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The Wrtsil

low-speed low-pressure
dual-fuel engine
development
LNG IN PRACTICE
SEMINAR ON BOARD
MS VIKING GRACE
SEPT. 18, 2013
Rudolf Wettstein
Wrtsil Switzerland Ltd

Wrtsil

RTX-5 test engine on GAS


Engine commissioned for full scale gas
operation during August
All systems up and running:

Gas admission system


Pilot injection
Engine control system
etc

Performance optimization started


75% power output achieved
Fuel change over from gas to diesel and vice
versa
NOx level on gas far lower than Tier lll limit
Low load operation on gas seems feasible
with sufficient stability

Wrtsil

Transfer Diesel Gas Diesel


Trip back to Diesel
Transfer from Diesel to Gas

NOx emissions
in gas mode!

Wrtsil

Engine performance
Gas mode

Diesel mode

target

18.8 bar

currently

17.3 bar

Output BMEP

Energy
consumption *

target

+/- 0% *

+2% *

IMO Tier III

IMO Tier II

< 10

---

currently

NOx emissions

Gas pressure (bar g)

* Reference = Standard diesel R1 Tier II tuning

Current focus on installations running mostly on gas


(ECA vessels, LNGC, )
Efficiency to be confirmed on full scale test engine

Wrtsil

Emission values medium-speed dual-fuel engine


Emission
values [%]

-25%

100
90
80
70
60

-85%

50
40

CO2

30

-99%

NOx

20
SOx

Particulates
Dual-Fuel engine
in gas mode
5
5

Wrtsil

Wrtsil

10

-99%
Diesel
engine

Methane slip
THC emissions (methane slip) is not limited by IMO
CO2 equivalent emissions in any case lower than on diesel/HFO operation

Relative CO2 equivalent

1,2

Contribution from methane slip;


Contribution from Carbon in fuel;

1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
Diesel/HFO

Wrtsil

Gas/DF

Gas/GD (ME-GI)

Basic concept (2 stroke low pressure)


Pre-mixed lean-burn combustion

Principles:
Engine operating accordingly
to Otto process
Injection of gas at mid-stroke.
Low pressure gas injection
(<10 bar) sufficient
High impact on NOX reduction
Meets IMO Tier III without
after treatment

Scavenging

Wrtsil

Compression/
gas admission

Ignition
expansion

Other concept (2 stroke high pressure)


Direct injection, diffusion combustion

Principles:
Engine operating accordingly
to Diesel process
Injection of gas close to TDC.
Air is completely compressed
and, therefore, high pressure
gas injection (300 bar) is
required.
No significant NOX reduction

Scavenging/
compression

Wrtsil

Pilot & HP gas


injection

Requires SCR or EGR (not


proven) in order to meet IMO
Tier III levels
Expansion

Otto or Diesel cycles: effects on NOX


Big temperature
difference
NOx formation!

1858-1913

1831-1891

Diesel, max flame temp.


Otto, max flame temp.
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Wrtsil

Technical features Gas admission


Gas admission system
2 x GAV (gas admission valve) per cylinder
GAV actuated by hydraulically fast-switching
solenoid valves
Hydraulic power supply from exhaust valve
servo oil system

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Wrtsil

Technical features Pilot fuel system


Pilot fuel system
Pilot fuel utilized for ignition
(as in four-strokes DF engines)
Pilot fuel consumption ~1% of BSFC at 100% load
Pre-chamber technology for best ignition and
combustion stability
Fuel supply based on common-rail technology

Pre-chamber

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Wrtsil

Technical features Pilot fuel system


Pilot fuel system
Single fuel oil pump serving all cylinders
(common-rail technology)
Filters and pressure regulation included
Pilot fuel pump electrically driven

UNIC

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Wrtsil

Technical features Gas feed system


Gas Valve Unit (GVU)
Wrtsil standardized and proven design applied
Pressure regulation, gas filtering and safety
valves included
Emergency venting procedure and leakage test
features introduced

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Wrtsil

Technical features Automation


Engine automation and control system
UNIC based control system
Individual control of combustion related
parameters (cyl.pressure, combustion process,
.)
Safety functions related to gas operation
included
Exhaust valve

(Pilot fuel pressure)


Gas pressure
Engine speed/CA-signal

Control
system

Engine stop signal


Gas duration

Pilot fuel injectors


2x Gas admission valves
Test
cylinder
running on
gas

Pilot fuel injector


Gas admission valves
Exhaust valve drive

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Wrtsil

Designing by CFD simulations


CFD = computational fluid dynamics
Used to evaluate and validate designs before engine tests, like:
number and location of gas admission points
gas injection nozzle design
gas pressure and injection timing influence
pre-chamber optimization and combustion simulations
Target
screening/evaluation of design alternatives before testing
optimize the engine already during the design phase
Purpose
shorten development time
improved engine performance

Gas velocity distribution during


the initial phase of gas injection

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Wrtsil

2-stroke gas engine potential applications


1. Ships operating on gas when going into a ECA
(Emission Controlled Area)
operating temporarily on gas in ECA zones and
on HFO outside ECA
Driver: emissions
2. Ships operating continuously on gas
majority of the time running on gas
LNG Carriers, any other ship types using gas on
long-haul trips
Driver: operating costs

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Wrtsil

Dual-fuel engine machinery for Merchant Vessels


Low-speed DF
main engine

Single wall piping on open deck


Gas
valve
Ventilated double wall piping for class
unit
rules for inherently safe engine room
Purging system for piping, GVU, tank,.

LNG Pac
Cyl.tank IMO C-type

Wrtsil Package..
a complete and
modularized solution for
LNG fuelled ships

DF auxiliary engines
Gas
valve
unit

Gas
valve
unit
G

Gas
valve
unit
Cold box with LNG low-pressure pumps
evaporator, heater, valves, etc
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Wrtsil

Very low electrical energy


consumption for gas feed

175000 m3 LNG Carrier with twin-shaft machinery


5X72DF or 6/7X62DF
CMCR = 12500 kW

9L34DF
Fuel Gas
Handling
System
(FGHS)

Gas
valve
unit

Gas
valve
unit

3915 kW / 720 rpm


G

Gas
valve
unit
175000 m3
LNG, - 163 C

Gas
valve
unit

6L34DF
G

Gas
valve
unit

2610 kW / 720 rpm

5X72DF or 6/7X62DF
CMCR = 12500 kW

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Wrtsil

Boil-off gas rate and engine gas demand


Heater

Low pressure
compressor set

Qh

Fuel Gas
Handling System
Wrtsil Hamworthy

Evaporator
Qv

Nitrogen Generator
Wrtsil Hamworthy

Boil-off gas rate = 0,1% per day


175 m3 per day = 80 ton/day
Main engines daily gas consumption
at Service Speed
2 x 37.5 ton/day = 75 ton/day
Aux engine daily gas consumption
6L34DF (at 50% of load)
6 ton/day
Total gas demand: 81 t/day

Low pressure feed pumps


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Wrtsil

Reliquefaction plant
Wrtsil Hamworthy

Gas engine history within SULZER


1965-72: low pressure loop scavenged 6RD76 tested in Winterthur
7RNMD90 installed in 29400m3 LNG-carrier MV Venator in 1972

High pressure engine was developed


in co-operation with IHI (Diesel
United).
It was demonstrated in 1986 on one
cylinder of a 6RTA84 engine.

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Conclusions
Why to choose a Wrtsil low-pressure dual-fuel engine:
1) Meet IMO Tier III requirements without exhaust gas after-treatment due to
lean burn Otto combustion process

2) Low CAPEX due to low pressure gas supply system (<10bar)


No large gas compression equipment
No exhaust gas after treatment

3) Low OPEX due to high overall efficiency (low parasitic load)


4) Full Wrtsil Package Complete and modularized
solutions for LNG fuelled ships

5) Availability
RT-flex50DF mid 2014 4775 - 11520 kW
X62DF
2015
6160 - 19080 kW
X72DF
2015
8320 - 25800 kW

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THANK YOU!

Wrtsil
Leading gas applications in the marine market

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2sDF Engine / May 2013