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Chapter 8

Dynamic stability analysis II Longitudinal motion - 4

Lecture 31

Topics

8.12 Influence of stability derivatives on SPO and LPO

8.13 Stability diagrams

8.13.1 One parameter stability diagram

8.13.2 Root locus plot

8.13.3 Two parameter stability diagram

The discussion in the last two sections leads to the conclusions presented

in Table 8.1.

Stability

derivative

Item affected

Influence

Xu or CD

Damping of LPO

Zu or CL

Frequency of LPO

M or Cm

Frequency of SPO

frequency

Mq+ M

Damping of SPO

damping

Remark:

The term E in the characteristics equation (Eq.8.9) depends on Cm. When Cm

is zero, E becomes zero (i.e. the airplane has neutral static stability). This

reduces the characteristic equation as :

Flight dynamics II

Stability and control

A4 +B3 +C2 +D = 0 .

(8.63a)

This indicates neutral dynamic stability(Fig.6.1c). Thus, when the aircraft has

neutral static stability, it also has neutral dynamic stability as it should be.

From the expressions for the stability derivatives it is observed that they

depend on the following.

a) Flight conditions (h, V or M)

b) Weight of the airplane (W) and

c) c.g. location.

Hence, the roots of characteristic equation depend on the choice of these

parameters. A diagram, which shows the variation of dynamic stability or the

roots of the characteristic equation, with some chosen parameter, is called a

stability diagram. Such diagrams are classified into the following types.

(a) One parameter stability diagram, (b) Root locus plot and (c) Two parameter

stability diagram.

In this case a parameter of interest is chosen and the roots of the

characteristic equation are obtained for various values of the parameter. Figure

8.6a shows an example of one parameter stability diagram.In the chosen flight

condition, the lift coefficient (CL) is equal to one. The parameter chosen to plot

the diagram is denoted by and defined as:

=

mc

CL (xNP - xcg )

2 S kB2

(8.64)

It may be noted that is proportional to static margin i.e. (- Cm). Consequently,

high value of indicates higher static stability. When is zero the

airplane has neutral static stability. In the present case or Cm is varied and the

roots of the characteristic equation are calculated. Since, is plotted on the

Dept. of Aerospace Engg., IIT Madras

Flight dynamics II

Stability and control

x-axis in Fig.8.6a, the following special method is adopted to plot the roots.

The imaginary part of the complex roots viz. in the root ( i ) is plotted in

the upper part of y-axis. The real parts of the roots are also plotted on the y-axis,

the scales on the upper and lower parts of the y-axis may not be same.

Fig. 8.6a One parameter stability diagram CL=1 (Adapted from Ref.1.5, chapter

9 and inturn from Ref.8.1, with permission from controller of HM stationary office)

It may be pointed out Fig.8.6a corresponds to an airplane considered in Ref.8.1.

a) When is large, say 14, then the roots consist of two complex pairs namely

- 3.2 i 3.2 and - 0.06 i 0.47. It may be noted that the first pair represents SPO

Flight dynamics II

Stability and control

and the second pair LPO. In the convention for plotting adopted here, the points

A1 and B1 in Fig.8.6a represent the SPO and SPO respectively. The points C1

and D1 represent LPO and LP0 of the second pair (LPO) respectively.

b) As decreases to a value of nearly six, the roots are represented by points

A2,B2, C2 and D2. It is observed that the damping of the SPO does not change

due to decrease in . However, the period of SPO increases (SPO

decreases).The damping and the period of the LPO increase slightly with change

in .

c) At around 3.2 the SPO breaks into two subsidences i.e. instead of a complex

pair (SPO i SPO), there are two equal real roots 1 and 2 with SPO = 0 (see

Points A3 and B3).The damping and period of LPO change marginally. Points C 3

and D3 are not marked to avoid cluttering of the figure.

d) At around 1 there are two real roots (1 and 2 ) and a complex pair. The real

roots are indicated by points A4 and B4. Points C4 and D4 are not marked to avoid

cluttering.

e) At 0.3 the LPO also breaks into two subsidences (3 and 4) as seen by

points C5 and D5. Points A5 and B5 are not marked.

f) As decreases further, four real negative roots are seen. When =0, the roots

are represented by A6, B6, C6 and D6. Note that D6 equals zero, represents

neutral dynamic stability. This is due to the fact that when = 0, implies that Cm

is also zero. This indicates neutral static stability.

g) For <0, one positive root is seen (see the dotted line). When is less than

about 0.4 a positive root, a complex pair and a large negative root are observed.

Remarks:

i) Generally low speed airplanes have enough static margin and the roots

consist of two complex pairs. But this feature changes when the static margin is

low. Fighter airplanes with negative static margin (relaxed static stability) are

unstable and need special controls for satisfactory flying.

ii) Figure 8.6b shows one parameter stability diagram at CL = 0.25. As

mentioned in section 8.12 and Table 8.1, the SPO is not much affected by CL,

but the period of phugoid (LPO) increases as CL decreases.

Flight dynamics II

Stability and control

(Adapted from Ref.1.5, chapter 9 and inturn from Ref.8.1, with permission from

controller of HM stationary office)

This is another way of plotting the variation of the roots with chosen

parameters. Let the complex root be r i s. A root locus plot is obtained when r

is plotted on the x-axis and s on the y-axis. A root locus plot corresponding to

the information presented in Fig.8.6 a, is plotted in Fig.8.7. Following

observations are made.

a) When = 14, the roots are 1,2 = -3.2 i 3.2 and 3,4 = -0.06 i 0.47 . Points A1

and B1 in Fig.8.7 represent the roots 1 and 2 of SPO i.e. - 3.2 + i 3.2, and

Flight dynamics II

Stability and control

- 3.2 i 3.2. Points C1 and D1 represents the roots 3 and 4 of LPO i.e.

- 0.06 + i 0.47 and -0.06 - i 0.47. The value of is marked near the points A1, B1,

C1 and D1 in Fig.8.7.

Fig. 8.7 Root locus plot CL = 1.0 (Adapted from Ref.1.5, chapter 9 and inturn

from Ref.8.1, with permission from controller of HM stationary office)

b) As decreases the damping of SPO is not affected but the period increases.

At 3.2, the SPO breaks into two subsidences. As the damping of SPO is not

affected by , the variation of the roots of the SPO for > 3.2 is indicated by a

vertical line in Fig.8.7. For < 3.2 the roots are real and negative. Consequently,

points corresponding to these values of lie along the x-axis.

Flight dynamics II

Stability and control

the imaginary part (LPO) slightly decreases as decreases. At 0.3 the LPO

breaks into two subsidences. Thus, the curve representing the root locus plot for

the LPO is not a straight line but a curve as shown by the line PQR.

d) As decreases below 0.3, two real roots corresponding to LPO also lie on

x-axis. When equals zero, a zero root is seen.

e) When is negative, there is a positive root corresponding to LPO. At < - 0.4

the four roots are - one positive root, one complex pair and a large negative root.

The damping of the oscillatory mode decreases with further decrease of . This

behavior is indicated by the curve KJL in Fig.8.7.

8.13.3. Two parameter stability diagram

While discussing the stability criteria, it was pointed out that for the

characteristic equation to have stable roots, the coefficient E in Eq.(8.9) and the

Rouths discriminant R in Eq.(8.26), should be positive. Thus, lines

corresponding to E = 0 and R = 0 could be used to separate stable and unstable

regions. The x- axis and the y- axis of such a diagram have two quantities which

represent features of the airplane. This diagram is called two parameter stability

diagram. Reference 1.5, chapter 9, suggest and as the two parameters. The

quantity is already defined in Eq.(8.64) and is proportional to Cm. The quantity

=

Iyy

1 St CLt

; iB =

2 S iB

m lt2

(8.65)

Figure 8.8 shows E = 0 and R = 0 lines on - diagram for the LPO motion. As

pointed out earlier, when E < 0 a negative real root or divergence is predicted.

Hence, a line corresponding to E = 0 is referred to as divergence boundary.

Further, when R = 0, the characteristic equation has either a zero root or an

imaginary root with real part as zero. Hence, a line corresponding to R = 0 is

called Routhian boundary. Thus, a region of the two parameter stability diagram,

where both R and E are positive is the region indicating dynamic stability.

Figure 8.8 indicates the stable regions between the divergence boundary and

Routhian boundary. It is further observed that for > 0, it is not enough to have

Flight dynamics II

Stability and control

(Adapted from Ref.1.5, chapter 9 and in turn from Ref.8.2, with permission from

controller of HM stationary office)

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