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Mrunal (http://mrunal.


[Land Reforms] Role of Indian Congress in Land reforms during the

British Raj, Gandhis Views on Land Reforms, All India Kisan Sabha

polity ( / 2 years Ago /

1. Prologue
2. #1: Land reforms Congress in Provincial Governments 1937
1. @Bihar
2. @Uttar Pradesh
3. @Bombay
4. @Other Provinces
5. Overall Limitations
3. #2: Congress Resolutions 4farmers
1. @Karachi session, 1931
2. @Firozpur Session, 1936
3. @election manifesto,1937
4. Other resolutions/Manifestos
4. Rise of All India Kisan Sabha
1. Kisan Manifesto, 1936
2. Limitation of All India Kisan Sabha
5. Gandhis Views on Land Reforms
6. Justice Ranades Views on Land reforms
7. Mock Question

so far weve seen
1. Three land tenure system of the British: Their features, implications

2. Peasant struggles for land reforms in British Raj: causes and consequences
Now in this article well see Role of Indian Congress in Land reforms during the British Raj. This
can be studied under two heads:
1. When Congress formed ministries in the different provinces (1937), what did they do?
2. What resolutions did they pass in various sessions?
+ additional topics: Gandhis views on Land reforms, Ranades view on Land reforms and the
rise of All India Kisan Sabha.

#1: Congress Provincial Governments 1937

After the provincial elections in 1937, Congress formed government in

1. Madras
2. Bombay

3. Central Provinces
4. Orissa
5. Bihar
6. UP


Assam, North West Frontier Province

And they implemented certain land reforms in these provinces:

1. Enacted Restoration of Bakasht Land Act- to give back land to farmers who were evicted
between 1929-1937.
2. enacted Bihar Tenancy Act

3. Reduced the salami rates.

4. Abolished all increases in rent since 1911. As a result, rents were reduced by ~25%
5. gave under-ryots occupancy rights after twelve years of cultivating the land.
6. rents had to be reduced if soil degraded, owner didnt provide irrigation etc.
7. Existing arrears of rent reduced.
8. interest on rent-arrears reduced from 12.5 to 6.25%
9. Debt Relief act: Reduced interest rate on debts to 9%
10. Prohibited all illegal exactions. if landlord charged illegal dues, he could be jailed for 6
11. In sharecropping, landlords maximum share was kept at 9/20 part of the produce.
12. if tenant doesnt pay rent- he cannot be arrested, his property cannot be attached
Kisan leaders wanted Congress government to abolish zamindari and redistribute the land
among poors.
But the Congress Government in Bihar was backed by the zamindars
Therefore, zamindari abolition law couldnot be made.
Bihar Kisan Sabha resorted to militancy- use of Lathis and violence to prevent rent
payments, forcibly occupying Zamindari land etc. Congress government resorted to use of
police and section 144=> relations between Kisan Sabha and Congress deteriorated.

@Uttar Pradesh
The Congress leaders was more leftist than in Bihar. Hence laws/regulations were more
Reduced rents
Tenants of Awadhs and Agra were given hereditary occupancy. (Meaning Zamindar cant
evict familys farm if the father died.)
Rent of hereditary tenant can be changed only after 10 years.
Tenant cannot be arrested, if he doesnt pay rent.
Nazrana (forced gifts) and Begari (Forced labour) were abolished.

Governor did not give his assent to the Tenancy Bill even after two years of its passage.
Hence most reforms couldnt be implemented.

During Civil Disobedience movement (CDM) the British had attached lands of farmers who
did not pay Revenue
The congress Government restored the land back to those farmers
Forest Grazing fees were abolished.
40,000 bonded labour (Dubla/serfs) were liberated
Debt Relief act: Reduced interest rate on debts to 9%. Although it was opposed by Lawyers
who supported Congress. (Because lawyers earned a lot from debt related court cases).

@Other Provinces


Passed: Tenancy act to reduced interest rate on arrears from 12.5 to 6% and
provide for free transfer of occupancy holdings.
Failed: bill to reduce rents in Zamindari areas. because governor didnt give assent.
Congress Socialist Party and Communists had setup peasant associations


(Krishak Sangathan)
organized a campaign towards amendment of the Malabar Tenancy Act.


Congress ministry passed law to give debt relief to farmers

agitations against Canal Tax


Hat Tola Movement: in north Bengal against a levy collected by the landlords
from peasants at Hat (weekly market).
Agitation against the Union Ministry dominated by landlords of western Punjab


for resettlement of land revenue and against increase in canal tax and water
Grazing fees reduced.

Debt Relief act: Reduced interest rate on debts to 6.25%


Committee under Revenue minister T.Prakasam, made recommendations to

reduce Zamindars rent by 75% (and thus virtually abolishing Zamindari).
CM Rajagopalachari planned to implement this reform, withou paying
Zamindars any compensation. But before a bill could be drafted, the ministry


laws regulating the activity of the moneylenders and providing debt relief.

Overall Limitations
1. Time limit: They were in power for barely 28 months. They had resigned in 1939. So, long
term reforms could not be carried out. Example: In Madras State CM Rajagopalachari
planned to reduce rents by 75%, abolish Zamindari without paying Zamindars any
compensation. But before a bill could be drafted on the, the ministry resigned.
2. Vote power: In Orissa the British governor refused assent to a bill that aimed to reduce
Zamindars income by 50-60%.
3. Appeasement: Had to maintain unity for anti-British struggle. so, could not afford to annoy
upper caste/rich farmers beyond a level. Congress ministries did not pursue abolition of
zamindari in UP and Bihar (despite resolutions from Congress PCCs in UP and Bihar).
4. Power Limit: Under the Act of 1935, Provincial governments lacked the power to abolish
Zamindari, even if they wanted.
5. Creamy Layer: By and large only superior tenants benefited from these Acts/laws. The
subtenants/inferior tenants/agri.labourers were overlooked. May be because they did not
form vote-bank as Act of 1935 provided for a restricted franchise.

#2: Congress Resolutions 4farmers


@Karachi session, 1931

list of Fundamental Rights and Economic Programme for future India,
drafted by Dr.Rajendra Prasad. It included following provisions for land reforms:
1. Reduction in agricultural rent or revenue paid by the peasantry
2. Farmers with uneconomic holdings, will be exempted from rent payment
3. Debt Relief for farmers. control of Usury
4. Serfdom/Bonded labour will be abolished.
5. Farmers and workers will have right to form unions to protect their interests.
6. Progressive income tax on agricultural income.
Limitation: Didnt include the demand to abolish Zamindari / Estates of landlords.

President: Sardar Patel. passed resolution for:

@Kisan Conference, 1935

zamindari abolition
peasant proprietorship without intermediaries

@Firozpur Session, 1936

thirteen point program for All India agrarian reforms
Reduction in rent and revenue,
exemption from rent on uneconomic holdings,
Reduce canal and irrigation rates
living wage for agriculture labors
recognize of peasant associations
introduce cooperative farming
In a way, this Firozpur sessions Agrarian reform program= repeating Karachi Sessions points +
some new demands from All India Kisan Sabhas manifesto.

@election manifesto,1937
1. The appalling poverty, unemployment and indebtedness of the peasantry is resulted from
antiquated and repressive land tenure and revenue systems.
2. We will give immediate relief to farmers for revenue, rent and debt burden.
3. Structural reform of the land tenure, rent and revenue systems

Other resolutions/Manifestos

National Planning Committee. Chairman: Nehru


Bombay Plan


Election manifesto by Congress Working Committee

All of above talked about:

1. abolish intermediaries between farmer and state (Zamindar, Jagirdar, Talukdar etc)
2. Cheap loans to solve the problem of rural indebtedness

3. Collective farming should be encouraged. Although collective farming did not gain much
attention because there was hardly any peasant mobilization for this.

1946 Provincial Election

An interim government headed by Nehru was formed at the Centre and the Congress
governments in the provinces
They set up committees to draw up bills for abolition of the zamindari system.

Rise of All India Kisan Sabha


Awadh Kisan Sabha formed with support of Nehru and Ram Chandra.


NG Ranga formed first Ryots association in Guntur, Andhra.

Bihar Kisan Sabha formed by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati.


Akali leaders formed Punjab Riyasati Praja Mandal.


Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha


Krushak Sangha throughout Orissa


South Indian federation of Peasants and agri.laborers with NG Ranga as Secretary.

Up to 1920, the peasant leaders were associated with the Congress. But later the rift widened
1. In Eastern UP, the Kisan groups wanted government to convert Sharecroppers (Bargadars)
into tenants. So they can get all legal protections available under Tenancy laws.
2. But the Swarajist group did not want such reform. (due to pressure from Zamindar/rural
elite groups)
3. differences of opinion between the supporters of Non-Cooperation and those who
preferred constitutional agitation
4. In the princely states, Congress followed the policy of non-interferance and did not help
farmers against high Revenues.
5. In Ryotwari areas- Government itself collected taxes. So Gandhi would ask farmers to stop
paying rent. But in case of Zamindari areas, Gandhi would ask farmers to continue paying
rent to the Zamindars and Talukdars.

6. Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, prominent Kisan leader from Bihar- was turning towards
leftist-militant type of agitation. He advocated use of Lathis (sticks) against Zamindars and
their goons. Hence Congress stopped supporting him.
As a result, by mid 30s, the peasant leaders and unions became disillusioned with Congress.
They felt a need to setup a Kisan Sabha at the national level, to coordinate the efforts of
regional Kisan Sabhas/associations.
1st Sept 1936: First All India Kisan Congress @Lucknow. All India Kisan Day was celebrated on
1st September every year.
Swami Sahajanand Saraswati (of Bihar) as its President and N.G. Ranga (of Andhra) as
General Secretary.
1938: Became All India Kisan Sabha
Launched campaigns in Andra, Bihar and UP
started Kisan Bulletin, editor Indulal Yagnik.
Gave Kisan Manifesto:

Kisan Manifesto, 1936

1. Protect farmers for from economic exploitation,
2. 50% reduction in land Revenue
3. security of tenure for tenants,
4. reduction in interest rates charged by moneylenders
5. abolition of begar (forced labour)
6. reasonable wages for labourers,
7. promote cooperative farming
8. transfer uncultivated government land, and Zamindari lands to poor and landless farmers.

Limitation of All India Kisan Sabha

1. leadership was concentrated in the hands of Bhumihar and other rural elites
2. landless, SC, ST found no representation in its leadership
3. Kisan Sabha wanted abolition of Zamindari but not abolition of Sharecropping (Bargadari)
4. As Swami Sahjanant turned towards militant methods of protest, the Congress ordered its
workers not to participate in any activities of Kisan Sabha.

5. Congress ministries in Provinces used section 144, police force to curtail the activities of
Kisan Sabha. (especially in UP, Bihar, Orissa and Madras)

Gandhis Views on Land Reforms

Land and all property is his who will work it, = similar to concept of land to the tiller.
During Non-cooperation movement
he asked tenants and landlors to join and fight against the most powerful zamindar- the
In the Ryotwari regions (where British directly collected taxes), Gandhi asked farmers to
stop paying revenue.
but in Zamindari areas, Gandhi did not ask farmers to stop paying rent. (Because he did
not want to antagonize those Zamindars/intermediaries). He explicitly industructed UP
farmers.We want to turn Zamindars into friends. Therefore we many not withhold
taxes from Government or rent from landlord.
During Civil Disobedience movement,
he issued a manifesto to the Uttar Pradesh farmers asking them to pay only 50 per cent
of the legal rent.
During Gandhi-Irwin Pact:

Gandhis demand


wanted Irwin to return the land confiscated from farmers. And if such land
was sold to third parties then original farmer be paid some compensation.

didnt agree

reduce land revenue in all areas

agreed for
only some

In Early 30s to UP farmers, non-occupancy tenants should pay 8 anna rent to the Zamindar and
occupancy tenant should pay 12 anna rent to Zamindar. Let me warn you against listening to any
advice that you have no need to pay the zamindars any rent at all.
Quote: Peasants could seize the zamindars lands and, while there could be some violence,
but the zamindars could also cooperate by fleeing.
Quote: After Independence, the zamindars land would be taken by the state either through

their voluntary surrender or through legislation and then distributed to the cultivators. BUT
It would be fiscally impossible to compensate the landlords.

Justice Ranades Views on Land reforms

Once UPSC asked about Sir Tejbahadur Saprus views on Indian Nationalist. (2006) So similar to
thatWhat were Justice Ranades views on Land reforms?
1. Replace the existing semi-feudal agriculture with capitalist agriculture.
2. Transform rich peasants into capitalist farmers.
3. Transform tenants to independent proprietors subjected to low tax and cheap loans.
4. Quote: A complete divorce from land of those who cultivate it is a national evil, and no less
an evil is it to find one dead level of small farmers all over the land. A mixed constitution of
rural society is necessary to secure the stability and progress of the country.
5. Post-independence, by and large same model was adopted by Government: replace
landlordism and give protection to small farmers.
6. Through Poona Sarvajanik Sabha: Supported Deccan riots and campaign against
moneylenders in Maharashtra

Mock Question
2 marks
1. NG Ranga
2. Indulal Yagnik.
3. Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
12 Marks
1. Write a note on Gandhis views on Land reforms.
2. Write a note on Justice Ranades views on Land reforms.
3. Write a note on Dr. Rajendra Prasads view on Land reforms.
4. Enumerate the initiatives taken by Congress ministries in the Provinces for land reforms
during British India. To what extend did they succeed in bringing land reforms?
5. Describe the role of Congress in land reforms in pre-independent India.
6. We want to turn Zamindars into friends. Therefore we many not withhold taxes from

Government or rent from landlord. Comment

7. A complete divorce from land of those who cultivate it is a national evil, and no less an evil
is it to find one dead level of small farmers all over the land. Comment.
8. Write a note on the Congress resolutions for Land reforms in British India.
15 marks
1. In a sense this brief interlude of Congress rule served as a mirror of the future for both the
dominant classes in rural India and the oppressed and both learnt their lessons though
perhaps somewhat unevenly. Comment
2. Write a note on the bitter sweat relations between All India Kisan Sabha and Congress.
In the Next article, well start with the land reforms in India after independence.

Tags: Land Reforms (

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So far 23 Comments posted


Thank you very much mrunal.I am preparing for maharashtra pcs and
without forgeting everyday i visit the posts are quite
helpful for upsc or other pcs aspirants.


Kamal Kishor
Sir please upload answer key of CAPF AC exam 2013


Mrunal (
CAPF Answer 2013 answer key will be published soon


eagerly waiting sir.



Thanks a lot Mrunal Sir.Its very helpful in this crucial time,when we dont
have time to collect and summarise syllabus in sharp time.


Hi Mrunal,
I sincerely feel the punch lines are missing nowadays from your blogs .
please insert the punch lines of hindi dialogue or whatever you feelthat
binds us with the article . and helps to remember the crux of the article
Like the moment i try to recall LAF i remember the punch line In the old
Bollywood movies, international smugglers often come to main villains
hideout with suitcases loaded with cash .. makes it simple to relate


Is UPSC shifting to computer based exam for prelims next year they
have put up a demo on their website.



dear the demo is just for recruitment exams for some posts with
few vacancies


hiiii Mrunal,
I am a begginner in preperation for civils. Plz help me in learning every
subject from the basics. Plzz suggest me the basic books i have to refer
to. help me out plzzzz.
expecting a reply, thankyou.



unexceptional articles mru sir..


Please please upload a similar article for culture , heritage , ethics
i am not able to concentrate on my other topics pending the preparation
for these topics.
Please just give a assurance that before mains-2013 you will publish
articles on these topics will also help.

I dont have time to thoroughly suty the vajirams notes on ethics .

Culture and Heritage is so boring and too much of jargons. Not able to
cope up with so much of names.
Please Please help


any info about mains time table


no rumours around but may be second week of one is
picking phone at upsc.


I have just quit my preparation and want to sell my books.
I have all major books/notes for GS/History/Philosophy
in Hindi Medium. I have few books in English Medium also. I also have
printouts of Mrunal Sir articles on Economics.

Interested aspirants please contact me.

Anshul Verma


just quit my preparation, books available.
I have all major books/notes for GS/History/Philosophy
in Hindi Medium. I have few books in English Medium also. I also have
printouts of Mrunal Sir articles on Economics.
Interested aspirants please contact me.
My mobile no is 9650033367


I think its Faizpur session of 1937 and not Firozpur session of 1936!


yes you are right its Faizpur


Vandana Singh

plz provide me the answer for this question

In Montague Chelmsford reforms , communal representations were not
only retained but considerably extended. Comment


rohit kundu
Hi Thanks mrunal , for the wonderful article. I am preparing for upsc2014
without coaching and looking for some partners online who can study
together . If anyone thinks the same please let me know.
Mail id (


i am preparing for upsc 2014 without coaching and looking for some
partners that we can discuss and do some combined workm
an mech engg graduate mail id


Hello friend, I also need one online friend who is preparing for CSE. May I
help you?


ya y not mail me on my idthn we can talk bot regarding
strategies and how wd we proceed n all..


Mrunal Sir, I have a doubt regarding the passing of resolution on
landordism ny Congress. Please tell me in which session this resolution
was passed?

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