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Select two topics, compare, and contrast them.

Make notes on manifesto, outline the

argument, place it in a context, compare and contrast it with another manifesto. Do
this for every piece of writing. Be critical etc... Context means why he wrote what he
was passing when he wrote it. It may be a private problem. There songs and films
available. First, look at the person outside the context. We should write an argument
and it cannot be one sentence.
Ism vs nature of architecture
Henry ford came with the idea of creating something that is equivalent to a horse and
therefore a car. In fact, we talk about horse power.
Humanism, architecture for the people. Shading in the streets, old cores vs new
cores. Ian Mcharg tried to introduce landscaping.
They used buzzwords to highlight their vision, three two catchphrases.
The site is everything when considering a building.
Tangible signs in a site: the contours climate and physical parts
The intangible: are the non-physical elements and the perceptual.
Define what is architecture. By tomorrow wtf. The making of place. The creation of
space. Write who said it from where he took the text and when. Find a quote.
Date to know how people of that time were saying it.
Architecture is by definition a discipline of course it is artistic, it is scientific, social
discipline but it is a discipline where the adventurous side is very strong, because
every job is a new adventure. (Renzo Piano, dezeen magazine, 18th May 2012)

Green Architecture
Architecture and the survival of the planet.
Ian Mcharg.
Theory of the Elements. These dates back to the classical Greek philosophy.
Life styles and their effects
1. Conserving energy
2. Working with climate
3. Minimizing new resources
4. Respect for users

5. Respect for site

6. Holism
Ground rules for a green city
Ian McHarg - Design with nature
His idea about nature is a just about a romantic approach to it.
Development must not compete with nature but compliment it. Solar rights, water run
off (think of hydrology), passive technology and eco design, use. Of wells. He argues
design if more beautiful if it compliments nature.
Different environments have different tolerances to human intervention and use.
Certain developments can be reversible or irreversible, such as a quarry.
Industrialization and economic gains makes us see the environment as an obstacle
towards economic growth. As architects, we have the duty to make well functional
buildings, we condition people with what we do. Utilitarian buildings have trapped us
The method should require that we obtain the most benefit for the least cost but we
also include the social, natural and beauty value. There are sixteen values, slope,
water, recreational, institutional, historic scenic, forest, wildlife......
Itsuko Hasegawa - Architecture as another nature.
He was one of the Metabolist Group formed in 1959. Wanted to reduce congestion
from Tokyo, and move the industrial sites on water. Their designs relies on
technological advancement and often consisted of adaptable plug in mega structure.
The philosophy of symbiosis, one depends on the other. A shift from age of machine
to age of life.
He advocated a hybrid architecture that existence in symbiosis with other elements,
such as culture, nature etc.
Aim 1
Study past building and see how they adopted to climate.
Aim 2
Architecture must be responsive to the eco-system including humans.
Shonadaii cultural centre, Fujisawa.
Kisho Kurokawa
One of the founding members of the Metabolism group.
The born of the metabolism movement

The background, collapse of CIAM, the essay from the age of the machine to the
age of the life, the prepar....
Keywords mega structure, street space, network city, cell units, eco corridor, ring city,
intermediate structure.
Eco corridor is the green belt, cells are ghettos like Safi to Zurrieq.
He has a building that communicates multi culturalism. He has a series of balconies
that are of different counties in his building.
The forest in the building is manifested in columns and roof membranes resembling
palm trees. Look how he inspired himself from the trunk of the tree to create the
columns and used the leafs to inspire him for the membrane.

Urban Design - City Planning

Chris Day came with the idea of place making in urban design. Planners plan on
surveys so in twenty years tine it will change but we still use the same plan.
Constraints are increasing the costs and make the costs less viable
The Place, Christopher Day
What Antonine said. See notes of first year. Empiricist approach etc. growth is
experimental and natural, pragmatic, trial and error type
Barcelona grid and organic plan.
Distinction, natural artificial cities. Tree patterns we have Brasilia, Tokyo. Read the
Human Zoo by Morris a good book on planning. Christopher Alexander.
Leon Krier
He is traditionalist, you built something as it was before.
Change urban design typology and restrict materials, like MEPA policies by re use a
dignified way of production and create a new collective language.
Modern building are very primitive.
Street and square
Walking distance model and compact districts
Use of high-density urban patterns
No zoning,
Design around people.
As architects we are there to protect. We need to keep what is ideal and good and
not follow economic needs.
Ian McHarg mentions site values, about sixty and we may also add memory of a
place. The spirit of place is very important. The spirit of place goes against
classicism advocated by Krier.
He said to repropose the history of the city (history of type of building, settlement,
Solve traffic problems created by decentralization by the rational organization of the
territory. No zoning, environmental performance. Safety in the street dictates why we

have shops why we design in a certain way. You have to address the communal
Kevin Lynch
Mental maps, five elements. Etc.
Lack of distinctiveness means no identity.
People relate to the highest number of belfries etc.
Food shops work pretty well. Better than churches because they tend to be
Approaches to city planning
3 main approaches towards city planning
Empiricist, organic planning
Rationalist , Valletta, how and why we are doing things
Pragmatic, the trial and error method, very expensive but works. The best
solution in practice for a particular problem.
LEnfant, grid iron with something organic. Here they ignored the contours. In the
roman baths, value was water and a spring. In Ramla Bay it is land that has value. In
Bugibba it is land that can be built. The height of building should be more than 3.
Times of the road.
We have a problem with the green belt. There is a difference between green belt and
In Malta we cannot paint the elevation. The law states that we should built in
masonry stone.
The futurists ideas. Speed, urgency, movement.
Hasan Fathy
He design the Gourna vision. The project failed because there were no political will.
Politicians were not keen to address the reality he mentions. In our culture, we do
not think about detailing.
Repetition implies losing individuality.
Christian Norberg-Schulz
Intentions of Architecture and the Genius loci.
His text is based on the philosophy of Heideger. What are the intentions beneath

Character of a point in the middle of the square is also different from the character of
a point elsewhere.
He delimits some visual forces inherent in spaces. This is how dynamism works, it
can be applied for the urban landscape. He does a critique of modernism that
ignored culture and place, it was a one size fits all.
Avoid historicism. Pretty much the chapels history. Very important about the sense
and spirit of place.
People will take places and personalise them. This refers to the sense of belonging
of a place. This is very important. Even though there are nice forms and beautiful
design places may still be empty.
Memory screen of Richard England.
Paul Rudolph
He comes up with a methodology on how to design good architecture
Building must relate to the site, urban design six integration criteria. In pravtez
the normal buildings dominate. People does not relate to these buildings.
Ideally the focal points should be government, religious.... Buildings.
The function of the building is important. Public or private use. Order and
control vs interaction. A court is a place where you cannot interact.
Materials. They are used to communicate to pass on a message.
The psychological demands of a space.
The spirit of the time.
Louis Khan
He introduces the metaphysical dimension of space apart from the physical. The
metaphysical relates to unseen things. The acoustic quality. The metaphysical
relates to spiritual emotions. Light is what makes architecture dynamic. Light
changes all the time.
He said what the building wants to be. The site talks and must have certain
requirements that needs to be addressed. The site is loaded with memory.
The urban villages group

Post WW2 architecture

The emphasized fabrication.
Social reconstruction, education act and the new towns act.
Brutalists buildings, challenged conventional aesthetics, we have something that
shows at is , no cladding.
The economist building.
The notion of belonging
Housing with cantilevers in the sky attached to them does not work.
No colour
The Smithson.
Quinlan Terry - Architecture

and Theology

His argument is very weak compared to urban design and theology.

They were things of something healthy and and good should be done in terms of
theology. What should be good and wrong. They thought of a good design in terms
of theology.
In urban planning these concepts of theology need apply. For example respecting
the axis of a set of church on a city layout is important. However in architecture they
have little value.
He mentioned Pugin, Ruskin and Morris.
He said that an architect must be exposed to ethics.
The size of windows should vary along a wall.
There is a hierarchy between the public and private spaces.
His contemporary buildings resemble buildings of long time ago. Lino Bianco said
that they were fake for him and does not represent the spirit of the time. They are old
Richard England used memory screen, and created something that still represent the
present and past and is modern. In his design of the opera house.
Fern park Dorset built in 2003.
Lino Bianco thinks that this s immoral and unethical. This is not a project that reflects
present day situation.
Baker Street, Kendall Place.
You have a horizontal building rendered in gothic. This is eventually a cut and paste.
Aldo Rossi
Nicolo Machiavelli

Architecture as Theme
David Matthias Ungers.
See his residence.
He advocated a morphological method.
Robert Venturi
Contradictions to architecture it is a must to read.
The theme of transformations and the morphology of the gestalt. This is a process if
a creative thought.
The anti-thesis when my claim becomes better than what you said to your thesis. My
claim and anti-thesis.
He is for metaphors in architecture.
Posteriori judgement and aposteriori judgement.
He is talking about merging functionality with memory and contemporaneity
Think of a building as a city. Corridor is street restaurants is kitchen squares are
open spaces and rooms, bedrooms are dormitory. What is happening here is
happening in society. There is no order in a family. You have to allow for certain
differences because of emotions and personalisation issues.
The spirit of place.
He abstracts the language from the streetscapes and comes with a solution that
respects the surroundings.
The theme of imagination. See his buildings.
He is a traditionalist and not thrive for creativity.
The design of Richard England for the opera house.
Aldo Rossi
The architecture of the city.
The collective memory of the place is very important.
Typology based on architecture of form. School etc. caravan site a given typology
can have sub definitions. Apartment were you walk in or you enter the kitchen dining.
In small plots, you enter immediatley into the first room. In our streets, you have
many garages and so you cannot park in the street especially in the centre.
Primary typologies and secondary typologies.
San Carlo cemetery.
Charles Jencks,
He will not be asking us about Jencks but he chooses hard language.
Semiology and Architecture.
The language of signs.

Try to think Valletta as a city or fortress.

These are all stereotypes.
Multivalence and univalence this was the end of modernism and the move to post
Michael Graves
A member of the New York five. This was not a firm but a group
Peter Eisenman, Daniel Libeskind work with him and he defined him as a man
impossible to work with.
Modifying the modern tradition.
He uses colour, eg blue used for ceilings to represent the sky.
Fargo Moorhead cultural centre.
Dynamic forms, you add a triangle looking down or looking up this create dynamism
in buildings not just fixing facades.
Kevin Lynch
We can do this in the home. This is the kitchen this is the daughters room, this is the
master bedroom.
Penetrable edge and non-penetrable edge, you can walk along, the edge is a path.
As such in the university, there are districts. The faculties etc. In Fgura there are no
reference the main road or roundabouts are perhaps the nodes. In Luqa it is the
statue that is focal as well.
Would the building by McGrave fitted in a city. It would increase the imagination of
the place or no.
The qualities of the form, singularity means clarity of an object dived by colour form
or whatever it distinguishes it from other things, form simplicity because they are
simpler to interiorize and mentally organize, continuity of edges surfaces reputation
of patterns rhythmical intervals and elements so they facilitate the perception of a
complex physical reality, dominance so the building is made immediatley readable in
terms of dimensions intensity of use and function, clarity of joint as they are the point
of human intersection and so they must be highly visible, directional differentiation
like the use of colour in signs, visual scope, motion awareness, time series which. Is
very important item by item linkages like landmarks reaching a climax in form by
increasing intensity how do you distinguish between inner city and outer city, names
and meaning are non physical characteristics and they give clues and reinforce the
imagebility even when latent in the physical form in itself.
The role of the planner, the more something is planned the more the user will
perceive things easier. Lynch was the first one to start talking about participative
How the city planning works, the Lynchian method
Mind mapping basically. Public image and individual image. This is very powerful in
hospitality buildings.

He is a good author to an exam question on.

References contemporary architecture edition something.
Arata Isozaki
Sympathizes with the metabolists group.
He claimed that he was not aware
The spirit of place is used to redefine something and not to create a sense of place.
Architecture is a machine for the production of meaning.
We are not addressing for the present.

Gender Issues
Woman house. Things we associate with girls and things we associate with men.
Think of bathrooms and Unikiro Tanizaki book.
Dolores Hayden,
She thought about sexists cities. It is here paper that questioned gender and
architecture. She proposed a HOME organisation. Here unfortunately we are not
talking about space but about concepts. Her proposal are very weak in my opinion.
She just talks about ideas and not about space and how this should be. What is
important is that we have a humane city, one designed for people like Jan Gehl. If
you put focus on the individual things then it became more interesting.
We can say that if a place is accessible by kids it is then accessed by anyone.
Jane Jacobs the death and life of great American cities. She did not distinguish
between gender issues but she went for a more humane city.
Betty Friedan the Feminine Mystiques
Ecological design
Urban design ecological design and architecture ecological design.
Stuart Cowan
Sim Van Der Ryn, good guy.
They call to be sensitive to sanitation and other aspects.
Christian Norbert Schulz and phenology.
Frank o Gehry

At times architects with designs like these are commissioned more for marketing
purposes. These designs are aimed more at this truth rather than a quest to create
real space. Much of the problems are solved by engineers and not by architects.
Critics, buildings neglect climate
Out of context, like Antonie said
There not feasible to build.
The contradiction is that some of them seem to fit.
Functionless form.
Certain if them does not belong to the surroundings. Could it be a client request
James Stirling
John Habraken
His vision was based on realities of human relationships. He mentioned support
structures that make a new orientation possible.
We are moving from collective to more individual.
Infill and levels. Support base building. He argued that we hire people. In the social
housing to refurbish the building themselves and perhaps even paid.
Think of mass housing like that of pieta.
To refurbish these things.
It is important to understand the concept and ideas and not the details. Look up
Francis Ching
Ornament is no crime. Is another manifesto to look at.
Joseph Rykwert.
It is good to read. Vs Loss
Next Thursday come at 7.
With Dolores Hayden look also work by Smithson and Alan. She wanted to make
housing more affordable and implementable by housewife.
Upgrading on caravan site at Ghadira.
Site is going to be ruined. Ecology as well. The proposed development is more
permanent. This is because we have a community that must be respected, we have
moral values, the natural aspect is one dimension.
This is public land and there is no prescriptions.


Ecological statement can be easily done at the office that costs thousands. High
steps makes it easier to go up than down.
Look how he incorporated the stairs with the facade, it is screened at ground floor
and exposed at upper level. He created inner roofs to screen clothes on roof street.
He used recycled pipes for roof lights.
Architecture strategy, high level windows are good for light privacy and you win a
wall. It makes sense to make a high level window and have a free wall.
Ceasare Brandi, recent interventions and old interventions.

Architecture and the Media

Salvadori Dali film, Maribald, Aginetian bog, the metropolis. Look at the architecture
side, space, time, ecology to gender, from architecture to urban design. Places
taking place inside and those taking place outside. This is the first film. The second is
classical film. See how architecture is used to convey this message of sense of
place. Question where is this place and at what time the events take place, the
temporal dimension. See in film how views are read from different perspectives. See
King Kong as well. See Charles Azzopardi dissertation. See dissertation called
anime. How Tokyo is conveyed in film. Think of a film showing a neutral thing, you
say is this is a man or a female.
Images a leaf falling down and the structure of the leaf is the city. The leaf falling
from heaven. Think about media and architecture for example and uses the themes
to discuss and tackle the given quote.

Questions are going to be hard. You need to read before. Google them and find a lot
of them.
Then write a critical review of what you found and analysed.