depressing the pin is a method for manually relieving the pressure retained by the
Dunlop Valve:
The valve has five parts, a plunger, a metal sleeve, two
nuts and a piece of rubber. The plunger, has a hole in its
side which passes air into the tyre. A rubber sleeve called
fits around this, letting pressured air in but preventing air
from flowing out of the inner tube. A threaded metal
sleeve attached to the inner tube holds the plunger. A nut
called the rim nut holds the outer sleeve to the rim. A
screw cap with a small hole holds the plunger down into
the inner tube. If the screw cap is loosened, all the air
flows out of the tyre instantly and the plunger pops out.
The airtight connection is made between the rubber
sleeve around the plunger and the valve. A plastic cap is
usually fitted over the end of the plunger.

Transmission System: Chain and Sprocket.


Chains are made up of a repeating series of inner plates,

a roller, a chain rivet (also call a "pin"), and outer plates.
The chain rivet presses into both outer plates, but the
rivet slides freely through the inner plates and the roller.
Chains have a small amount of play at each link, even
when brand new.
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Sprocket: A sprocket or sprocket-wheel is a

profiled wheel with teeth, cogs, or even
sprockets that mesh with a chain, track or
other perforated or indented material. The
name 'sprocket' applies generally to any
wheel upon which are radial projections that
engage a chain passing over it. It is
distinguished from a gear in that sprockets
are never meshed together directly, and
differs from a pulley in that sprockets have
teeth and pulleys are smooth.
Velocity ratio of Chain Drive:
The velocity ratio of a chain drive is defined as the ratio of the speed of the driven sprocket to
the speed of the driving sprocket. Let d1 and d2 be the diameters of the pitch circles of the
driving and driven sprocket. Let T1 and T2 be the number of teeth on the driving and driven
sprockets respectively. N1 and N2 are their speeds in revolutions per minute.
Since there is no relative slip between the sprockets and the chain, the speed at every point in
the chain is same. Therefore the circumferential speeds of the driving and driven sprocketsand
the linear speed of the chain are all equal.

d1N1 = d2N2


If P is the pitch of the teeth on the sprockets,


d1 = p x T1


d2 = p x T2


Substituting equation (2) in (1).

pT1N1 = pT2N2

Ball Bearings:
A simplest type of the ball bearing is shown in the figure. It consists of hardened steel balls
positioned between two suitable grooved, hardened steel rings. These rings are known as
races. The balls are retained in position by a separator, also known as cage, usually of pressed
brass. The inner race should be of tight drive fit on the shaft so as to rotate with it. The outer
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race fits tightly into the bearing housing and

does not rotate. As the balls are free to
rotate in between the races only rolling
friction exists.
Although the ball bearings are called as
antifriction bearings, they should be
lubricated, but only lightly which enables
them to rotate freely. The ordinary ball
bearing shown in the figure serves when the
load is in the radial direction that is
perpendicular to the axis of the shaft.

Centre-pull caliper brakes:

Centre-pull caliper brakes have symmetrical arms and as such
center more effectively. The cable housing attaches to a fixed
cable stop attached to the frame, and the inner cable bolts to a
sliding piece (called a "braking delta", "braking triangle", or
"yoke") or a small pulley, over which runs a straddle cable
connecting the two brake arms. Tension on the cable is evenly
distributed to the two arms, preventing the brake from taking a
"set" to one side or the other.
These brakes were reasonably priced, and in the past filled the
price niche between the cheaper and the more expensive
models of side-pull brakes.

Tools Required for Assembly and Dis-assembly of Bicycle:

Spanners: A wrench (or spanner) is a tool used to provide grip and mechanical advantage in applying
torque to turn objectsusually rotary fasteners, such as nuts and boltsor keep them from turning. In
British English, spanner is the standard term. The most common shapes are called open-ended spanner
and ring spanner. The term wrench is generally used for tools that turn non fastening devices (e.g. tap
wrench and pipe wrench). Higher quality wrenches are typically made from chromium-vanadium alloy

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tool steels and are often drop-forged. They are frequently chrome-plated to resist corrosion and ease

Pliers: Pliers are a hand tool used to hold objects firmly, possibly developed from tongs used to handle
hot metal in Bronze Age Europe[1] they are also useful for bending and compressing a wide range of
materials. Generally, pliers consist of a pair of metal first-class levers joined at a fulcrum positioned
closer to one end of the levers, creating short jaws on one side of the fulcrum, and longer handles on
the other side.[1] This arrangement creates a mechanical advantage, allowing the force of the hand's
grip to be amplified and focused on an object with precision. The jaws can also be used to manipulate
objects too small or unwieldy to be manipulated with the fingers. Pincers are a similar tool with a
different type of head used for cutting and pulling, rather than squeezing. Tools which are effectively
pliers designed principally for safely handling hot objects are usually called tongs. Special tools for
making crimp connections in electrical and electronic applications are often called "crimping pliers";
each type of connection uses its own dedicated tool. There are many kinds of pliers made for various
general and specific purposes.

Hammer: A hammer is a tool meant to deliver an impact to an object. The most common uses for
hammers are to drive nails, fit parts, forge metal and break apart objects. Hammers are often designed
for a specific purpose, and vary in their shape and structure. The term hammer is also used for some
devices that are designed to deliver blows, e.g., the caplock mechanism of firearms. The hammer is a
basic tool of many professions. The usual features are a handle and a head, with most of the weight in

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the head. The basic design is hand-operated, but there are also many mechanically operated models,
such as steam hammers, for heavier uses.
Screwdriver: A screwdriver is a hand-tool for turning (driving) screws (and sometimes bolts or other
machine elements with a mating drive system). A typical screwdriver comprises: an approximately
cylindrical handle of a size and shape to be held by a human hand; an axial shaft embedded in, and
protruding from, the handle; and a tip found at the end of the shaft, opposite the handle. The handle
and shaft allow the screwdriver to be positioned and supported and, by rotating the handle, torque is
applied to the tip via the screwdriver's shaft.
A screwdriver is typically identified by its tip, which is shaped to fit, or mate with, a screw the head of
which has a particular contour, or surface shape. A screwdriver is, thus, a mechanism to apply torque to
a screw. Proper use of a screwdriver requires that the screwdriver's tip engages with the head of a screw
having the same size and type designation as the screwdriver itself. Screwdriver tips are available in a
large variety of shapes and sizes.
Most screwdrivers, being hand-tools, are operated manually, but it is not uncommon to find
screwdrivers that are operated by an electric motor or other motor.

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For performing the various machining operations in a lathe, the job is being supported
and driven by anyone of the following methods.
1. Job is held and driven by chuck with the other end supported on the tail stock centre.
2. Job is held between centers and driven by carriers and catch plates.
3. Job is held on a mandrel, which is supported between centers and driven by carriers
and catch plates.
4. Job is held and driven by a chuck or a faceplate or an angle plate. The above methods for
holding the job can be classified under two headings namely job held between centers and job
held by a chuck or any other fixture. The various important lathe operations performed in a lathe
can be understood by three major categories
(a) Operations, which can be performed in a lathe either by holding the work piece between
centers or by a chuck are:
1. Straight turning
2. Shoulder turning
3. Taper turning
4. Chamfering
5. Eccentric turning
6. Thread cutting
7. Facing
8. Forming
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9. Filing
10. Polishing
11. Grooving
12. Knurling
13. Spinning
14. Spring winding
(b) Operations which are performed by holding the work by a chuck or a faceplate or an angle
plate are:
1. Undercutting
2. Parting-off
3. Internal thread cutting
4. Drilling
5. Reaming
6. Boring
7. Counter boring
8. Taper boring
9. Tapping

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A milling machine is a machine tool that removes metal as the work is fed against a rotating
multipoint cutter. The milling cutter rotates at high speed and it removes metal at a very fast rate
with the help of multiple cutting edges. One or more number of cutters can be mounted
simultaneously on the arbor of milling machine. This is the reason that a milling machine finds
wide application in production work. Milling machine is used for machining flat surfaces,
contoured surfaces, surfaces of revolution, external and internal threads, and helical surfaces of
various cross-sections. Typical components produced by a milling are given in Fig. 24.1. In
many applications, due to its higher production rate and accuracy, milling machine has even
replaced shapers and slotters

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There are two distinct methods of milling classified as follows:
1. Up-milling or conventional milling, and
2. Down milling or climb milling.

UP-Milling or Conventional Milling Procedure

In the up-milling or conventional milling, the metal is removed in form of small chips by a cutter
rotating against the direction of travel of the work piece. In this type of milling, the chip
thickness is minimum at the start of the cut and maximum at the end of cut. As a result the
cutting force also varies from zero to the maximum value per tooth movement of the milling
cutter. The major disadvantages of up-milling process are the tendency of cutting force to lift the
work from the fixtures and poor surface finish obtained. But being a safer process, it is
commonly used method of milling.

Down-Milling or Climb Milling

It is also known as climb milling. In this method, the metal is removed by a cutter rotating in the
same direction of feed of the work piece. The effect of this is that the teeth cut downward instead
of upwards. Chip thickness is maximum at the start of the cut and minimum in the end. In this
method, it is claimed that there is less friction involved and consequently less heat is generated
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on the contact surface of the cutter and work piece. Climb milling can be used advantageously on
many kinds of work to increase the number of pieces per sharpening and to produce a better
finish. With climb milling, saws cut long thin slots more satisfactorily than with standard
milling. Another advantage is that slightly lower power consumption is obtainable by climb
milling, since there is no need to drive the table against the cutter.


Milling machine rotates the cutter mounted on the arbor of the machine and at the same time
automatically feed the work in the required direction. The milling machine may be classified in
several forms, but the choice of any particular machine is determined primarily by the size of the
work piece to be undertaken and operations to be performed. With the above function or
requirement in mind, milling machines are made in a variety of types and sizes. According to
general design, the distinctive types of milling machines are:
1. Column and knee type milling machines
(a) Hand milling machine
(b) Horizontal milling machine (c) Universal milling machine
(d) Vertical milling machine
Planer milling machine
3. Fixed-bed type milling machine
(a) Simplex milling machine.
(b) Duplex milling machine.
(c) Triplex milling machine.
4. Machining center machines
5. Special types of milling machines
(a) Rotary table milling machine.
(b) Planetary milling machine.
(c) Profiling machine.
(d) Duplicating machine.
(e) Pantograph milling machine.
(f) Continuous milling machine.
(g) Drum milling machine
(h) Profiling and tracer controlled milling machine

Shaper is a reciprocating type of machine tool in which the ram moves the cutting tool Back
wards and forwards in a straight line. It is intended primarily to produce flat surfaces. These
surfaces may be horizontal, vertical, or inclined. In general, the shaper can produce any surface
composed of straight-line elements.


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A single point cutting tool is held in the tool holder, which is mounted on the ram. The Work
piece is rigidly held in a vice or clamped directly on the table. The table may be supported at the
outer end. The ram reciprocates and thus cutting tool held in tool holder moves forward and
backward over the work piece. In a standard shaper, cutting of material takes place during the
forward stroke of the ram. The backward stroke remains idle and no cutting takes place during
this stroke. The feed is given to the work piece and depth of cut is adjusted by moving the tool
downward towards the work piece. The time taken during the idle stroke is less as compared to
forward cutting stroke and this is obtained by quick return mechanism


Shapers are classified under the following headings:

(1) According to the type of mechanism used (3) According to the position and travel of ram:
for giving reciprocating motion to the ram
(a) Horizontal type
(a) Crank type
(b) Vertical type
(b) Geared type
(c) Traveling head type
(c) Hydraulic type
(4) According to the type of cutting stroke:
(2) According to the type of design of the table:
(a) Push type
(a) Standard shaper
(b) Draw type
(b) Universal shaper

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Main parts of a COMPUTER:
CPU: The central processing unit (CPU, occasionally central processor unit) is the hardware within a
computer system which carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic
arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system.

MOTHERBOARD: A motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board,

planar board or logic board) is a printed circuit board (PCB) found in many modern computers which
holds many of the crucial components of the system, such as the central processing unit (CPU) and
memory, and provides connectors for other peripherals.

RAM: Random access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage. A random access device
allows stored data to be accessed in very nearly the same amount of time for any storage location, so
data can be accessed quickly in any random order. In contrast, other data storage media such as hard
disks, CDs, DVDs and magnetic tape read and write data only in a predetermined order, consecutively,
because of mechanical design limitations. Therefore the time to access a given data location varies
significantly depending on its physical location.

GRAPHICS CARD: A video card (also called a video adapter, display card, graphics card, graphics board,
display adapter or graphics adapter) is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a
display. Most video cards offer various functions such as accelerated rendering of 3D scenes and 2D
graphics, MPEG-2/MPEG-4 decoding, TV output, or the ability to connect multiple monitors (multimonitor).

HARD DISK: A hard disk drive (HDD; also hard drive, hard disk, or disk drive) is a device for storing and
retrieving digital information, primarily computer data. It consists of one or more rigid (hence "hard")
rapidly rotating discs (platters) coated with magnetic material, and with magnetic heads arranged to
write data to the surfaces and read it from them.

POWER SUPPLY: A switched-mode power supply (switching-mode power supply, SMPS, or

switcher) is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical
power efficiently. Like other power supplies, an SMPS transfers power from a source, like mains power,
to a load, such as a personal computer, while converting voltage and current characteristics. An SMPS is
usually employed to efficiently provide a regulated output voltage, typically at a level different from the
input voltage.
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ROM: Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage medium used in computers and other electronic
devices. Data stored in ROM cannot be modified, or can be modified only slowly or with difficulty, so it is
mainly used to distribute firmware (software that is very closely tied to specific hardware, and unlikely
to need frequent updates).

CD: The Compact Disc, or CD for short, is an optical disc used to store digital data. It was
originally developed to store and play back sound recordings only, but the format was later
adapted for storage of data (CD-ROM), write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable
media (CD-RW), Video Compact Discs (VCD), Super Video Compact Discs (SVCD), PhotoCD,
PictureCD, CD-i, and Enhanced CD. Audio CDs and audio CD players have been commercially
available since October 1982.
Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres (4.7 in) and can hold up to 80 minutes of
uncompressed audio or 700 MB (700 220 bytes) of data. The Mini CD has various diameters
ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres (2.4 to 3.1 in); they are sometimes used for CD singles,
storing up to 24 minutes of audio or delivering device drivers.
CD-ROMs and CD-Rs remain widely used technologies in the computer industry. The CD and its
extensions are successful: in 2004, worldwide sales of CD audio, CD-ROM, and CD-R reached
about 30 billion discs. By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. Compact Discs are
increasingly being replaced or supplemented by other forms of digital distribution and storage,
such as downloading and flash drives, with audio CD sales dropping nearly 50% from their peak
in 2000.

MONITOR: A monitor or display (also called screen or visual display unit) is an electronic visual
display for computers. The monitor comprises the display device, circuitry, and an enclosure.
The display device in modern monitors is typically a thin film transistor liquid crystal display
(TFT-LCD) thin panel, while older monitors use a cathode ray tube (CRT) about as deep as the
screen size.

KEYBOARD - In computing, a keyboard is a typewriter-style device, which uses an arrangement

of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. Following the decline of
punch cards and paper tape, interaction via teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input
device for computers.
A keyboard typically has characters engraved or printed on the keys and each press of a key
typically corresponds to a single written symbol. However, to produce some symbols requires
pressing and holding several keys simultaneously or in sequence. While most keyboard keys

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produce letters, numbers or signs (characters), other keys or simultaneous key presses can
produce actions or computer commands.

PRINTER: In computing, a printer is a peripheral which produces a text or graphics of

documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or
SCANNER: an image scanneroften abbreviated to just scanneris a device that optically
scans images, printed text, handwriting, or an object, and converts it to a digital image.
Common examples found in offices are variations of the desktop (or flatbed) scanner where the
document is placed on a glass window for scanning. Hand-held scanners, where the device is
moved by hand, have evolved from text scanning "wands" to 3D scanners used for industrial
design, reverse engineering, test and measurement, orthotics, gaming and other applications.
Mechanically driven scanners that move the document are typically used for large-format
documents, where a flatbed design would be impractical.

MOUSE: In computing, a mouse is a pointing device that functions by detecting twodimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. Physically, a mouse consists of an object
held under one of the user's hands, with one or more buttons.
The mouse sometimes features other elements, such as "wheels", which allow the user to
perform various system-dependent operations, or extra buttons or features that can add more
control or dimensional input. The mouse's motion typically translates into the motion of a
pointer on a display, which allows for fine control of a graphical user interface.
SOFTWARE - Computer software, or just software, is a collection of computer programs and
related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it.
Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the
computer for some reasons. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures,
algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system.
Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly
providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of
software. The term was coined to contrast to the old term hardware (meaning physical
devices). In contrast to hardware, software "cannot be touched". Software is also sometimes
used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Sometimes the term includes
data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes, and records.
There are two types of software.

Application software
System software

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APPLICATION SOFTWARE (PROGRAM) - Application software, also known as an application or

an app, is computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks. Examples
include enterprise software, accounting software, office suites, graphics software and media
players. Many application programs deal principally with documents. Apps may be bundled
with the computer and its system software, or may be published separately. Some users are
satisfied with the bundled apps and need never install one.

SYSTEM SOFTWARE System software (or systems software) is computer software designed to
operate and control the computer hardware and to provide a platform for running application
Device drivers such as computer BIOS and device firmware provide basic functionality to
operate and control the hardware connected to or built into the computer. The operating
system (prominent examples being z/OS, Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X and Linux), allows the
parts of a computer to work together by performing tasks like transferring data between
memory and disks or rendering output onto a display device. It also provides a platform to run
high-level system software and application software. Window systems are components of a
graphical user interface (GUI), and more specifically of a desktop environment, which supports
the implementation of window managers, and provides basic support for graphics hardware,
pointing devices such as mice, and keyboards. The mouse cursor is also generally drawn by the
windowing system. Utility software helps to analyze, configure, optimize and maintain the

OPERATING SYSTEM (OS) - An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages
computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. The
operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer system.
Application programs require an operating system to function.

GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI) - In computing, a graphical user interface (GUI) is a type of
user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices using images rather than text
commands. GUIs can be used in computers, hand-held devices such as MP3 players, portable
media players or gaming devices, household appliances and office equipment. A GUI represents
the information and actions available to a user through graphical icons and visual indicators
such as secondary notation, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text
navigation. The actions are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical

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Windows XP Installation Guide:

This procedure demonstrates how to install Windows XP Professional. The procedure to install
Windows XP home edition is very similar to the professional edition. Since Windows XP Pro is
more advanced operating system, it will be used to demonstrate the installation procedure.
The best way install Windows XP is to do a clean install. It is not difficult to perform a clean
installation. Before you perform the installation it is recommended that you check Windows XP
Compatibility List to ensure that your hardware is supported by XP. If your hardware is not on
the compatibility list you can check your hardware manufactures website to download the
drivers for Windows XP. Save all the necessary drivers onto floppy disks or CD before you start
the installation.

All versions of Windows XP CD are bootable. In order to boot from CD/DVD-ROM you need to
set the boot sequence. Look for the boot sequence under your BIOS setup and make sure that
the first boot device is set to CD/DVD-ROM. You can then perform the following steps to install
Windows XP:

Step 1 - Start your PC and place your Windows XP CD in your CD/DVD-ROM drive. Your PC
should automatically detect the CD and you will get a message saying "Press any key to boot
from CD". Soon as computer starts booting from the CD your will get the following screen:

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Step 2 - You will then get a Windows XP Professional Setup screen. You have the option to do a
new Windows install, Repair previous install or quit. Since we are doing a new install we just
press Enter to continue.

Step 3 - You will be presented with the End User Licensing Agreement. Press F8 to accept and

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Step 4 - This step is very important. Here we will create the partition where Windows will be
installed. If you have a brand new unformatted drive you will get a screen similar to below. In
our case the drive size is 8190MB. We can choose to install Windows in this drive without
creating a partition, hence use the entire size of the drive. If you wish to do this you can just
press enter and Windows will automatically partition and format the drive as one large drive.

However for this demonstration I will create two partition. The first partition will be 6000MB (C:
drive) and second partition would be 2180MB (E: drive). By creating two partition we can have
one which stores Windows and Applications and the other which stores our data. So in the
future if anything goes wrong with our Windows install such as virus or spyware we can reinstall Windows on C: drive and our data on E: drive will not be touched. Please note you can
choose whatever size partition your like. For example if you have 500GB hard drive you can
have two partition of 250GB each.

Press C to create a partition.

Step 5 - Windows will show the total size of the hard drive and ask you how much you want to
allocate for the partition you are about to create. I will choose 6000MB. You will then get the
screen below. Notice it shows C: Partition 1 followed by the size 6000 MB. This indicates the
partition has been created. We still have an unpartitioned space of 2189MB. Next highlight the
unpartitioned space by pressing down the arrow key. Then press C to create another partition.
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You will see the total space available for the new partition. Just choose all the space left over, in
our case 2180MB.

Step 6 - Now you will see both partition listed. Partition 1 (C: Drive) 6000MB and Partition 2 (E:
Drive) 2180MB. You will also have 8MB of unpartitioned space. Don't worry about that. Just
leave it how its is. Windows normally has some unpartitioned space. You might wonder what
happened to D: drive. Windows has automatically allocated D: drive to CD/DVD-ROM.

Select Partition 1 (C: Drive) and press Enter.

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Step 7 - Choose format the partition using NTFS file system.This is the recommended file
system. If the hard drive has been formatted before then you can choose quick NTFS format.
We chose NTFS because it offers many security features, supports larger drive size, and bigger
size files.

Windows will now start formatting drive C: and start copying setup files as shown on the two
images below :

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Step 8 - After the setup has completed copying the files the computer will restart. Leave the XP
CD in the drive but this time DO NOT press any key when the message "Press any key to boot
from CD" is displayed. In few seconds setup will continue. Windows XP Setup wizard will guide
you through the setup process of gathering information about your computer.

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Step 9 - Choose your region and language.

Step 10 - Type in your name and organization.

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Step 11. Enter your product key.

Step 12 - Name the computer, and enter an Administrator password. Don't forget to write
down your Administrator password.

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Step 13 - Enter the correct date, time and choose your time zone.

Step 14 - For the network setting choose typical and press next.

Step 15 - Choose workgroup or domain name. If you are not a member of a domain then leave
the default settings and press next. Windows will restart again and adjust the display.
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Step 16 - Finally Windows will start and present you with a Welcome screen. Click next to

Step 17 - Choose 'help protect my PC by turning on automatic updates now' and press next.
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Step 18 - Will this computer connect to the internet directly, or through a network? If you are
connected to a router or LAN then choose: 'Yes, this computer will connect through a local area
network or home network'. If you have dial up modem choose: 'No, this computer will connect
directly to the internet'. Then click Next.

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Step 19 - Ready to activate Windows? Choose yes if you wish to active Windows over the
internet now. Choose no if you want to activate Windows at a later stage.

Step 20 - Add users that will sign on to this computer and click next.

Step 21 - You will get a Thank you screen to confirm setup is complete. Click finish.

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Step 22. Log in, to your PC for the first time.

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A breadboard (or protoboard) is usually a construction base for prototyping of electronics. The term
"breadboard" is commonly used to refer to a solderless breadboard (plugboard).
A breadboard originally was a flat wooden cutting
board used to support a loaf of bread (or other
foods) while it was being sliced; this original
meaning is still in use, but has a new additional
meaning as "a base for prototyping". The concept of
"breadboarding" as prototyping is not confined to
electronic design; "mechanical breadboards" have
been and continue to be used by mechanical
Because the solderless breadboard for electronics
does not require soldering, it is reusable. This
makes it easy to use for creating temporary
prototypes and experimenting with circuit design.
Older breadboard types did not have this property.
A stripboard (veroboard) and similar prototyping
printed circuit boards, which are used to build semi-permanent soldered prototypes or one-offs, cannot
easily be reused. A variety of electronic systems may be prototyped by using breadboards, from small
analog and digital circuits to complete central processing units (CPUs).
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a
circuit element.
The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. This
relationship is represented by Ohm's law:
I = {V \ R}
Where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the potential difference measured
across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms.
The ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current in the circuit is
called its resistance, and this can be assumed to be a constant (independent of the voltage) for ordinary
resistors working within their ratings.
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Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in
electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as
resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel-chrome). Resistors are also
implemented within integrated circuits, particularly analog devices, and can also be integrated into
hybrid and printed circuits.
The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are
manufactured over a range of more than nine orders of magnitude. When specifying that resistance in
an electronic design, the required precision of the resistance may require attention to the
manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistor, according to its specific application. The temperature
coefficient of the resistance may also be of concern in some precision applications. Practical resistors
are also specified as having a maximum power rating which must exceed the anticipated power
dissipation of that resistor in a particular circuit: this is mainly of concern in power electronics
applications. Resistors with higher power ratings are physically larger and may require heat sinks. In a
high-voltage circuit, attention must sometimes be paid to the rated maximum working voltage of the
The ohm (symbol: ) is the SI unit of electrical resistance, named after Georg Simon Ohm. An ohm is
equivalent to a volt per ampere. Since resistors are specified and manufactured over a very large range
of values, the derived units of milliohm (1 m = 103 ), kilohm (1 k = 103 ), and megohm (1 M =
106 ) are also in common usage.
Color Code for resistance:

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A capacitor (originally known as a condenser) is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to
store energy electrostatically in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all
contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator); for example, one
common construction consists of metal foils separated by a thin layer of insulating film. Capacitors are
widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices.
When there is a potential difference (voltage) across the conductors, a static electric field develops
across the dielectric, causing positive charge to collect on one plate and negative charge on the other
plate. Energy is stored in the electrostatic field. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant
value, capacitance. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference
between them. The SI unit of capacitance is the farad, which is equal to one coulomb per volt.
The capacitance is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas of conductor, hence
capacitor conductors are often called plates, referring to an early means of construction. In practice, the
dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current and also has an electric field
strength limit, the breakdown voltage. The conductors and leads introduce an undesired inductance and
Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating
current to pass. In analog filter networks, they smooth the output of power supplies. In resonant circuits
they tune radios to particular frequencies. In electric power transmission systems they stabilize voltage
and power flow.

Different types of capacitors: From left: multilayer ceramic, ceramic disc, multilayer polyester film,
tubular ceramic, polystyrene, metalized polyester film, aluminum electrolytic.

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A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source.[7] LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many
devices and are increasingly used for general lighting. Appearing as practical electronic components in
1962,[8] early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible,
ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness.
When a light-emitting diode is switched on, electrons are able to recombine with holes within the
device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color
of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the
semiconductor. An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components may
be used to shape its radiation pattern.[9] LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources
including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved physical robustness, smaller size, and
faster switching. However, LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require
more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable
Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as aviation lighting, automotive lighting,
advertising, general lighting, and traffic signals. LEDs have allowed new text, video displays, and sensors
to be developed, while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications
technology. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products
including televisions, DVD players and other domestic appliances. LEDs are also used in seven-segment

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555 Timer IC:
The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation, and oscillator
applications. The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an oscillator, and as a flip-flop element.
Derivatives provide up to four timing circuits in one package.
Introduced in 1971 by Signetics, the 555 is still in widespread use due to its ease of use, low price, and
good stability. It is now made by many companies in the original bipolar and also in low-power CMOS
types. As of 2003, it was estimated that 1 billion units are manufactured every year.

Flashing LED using 555 Timer Circuit:

Astable circuits produce pulses. The circuit most people use to make a 555 astable looks like this:
The frequency, or repetition rate, of the output pulses is determined by the values of two resistors, R1
and R2 and by the timing capacitor, C. The design formula for the frequency of the pulses is:

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The period, t, of the pulses is given by:

The HIGH and LOW times of each pulse can be calculated from:

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MCB: Miniature Circuit Breaker

The principal of operation is simple. An MCB functions by interrupting the continuity of electrical flow
through the circuit once a fault is detected. In simple terms MCB is a switch which automatically turns off
when the current flowing through it passes the maximum allowable limit. Generally MCB are designed to
protect against over current and over temperature faults (over heating).
There are two contacts one is fixed and the other moveable. When the current exceeds the predefined
limit a solenoid forces the moveable contact to open (i.e., disconnect from the fixed contact) and the MCB
turns off thereby stopping the current to flow in the circuit. In order to restart the flow of current the MCB
is manually turned on. This mechanism is used to protect from the faults arising due to over current or
over load.
To protect against fault arising due to over heating or increase in temperature a bi-metallic strip is used.
MCBs are generally designed to trip within 2.5 millisecond when an over current fault arises. In case of
temperature rise or over heating it may take 2 seconds to 2 minutes for the MCB to trip.

This article covers the insight of a single pole MCB commonly used in the house hold. The following
image shows the different internal parts of an MCB with top casing removed. The subsequent sections
will examine each part and its function.
The following image illustrates the tripping mechanism of the MCB. The circuit breaker contacts and the
position of the knob can easily be seen in both, ON and OFF, state. In the ON state the moveable contact
touches the fixed contact as shown in the image.
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The path of the current in the ON state is shown in the image below. The live wire is screwed at the input
terminal. From the input terminal the current flows to the fixed contact which is touching the input
terminal. The current then moves to the moving contact (since in the ON state it is touching the fixed
contact). The moving contact is connected to the electromagnetic coil of the solenoid by means of a thick
wire. The current from the moving contacts enters the electromagnetic coil. The current from the coil goes
to the bimetallic strip by means of another thick wire and finally to the output terminal where it is
collected by the neutral wire of the line.
The switching or the tripping mechanism can be closely observed in the following images. This
mechanism is used to automatically cut off the supply of the current when the current exceeds the
permissible limits thereby preventing any damage to the appliances.
Let us understand this system in further detail. The image below shows a closure look of the different
parts of the tripping mechanism. The moving part of the solenoid is called the plunger. It is like a solid
semi cylinder connected to a hammer
at one end. The moveable contact is
positioned slightly above the plunger
and moves axially along the plunger.
It does not touch the plunger.
The heart of this mechanism is the
solenoid which works on the
principle of electro mechanism. As
mentioned earlier one end of the coil
is connected to the moveable contact
by means of a thick wire for current
to pass through it in the ON state.
The coil of the solenoid is designed
in such a way that when current
passing through it is within the
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permissible value, the magnetic force produced is not enough to pull the plunger. When the current
exceeds the permissible value, the magnetic force also increases and this magnetic force pulls the plunger
inside towards the center of the coil. When the plunger moves it also pulls the moveable contact and
forces it to separate from the fixed contact thereby tripping the circuit. The moveable contact is connected
to the knob by means of mechanical arrangement and forces the MCB knob to fall down. The plunger is
connected to a spring from inside the electromagnetic coil and as the plunger moves towards the center of
the coil, the spring gets loaded. After the MCB trips (i.e., the moveable contact separates from the fixed
contact and the current stops flowing) the spring forces the plunger back to its normal state without
disturbing the moveable contact.
Arc quenching
Another important point to be considered in the design of circuit breakers is Arc quenching. To
understand how MCB carries out the arc quenching, it is important to know about the electric arc and how
is it produced. When an overcurrent is interrupted by the circuit breaker by opening its contacts, current
tries to bridge the gap. In an attempt to maintain the circuit, the air heats up and becomes a conductor. As
a result an arc forms. In general, when air and gases are heated, they become electric conductors. The
hotter they get, the better they conduct. The following image shows how an electric arc looks like.
The heat from an uncontrolled arc in a circuit breaker can cause a rapid and violent expansion of the
nearby air and could severely damage the circuit breaker. Therefore, besides separating the electrical
contacts, a circuit breaker also has to quickly extinguish the arc. A number of factors can be employed for
quenching the arc, such as,
speed, distance, dielectric
strength, cooling etc.
a)Speed : When the contacts
separate rapidly, there is
less time for the arc to form
and maintain itself.
b)Distance : When the
distance between opened
contacts is more, the arc has
to stretch more to maintain
the current flow which
requires more voltage.

Arc Chutes

c)Cooling : When the arc is

forced against a cold
material, it absorbs and
dissipates the heat.

d)Dielectric Strength : When the arc is submerged in a medium with higher dielectric strength than air
(sulfur hexafluoride, SF6), the insulating nature of the medium helps in quenching the arc.

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In an MCB, arc chutes or arc dividers are used for arc quenching. When the contacts of an MCB separate,
generating an electrical arc between them through air, the arc is moved into the arch chute where it is
divided into small segments. The overall energy level of the arc gets split up which is not sufficient to
sustain the arc and therefore it gets dissipated. The fixed contact is extended to the arc chute. This is done
so as to transfer the arc to the interior of the breaker. The arc is broken into smaller arc by the arc chute.
These segmented smaller arc have a very small potential and hence get naturally dissipated.
Over heat protection
The MCBs also provide protection against overheating. It uses a bimetallic strip for the same. The
arrangement of the bimetallic strip is shown in the image below. The bimetallic strip is made up of two
metals with different temperature coefficients. When the current flows through the bimetallic strip, it gets
heated. The heating results in bending of the bimetallic strip. The more is the heating, the more is the
bending. The bimetallic strip is mechanically connected to the tripping mechanism by means of a metal
strip as shown in the image. When the bimetallic strip bends it forces the metal strip to pull the plastic
flap which in turn triggers the tripping mechanism after certain allowed temperature limit for which the
bimetallic strip is designed.

Bimetallic Strip

Double Pole Switch:

The double pole switch also has "on" and "off" markings and functions
similar to a single pole switch in that it turns something on and off
from one location. However, because it has four brass terminals instead
of two terminals it can handle switching two hot wires which allows it
to switch a 240 volt circuit So double pole switches are typically used
to switch receptacles and appliances using 240 volt circuits.

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Energy Meter:
The most common type of electricity meter is the electromechanical induction watt-hour meter.[15][16]
The electromechanical induction meter operates by counting the revolutions of an aluminium disc which
is made to rotate at a speed proportional to the power. The number of revolutions is thus proportional to
the energy usage. The voltage coil consumes a small and relatively constant amount of power, typically
around 2 watts which is not registered on the meter. The current coil similarly consumes a small amount
of power in proportion to the square of the current flowing through it, typically up to a couple of watts at
full load, which is registered on the meter.
The metallic disc is acted upon by two coils. One coil is connected in such a way that it produces a
magnetic flux in proportion to the voltage and the other produces a magnetic flux in proportion to the
current. The field of the voltage coil is delayed by 90 degrees using a lag coil.[17] This produces eddy
currents in the disc and the effect is such that a force is exerted on the disc in proportion to the product of
the instantaneous current and voltage. A permanent magnet exerts an opposing force proportional to the
speed of rotation of the disc. The equilibrium between these two opposing forces results in the disc
rotating at a speed proportional to the power being used. The disc drives a register mechanism which
integrates the speed of the disc over time by counting revolutions, much like the odometer in a car, in
order to render a measurement of the total energy used over a period of time.
The type of meter described above is used on a single-phase AC supply. Different phase configurations
use additional voltage and current coils.

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FAQs about Electrical Safety:

What are causes of Over current?
1) Short circuit

Two or more live conductors touching each other

2) Overload

Adding loads greater than that of the rated value

3) Earth fault

A phase conductor touching the protective conductor by means of direct

or indirect contact

What caution should we take regarding wiring?

Safe Method of Connecting The Safety Earth

Any paint (or anodizing, in an aluminium chassis) must be scraped away to expose bare metal, and the
tooth washer ensures that there is a good 'bite' into the metal itself. The use of two nuts is strongly
recommended, since the second one acts as a locknut, and prevents the first nut from loosening. The
flat washers shown are optional, but highly recommended.
Do not use the earth connection as mounting for any other panel or component - it must be dedicated
to the task of providing a safety earth point. If a component mounting bolt is used, at some stage it may
be disconnected by a service (or other) person, which means that the apparatus is unsafe until
everything is (hopefully) put back where it belongs - this does not always happen.
Make sure that the electrical connection between metal panels is also very well made. Some chassis are
available in a kit form, and when screwed together, may not make good electrical contact with each
other. Should the mains come in contact with a panel that has a flaky connection with the one that is
earthed properly, the same potential for disaster is still present. All exposed metal must be properly and
securely earthed.
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Change immediately old and damaged wiring where insulation has been damaged. Avoid joints in the
wiring. All necessary joints should have proper tapes / insulation. Loose wiring results in sparking.
Ensure that wires are tightened at both ends. Install switches and plugs at a height out of reach of
children. Outdoor electrical outlets should be covered with weather proof covers. Dont provide fuse on
neutral circuit. Positive (+) point should always be connected to positive on the right hand side and
Negative (-) should always be connected to negative on left hand side at all points startingfrom the main
switch to the end equipment point.
What is the Colour Codes for wiring?
The common colour codes for mains wiring are shown in Table, below. The Active (or Line) is the 'live'
conductor, and carries the full AC supply voltage. The Neutral conductor is not live, but is intended to be
the return path for all current in the active lead. The safety earth (or ground) conductor is intended to
provide protection against electrocution, and where fitted, must not be disconnected.



Active (Line, Phase) +



Neutral -







These colour codes are not standardised, and some variations may be found in different countries. The
one common theme of these codes is that they have been designed so that colour-blind people will not
get the wires mixed up. The use of green with yellow stripes for the earth makes this even more secure.
What type of electrical fittings should we use?
Use only ISI or equivalent standard fittings. All on / off switches of electrical appliances should have easy
access. Remove obstructions, if any in their way. Select appropriate size of fuse wire / MCBs for main
fuse and circuit fuse.
What is the role of EARTHING in electrical Safety?
Besides human safety risks, sensitive computers and electronics devices fail to operate properly and/or
sustain damage at lower voltages which usually cannot be felt by humans, resulting in loss of
productivity and expensive troubleshooting & repairs.
Current also passes through the least path. In case of fault current, short circuit there is two options
available for its dissipation into the earth:

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Current may take the path of earthing, or
Current may take the path of human body of the affected person.
This depends on the least resistance of path between the two earthing system and the human body
itself. Hence the resistance of the earthing should be always be lesser than the resistance of the human
body. The resistance of the earthing should be as less as possible and it should be stable and consistent
around the year.
To avoid all hazards of maintenance of earthing resistance (pouring of water at regular interval), it is
suggested to use MAINTENANCE FREE EARTHING, which ensures stable & consistent earth resistance
around the year with NO maintenance just Fit & Forget.
Earthing is absolutely necessary to protect human life and equipment from electrical hazards in this
electronic age. Effective earthing should be provided to all electrical appliances to prevent shocks. Use
properly earthed 3 pin plugs for all electrical appliances. Dont use any appliance, heater, electric iron,
cooler without proper earthing. Dont connect earthing wire with water taps or building rods this may
be hazardous.
What safety measures should be taken to avoid electric shock?
Electrical appliances should be kept away from damp and hot surfaces and from flammable goods. Use
rubber mats near fridge, heaters, electric cooking range, etc. Do wear rubber soled shoes when
operating power tools. Dont use Metallic wire near electric lines for hanging wet clothes. Dont provide
higher size fuse wire than the prescribed size.
Where to install main switch board?
Main switchboard and meter should be safe and protected from rain, wind, dust. Meter Box should
preferably be wooden and at height of 1.5 meters. Install an indicator light for an electric heater and an
auto temperature control switch.
Can we ignore flickering lights, blown fuses or sparks?
If you can't use the hair dryer while someone is making toast, it's time to get the wiring inspected. One
blown fuse a year is probably OK, but two or more should be inspected. Other problem signs include
dimming lights, an electrical smell, warm cords and soot around outlets.
Can we overload outlets?
Do read appliance labels and calculate how to balance the load. Most home outlets can support up to
1,500 watts. Some kitchen circuits can support 2,000 watts. To find what your appliances require, look
for a wattage listing near the serial number (usually on the bottom of the appliance). Following these
guidelines, it's a bad idea to plug a portable heater (about 1,200 watts) into the same outlet with an iron
(about 1,100 watts). Results could range from a blown fuse to an electrical fire.

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Can we use older extension cords?
Do check for frays and cracks and note the cord's load limit. Damaged and overloaded cords may cause a
shock or fire. Cords should tell how much power they can support. "A thin extension cord can't handle
an electric heater. The risk: An overheated cord can cause a fire. Use heavy-duty cords for high-wattage
appliances, such as portable heaters and freezers.
Can we take it guaranteed that our house is wired safely?
Do determine when your home was last inspected.
Check the electrical panel for a label or tag with a date and signature or initials. If there isn't one, use the
home's age as a guide. Inspect and probably replace wiring that's 40 years or older. If it's been 10 years
or more since the last inspection, a new inspection is advised, especially if you've added high-wattage
appliances, outlets or extension cords. Systems inspected less than 10 years ago are usually safe.
Can we ignore switches or outlets that don't work?
There's a reason behind why it doesn't work, and that reason could be a symptom of a larger problem.
It is not suggested to wire appliances or correct problems on your own. Common mistakes include
improper splices or overloaded circuits. The end result: fire or shock.
Can we use electrical appliances or talk on the phone during an electrical storm?
"If lightning were to strike a tree or wire outside your house, (the jolt) could come in on the wire and
would not only ruin the appliance, but would strike you too.
Can we allow young children with exposed outlets?
DO use safety covers or special outlets. Devices range from inexpensive snap-on outlet covers to special
tamper-resistant switch plates. Watch that the snap-on variety fits snugly, covers all three holes, and
that there aren't gaps between the protector and outlet. "I've seen outlets that are indented or grooved
and are perfect for little fingers to pop the covers off.
Can we forget any hidden dangers?
DO inspect your home room by room. Problem areas include:
Outlets around sinks should have ground-fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs) or outlets that shut off when a
current is flowing through a person.
Clean behind and underneath the fridge periodically to prevent dust and dirt buildup on coils and cords.
Never touch an electrical device if you are in contact with water.

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An electric blanket that's "tucked in" or covered with another blanket may overheat and catch fire.
Light-bulb wattages must match the specifications on lighting fixtures (in entire house).

Living/Family Room:
Parents should install safety covers on outlets (in entire house).
Keep cords out of walkways.
Don't cover cords with carpeting or rugs. The cords could overheat.
Laundry/Utility Room:
Periodically vacuum your dryer's lint trap and exhaust hose. Lint buildup is a fire hazard.
Make certain washer and dryer cords aren't pinched.
Keep a 3-foot area around gas appliances, like dryers, water heaters and furnaces, clear of any objects
and clutter.
Keep stored items a safe distance from light bulbs. Towels or wrapping paper can catch fire from a
bulb that's left on.
Use an adapter to plug three-prong plugs into a two-hole receptacle. Replace tools without a threeprong plug or whose cords aren't double insulated.
Never use a power tool if the grounding pin has been removed.
All outdoor sockets should have GFCIs.
Never use an electric mower on wet grass.
Make sure extension cords and holiday lights are intended for outdoor use.

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Should we unplug appliances, in case of storm?
When a storm involves high winds, lightning, heavy snow or ice, turn off and unplug as many appliances
as possible. This will prevent damage from a power surge when service is restored. After the storm has
passed, plug in and turn them on one at a time.
Should we avoid downed power lines?
When you venture outside, check the area for downed power lines. If you see one, notify your Electric
Supply Authorities immediately.
Dont allow anyone to touch or drive over a power line even an experienced line mechanic cant tell if
a line is energized just by looking at it. Always assume a downed line is dangerous, even if its not
jumping or sparking.
Can we mix Water and electricity?
Take extreme care when using electrical appliances or equipment near a swimming pool, pond, water
feature, dam or creek.
Only use electrical equipment via a safety switch. If equipment is not designed to operate in water,
make sure it cannot fall or slide in.
Mains operated equipment (e.g. pumps, lights, appliances) must be:
installed and used according to manufacturers instructions;
fit for purpose.
Submersible pumps must be either of the earthed type or extra low voltage (12 volts).
Dont let extension leads, cords or electrical appliances fall into water.

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A two way switch have to work in pairs. Above is a simple schematic diagram of how the wiring
for a two way switch should be installed.
As mentioned, a two way switch has three terminals, as seen in the diagram, S1 and S2
represents the two switches. In S1 you will notice that the live wire goes to a and then
connected to c in the switch. In this case, the b terminal and the c terminal are the common
terminals connected by two common wires to the common terminals of S2.
The diagram demonstrates a state where the light is now being switched OFF. Now for
example, S1 is installed at one end of the corridor and S2 at the far end. When you enter the
corridor, you will switch on the lights using S1. Inside the S1, the terminals are closed via a and
c. When you toggle the switch, the copper strip connecting a and c will be pushed to connect to
b. That means a and b now forms a closed circuit.
The live wire from the mains will now go to a connected to c where it is again connected by
common wire 2 to b2 of S2 which is the switch at the end of the corridor. This live supply then
passes through to b2 to a2 and onwards to the light, thus completing the full loop to light up
the light. All this while, S2 has never been touched.
When you walk right to the end of the corridor and you want to switch OFF the light, the switch
will toggle the terminal from b2 to c2, breaking the circuit, thereby switching OFF the lights. The
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switch will stay that way for the whole duration until someone else switches the lights ON again
at either end.


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Aim: To Rig up florescent tube light.


Tube Light set
Test lamp
Screw driver

As required

Working of Florescent tube light

General Operation of Florescent tube light:
When the lamp is first turned on, the current travels through the path of least resistance,
which is through the bypass circuit, and across the starter switch. This current then passes
through the circuit heating up the filament in each electrode, which are located at both ends of
the tube (these electrodes are simple filaments, like those found in incandescent light bulbs).
This boils off electrons from the metal surface, sending them into the gas tube, ionizing the gas.
The mercury vapor becomes "excited" and it generates radiant energy, mainly in the ultraviolet
range. This energy causes the phosphor coating on the inside of the tube to fluoresce,
converting the ultraviolet into visible light.

The Starter:
The starter is basically a time delay switch. Its job is to let the current flow through to the
electrodes at each end of the tube, causing the filaments to heat up and create a cloud of
electrons inside the tube. The starter then opens after a second or two. The voltage across the
tube allows a stream of electrons to flow across the tube and ionize the mercury vapor.
Without the starter, a steady stream of electrons is never created between the two filaments,
and the lamp flickers.

The Choke / Ballast:

The ballast works mainly as a regulator. They consume, transform, and control electrical
power for various types of electric-discharge lamps, providing the necessary circuit conditions
for starting and operating them. In a fluorescent lamp, the voltage must be regulated because
the current in the gas discharge causes resistance to decrease in the tube. The AC voltage will
cause the current to climb on its own. If this current isnt controlled, it can cause the blow out
of various components.

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In architecture and structural
engineering, a truss is a
structure comprising one or
constructed with straight
members whose ends are
connected at joints referred
to as nodes. External forces
and reactions to those forces
are considered to act only at
the nodes and result in
forces in the members which
explicitly excluded because,
and only because, all the joints in a truss are treated as revolutes.
Terminologies associated with truss
A planar truss is one where all the members and nodes lie within a two dimensional plane, while
a space truss has members and nodes extending into three dimensions.
A truss consists of straight members connected at joints, traditionally termed panel points.
Trusses are composed of triangles because of the structural stability of that shape and design. A
triangle is the simplest geometric figure that will not change shape when the lengths of the sides
are fixed. In comparison, both the angles and the lengths of a four-sided figure must be fixed for
it to retain its shape.
The simplest form of a truss is one single triangle. This type of truss is seen in a framed roof
consisting of rafters and a ceiling joist, and in other mechanical structures such as bicycles and
aircraft. Because of the stability of this shape and the methods of analysis used to calculate the
forces within it, a truss composed entirely of triangles is known as a simple truss. The traditional
diamond-shape bicycle frame, which utilizes two conjoined triangles, is an example of a simple
A planar truss lies in a single plane. Planar trusses are typically used in parallel to form roofs and
The depth of a truss, or the height between the upper and lower chords, is what makes it an
efficient structural form. A solid girder or beam of equal strength would have substantial weight
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and material cost as compared to a truss. For a given span, a deeper truss will require less
material in the chords and greater material in the verticals and diagonals. An optimum depth of
the truss will maximize the efficiency.
Types and History of Truss
There are two basic types of truss:

The pitched truss, or common truss, is characterized by its triangular shape. It is most
often used for roof construction. Some common trusses are named according to their web
configuration. The chord size and web configuration are determined by span, load and
spacing. Below are some of pitch trusses.
The parallel chord truss, or flat truss, gets its name from its parallel top and bottom
chords. It is often used for floor construction.

A combination of the two is a truncated truss, used in roof construction. A metal plate-connected
wood truss is a roof or floor truss whose wood members are connected with metal connector
Pratt truss
The Pratt truss was patented in 1844 by two Boston railway engineers, Caleb Pratt and his son
Thomas Willis Pratt. The design uses vertical members for compression and horizontal members
to respond to tension. What is remarkable about this style is that it remained popular even as
wood gave way to iron, and even still as iron gave way to steel. The continued popularity of the
Pratt truss is probably due to the fact that the configuration of the members means that longer
diagonal members are only in tension for gravity load effects. This allows these members to be
used more efficiently, as slenderness effects related to buckling under compression loads (which
are compounded by the length of the member) will typically not control the design. Therefore,

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for given planar truss with a fixed depth, the Pratt configuration is usually the most efficient
under static, vertical loading.

The Southern Pacific Railroad bridge in Tempe, Arizona is a 393 meter (1,291 foot) long truss
bridge built in 1912. The structure is composed of nine Pratt truss spans of varying lengths. The
bridge is still in use today.
The Wright Flyer used a Pratt truss in its wing construction, as the minimization of compression
member lengths allowed for lower aerodynamic drag.
Bowstring truss
Named for their shape, bowstring trusses were first used for arched truss bridges, often confused
with tied-arch bridges.

Thousands of bowstring trusses were used during World War II for holding up the curved roofs
of aircraft hangars and other military buildings. Many variations exist in the arrangements of the
members connecting the nodes of the upper arc with those of the lower, straight sequence of
members, from nearly isosceles triangles to a variant of the Platt truss.
Statics of trusses
A truss that is assumed to comprise members that are connected by means of pin joints, and
which is supported at both ends by means of hinged joints or rollers, is described as being
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statically determinate. Newton's Laws apply to the structure as a whole, as well as to each node
or joint. In order for any node that may be subject to an external load or force to remain static in
space, the following conditions must hold: the sums of all (horizontal and vertical) forces, as
well as all moments acting about the node equal zero. Analysis of these conditions at each node
yields the magnitude of the compression or tension forces.
Trusses that are supported at more than two positions are said to be statically indeterminate, and
the application of Newton's Laws alone is not sufficient to determine the member forces.
In order for a truss with pin-connected members to be stable, it must be entirely composed of
triangles. In mathematical terms, we have the following necessary condition for stability:
where m is the total number of truss members, j is the total number of joints and r is the number
of reactions (equal to 3 generally) in a 2-dimensional structure.
When m>2 j-3 the truss is said to be statically determinate, because the (m+3) internal member
forces and support reactions can then be completely determined by 2j equilibrium equations,
once we know the external loads and the geometry of the truss. Given a certain number of joints,
this is the minimum number of members, in the sense that if any member is taken out (or fails),
then the truss as a whole fails. While the relation (a) is necessary, it is not sufficient for stability,
which also depends on the truss geometry, support conditions and the load carrying capacity of
the members.
Some structures are built with more than this minimum number of truss members. Those
structures may survive even when some of the members fail. Their member forces depend on the
relative stiffness of the members, in addition to the equilibrium condition described.
Analysis of trusses
Because the forces in each of its two main girders are essentially planar, a truss is usually
modelled as a two-dimensional plane frame. If there are significant out-of-plane forces, the
structure must be modelled as a three-dimensional space.
The analysis of trusses often assumes that loads are applied to joints only and not at intermediate
points along the members. The weight of the members is often insignificant compared to the
applied loads and so is often omitted. If required, half of the weight of each member may be
applied to its two end joints. Provided the members are long and slender, the moments
transmitted through the joints are negligible and they can be treated as "hinges" or 'pin-joints'.
Every member of the truss is then in pure compression or pure tension shear, bending moment,
and other more complex stresses are all practically zero. This makes trusses easier to analyze.
This also makes trusses physically stronger than other ways of arranging material because
nearly every material can hold a much larger load in tension and compression than in shear,
bending, torsion, or other kinds of force.Structural analysis of trusses of any type can readily be
carried out using a matrix method such as the direct stiffness method, the flexibility method or
the finite element method

Department of Mechanical Engineering, BVBCET.


Design of members
A truss can be thought of as a beam where the web consists of a series of separate members
instead of a continuous plate. In the truss, the lower horizontal member (the bottom chord) and
the upper horizontal member (the top chord) carry tension and compression, fulfilling the same
function as the flanges of an I-beam. Which chord carries tension and which carries compression
depends on the overall direction of bending. In the truss pictured above right, the bottom chord is
in tension, and the top chord in compression.
The diagonal and vertical members form the truss web, and carry the shear force. Individually,
they are also in tension and compression, the exact arrangement of forces is depending on the
type of truss and again on the direction of bending. In the truss shown above right, the vertical
members are in tension, and the diagonals are in compression.
In addition to carrying the static forces, the members serve additional functions of stabilizing
each other, preventing buckling. In the picture to the right, the top chord is prevented from
buckling by the presence of bracing and by the stiffness of the web members.
The inclusion of the elements shown is largely an engineering decision based upon economics,
being a balance between the costs of raw materials, off-site fabrication, component
transportation, on-site erection, the availability of machinery and the cost of labor. In other cases
the appearance of the structure may take on greater importance and so influence the design
decisions beyond mere matters of economics. Modern materials such as prestressed concrete and
fabrication methods, such as automated welding, have significantly influenced the design of
modern bridges.
Once the force on each member is known, the next step is to determine the cross section of the
individual truss members. For members under tension the cross-sectional area A can be found
using A = F / y, where F is the force in the member, is a safety factor (typically 1.5 but
depending on building codes) and y is the yield tensile strength of the steel used. The members
under compression also have to be designed to be safe against buckling.
The weight of a truss member depends directly on its cross sectionthat weight partially
determines how strong the other members of the truss need to be. Giving one member a larger
cross section than on a previous iteration requires giving other members a larger cross section as
well, to hold the greater weight of the first memberone needs to go through another iteration to
find exactly how much greater the other members need to be. Sometimes the designer goes
through several iterations of the design process to converge on the "right" cross section for each
member. On the other hand, reducing the size of one member from the previous iteration merely
makes the other members have a larger (and more expensive) safety factor than is technically
necessary, but doesn't require another iteration to find a buildable truss.
The effect of the weight of the individual truss members in a large truss, such as a bridge, is
usually insignificant compared to the force of the external loads
Design of joints
Department of Mechanical Engineering, BVBCET.


After determining the minimum cross section of the members, the last step in the design of a
truss would be detailing of the bolted joints, e.g., involving shear of the bolt connections used in
the joints, see also shear stress. Based on the needs of the project, truss internal connections
(joints) can be designed as rigid, semi rigid, or hinged. Rigid connections can allow transfer of
bending moments leading to development of secondary bending moments in the members.
Component connections are critical to the structural integrity of a framing system. In buildings
with large, clearspan wood trusses, the most critical connections are those between the truss and
its supports. In addition to gravity-induced forces (bearing loads), these connections must resist
shear forces acting perpendicular to the plane of the truss and uplift forces due to wind.
Depending upon overall building design, the connections may also be required to transfer
bending moment.
Wood posts enable the fabrication of strong, direct, yet inexpensive connections between large
trusses and walls. Exact details for post-to-truss connections vary from designer to designer, and
may be influenced by post type. Solid-sawn timber and glulam posts are generally notched to
form a truss bearing surface. The truss is rested on the notches and bolted into place. A special
plate/bracket may be added to increase connection load transfer capabilities. With mechanicallylaminated posts, the truss may rest on a shortened outer-ply or on a shortened inner-ply. The later
scenario places the bolts in double shear and is a very effective connection.
Objective: To understand the behavior of the structure and explore the basic knowledge for
innovative ideas, to analyse and design truss for given load by providing greater degree of
freedom for designer
Prepare an economical truss to carry a design load with following factors/variabilities
1. Geometry.
2. Cross sectional area and length of members.
3. Material used for members.
4. Weight of truss and cost of designed truss.
5. Aesthetic and appearance.
6. Best suited connection.
7. Support condition.
8. Ease of handling, erection and placing of truss.
Expected outcome
1. Student is expected to explain in detail all above factors to prepare a physical / actual
truss model.
2. Student is expected to demonstrate the failure of truss under a specified design load.
3. It is also necessary for student to explain
Department of Mechanical Engineering, BVBCET.



The reasons and prominent factors influenced for any deviation of design load
with actual failure load of the physical model prepared by him.
Behavior of truss, joints and supports during incremental loads till failure.

Typical geometry of trusses

Department of Mechanical Engineering, BVBCET.



1. Elements of Mechanical Engineering by K. R. Gopalakrishna, Subhas Stores.

2. The Elements of Workshop Technology, Vol 1 & 2, S.K.H. Choudhury,
A.K.H.Choudhury, Nirjhar Roy, 11th edition, 2001, Media Promoters and Publishers,
3. Introduction to Basic Manufacturing Processes of Workshop Technology by Rajendra
Singh, New Age International Publishers.
4. Workshop Practices by W. A. Vause.
5. Electrical Engineering by A. Ramesh, R. Balamurugan, V. V. Shanmugadoss, P.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, BVBCET.