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GREEK CIMAC ASSOCIATION

http://gracimac.org/home.html

SEMINAR

Gas 2-stroke marine engine Design and Operation


Thursday, 22 January 2015
Euronav Auditorium

GREEK CIMAC ASSOCIATION


http://gracimac.org/home.html

The Greek CIMAC Association organises a

SEMINAR
Gas 2-stroke marine engine Design and Operation
Thursday, 22 January 2015
17:30 20:30
Euronav office building Auditorium, 69 Akti Miaouli, Piraeus
Programme
17:30

Registration, Coffee

18:00

Introduction to CIMAC and GCA

18:15

2 in-depth presentations MAN Diesel and Turbo, Copenhagen


Niels Kjemtrup, Senior Manager Process Development
Ole Groene, Senior Vice President

18:45

2 in-depth presentations Wartsila Switzerland


Marcel Ott, General Manager Dual Fuel Technology
Rolf Stiefel, Director 2-Stroke Sales

19:15

Panel Discussion
Niels Kjemtrup, MDT
Ole Groene, MDT
Marcel Ott, WCH
Rolf Stiefel, WCH
Manos Migadis, DYNACOM
Vasilis Lampropoulos, THENAMARIS
Moderator: Prof. N. Kyrtatos, NTUA (questions list : GCA)

20:30

Reception

The Seminar is kindly sponsored by MAN Diesel & Turbo, GR and Wartsila, GR.

Introduction to CIMAC and GCA

CIMAC is a worldwide non-profit association consisting of National


Member Associations in 26 countries in America, Asia and Europe.
CIMAC was founded in Paris in 1951. CIMAC Central Secretariat is in
Frankfurt.
CIMAC covers diesel and gas engines and gas turbines used for power
generation, marine propulsion and locomotives.

The objectives of CIMAC are to promote technical and scientific knowledge, to


promote the exchange of experience between all interested parties and to act
as a neutral advisor to international organizations.

Worldwide members include engine manufacturers, engine users, component


suppliers, fuel and lubricant companies, research organizations, classification
societies.

Introduction to CIMAC and GCA

The Greek CIMAC Association- GCA (est. 1997) is a non-profit organization


linking marine industry related companies in Greece and affiliated to the
International CIMAC.
The engine user aspect is highly visible in the Greek CIMAC Association and
more than 60% of the present members are shipping companies.
One present objective of GCA is to establish a local Users Group corresponding
with the central CIMAC WG 10 :Users, with aim to provide a forum of dialogue
between engine users and manufacturers.

GCA Seminar January 2015


Gas 2-stroke marine engine Design and Operation

Niels Kjemtrup
Senior Manager
Process Development
MAN Diesel & Turbo
Copenhagen

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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Two-Stroke Gas Engine Technologies


ME-GI and ME-LGI

Gaseous Gases (LNG, Ethan)

Gas Fuels

Gas Engine
Technologies

MAN Diesel & Turbo

Liquid Gases (MeOH, LPG)

ME-GI (Gas Injection)


ME-LGI (Liquid Gas Injection)

CIMAC Greece 2015

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ME-GI & ME-LGI (Electronic Controlled Gas Injection)


Combustion Concept & Add-On Gas Parts

3
2
5

Yellow = pilot oil


Blue = gas fuel

Conventional/pilot fuel injector

Gas fuel injector

Gas control block

Gas channel

4
1

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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The MAN B&W ME-GI Engine

GI Performance
MAN Diesel & Turbo

NK-LDF 2015
CIMAC Greece

NK3339455.2014.05.02

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ME-GI Concept
The ME-GI Engine is a Diesel-Cycle Combustion Engine

Heat release controlled by:


Fuel injection rate
Air entrainment
Our first expectation:
Performance, efficiency, emission
(NOx, CO, HC) are behaving like in a
(liquid) Diesel engine:
Turbocharging
Miller/Atkinson timing
Etc.

Some emissions are lower due to fuel


composition

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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ME-GI Concept
As Stable Running as the Diesel Engine

Injection and combustion


stability on 4T50ME-X:
500 consecutive cycles
analysed
ME-GI marginally better
cycle-to-cycle stability

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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GI Latest Performance Results


Shop Test of 8L70ME-C-GI engines

Shop test of first 8L70ME-C-GI

Comparison Gas vs. Diesel


Specified dual fuel (SDF)
30/70 ratio
70/30 ratio

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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GI Latest Performance Results


Gas versus Diesel: Heat Release

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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GI Latest Performance Results


Gas versus Diesel: SFOC

Test Diesel
# atomizer

MAN Diesel & Turbo

Gas
atomizer

SFOC
[g/kWh]

Nox
[g/kWh]

DI

GI-4

--

GI

GI-4

GI-21

- 4,8

- 1.0

CIMAC Greece 2015

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GI Latest Performance Results


Gas versus Diesel: Emissions

No
Methane
Slip
MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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GI Latest Performance Results


Gas versus Diesel: Emissions

No
Methane
Slip
*Source: Nielsen, J. B., Stenersen, D., Emission factors for CH4, NOx, particulates and black carbon for domestic shipping in Norway, MARINTEK report, MT22 A10-199, Klima og Forurensningsdirektoratet, Norway (2010)

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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GI Latest Performance Results


Specified Dual Fuel Operation: Heat Release

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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GI Latest Performance Results


Specified Dual Fuel Operation: Emissions

No
Methane
Slip

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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GI Latest Performance Results


Specified Dual Fuel Operation: Performance

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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8L70ME-C-GI TOTE1
Actual pilot oil Energy fraction
GI ref
12
Actuall Pilot Energy fraction [%]

11
10
9
8
7
6
GI ref

5
4
3
2
1
0
0

MAN Diesel & Turbo

25

50
Load [%]

CIMAC Greece 2015

75

100

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GI Latest Performance Results


Conclusions: Performance

The heat rate and NOx emission of


the 8L70ME-C9.2 engine is better
when running on gas than on diesel
Pilot oil consumption is below the
target (3%) value for all loads
Down to 7% engine load in gas
mode
Specified dual fuel mode (SDF) is
available and diesel operation is
confirmed as NOx worst case.

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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Conclusions
ME-GI vs. ME
Similarities:

Differences:

Power density
Combustion control parameters

NOx emission levels lower


(approx. 25%)

Turbo charging, scavenging,


exhaust gas temperatures

SFOC tuning possible for IMO


tier II gives 1 3% improvement

Good part load SFOC

Near zero PM levels

Good transient engine response

Greenhouse Gas Impact


20% lower due to C/H ratio of
methane and the very low
methane slip

Robust to fuel quality changes


(MN irrelevant)
Simple cylinder lubrication
system and known lube-oil types
Safety:

No risk of misfiring/knocking
No risk of explosion in
scavenge receiver
MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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The MAN B&W ME-GI Engine

GI and EGR
MAN Diesel & Turbo

NK-LDF 2015
CIMAC Greece

NK3339455.2014.05.02

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4T50ME-GI with EGR


Objective
Test of GI with EGR on the 4T50ME-GI engine
Comparison with diesel references (with and without EGR) and GI without EGR

DI
GI
DI+EGR
GI+EGR

MAN Diesel & Turbo

Diesel
Compressed natural gas (CNG)
Diesel with EGR
CNG with EGR

CIMAC Greece 2015

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4T50ME-GI with EGR


Performance

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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4T50ME-GI with EGR


Emissions

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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4T50ME-GI with EGR


Conclusions

EGR can secure Tier III NOx levels also for GI-engines.

EGR affects GI combustion in the same way as DI combustion. The peak


heat release is lowered and the late cycle heat release is increased.

The increase in SFOC when adding EGR is the same for GI and diesel.

For GI+EGR: NOx, CO and filtered smoke number are all very low.

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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The MAN B&W ME-GI Engine 2014

Low Sulphur Focus for EGR

MAN Diesel & Turbo

NK-LDF 2015
CIMAC Greece

NK3339455.2014.05.02

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MDT-TWO Stroke engines Strategy


All types are
Diesel engines
with same platform
and similar:

ME-C
Diesel Engine
Fuels: MDO, HFO

Tier III
Technologies:

Performance

ME-C-GI
High Pressure Gas Injection
Fuels: Methane, Ethane.

EGR
Efficiency
SCR

Emission
Turbocharging
ME-C-LGI
High Pressure LF fuel injection
Fuels: Propane, Methanol .
MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

Timing

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MDT Tier III Development fuel strategy


~2006

2014

2014

HFO solution design status 2014

Full fuel flexibility solutions


EGR + SCR
0.1% sulphur optimized solution

MEPC 66, London, April 2014

MAN Diesel & Turbo

All N-ECAs also S-ECAs


No risk of retrofit demands in future N-ECAs
Newest possible N-ECA: ~ 2017
Ship owners expect SOx compliance by low S fuel
CIMAC Greece 2015

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Low sulphur EGR outlines


60-70 bore engines - Changes in EGR engine outlines
Outline width reduce.
Height of EGR unit reduced. mores space below.
Layout considered without reduced flow area of EGR cooler.

HFO

LS

6G70ME-C9

EGR units

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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Clean
buffer tank

Dirty buffer tank

EGR Water Treatment System reduction (to be tested)

QC

To
Scrubber

MAN Diesel & Turbo

From
Scrubber

QC
Overboard

CIMAC Greece 2015

Collecting tank

Collecting tank

From
Scrubber

Overboard

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EGR CAPEX
EGR CAPEX - 16 MW
Tier III on High sulphur fuel
EGR engine equipment
(scrubber, blower,
cooler))
Engine modification
(valves and control
system)
Auxiliary system (WTS)

Installation excl. tanks

EGR CAPEX - 16 MW
Tier III on Low sulphur fuel

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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Why SCR or EGR on LNG carriers?


EGR/SCR gives full fuel flexibility in Tier III areas.
Low Sulphur HFO Fully valid option
Result:
No operational Limitations:
When the charter requires to empty the LNG tanks.
When the ships are going to Dockyard / Repair yard.
In case of gas malfunction
Full redundancy in fuel choice is available.

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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The MAN B&W ME-GI Engine 2014

Lubrication of GI engines

MAN Diesel & Turbo

NK-LDF 2015
CIMAC Greece

NK3339455.2014.05.02

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Lubrication system for ME-GI

Automated Lube Switch (ALS) system

High
BN

MAN Diesel & Turbo

Low
BN

CIMAC Greece 2015

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ME-GI lubrication system


MDT General Recommendation

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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ME-GI Gas Fuel Mode


Port to port in dual fuel mode
Fuel oil only mode
Operation profile as conventional
engine
Dual fuel operation mode
No fuel slip
No knocking problems
Insensitive to gas fuel
Unchanged load response
Specified dual fuel mode

News:
Reduced pilot oil amount 5% 3%
Reduced load on gas 10% load

MAN Diesel & Turbo

RSL-LSP 2015
CIMAC Greece

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Lubrication
ME-GI
Point of switch is based on
experience
Low BN oil

MAN Diesel & Turbo

High BN oil

CIMAC Greece 2015

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The MAN B&W ME-GI Engine 2014

Gas Supply Systems

MAN Diesel & Turbo

NK-LDF 2015
CIMAC Greece

NK3339455.2014.05.02

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LNG Supply System


ME-GI

Cyrogenic pumps
Power requirements =0.3-0.5% og ME Shaft power
MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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LNG Supply System


ME-GI

HP Compressor(only supply)
Power requirements =3-5% og ME Shaft power
MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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The MAN B&W ME-GI Engine 2014

Challenges

MAN Diesel & Turbo

NK-LDF 2015
CIMAC Greece

NK3339455.2014.05.02

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First ME-GI Engine Delivery


8L70ME-GI on Test Bed

Gas Injector

Pilot Injector

Gas Control Block

April 2014
MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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ME-GI Development
Gas Sealing Concept

PTFE sealing rings chrome plated sealing surfaces

Chrome plating

Stainless steel spring


PTFE sealing ring
MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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ME-GI Development
Gas Sealing Experience with Chrome Plating
Experience with chrome plating solution on following ME-GI engines:
NG operation

MDO operation

4T50ME-X-GI, Research Engine CPH

450 h

1,800 h

8S70ME-C8.2-GI, Hyundai

268 h

80 h

6S70ME-C8.2-GI, Mitsui

230 h

165 h

2S50ME-GI, Kawasaki

100 h

200 h

Total running hours accumulated:

1,048 h

1,895 h

Excellent gas sealing results were gained on


the above-mentioned ME-GI engines with chrome plating

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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ME-GI Development
Gas Sealing Experience with Chrome Plating
Latest experience:
The good experience from previous gas engines was however not continued at the shop
test on first L70ME-C8.2-GI engine:
Continuous troubles with gas leakage observed
Secondary cracks recognised as the reason for leakage in the cylinder covers
Without chrome plating, NO leakage observed
Secondary cracks on sealing
areas

Based on the above observations and


corresponding calculations, it is
concluded to implement high strain
chrome plating

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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ME-GI Development
Gas Sealing Solution with Chrome Plating
Solutions introduced:
Development of new strain resistant chrome plating consisting of multilayer high strain chrome (in cooperation with Hartchrom AG in
Switzerland)
Change GIV design for more safe maintenance and improved guidance
Development of alternative manufacturing process; i.e. an alternative
bushing design
Multi-layer high strain
chrome

Alternative bushing design


Guidance
improved

Both Hartchrom and Bushing solution has confirmed


satiscactory operation on 5G70ME-C-GI engines for
DW2407#1 and#2

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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The MAN B&W ME-GI Engine 2014

Memory Lane

MAN Diesel & Turbo

NK-LDF 2015
CIMAC Greece

NK3339455.2014.05.02

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Chiba Power Plant - Japan


10 Years of MC-GI (Camshaft Controlled) Experience

1994 - 2003

GI = Gas Injection

Mitsui
Possibilities very limited in the maritime world technology too
early for the market. However, a good reference for the future!
MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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EU Funding of ME-GI Development


Concept Confirmation & Optimization

EU FP7 Transport
Two-stroke low speed diesel engines
CNG-LNG (Natural Gas)
Budget: 5m EURO, incl. 3m EURO from the EU
3 years 2010-2013
9 partners: 4 universities, 5 companies, 3 countries
MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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Market Acceptance of ME-GI


Concept Confirmation & Demonstration

2010

2011

Concept Confirmation MDT R&D Engine

2012

2013

Product Demonstration Hyundai 8S70ME-C-GI


MAN Diesel & Turbo

Concept Demonstration MDT R&D Engine

CIMAC Greece 2015

Product Demonstration Mitsui 6S70ME-C-GI


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ME-GI LNG
First Orders from Late 2012

Teekay Shipping
Liquefied Natural Gas Tankers
2 x 5G70ME-C-GI Engines
Delivery starting in 2016

TOTE Maritime
Panamax Container Vessels
8L70ME-C-Gl Engines
Delivery starting in Q4 2015

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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ME-GI & ME-LGI


Reference List January 2015

ME-GI

ME-GI & ME-LGI:

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

140+ Engines

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2-stroke: LNG Tanker Market


ME-C and ME-GI Engines

Number of LNG tankers

Steam-Turbine

DFDE

ME-C

X-DF

ME-GI

50

40

30

20

10

0
2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

2012

2014

In 2014 MDT won significant market shares in LNG


tanker market with the ME-GI Engines
MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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Possibilities and Challenges


Two-Stroke Gas Engine Technologies

MAN Diesel & Turbo

CIMAC Greece 2015

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Low pressure gas engines

The industry standard

CIMAC discussion Athens 22. January 2015


Marcel Ott, General Manager, DF Technology

Development path for gas powered marine engines

29 km3 LNGC MV Venator 7RNMD90 Moss S/Y NOR

1972
2-stroke low pressure
Dual-Fuel engine

1970

1980
1986
2-stroke high pressure
Dual Fuel engine

1992
4-stroke low pressure
spark ignited engine

1990
1987
high pressure
Gas diesel engine

2000

2013
2-stroke low pressure
Dual-Fuel engine

2010

1995
Break through
4-stroke low pressure DF engine

6RTA84 at IHI, Japan

2-stroke
4-stroke

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

Dual fuel test engine 6RTFlex50DF in Italy


6RT-flex50 Diesel engine installed in
engine lab in Trieste, Italy in 2011

One cylinder converted for gas operation


for concept development:
- Concept and design alternatives evaluated

Engine converted to full scale in summer


2013:
- Engine performance mapped
- Control system development
- Component reliability tests

- >1000 running hours logged

RT-flex50DF test engine

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

Dual fuel test engine W-X72DF in Japan


Strong support/interest from
Japanese customers in Low Pressure
DF engines
- Cooperation with Japanese licensee
Diesel United Ltd.

W6X72DF test engine will be


installed at Diesel Uniteds facilities
Engine started on diesel, gas start in
the coming month
Main objectives:
- Additional test engine/facility
- Further combustion and performance
optimization, on larger bore engine
sizes
- Component reliability confirmations

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

W-X72DF test engine

2-stroke low pressure dual fuel concept


The Principle
Engine operating according to Otto
process
Pre-mixed Lean burn technology
Low pressure gas admission at mid
stroke

Ignition by pilot fuel in pre-chamber

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

2-stroke low pressure dual fuel concept


The main merits
Low gas pressure < 16bar
- Simple and reliable gas supply system
- Simple gas sealing
- Wide selection of proven compressors/
pumps (piston or centrifugal)

Lean Burn Otto combustion means


IMO Tier III compliance:
- Without additional equipment (EGR/SCR)
- Without additional fuel consumption
Scavenging

Compression/
gas admission

Ignition
expansion

Pre-mixed lean-burn combustion

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

- Without compromised component reliability

2-stroke low pressure lean burn principle


Lower peak temperatures
Lower NOx formation!

Engine operating according to the Otto


process

Air and gas premixed before combustion:


- lean mixture: more air available than needed
for stoichiometric combustion
- Cold flame temperature
Low NOx
Lower wall heat losses
- No local rich combustion
low particulate matter (PM)

External ignition by pre-chamber


- Provides energy needed to ignite gas

Diesel, max flame temp.


Otto, max flame temp.

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

- Good ignition stability with very low pilot fuel


amount (<1% of full load energy input)

Total emission picture of low pressure principle


Total hydro carbon contribution
to CO2 equivalent emissions
-15%

PM further reduced by the DF technology


with lean-burn Otto combustion with prechamber ignition
Unlike CO2, methane disappears over
time. Its short term effect is 28 times
stronger as a green house gas *)
Methane slip = THC emissions (Total
Unburned Hydrocarbons). Included in total
CO2 equivalent
Potential to further reduce methane slip on
the 2-s DF

-85%
Tier3!
-99%
-98%

LP

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

2-s DF Otto process contributes


positively to reduce the total emission
scope compared to any engine
operating in the Diesel process
*):

IPCC report Climate Change 2013

Low pressure dual fuel engine output


Methane number:
Maximum output may be limited by
methane number (MN), if rating point
close to R1-R3

Power output vs Methane number


105%

R2 R4

100%
95%

No output limitation from MN if rating


point close to R2-R4

Engine power

90%
85%
80%
75%

Considerations:

Typical max.
service load

70%
65%

MN of LNG is typically 70 - 90

rating on R1 to R3 line

Preliminary, to be confirmed

60%

rating on R2 to R4 line

55%
50%
60

65

70

75

80

85

Methane Number MN
Methane Number, MN

90

95

100

Gases with lower MN can be burned


by reducing engine power output

Operating area for low speed


engines is typically < 85% CMCR

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

Knocking: What is that?


180
Cylinder pressure

Firing pressure [bar]

160

Knock sensor signal

Normal combustion (Fig 1)

140

Ignition

120

Flame front propagation

100
80
60
40
20

Knocking combustion (Fig. 2)

Fig.: 1

180

Spontaneous ignition of end gas towards end of


combustion

Firing pressure [bar]

160

Knock detected by

140
120

Cylinder pressure trace

100

- One pressure sensor per cylinder

80
60

Knock detector signal (structure borne noise)

40

- One knock sensor per cylinder

20
0

10

Crank angle

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

For each individual cylinder and cycle


Fig.: 2

Knocking: Safe detection and prevention !


BMEP / engine load / torque

Engine control system:


- Adjusts air / fuel ratio and balances
cylinders to avoid knocking or
misfiring
- releases safety measures in case
knocking or misfiring is occurring

11

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

Air / Fuel ratio

Thermal efficiency
NOx emissions

Knocking

BMEP

- reduces knock tendency


- Increases thermal efficiency
- lowers NOx emissions

Misfiring

Increased air/fuel ratio:

Operating
window

- Reduction in power output allows a


wider operating window

Low pressure dual fuel combustion stability


Combustion stability criteria: cycle-to-cycle variation of IMEP
Example: IMEP history over 300 cycles at full load (test engine 6RT-flex50DF)

- In diesel operation
- In gas operation

Stable combustion comparable in both operating modes

12

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

Load response of Wrtsil 2-stroke DF engines


6RT-flex50DF engine test results
Water brake load variation with wave load profile
Engine running in gas mode

Engine control system covers any load and operation mode and
enables even manoeuvring on gas!

13

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

Low pressure system fuel requirements


Pilot fuel types: DMA, DMZ and DMB distillate
fuels (as 4-s DF standard)
Gas fuel requirements (as 4-s DF standard):

HFO requirements as on std. diesel engines

14

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

Conclusion

Low-pressure DF is the technology of


choice and the industry standard!
Operational experience from over 1000 4-s DF
engines
Incorporated running experience in 2-s DF engine
design
Reliability, safety, performance and emissions
results confirmed on 6RT-flex50DF test engine
Questioned areas from the market:
Methane slip
Methane Number / power limitations
Load acceptance
Safety principles
Combustion stability

15

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

Low pressure gas engines

The industry standard

CIMAC discussion Athens 22. January 2015 Rolf Stiefel, Director Sales, 2-stroke

Why Industry standard?


Low pressure lean burn
THE industry standard for gas combustion engines:
Environmental friendliness

low NOx and particulate emissions

Simple installation

minimum of additional ancillary equipment

Low operating costs

competitive overall efficiency, low parasitic load

Reliable and safe operation

long experience on LNG handling equipment applied

Redundancy

change to liquid fuel mode at any time

Port to port operation on LNG

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

Leading into the gas age: Wrtsil 2-stroke DF references

W-RT-flex50DF:
4x 15.000 dwt Chemical tankers (Terntank, SWE)
6x 1400 teu vessel (GNS shipping, GER)
1x 15k m3 coastal LNGC (Huaxiang, CHN)
2x 15k Asphalt carriers (Transport Desgangnes, CAN)
W-X62DF:
2x 180k m3 LNGC/twin screw (SK/Marubeni KOR/JPN)
W-X72DF:
4+ 6x 174k m3 LNGC/twin screw (Gaslog/BG Group GRE/UK)

25 DF engines on order, since market introduction 2 years ago

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

Layout meets market requirements!

90%

Max rating lower than diesel, due to limitations


from knocking / pre-ignition
Dots representing selected rating point of X62
Diesel engine in stadard ship designs
The DF version is covering more than 90% of
these rating points!
Only in exceptional cases an additional cylinder
will be need to meet output requirments

70%

Different consumption curve pattern:

58%

X62
X62DF

Otto process

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

Diesel process

Influence of methane slip on EEDI for low pressure DF

Selected vessel type:


Panamax Bulk Carrier
(80000DWT)
X engine EEDI
X-DF engine EEDI

Engine type:
conventional engine vs.
5X62DF
CMCR:
9930 kW
CSR load:
75%
Service power:
7450 kW
service speed: 13.6 knots

If methane slip is taken into account for emission limits as CO2 equivalent, it will be
regulated via the EEDI
Graph shows the 2s DF engine is below the conventional diesel engine EEDI, thanks
to its lower CO2 emissions overall.

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

Applying Wrtsil low pressure DF Technology

Case study
180,000 m3 LNG carrier

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

Low pressure gas supply system makes the difference!


2SDF
Main engine
GCU

GVU

BOG turbo compressor 5/6 stages


Intercooler

1-2

3-4

5-5/6

Aftercooler
16 barg, 0-60 C

Pressure
reduction

GVU

LNG vaporizers

LNG,
-162 C
Aux
Engines

Simple, proven technology with low CAPEX &OPEX


7

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

Total energy consumption comparison


Energy consumption on equal level with alternative technology

[ton]

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Consumables per day (outside of ECA)

LNG
MDO

LP solution LP solution LP solution HP solution HP solution HP solution


LPladen 16knLP
LP
HP
HP
HP
19.5kn
laden
12kn
laden
19.5kn
laden
16kn
laden
12kn
laden
@19kn
16kn
12kn
@19kn
16kn
12kn

Consumption of gas and liquide fuel for the whole vessel


Equal overall efficiency achieved at all typical load points for both systems
In Tier III area same consumption for LP solution as compliant without 2nd measures

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

Simple gas supply system saves Investment!

InvestmentInvestment
costs
machinery
costs
Investment
cost equipment
Investment cost
Investment
cost

Investment100.00%
cost

100.00% 100.00%

90.00% 90.00%

90.00%

80.00% 80.00%

80.00%

70.00% 70.00%

70.00%

60.00% 60.00%

60.00%

50.00% 50.00%

50.00%

40.00% 40.00%

40.00%

Significantly lower CAPEX:


For compressor
Only low pressure gas system

Tier III compliant in gas mode


Less electrical
power
demands,
Gas system
Gas system
Gas system

SCR

EGR
EGR
henceEGR
smaller
aux
engines
Aux engines
Aux engines
Aux engines
Main engine
Main engine

30.00% 30.00%

30.00%

20.00% 20.00%

20.00%

10.00% 10.00%

10.00%

Main engine

Gas system *
EGR
Aux engines

0.00%

0.00%

Main engine

0.00%
Alt. 1 LP Alt.
solution
1 LP solution Alt. 1 LP solution

LP

LP

HP

Optional in case Tier III required also in liquid fuel mode

P solution
9

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

* 2x 100% compressor capacity


for redundancy

Alt. 2 HPAlt.
solution
2 HP solution Alt. 2 HP solution

Alt. 2 HP solution

Applying Wrtsil low pressure DF Technology

Case study
55.000 dwt Tanker

10

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

The most simple gas supply system


Wrtsil modularized solution for LNG fuelled ships
Process Control Automation & Interfacing

Evaporator

Very low electrical energy consumption and boil off

11

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

OPEX / CAPEX evaluation 55.000 dwt tanker


Similar operating cost for the vessel on an annual basis.
Thousands

3500
3000

[USD]

4000

Consumables costs per year

2500
2000

1500

LNG

1000

MDO

500
0
Alt. 1 LP solution

Alt. 2 HP solution

Vessel operating profile ( annual)


3500 hours in ECA zone (Tier III)
1500 hours in non-ECA zone (Tier II)
MDO:
LNG:

12

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

1000 USD/ton (24.7 USD/mmBTU)


700 USD/ton (14.8 $/mmBTU)

Lowest CAPEX and simple operation

Investment
cost Investment
machinery
Investment
costcostequipment
100.00%

Investment cost (100%) approx. 16 mio $

90.00%

LNG tank 2x 700m3 with 20 days


autonomy at service speed.

80.00%

70.00%

Gas system cost is considered only for ME


and auxiliary engines requirements.

60.00%

Gas system

LNG tank(s)

50.00%

EGR
40.00%

Aux engines

Gas system

Main engine

30.00%

LNG tank(s)

20.00%

EGR

10.00%

Aux engines

0.00%

Main engine
Alt. 1 LP solution

13

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

Alt. 2 HP solution

Gas supply most simple

Wrtsil enclosed GVU can


be installed in engine room!

Integrated automation and control


system for simple operation on
Merchant ships!

14

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

The benefits of our concept


1. Meets IMO Tier III
without exhaust gas after-treatment due to lean burn Otto combustion process

2. Low CAPEX
due to low pressure gas supply system
No large pressurization and high pressure equipment
No exhaust gas after treatment for Tier III compliance in Gas mode
Smaller capacity auxiliary engines, due to less energy demand

3. Competitive OPEX
due to high overall efficiency (low parasitic load) and less equipment on board

4. Proven concept
Lean-burn Otto process is THE standard for gas in combustion engines
More than 10 Mio running hours with Wrtsil medium speed engines
Gas supply system only requires equipment of proven technologies

15

Wrtsil 26 January 2015 RS

JV established and operational since 19.01.2015

Panel Members

Member

Company

Nikolaos Kyrtatos (Moderator)

NTUA

Niels Kjemtrup

MAN Diesel and Turbo

Ole Groene

MAN Diesel and Turbo

Marcel Ott

Wartsila Switzerland

Rolf Stiefel

Wartsila Switzerland

Manos Migadis

DYNAGAS

Vasilis Lampropoulos

THENAMARIS

Areas expected to be addressed by both Makers


Basic Principles of operation
Pilot fuel requirements
Natural gas fuel requirements
Methane Slip
Knocking
NOx Tier II and III Compliance

Cylinder Oil Consumption


Maintenance
Efficiency

References so far

Source: www.bunkerworld.com, BW380

CIMAC WG10 | USERS

from www.cimac.com

AIM
To provide a forum to intensify the dialogue between engine users and manufacturers.
Who we are
We have 25 members in the following countries: Germany, France, Denmark, Norway, UK, Holland, Singapore, Korea
and Japan.
What we do
We record engine abnormalities in an incognito database and engine maintenance costs in another private database.
At our meetings about every six months, we discuss members latest engine problems and see if we can solve them
around the table.
We also operate an early warning e-mail system that is open to all members at anytime.
Our current projects and activities
Developments for IMO TIER I retrofit, plus TIER II + III practical acceptance.
LNG and dual-fuel engine operation.
Common Rail Technology Improvements.
Exhaust gas treatment and recirculation systems, waste heat recovery turbo generators.
Comments on EEDI, SEEMP and efficiency introduction to the shipping industries.
Evaluation of criteria for crew education and crew training improvements to manage all these new techniques.
Meeting activities
Regular meetings are held at about every six months and usually hosted by one of our members, but occasionally we
arrange a meeting with an engine builder / designer to discuss operating problems not solved by the service
department.

www.gracimac.org