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MASTERS DEGREE PROJECTS

THE BOLIDEN VALUE CHAIN


Boliden is a base metals company with
a commitment to sustainability. Our core
competency lies within the fields of exploration,
mining, smelting and recycling. Our roots
are Nordic, but our business is 1global.

CONTENTS
Working at boliden..................................................................................4
Map......................................................................................................5
Ideas for master`s degree exploration:......................................................6
1. EXPLORATION......................................................................................................................................................6
2. Processing routine to handle disturbances
from power lines, wind turbines and main
roads in Bolidens EM ground surveys..........................................................................................7
3. Petrophysical properties and INDUCED Polarization of sandstones:
implications for mineral exploration.........................................................................................8

Masters degree projects in mining engineering..........................................9


4. SUGGESTIONS FOR AITIK OPEN-PIT MINE................................................................................................9
5. AUTONOMOUS MINE.......................................................................................................................................12
6. ROADS IN UNDERGROUND MINE..............................................................................................................13
7. METHOD FOR TESTING STRENGTH OF FILL.........................................................................................14
8. WITHDRAWAL OF INTERMEDIATE LEVELS DURING
SUB-LEVEL STOPING AT LAPPBERGET....................................................................................................... 15
9. VENTILATION SIMULATION IN RENSTRM MINE .............................................................................16
10. DESIGN OF PLANNING TOOLS AND CONTROL RULES
FOR ROCK TRANSPORT INKRISTINEBERG............................................................................................. 17
11. OPTIMISATION OF LOGISTICS FLOW FOR ORE TRANSPORTS
AND INBOUND DELIVERIES.........................................................................................................................18
12. REDUCED NITRATE DISCHARGE FROM EXPLOSIVES UNDERGROUND...................................... 19
13. DESIGN OF MAJOR BLASTS (SLOTDESIGN).............................................................................................20
14. OTHER SUGGESTIONS FOR MASTERS DEGREE PROJECTS IN ENGINEERING...........................21

Masters degree projects in process engineering.....................................22


15. DESULPHURISATION OF tailings ...........................................................................................................22
16. OPTIMISATION OF REGRINDING IN AFLOTATION CIRCUIT .........................................................23
17. LEACHING OF pyrrhotite ........................................................................................................................24
18. PURIFICATION OF ACIDIC MINE WATER .................................................................................................25
19. FINE PARTICLE FLOTATION .........................................................................................................................26
20. FLOTATION OF TELLURIDE MINERAL .....................................................................................................27
21. Fundamental parameters for flotation .................................................................................28
22. DEVELOPMENT OF LAB METHOD FOR FLOTATION TESTING........................................................29
23. FLOTATION OF DISINTEGRATED ORE INAITIK...................................................................................30
24. IMPACT OF SULPHUR AND COPPER CONTENT ON COLLECTOR
REAGENT NEED AT AITIK..............................................................................................................................31
25. PURIFYING CONTAMINATED WATER THROUGH FREEZING .........................................................32
26. FUNCTIONAL PROCESS IMAGES .................................................................................................................33

Masters degree projects in the environment...........................................34


27. Root penetration in protective and sealing layers
in tailings ponds no longer in use ...............................................................................................34
28. Inventorying of the function and long-term effects
of vegetation establishment with digested sludge ......................................................35
29. Method for mapping out nitrogen flows ..............................................................................36
30. Evaluation of alternative sealing layers as regards
oxygen penetration.................................................................................................................................37
31. Optimisation of physical properties of sedimentation ponds ....................................38
32. Phytoremediation ....................................................................................................................................40
33. Evaluation of vegetation establishment at waste rock
landfills with help of digested sludge.........................................................................................41
34. Creation of new industrial area in Garpenberg ...............................................................42

Masters degree projects at Rnnskr....................................................43


35. SURVEY OF RNNSKRS WATER USAGE..................................................................................................43
36. Purifying decopperised electrolyte............................................................................................44
37. THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE CONTENT IN ELECTROLYTE ON
THE SULPHUR CONTENT IN CATHODE COPPER ................................................................................45
38. Leaching of gas cleaning dusts......................................................................................................46
39. Evaluation and implementation of copper converting model ..............................47
40. GRAVIMETRIC SEPARATION OF SMELTED SLAG, MATTE AND SPEISS
AS A FUNCTION OF THE SLAGS PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES .................................48
41. INCREASED PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL UNDERSTANDING OF
ANTIMONY DISTRIBUTION DURING CONVERTING..........................................................................49
42. WASTE WATER PURIFICATION REGARDING NICKEL AND ANTIMONY ......................................50
43. OPTIMISATION OF STEP 1 IN DECOPPERIZATION PLANT ................................................................ 51
44. ASSAYING OF INCOMING MATERIAL AT SAMPLING PLANT.............................................................52
45. PRODUCTION OF ANTIMONY FROM INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS................................................53
46. EXAMINE THE EXISTANCE OF RARE ELEMENTS IN INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS
AT RNNSKR....................................................................................................................................................54
47. INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACT OF pH ON ARSENIC PRECIPITATION
AT RNNSKR WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT...........................................................................55

WORKING AT BOLIDEN
Boliden has a great need to recruit employees in the near future. Skilled and involved employees are a necessity in
helping us to run and develop our operations.
Within the upcoming five years, interesting jobs will be available in many of our approximately 200 (!) occupational
categories. We need people with drive, creative thinking and cutting-edge expertise in different areas and we need a
balance of experienced and new employees.
Working at Boliden means that you are part of a group with greatly decentralised operations spanning many
different countries. In many development areas, the work is carried out in project form or in small work groups.
This creates the opportunity for exciting challenges for both specialists and leaders.

Masters degree projects 2013


Performing your masters degree project and/or placement at Boliden gives you the opportunity to become
acquainted with the industry and the company. Getting to know each other often leads to employment.
You are holding in your hands a list of suggestions for technical masters degree projects for students. An updated list
is found at www.boliden.com. Some masters degree projects can be carried out in English. Different compensation
terms apply depending on where you do your masters degree project.
Please contact us for more information:

Janne Lindmark, Human Resources Department, Boliden Mines


Emma Rnnblom-Prson, External Environment, Boliden Mines
Leif Btsman, Work Environment, Boliden Mines
Anders Forsgren, Forest & Land, Boliden Mines
Andreas Berggren, Minerals Engineering, Boliden Mines
Hans rebck, Exploration, Boliden Mines
Staffan Sandstrm, Mining Engineering, Boliden Mines
Marie Holmberg; Process Develop., Rnnskr, Boliden Smelter

+46 (0)910-77 42 62
+46 (0)910-77 41 45
+46 (0)910-77 43 47
+46 (0)910-77 45 50
+46 (0)910-77 43 52
+46 (0)910-77 45 68
+46 (0)910-77 42 78
+46 (0)910-77 38 84

Boliden is a metals company with a focus on sustainable development. Scandinavian roots, global market. Our core
competence lies within the fields of exploration, mining, smelting and recycling. Boliden has about 4,400 employees and an
annual turnover of approximately SEK 40 billion. The stock is listed on NASDAQ OMX Stockholm, segment Large Cap
and on the Toronto Stock Exchange in Canada.
Read more at www.boliden.com

Map

Mining areas
Tara zinc and lead
Garpenberg zinc, silver and lead
Boliden area zinc, copper, gold, silver and lead
Aitik copper, gold and silver
Smelters

Offices
Stockholm group headquarters
Stockholm business area Smelters
Boliden business area Mines
Neuss sales office
LeamingtonSpa sales office

Kokkola zinc and sulphuric acid


Odda zinc and aluminium fluoride
Rnnskr copper, lead, zinc clinker, gold, silver and
sulphuric acid
Harjavalta copper, gold, silver, sulphuric acid and
nickel smelting
Bergse lead alloys and tin alloys

IDEAS FOR MASTER`S DEGREE EXPLORATION:

1. EXPLORATION
In the Exploration Department we offer Master of Science (MSc) projects in several
themes and geographic areas. The Exploration Department includes three main
divisions: Near-mine Exploration, Field Exploration and Geophysics:
Near-mine exploration is concerned with locating new ore bodies close to Bolidens existing mines and advanced
exploration projects, including the Kristineberg, Maurliden, Renstrm and Kankberg mines in the Skellefte mining
district (Vsterbotten county, Sweden), Aitik mine (Norrbotten county, Sweden), Rockliden (northern Sweden),
Garpenberg and Stollberg in the Bergslagen mining district (Dalarna, central Sweden) and the Tara mine at Navan
(Ireland).
Field Exploration is concerned with locating new ore deposits further away from Bolidens existing mines. We are
currently working in the Norrbotten mining province, the Skellefte District, Bergslagen and the foothills of the
Caledonide Mountain chain (all in Sweden) and in the Dublin Basin of Ireland.
In these areas, Boliden can offer MSc projects in the disciplines of geology, applied geochemistry and geophysics.
However, we can not offer projects in all the various geographic areas in the same year. The details of the specific
projects vary from case to case, but often involve field work, followed by laboratory work and interpretation.
Geological field work comprises field mapping and/or geological logging of diamond drill cores or percussion drill
chips.
The Geophysics group works in all of the areas described above, carrying out geophysical surveys in the field
and in deep drill holes using geophysical probes. The group also develops and tests new equipment. Geophysical
MSc projects may include field geophysical surveys using electrical, electromagnetic, magnetic and/or gravimetric
techniques and interpretation of geophysical data. The Boliden Exploration Department has in recent years also
been involved in seismic reflection surveys in mining areas.
If you are interested in carrying out an MSc project (examensarbete in Swedish) in the Exploration Department
please contact:
Geology:
Rodney Allen, Tel. +46 (0)225-362 45
E-mail: rodney.allen@boliden.com
Geochemistry:
Rodney Allen, Tel. +46 (0)225-362 45
E-mail: rodney.allen@boliden.com
Geophysics: Bertil Sandstrm, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 41 08
E-mail: bertil.sandstrm@boliden.com

2. Processing routine to handle disturbances from power lines, wind


turbines and main roads in Bolidens
EM ground surveys
Background
Bolidens own developed electromagnetic (EM) ground survey has enabled the exploration department to search for
and discover deposits that were, are and will be in production. Every year a large amount of EM ground surveys are
performed. Therefore the method has a very high importance for exploration.
Even though Bolidens EM ground survey has been successful, the method is in continuously improvement.
Measurements are disturbed by power lines, wind turbines and sometimes by main roads.
Therefore there is a need to define a standard processing routine to handle noisy data, especially when interesting
anomalies are located under the sources that cause the disturbances.
Description
The master candidate would develop a mathematical and physical routine to handle the interferences. The proposed
method will be tested with real data, including modelling and interpretation. The developed routine will be included
in the processing of Bolidens EM ground surveys when handling of disturbances is needed.
Contact person
Geophysics: Bertil Sandstrm, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 43 70,
E-mail: bertil.sandstrm@boliden.com
Location: Boliden

3. Petrophysical properties and


INDUCED POLARIZATION of sandstones:
implications for mineral exploration
Background
The Dorotea field is known for several sandstone-hosted Pb-Zn mineralizations in the Lower Allochthon of the
Swedish Caledonides. This region has been shown to be particularly challenging for geophysical prospecting.
Generally the only applicable method is the Induced Polarization (IP) method. Boliden has invested substantially in
field IP measurements and is currently developing a multifrequency IP system.
The IP response in sandstones due to different sources is still difficult to interpret, and the cause of anomalies is
known only after testing with diamond drilling. Bedrock in the Dorotea area is very heterogeneous; sandstones and
siltstones commonly contain clay minerals in the matrix. Pyrite is also common.

Description
In this master thesis project, the candidate would investigate petrophysical properties of various sandstones in a
laboratory and model the IP response that a Pb-Zn mineralized sandstone would give. The outcome of the thesis
would greatly help the future exploration in the Caledonides and elsewhere.
The ideal candidate is a geophysics major student, who has a good understanding of the physics of the
electromagnetic fields and phenomena. Especially the geoelectric methods and the concepts of complex resistivity/
spectral induced polarization (SIP) should be familiar to them on a basic level.
Boliden does not have a petrophysics labaratory, thus the candidates department needs to provide the instruments
to measure SIP responses from the core samples. Also a supervising geophysicist with experience in the SIP method
is expected. We encourage interested candidates to contact Boliden together with their proposed supervisors.
Contact person
Geophysics:
Katri Vaittinen, Tel. +46 (0)910-70 57 83,
E-mail: katri.vaittinen@boliden.com
Location: Boliden

Masters degree projects in mining


engineering

4. SUGGESTIONS FOR AITIK OPEN-PIT MINE


Bolidens open-pit mine in Aitik currently produces about 36 million tonnes of ore and the same amount of waste
rock with an extremely low average content of approx. 0.2% Cu. To make the mining profitable, there must be
thorough content control and effective utilisation of mine resources.
Important elements behind this are modern machines, effective maintenance and effective production planning and
control.
In upcoming years, there will be opportunities to perform masters degree projects in a number of different areas.
Some examples are found below, but this is not an exhaustive list. Other relevant ideas will be gladly considered.
In most cases, a large part of the project can be performed in Aitik and Boliden. Computers and tools for studying
different aspects are available in Aitik and in Boliden, but data/tools can be copied to local computers if the scope
permits this.
Depending on the focus, the work can be presented as a report, proposal for continued work, computer models or
prototypes.
These masters degree projects should be considered as suggestions that can be used as the basis for discussion.

Geology
The open-pit mine in Aitik has a basic design, but this can be influenced continually by new data, particularly from
geology and rock mechanics.
Ore is a financial concept governed not only by the grade, but also by the properties of the rock and the degree to
which it is affected by blasting. The properties of the rock, particularly grindability and fragmentation, affect the
cost of processing the ore while grade affects income.
To optimise production and ore base, the block model of the mine can be supplemented with grade data from
production drilling, historic throughput data from concentrators, Measure-While-Drilling (MWD), rock type mapping
and fragmentation data.
Currently, it is mainly drill cutting samples from production holes that are used to improve the block model. But,
there are ideas to supplement with several other methods to improve the data.
Possible projects:

Improved geological models and data based on both exploration and mapping/sampling in the mine

Utilise on-line sampling from drills

Utilise MWD (Measure-While-Drilling)

Combine explosion models with fragmentation and throughput

Modelling of older waste rock dumps that may contain ore quantities historically considered waste rock.
Modelling will require retrieval of data on the ores original position, which can be obtained from older mine
maps and/or trucks GPS positioning in the 2000s.

Rock mechanics
The rock mechanics work in Aitik is used to create a basic design. Historically, this has been based on geology and
information on rock conditions, such as strength and structures, as well as on the geohydrological situation and the
affect of blasting damage on the possibility of shaping the slopes according to plan. Parts of this work are performed
on a running basis. For this reason, any masters degree project is best described based on the current situation.
Possible assignments can be defined in the following areas:
9

Methods for continually monitoring slope stability

Slope stability

Geohydrology for impacting slope stability through water lowering

Slope design

Follow-up of blasting results when blasting against remaining slope

Maps, GIS and open-pit mine design


Nowadays, it is possible to measure the mine through traditional measurement, laser scanning, 3D photos, aerial
photos, etc. By using modern measurement methods in combination with GIS and various background data, it
should be possible to generate good data for decision making and planning for rock mechanics and others in the
form of crack maps, content models, quality maps for height maintenance, etc.

Planning and control


To double the production tempo without having to double the number of loaders, etc., machine utilisation must
be improved and production disruptions minimised. This can be achieved through methods such as optimising the
mining plan for anywhere from the upcoming day to a few weeks in advance. The mining plan must be updated
continually to account for ongoing production and disruptions.
In 2008, Aitik implemented a production planning tool for this purpose. A possibility to further improve
optimisation and facilitate planning is to refine the process with production plans based on simulations or
optimisation algorithms that support the production planner with suggestions.

Optimal fragmentation
Blasting results depend on rock types, rock & blasting plans, etc. In addition, it affects loadability, loader wear and
concentration results. Aitik has worked for a number of years to find the optimal combination, taking into account
both costs for fragmentation and the impact of its results.
There are a number of possible assignments in this area:

Models for blasting and fragmentation, e.g. to divide the mine into domains.

MWD to determine rock properties during drilling.

Affect on loadability and loader wear.

Flow model for material from the mine crusher and through plant to trace how different fragmentations
affect concentration results.

Production system, drilling


In the area of drilling, testing is in progress with autonomous drills as well as automated on-line drill cutting
sampling.

Production system, loaders


Aitik will produce a total of 72 million tonnes per year using 4 large loaders. Well-planned and disruption-free
production is required to be able to achieve this.
There are a number of possible assignments in this area:

Suggestions for how loading can improve measures on and around the loader. The project can be performed as
an activity study with a focus on the work site.

Evaluation of operator training simulator.

Refer to the planning and maintenance sections.


10

Production system, transport


For transport from loaders to the crusher or dump, Aitik has over 20 trucks that must be allocated optimally. This is
handled in real time via the dispatch system MineStar based on the required tonnage from the respective loader.
At present, autonomous trucks are in use in research trial projects abroad.
There are a number of possible assignments in this area:

Calculation models for optimising truck usage.

Optimisation of refuelling and preventive maintenance.

Potential of autonomous trucks in Aitik.

Maintenance
Aitiks open-pit mine uses 5 large loaders, 4 large drills, about 30 trucks and many smaller machines and vehicles, all
of which require maintenance. There is a need for improved maintenance planning and follow-up methods. Several
machines and trucks are equipped with onboard computers for motor monitoring, etc. that should be put to better
use.
There are a number of possible assignments in this area:

Map out existing routines for a machine or machine type and describe what areas can be improved

Develop calculation method for planning maintenance activities and risk analysis. Here, risk analysis refers to
assessing spare parts stock, early component replacement, etc.

Develop methods/calculation models for assessing machine service life

Contact persons
Mining engineering:
Production/Planning
Arne Renstrm, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 43 01,
E-mail: arne.renstrom@boliden.com
Rock mechanics:
Per-Ivar Marklund, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 41 69
E-mail: per-ivar.marklund@boliden.com
Optimised fragmentation: Fredrik Jonsson, Tel. +46 (0)910-70 51 43
E-mail: fredrik.jonsson@boliden.com
Aitik:
Geology Aitik Greg Joslin, Tel. +46 (0)970-72 92 33
E-mail: gregory.joslin@boliden.com
Production planning
Erik Jnknp, Tel. +46 (0)970-72 93 66
E-mail: erik.jankanpaa@boliden.com
Production preparation/
Peter Palo, Tel. +46 (0)970-72 90 54
drilling/blasting
E-mail: peter.palo@boliden.com
Production loading Daniel Bergius, Tel. +46 (0)970-72 90 83
E-mail: daniel.bergius@boliden.com
Maintenance manager, mine Magnus Fjellstrm, Tel. +46 (0)970-72 92 73
E-mail: magnus.fjellstrom@boliden.com

Location:

Gllivare
11

5. AUTONOMOUS MINE
Boliden has initiated development of an autonomous mine the first step towards the goal of no employees
working at the mine face. We already use video-controlled autonomous loaders. In the upcoming years, we expect to
gradually increase the use of autonomous mining in our mines.
Description
A masters degree project could be to participate in the evaluation of various machine designs and/or use simulation
to calculate consequences and potentials of automation. Masters degree project possibilities in this area will be
adapted to current projects.
Contact person
Mining engineering:
Production/Planning
Arne Renstrm, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 43 01,
E-mail: arne.renstrom@boliden.com
Location: Boliden

12

6. ROADS IN UNDERGROUND MINE


Background
Boliden mines have an extensive road system that requires resource-intensive and costly maintenance to maintain
good road longevity. Road surfaces in the mine ramp systems quickly become worn and rutted from the heavy
vehicle traffic. The worn and rutted road surface increases wear to vehicles, resulting in increased maintenance needs.
Idea
Maintenance costs for roads and machines can be reduced by improving the quality of the road surface and the
design of the road structure. Use of road material with good bearing capacity and the right distribution of granule
size along with various hardening additives and a properly drained road structure can increase the durability of a
mine road.
Objective
The objectives of the masters degree project are:
Provide suggestions for how road surface quality can be improved and the best way to build a road based on
prevailing conditions in underground mines

Test road material properties

Examine whether additives such as cement or fly ash increase the surface life of the road surface at a reasonable
cost

Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:
Literature studies. Methods for improving road surface quality, e.g. paving or hardening with cement. Road
construction in mining environment with high moisture level, high inflow of water and heavy vehicle traffic.

Sampling and measurement of ballast properties.

Test of methods to increase road durability.

Contact person

Evgeny Novikov, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 40 91,
E-mail: evgeny.novikov@boliden.com
Fredrik Jonsson, Tel. +46 (0)910-70 51 43
E-mail: fredrik.jonsson@boliden.com
Location: Boliden

13

7. METHOD FOR TESTING STRENGTH OF


FILL
Background
In extremely flat ore bodies or where the ore is broad, Boliden sometimes uses horizontal cut-and-fill mining. With
this method, chambers are mined next to each other without leaving a column between them. So as not to create
large spans, the chambers are refilled with cement-stabilised hydraulic fill before mining of the adjacent chamber is
started. The purpose of the fill is to support the walls and ceiling.
The strength of a fill is primarily determined by the amount of cement in it. This amount should be sufficiently
high that the fill remains vertical when the adjacent chamber is mined.
A problem with this type of fill is that it often becomes stratified and the strength is therefore not uniform. The
stratification is due to factors such as draining of the fill, separation in fill lines and the geometry of the mining
chamber and makes it difficult to measure and evaluate strength. At present, we use an extremely simple method
of inserting a knife into the fill at a number of uniformly distributed points and noting the depth of insertion.
However, the results of this method are extremely dependent on the person performing it and do not actually
constitute a true strength value of the fill. To optimise the amount of cement and measure improvements to fill
quality, we want to find a better way to evaluate the strength of the fill.
Idea
Different instruments for testing strength in soil clay and concrete are currently available on the market. The idea
behind the masters degree project is:

Investigate whether any existing measuring instruments (with or without modifications) can be used to
determine fill strength.

Develop a method to describe the strength of the fill in a statistically reliable manner.

The method must be simple, quick and applicable in field conditions.


Objective
The objective is to find a method that can be used to determine fill strength in the field.
Description

Field studies of fill in Boliden mines

Literature study and description of existing instruments/methods for determining strength in the field

Lab tests of fill using different methods

Development of a statistically reliable measurement method in the field

Test of the method in the field

Contact person
Daniel Sandstrm, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 42 26,
E-mail:
Location:

Boliden

14

8. WITHDRAWAL OF INTERMEDIATE
LEVELS DURING SUB-LEVEL STOPING AT
LAPPBERGET
Background
Sub-level stoping is run simultaneously on several levels in Lappberget in Garpenberg. The mining of intermediate
levels between the working levels occurs under difficult rock conditions due to greatly elevated rock stress. Stoping
chambers above the intermediate levels are either filled with paste fill that has a specific strength and enables the
intermediate level to be mined or filled with waste rock that requires that an ore level be left to prevent waste rock
from caving into the stoping chamber. How do we maximise ore extraction in these intermediate levels?
Another part of this masters degree project involves describing how residual mining of the remaining ore columns at
the bottom of the level Lappberget 1080 can be performed.

Idea
Develop methods for mining the intermediate level when the stoping chamber above the intermediate level is filled
with paste fill or waste rock. This includes, among other things, calculation of what strength the paste fill must have
to be able to mine the stoping chamber up towards a paste-filled stoping chamber.
Develop a mining plan for residual mining of the ore columns at Lappberget 1080.
Objective

Create mining plans for intermediate levels in Lappberget, where stoping chambers above the intermediate
levels may be filled with paste fill or waste rock.

Develop a mining plan for residual mining of the ore columns at Lappberget 1080.

Description
Through literature studies, investigate how intermediate levels are mined in sub-level stoping mines around the
world. Utilise the mining experience available at Lappberget to understand the rock conditions at Lappberget
(interplay between mining method, rock quality and stresses). Create drawings/plans that describe withdrawal of
intermediate levels (geometry, reinforcement, fill technique, risk analysis, etc.). Calculate strength requirements for
past fill when a stoping chamber is created under the fill. Residual mining of the ore columns at Lappberget 1080 is
a special case that can utilise knowledge from the described work of withdrawing intermediate levels.
Contact person

Anders Nystrm, Tel +46 (0)910-77 43 85
E-mail: anders.nystrom@boliden.com
Location:

Garpenberg

15

9. VENTILATION SIMULATION IN RENSTRM


MINE
Background
The ventilation system of the Renstrm mine is large and complex. The system must be redesigned as the mine will
be deepened to the 1400-metre level while at the same time new areas will be opened above the 800-metre level. In
2011, studies will be conducted to examine how the new sections should be mined.
Idea
With the help of ventilation measurements and map data, create an updated ventilation model in the Renstrm
mine that can be used when dimensioning ventilation flows in the mine.
Objective
The objective of the masters degree project is to build a calibrated ventilation model in the VentSim Visual
simulation program that the mine can then use when planning new production areas.
Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:
Literature studies. Methods for measuring air flows and air pressure, calculating system friction plus the
VentSim Visual manual.

Measure the existing ventilation system.

Design and calibrate a simulation model

Contact person
Fredrik Jonsson, Tel +46 (0)910-70 51 43
E-mail: fredrik.jonsson@boliden.com
Location:

Boliden/Renstrm

16

10. DESIGN OF PLANNING TOOLS AND


CONTROL RULES FOR ROCK TRANSPORT
INKRISTINEBERG
Background
Kristinebergs strategic plans will lead to a production increase to 800,000 tonnes of ore and preparation to make
such production possible. A development project has been running at Kristineberg in several areas to achieve the
intended production increase. Planning and control of rock transport in the mine is an area that has not yet been
investigated and developed to the scope we feel is necessary.
Idea
Improve planning and control of rock transport in the Kristineberg mine. The purpose of the masters degree project
is to monitor parameters such as stock levels and lead times for rock transport in the mines and to look at how to
optimise these.
Objective

Find simple tools for performing checks and standardise of the procedure for this.

Create simple planning parameters for optimised rock management.

Formulate control rules.

Implement the tools and procedure.

Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:

Literature study. Suitable methods for analysing and determining planning and control rules.

Supplementary investigation and flow study for rock transport.

Development of tools and rules.

Implementation of the procedure.

Contact person
Fredrik Jonsson, Tel. +46 (0)910-70 51 43
E-mail: fredrik.jonsson@boliden.com
Thomas Theolin, Tel. +46 (0)910-70 51 53
E-mail: thomas.theolin@boliden.com
Location:

Boliden area/ Kristineberg

17

11. OPTIMISATION OF LOGISTICS FLOW


FOR ORE TRANSPORTS AND INBOUND
DELIVERIES
Background
The Boliden area consists of a concentrator and a number of mines (one open-pit mine and 3 underground mines),
all within approx. 1000 kilometres of each other. The ore is mined in the mines and transported by truck to the
concentrator. At the concentrator, the ore is dressed into a number of products (concentrate) that contain gold,
silver, copper, zinc, lead and tellurium. Concentration is performed in campaigns, where one ore is dressed at a
time. The lengths of the campaign vary from a few days to up to one month. The ore production in the mine with
stock situation, ore transports, stock situation of the inbound delivery at the concentrator together with campaign
planning are all associated with high costs that should be reduced and a certain degree of error management that
should be avoided.
Idea
An investigation of the logistics related to the mines ore production and stocking, aspects related to ore transports,
the stock situation of the inbound delivery at the concentrator together with campaign planning. Create a dynamic
simulation of the entire system to enable testing of different improvement suggestions.
Objective
Lower costs for logistics related to ore management in the mine and concentrator. Avoid error management.
Description
The project is carried out at Bolidens office in Boliden and in the Boliden area. The work is preferably performed
by an engineer with a background in logistics. A category B driving license is required as there is travel to and from
the mines
Contact person

Torbjrn Viklund, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 40 92,
E-mail: torbjorn.viklund@boliden.com
Malin Rosenius, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 43 42
E-mail: malin.rosenius@boliden.com
Location:

Boliden area

18

12. REDUCED NITRATE DISCHARGE FROM


EXPLOSIVES UNDERGROUND
Background
Boliden uses nitrate-based explosives underground. Spillage of explosives during loading and explosives that do not
detonate lead to problems with nitrate discharge from the mine and concentrator to the surrounding watercourses.
Measurements performed in Garpenberg show that 50% of the annual total amount of nitrates comes out via
pump water from the mine and 50% is released to the tailings pond after the concentrator. The water flow from
the concentrator is five times higher than the drainage water from the mine, which dilutes the nitrate to such
low concentrations that the water cannot be purified. The nitrate content in the mine drainage water is higher.
Purification technology is in place here.
Idea
Improved explosives handling and loading technique can reduce spillage of explosives. Improved ignition of the
blasting drill hole can reduce the risk of the explosive being pressed dead, resulting in detonation failure. Improved
water flushing of rounds of shot may be a way to move undetonated explosives to the mines drainage water, which
increases the ability to use purification to reduce discharge of nitrates from the mine.
Objective
The objectives of the masters degree project are:

Provide suggestions for improved handling and loading techniques.

Test whether electronic blasting caps reduce the amount of non-detonated explosives.

Investigate whether increased water flushing of blasted rounds increase nitrate levels in the drainage water.

Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:

Literature studies. Loading and blasting techniques. Methods to measure nitrate in water.

Planning and testing with electronic blasting caps.

Test of techniques to better wash nitrates out of rounds of shot.

Contact person
Fredrik Jonsson, Tel. 0910-70 51 43,
E-mail: fredrik.jonsson@boliden.com
Location:

Boliden area

19

13. DESIGN OF MAJOR BLASTS


(SLOTDESIGN)
Background
For the most part, mines have complicated geological compositions in their respective ores. As a result, different slot
designs are applied in various applications. There is often a local model that works from a production technology
standpoint, but this is not always optimal.
Idea
To investigate what improvements can be made, with a scientific and modelled slot, compared to the designs in use
today.
Objective

Describe the practical production benefits that can be measured/seen/perceived.

Suggest further design improvements.

Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:

Literature study. Experiences from other mines throughout the world.

Interviews and practical tests as regards different slot models used at different places.

Perform calculation models and work out design proposals based on retrieved information and material.

Contact person
Fredrik Jonsson, Tel. 0910-70 51 43,
E-mail: fredrik.jonsson@boliden.com
Location:

Boliden area

20

14. OTHER SUGGESTIONS FOR MASTERS


DEGREE PROJECTS IN ENGINEERING
Background
Boliden Mineral AB is a mining company with different mining methods and techniques. This enables Boliden to
offer a wide variety of masters degree projects.
Idea

Investigation of shaft Vs truck transport

Water management in the mines

Planning tools and methods (including activity control)

Drilling and blasting in the mines

RFID monitoring of different products (from mines to plant)

etc.

Objectives

Describe any practical problems

Suggest appropriate solutions to these problems

Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:
Literature study. Experiences from other mines throughout the world.

Interviews and practical testing

Contact person
Arne Renstrm Tel. +46 (0)910-77 43 01
E-mail: arne.renstrom@boliden.com
Stephen Manning, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 40 06
E-mail: stephen.manning@boliden.com
Fredrik Jonsson, Tel. +46 (0)910-70 51 43
E-mail: fredrik.jonsson@boliden.com
Location:

Boliden/Garpenberg/Gllivare

21

Masters degree projects in process


engineering

15. DESULPHURISATION OF tailings


Background
The pyrite content in the Aitik tailings is a potential source of acid, if oxidised. At present, the pyrite is deposited
together with the waste rock phase in the tailing pond. Because the iron pyrite content is not currently extracted
from Bolidens ores, it is led together with the waste rock phase to the tailing pond. Oxidation of the iron pyrite
produces sulphuric acid. To minimise the risk of acidification of the tailing pond in Aitik, a desulphurisation circuit
will be installed in the new concentrator currently being erected. In the desulphurisation circuit, the majority of the
remaining sulphur content in the tailings is separated into a smaller product through flotation. This product will be
led to a separate landfill site. Comparison of the results from continual pilot tests with the results of tests conducted
with larger cells has shown that a considerably longer flotation time is needed in the larger scale to achieve the same
degree of separation as in the pilot scale.
Idea
Establish which factors in particular limit the flotation rate of sulphur from the tailings and determine how these
factors affect cell size and geometry.
Objective
The objective is to find a model for dimensioning a full-scale facility based on the results of continuous pilot testing.
Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:
Literature study flotation kinetics, dimensioning of flotation cells.

Modelling mass balancing across a continual flotation cell.

Model testing in flotation cells of different sizes (parameter testing).

The majority of the work will be performed in Bolidens office and laboratory in Boliden.
Contact person
Jan-Eric Sundkvist, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 42 30
E-mail: jan-eric.sundkvist@boliden.com
Location:

Boliden

22

16. OPTIMISATION OF REGRINDING IN


AFLOTATION CIRCUIT
Background
Grinding of mineral particles is a normal sub-process in our flotation circuits. We know that there are several cases
in which grinding can be made more efficient. The problem is primarily showing what potential exists. This masters
degree project will contribute to our work to develop evaluation methods for this.
Idea
The regrinding circuits are mapped out based on both their grinding results and how well they contribute to the
flotation results.
Objective
The objective is to map out a regrinding circuit for the Boliden plant and to provide suggestions for possible
improvements.
Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:
Literature study.

Floating and grinding testing in laboratory scale.

Sampling from operating circuits.

Controlled full-scale testing.

The majority of the work will be performed in Bolidens office and laboratory in Boliden.
Contact person

Nils Johan Bolin, Tel. 0910-77 42 15
E-mail: nils-johan.bolin@boliden.com
Location:

Boliden

23

17. LEACHING OF pyrrhotite


Background
A deposit called lgliden near Jrn in Vsterbotten contains minerals such as nickel and cobalt bound to
pentlandite. The pentlandite is intimately intergrown with pyrrhotite, which can be extracted with weak magnetic
separation. In addition to nickel and cobalt, there is copper, gold and silver. It is not possible to produce a saleable
nickel concentrate. Indicative leach testing shows that nickel and cobalt can be extracted through leaching.
Destruction of the leaching solution and extraction of leached metals has not yet been investigated.
Idea
To map out how the leaching solution should be handled to reduce costs through e.g. precipitation of iron sulphate
and the manufacture of NaSH. Released metals must also be extracted from the leaching solution, e.g. through
selective sulphide precipitation.
Objectives
The objective is to find the best parameters for handling the large quantities of iron and sulphur that report to
solution during leaching.
Another objective is to examine how selective sulphide precipitation works for the relevant metal concentrations, in
addition to considering other extraction methods.
Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:
Literature study Precipitation of iron sulphate.

Literature study Selective sulphide precipitation of metals

Model testing (parameter testing) of both iron sulphate precipitation and NaSH production in bench scale.

Model testing (parameter testing) of sulphide precipitation in bench scale.

The scope of the project may be big. It may therefore be necessary to set a narrower scope for the work than the
description provided above.
The majority of the work will be performed in Bolidens office and laboratory in Boliden.
Contact person
Jan-Eric Sundkvist, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 42 30
E-mail: jan-eric.sundkvist@boliden.com
Paul Kruger, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 40 53
E-mail: paul.kruger@boliden.com
Location:

Boliden

24

18. PURIFICATION OF ACIDIC MINE WATER


Background/current situation
Acidic water containing metal is generated through natural weathering processes in which sulphide ores are broken
down. When acidic water is generated in underground mines or open-pit mines, it is usually called AMD (Acid
Mine Drainage). Acidic water from waste rock dumps and other dumps of low-value material is usually called ARD
(Acid Rock Drainage).
At Boliden plants where AMD/ARD is found, purification is primarily carried out through neutralisation with
slaked or burnt lime, where the metal content is precipitated as hydroxides together with gypsum. The properties of
the precipitate obtained and the utilisation ratio of the lime additive varies with the composition of the water and
the actual process design.
Idea
Through a multi-step process, separate high-value metals such as copper and zinc from iron, arsenic, aluminium,
manganese and other low-value metals.
By optimising conditions in a multi-step process, obtain precipitation products with good dewatering properties
while at the same time achieving a high utilisation ratio for the lime additive.
Objective
For a given ARD, describe which types of precipitates can be obtained in a multi-step process depending on number
of precipitation steps, pH, profile, standing time, type of alkali, process temperature, etc.
Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:
Literature study.

Perform thermodynamic calculations regarding solubility of metals vs. pH.

Model testing in continual mini-pilot facility.

Report writing.

The majority of the work will be performed in Boliden.


Contact person
Johan Hansson, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 42 28
E-mail: johan.hansson@boliden.com
Jan-Eric Sundkvist, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 42 30
E-mail: jan-eric.sundkvist@boliden.com
Location:

Boliden

25

19. FINE PARTICLE FLOTATION


Background
The flotation process works most effectively with particles that are of a medium fraction size. At the concentrator
in Boliden, grinding has been increased to reduce losses in the large particle size classes. Because of this, there are
now major losses since fine particles do not float. It is both surface chemical and hydrodynamic effects that cause
the particles to fail to float. To map out the hydrodynamic effects, two parallel floatation cells (operation scale) with
good sampling capabilities have been installed in a floatation circuit at the concentrator. The surface chemical effects
can be studied through laboratory flotation testing.
Idea
By differentiating between hydrodynamic and chemical causes of fine particle losses during flotation, suitable
improvement measures can be suggested and tested.
Objectives
Establish causes of loss of fine zinc blende grains. Test suitable improvement measures.
Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:
Literature study.

Grinding and laboratory flotation testing.

Full-scale operational testing.

The majority of the work will be performed in the laboratory and at the concentrator in Boliden.
Contact person
Nils Johan Bolin, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 4215
e-post: nils-johan.bolin@boliden.com
Location:

Boliden

26

20. FLOTATION OF TELLURIDE MINERAL


Background/current situation
Telluride is a common contaminant in copper concentrate and is extracted as a bi-product at the copper smelter.
In Boliden, there is a find with unusually high telluride contents, primarily bundled in bismuth telluride. A special
leaching plant has been built for the extraction of telluride from floatation concentrate. Flotation of telluride
mineral has not been fully studied and further knowledge is necessary in order to optimise telluride extraction.
Idea
By performing flotation studies in lab scale with different collectors and conditions, study how telluride mineral
floats in order to increase knowledge.
The flotation products are analysed in fractions where justified and are studied (in certain cases also mineralogically
with Quemscan instruments).
Objective
Improve the exchange of telluride to the flotation concentrate for ore from Kankberg.
Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:

Literature study.

Evaluate the results from different types of flotation tests.

Report writing.

The majority of the work will be performed in Boliden.


Contact person

Nils Johan Bolin, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 42 51,
E-mail: nils-johan.bolin@boliden.com
Location:

Boliden

27

21. Fundamental parameters for


flotation
Background
During the flotation process, air bubbles lift hydrophobic particles to the surface of a flotation device and the
froth with the hydrophobic particles is separated to a froth trough for further transport to repetition, regrinding or
finished concentrate. There are many parameters that determine how well the flotation process works on a specific
ore. There are both chemical and device-related parameters. The distribution of bubbles in the flotation device
and the quantity of bubbles on the surface are examples of two factors. Other factors include the hydrodynamics
(turbulence) in the bottom or at the surface of the devices, the froth thickness and the distance of the floated
particles to the froth removal edge. There are methods for determining the amount of air in the bubbles and the
bubble distribution in the devices. A limiting factor for the capacity in a flotation device is the total surface of the
bubbles and the speed at which they are transported through the pulp. The term can be summarised as carrying
capacity, which was introduced in the 1980s when column flotation became more generally used and the limitation
became more obvious than earlier.
Idea
By finding methods for determining the capacity of a flotation device for a specific ore, it will be possible to specify
certain design parameters with better precision. This applies in particular to the surface of the devices in relation
to the design production capacity of the devices. Through this, it shall be possible to avoid limitations in new
installations and enable the identification of any such limitations in the existing concentrators.
Objective
Map out limitations in the capacity of devices for a few cases.
Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:
Literature study.

Sampling in operating plants.

Calculation of flotation parameters from sampling results.

The majority of the work will be performed in the laboratory and concentrator in Boliden.
Contact person

Nils Johan Bolin, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 42 15,
E-mail: nils-johan.bolin@boliden.com
Location:

Boliden

28

22. DEVELOPMENT OF LAB METHOD FOR


FLOTATION TESTING
Background/current situation
Sulphidic mineralisations and ores are evaluated through methods such as flotation testing in batches at laboratory
scale. Test results are evaluated by preparing a mass and metal balance of froth products and residual product.
Results from testing on representative samples have been shown to vary between different laboratory workers. pH
value, pulp density, air flow, additive levels of collector, presser and activator are normally given. Possible reasons
for test result variations may be that the froth oil, water additives and the method in which the froth product is
removed from the flotation device vary between different laboratory workers. This may mean that the percentage of
pulp mechanically recovered to the froth product is dependent on the laboratory worker.
Idea
By studying in detail and describing how different laboratory workers perform floatation tests, map out the reasons
for the observed variation in the results.
By determining the water content in the froth product, quantify the percentage of mechanically entrained pulp and
thereby normalise the results for different laboratory workers.
Objective
Improve repeatability in flotation test results.
Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:
Literature study.

Evaluate the results of different types of flotation tests performed by different laboratory workers on
representative samples.

Report writing.

The majority of the work will be performed in Boliden.


Contact person

Nils Johan Bolin, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 42 15,
E-mail: nils-johan.bolin@boliden.com
Location:

Boliden

29

23. FLOTATION OF DISINTEGRATED ORE


INAITIK
Background
There are large quantities of marginally disintegrated ore in Aitik that was previously considered unprofitable to
process. With higher metal prices and lower operating costs, it is now probably profitable to treat such ores.
The marginal ore was mined to enable the mining of richer ore. Since the marginal ore has been stored for long
periods of time partially by soil, it is unfavourable from an ore dressing perspective. When opening a new open-pit
mine, the top stopes often consist of somewhat disintegrated marginal ore with soil mixed in.
At Aitik, there are plans to process the marginal ore, and with plans of opening a new open-pit mine, there is a
strong motivation for investigating methods for improving the process results for such cases.
Idea
It is suspected that disintegration and the inclusion of soil consumes an unusually large amount of collector reagent.
Disintegration means that the amount of lime added to raise pH increases greatly.
Objective
Map out how the flotation process works for disintegrated ore and soil mixture with different flotation parameters.
The primary focus of the study will be on the consumption of collector reagent, but there will also be a study of the
impact on other parameters, such as the addition of lime. There may also be methods to counteract e.g. the effect of
soil being mixed in. These should also be studied.
Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:

Literature study.

Testing in lab scale with different mixtures of soil and on marginal ore with different disintegration properties.
In this context, it is desirable to find a method to determine the degree of disintegration of the ore samples.

If possible, perform operational testing if interesting methods can be found.

The majority of the work will be performed in the laboratory and concentrator in Boliden and Aitik.
Contact person

Nils Johan Bolin, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 42 15,
E-mail: nils-johan.bolin@boliden.com
Location: Boliden and Gllivare

30

24. IMPACT OF SULPHUR AND COPPER


CONTENT ON COLLECTOR REAGENT NEED
ATAITIK
Background
The consumption of collector reagent for a specific flotation is dependent on factors such as the surface size of the
minerals to be made hydrophobic. Disintegration and soil mixture are other factors that affect reagent consumption.
Today, there is ratio control of reagent added vs. throughput tonnage so that there is a fixed addition in grams per
tonne. A more advanced control involving grinding, copper content and perhaps even sulphur content could give
the results more stability, if the given hypothesis is correct.
Idea
Ratio control of collector reagent addition against not only tonnage, but also the copper and sulphur content of the
ore involved, as well as the degree of grinding, should produce a more stable process with better total exchange.
Objective
Map out how the flotation process works at different copper and sulphur contents in the ore and at different degrees
of grinding as a function of the collector reagent addition.
Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:

Literature study.

Lab-scale testing of different ore samples and with different degrees of grinding.

Operational testing may be difficult as ore contents cannot be affected, but this can be considered e.g. to study
the effect of grinding.

The majority of the work will be performed in the laboratory and concentrator in Boliden and Aitik.
Contact person

Nils Johan Bolin, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 42 15,
E-mail: nils-johan.bolin@boliden.com
Location: Boliden and Gllivare

31

25. PURIFYING CONTAMINATED WATER


THROUGH FREEZING
Background
Acidic water containing metal is generated through natural weathering processes in which sulphidic ores are broken
down. When acidic water is generated in underground mines or open-pit mines, it is usually called AMD (Acid
Mine Drainage). Acidic water from waste rock dumps and other dumps of low-value material is usually called ARD
(Acid Rock Drainage). Contaminated neutral and slightly alkaline process water is also found in the vicinity of the
concentrator.
At Boliden plants where AMD/ARD is found, purification is primarily carried out through neutralisation with
slaked or burnt lime, where the metal content is precipitated as hydroxides together with gypsum. The University
of Cape Town and Delft University of Technology have spent the past several years developing a water purification
method called Eutectic Freeze Crystallisation. With this method, contaminated water is cooled down to a
temperature where dissolved salts crystallise out and sink to the bottom while the ice that has formed floats to the
surface and can then be separated from the concentrated salt solution.
Idea
Investigate whether natural freezing can be a method for clearing metals and sulphate out of contaminated mine
water. Or whether it could be a pre-treatment step of a subsequent purification process while pure water in the form
of ice is produced.
Objective
By cooling contaminated water to different temperatures, determine the actual distribution of a number of
contaminants between the three phases ice, precipitated salt crystals and mother liquor.
Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:
Literature study.

Lab-scale testing on different water qualities.

The majority of the work will be performed in the laboratory in Boliden.


Contact person

Johan Hansson, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 42 28,
E-mail: johan.hansson@boliden.com

Jan-Eric Sundkvist, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 42 30,
E-mail: jan-eric.sundkvist@boliden.com
Location: Boliden

32

26. FUNCTIONAL PROCESS IMAGES


Background
Several million tonnes of ore are dressed in Bolidens concentrators each year. There are several steps involved in
ore dressing crushing, grinding, flotation and dewatering. Currently, all control is handled via one single control
system for the facility, where all process data is also collected. Process data is then presented to the operators via
process images and alarm lists.
As the amount of gathered data increases, it becomes more and more difficult to present the information to the
operators in a clear manner.
Idea
Create process images that are more function-oriented and in layers to give operators a better overview of the status
of the process.
Objective
Concrete suggestions and guidelines for how process images should/shall appear at Boliden so that operators have
maximum benefit from the system.
Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:
Literature study and supplier contacts

Interviews and testing (if relevant)

The project is carried out at Bolidens office in Boliden and at one of Bolidens concentrators if necessary.
Contact person
Mikael Walter, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 42 58,
E-mail: mikael.walter@boliden.com
Location: Boliden

33

Masters degree projects in the


environment

27. Root penetration in protective and


sealing layers in tailings ponds no
longer in use
Background
During reclamation of former mining areas, so-called qualified moraine covering is used to prevent oxygen
penetration and thereby disintegration of the mine waste. In general terms, a qualified moraine covering means that
a sealing layer of approx. 30-50 cm compacted moraine is laid out to prevent oxygen penetration. This is followed
by an approx. 1.5-2 m thick protective layer of non-compacted moraine. This protects the sealing layer from damage
from ground frost and root penetration. In the final stage, vegetation is established in the area with grass as well as
spontaneous establishment of bushes and trees.
Idea
Inventorying of one or more of Boliden tailings ponds or waste rock deposits undergoing reclamation, including a
survey of root penetration from bushes and trees. An analysis of whether root penetration could affect the results of
reclamation measures and what plant communities could be accepted.

Objective
The work shall result in an evaluation of root penetration linked to different plant communities as well as
suggestions of guidelines in choose plant communities/vegetation method based on what type of reclamation is
being performed.

Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:

Literature studies

Field studies/inventorying

Evaluation

The work will be performed primarily at the Boliden offices in Boliden as well as out at some of the reclaimed
Boliden mines.

Contact person

Anders Forsberg, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 45 50
E-mail: anders.n.forsberg@boliden.com
Location: Boliden

34

28. Inventorying of the function


and long-term effects of vegetation
establishment with digested sludge
Background
During reclamation of former mining areas, digested sludge is sometimes used during the final stage to add organic
material and nutrients to speed up the vegetation process and to also reduce the risk of erosion. At present, there
are no guidelines for how sludge is to be used during reclamation, what thickness it should be laid out and how it
should be laid out. Physical stability problems have been obsorved in some sludge layers established on slopes. Also
oxidation on sludge can be relatively fast and should be taken to consideration in planning.

Idea
Documentation of measures performed in the areas in which Boliden established vegetation with digested sludge
and follow-up of land profile and long-term effects.

Objective
The work shall result in evaluation of performed measures and suggestions of guidelines for laying out digested
sludge as a vegetation establishment layer. The guidelines must contain recommendations for quantity/thickness
of the sludge as well as a method of laying it with the aim of being able to establish vegetation quickly while at
the same time being stable in the long term, with as little nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorous) leakage as possible.
Sludge on slopes can create physical stability issues and should bee studied seperately from sludge on even surfaces.
Study can even include estimation of remaining sludge quantities on areas after time period that has passed since
establishment.

Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:

Literature studies.

Field studies/inventorying

Evaluation

The work will be performed primarily at the Boliden offices in Boliden as well as out at some of the reclaimed
Boliden mines.

Contact person

Pivi Picken, Tel. +46 (0)910-70 57 73
E-mail: paivi.picken@boliden.com
Location: Boliden

35

29. Method for mapping out nitrogen


flows
Background
Mining involves use of a great number of explosives containing nitrogen. This results in elevated levels of nitrogen
of different fractions in the mine water pumped up. There have been several investigations and compilations of
nitrogen flows out of mines, but it is difficult to compare data between the mines as the result of differences in basic
data.

Idea
Review of previously performed mappings and suggestion for general method for mapping out nitrogen flows in the
mine, concentrator, industrial area and tailing pond. The results may vary depending on where in the mine sampling
occurred and what nitrogen fractions are analysed.

Objective
The study shall result in a method that describes the frequency, testing points and nitrogen species in the different
flows of the mining industry. It must be possible to use this as a standard method within the industry. The created
model shall be verified with a number of samplings.

Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:

Literature studies

Collection of measurement data

Evaluation

The work will be performed primarily at the Boliden offices in Boliden as well as out at some of the active Boliden
mines.

Contact person

Erik Spinnel, Tel. +46 (0)910-70 57 55

E-mail: erik.spinnel@boliden.com
Location: Boliden

36

30. Evaluation of alternative sealing


layers as regards oxygen penetration
Background
Reclamation of mine areas no longer in use is possible with qualified dry covering. The material most often used
as sealing layer is packed moraine. The sealing layer is intended to reduce oxygen penetration and water transport.
There is a need to develop new materials that are suitable for use as sealing layer in qualified dry covering.

Idea
Testing and evaluating different materials (e.g. GLS, ash, Mesa line or other suitable material) and/or material that
can be mixed into the moraine to obtain a better sealing layer. The work can also involve evaluation with a filter
layer installed and with no filter.

Objective
The work shall result in evaluation of the material used. The work shall be monitored with measurement of oxygen
penetration in the sealing layer and the materials permeability. Lab testing can be designed to be a good reflection of
reality, i.e. so that the thickness of the sealing layer and covering layer is applied based on field conditions.

Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:

Literature studies

Collection of measurement data

Evaluation

The work will be performed primarily at the Boliden offices in Boliden as well as out at some of the active Boliden
mines.

Contact person

Andreas Une, Tel. +46 (0)910-70 56 22
E-mail: andreas.unee@boliden.com

Pivi Picken, Tel. +46 (0)910-70 57 73
E-mail: paivi.picken@boliden.com

Location: Boliden

37

31. Optimisation of physical properties


of sedimentation ponds
Background
Liming with sedimentation is a common water treatment method when handling acidic water in the mine areas
and in some cases used for operations that have been closed down. Development of water management now often
has a chemical focus. However, it is also important to study physical factors, particularly the physical properties of
precipitation ponds at simple liming facilities. The flow can easily take a shortcut in the pond. In such cases, the
sedimentation and volume of the pond are not used effectively. A pond short circuit flow with correctly adjusted flow
can significantly improve water quality at the outlet. It may also be a cost-effective way to improve water management.

Idea
Review of example ponds/ponds effect at present:
Is practical standing time as it should be based on pond volume?

Is flow type optimal or should the flow pattern be manipulated?

Where in the pond sediment settles

Considering short circuiting and turbulence

Valuation of simple methods that could optimise use of pond surface and pond volume, e.g. booms and curtains.
There can also be an evaluation based on the geometry of the pond. Pond geometry refers to e.g. length/curtains
ratio, falling, rising or level bottom, etc.
The study may involve field measurements and field evaluations, laboratory testing (if there is access to test
instruments) and/or computer simulations. The study shall be based on the water quality and particle characteristics,
lime dosing and flow/flow facilities of one or more existing ponds.

Objective

Simple and cost-efficient addition for ponds (that does not prevent maintenance).

Future suggestions for planning efficient ponds (best output/volume principle).

Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:
Alternative 1

Literature studies/state of the art

Measurement data collection and characterisation of example pond/ponds, including water quality/particle
characteristic.

Laboratory testing of different pond alternatives with standard flow with standard water (recently limed)

Evaluation, improvement suggestions for example pond

38

Alternative 2

Literature studies/state of the art

Measurement data collection and characterisation of example pond/ponds, including water quality/particle
characteristics.

Computer simulation of different pond alternatives

Evaluation, improvement suggestions for example pond

The work will be performed primarily at the Boliden offices in Boliden as well as out at one of the active Boliden
mines or other liming units. If access to a test laboratory or simulation laboratory can be organised, some of the
work can be performed at this organisations premises.

Contact person

Pivi Picken, Tel. +46 (0)910-70 57 73
E-mail: paivi.picken@boliden.com

Location: Boliden

39

32. Phytoremediation
Background
Phytoremediation involves remedying contaminated land, water and air with the help of plants. It involves the
plants function in conjunction with toxic metals, e.g. the plants ability to accumulate, detoxify and bind heavy
metals (e.g. in the root zone). Some plant specifies are more tolerant to metals than others. Some can even be
described as metal-accumulating plants.

Idea
Bolidens current list of metal-tolerant and metal-accumulating plants shall be evaluated and updated. Practical
opportunities for using phytoremediation should be tested in the industrial areas of the mining operations.
Preliminarily, the method is expected to be best for side areas, where metal levels are not particularly high (only
slightly contaminated or borderline).
A masters degree project could cover no more than the establishing year. For this reason, it is a good idea to choose
one-year/quick growing species for the degree project. Another alternative is to base the study on the naturally
occuring plants already established in the area.

Objective

Supplemented list of plant species that are suitable for phytoremediation in wet conditions and location-specific
recommendations (wet areas, large areas, open areas, etc.). This part is covered by literature study.

Suggestion of method to use for phytoremediation of mildly contaminated former industrial areas.

Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:
Literature studies and compilation of existing information and recommendations

Planning and creation of small test area and preparation (on study of a naturally vegetated area)

Evaluation

The work will be performed primarily at the Boliden offices in Boliden as well as out at some of the active Boliden
mines.
Contact person

Pivi Picken, Tel. +46 (0)910-70 57 73
E-mail: paivi.picken@boliden.com
Location: Boliden

40

33. Evaluation of vegetation


establishment at waste rock
landfills with help of digested sludge
Background
Reclamation of waste rock deposits is handled in stages during the life of a mine. The reclamation method used at
the Aitik mine consists of a 1-metre thick moraine covering, which is laid out in two batches. Each batch consists of
one 0.5-metre layer of moraine that is compacted. The moraine layer is then covered with 30 cm of digested sludge
in order to improve the soil. To further improve vegetation establishment, the entire surface is sewn with grass seeds.
The first areas of the landfill underwent reclamation in 2004 and the final area was completed in autumn 2011.

Idea
The aim of the masters degree project is to obtain understanding of the vegetation distribution in the treated
areas. We need help to inventory what plant species are found in the treated areas, the degree of coverage and root
depth. In addition, we should also look at how these parameters change over time and whether there are differences
between slopes and plateaus as growth sites.

Objective
The project shall result in evaluation of vegetable establishment and a picture of how things are today as well as
what can be expected in the future. Focus should lie on the growth succession, whether the roots go down into the
moraine layer, and how long it takes before a treated area is covered by vegetation.

Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:
Inventorying at waste rock deposit T5 in Aitik, Gllivare. The inventorying should include plant species, vegetation
coverage and root depth. The inventoried areas should be found both on slopes and on plateaus and in areas of
different ages (time since digested sludge was laid out).
Inventorying results should be supplemented with a literature study based on the results of similar testing to see
what we can expect in the future.

Contact person
Camilla Esberg, Tel. +46 (0)970-72 92 40
E-mail: camilla.esberg@boliden.com
Location: Gllivare

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34. Creation of new industrial area in


Garpenberg
Operations in Garpenberg are currently undergoing expansion and facilities are being built above ground. To create
a welcoming environment for employees and visitors, a plan for the appearance of the future industrial area must be
developed based on geographic conditions and the new buildings.
Contact person
Malin Sderman, Tel. +46 (0)225-360 92
E-mail: malin.soderman@boliden.com

Jenny Gotthardsson, Tel. +46 (0)225-369 30
E-mail: jenny.gotthardsson@boliden.com
Location: Garpenberg

42

Masters degree projects at Rnnskr

35. SURVEY OF RNNSKRS WATER USAGE


Background
Rnnskr uses large quantities of fresh water and sea water. The water is used for the processes, gas cleaning and
cooling.
The spent cooling water is returned to the sea and the water that has been in contact with the process is treated in
an efficient water treatment plant before being sent to the sea.

Idea
Rnnskr needs to survey how water is being used. This survey shall include documenting each process use of fresh
water and sea water and how water is treated after use. The survey will be used as the basis for suggestions on more
efficient use of the water. The purpose is also to ensure that contaminated water is handled in an environmentally
responsible manner.
Objective
Literature studies focusing on Rnnskrs water management

Via questionnaires and site visits, survey the water going in and out of each plant as regards flow, type,
temperature, content, etc.

Optimisations that could reduce water consumption

Suggest changes that lead to increased re-use of water

Based on the survey, review whether existing drawings are correct

Investigate whether spent water goes to the right drainage system

Description
The majority of the work will be performed at the Rnnskr plant in Skelleftehamn.
Contact person


Kristoffer Renstrm, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 37 22


E-mail: kristoffer.renstrom@boliden.com

Marie Holmberg, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 38 84


E-mail: marie.holmberg@boliden.com
Location:

Skelleftehamn

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36. Purifying decopperised electrolyte


Background
Purifying decopperised electrolyte from copper prior to nickel evaporation. At present, a great deal of copper is lost
via the nickel sulphate product as we cannot reduce the copper content more due to the risk of AsH3 formation in
the process used today.
Idea
Through literature studies and lab testing, see whether it is possible to further purify the electrolyte before
evaporation and NiSo precipitation.
Objective
To reduce the amount of copper in decopperised electrolyte.
Description
The majority of the work will be performed at the Rnnskr plant in Skelleftehamn.
Contact person
Mats Holmlund, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 33 23
E-mail: mats.holmlund@boliden.com
Marie Holmberg, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 38 84
E-mail: marie.holmberg@boliden.com
Location:

Skelleftehamn

44

37. THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE CONTENT IN


ELECTROLYTE ON THE SULPHUR CONTENT
IN CATHODE COPPER
Background
There are indicators that the chloride content of the electrolyte affects how much sulphur contaminates the
cathodes, possibly in combination with other impurities in the electrolyte.
Idea
Through literature studies and scale experiments, investigate to what degree the chloride content of the electrolyte
affects the sulphur content in cathode copper.
Objective
To reduce the amount of sulphur in cathode copper.
Description
The majority of the work will be performed at the Rnnskr plant in Skelleftehamn.
Contact person
 Mats Holmlund, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 33 23

E-mail: mats.holmlund@boliden.com
Marie Holmberg, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 38 84
E-mail: marie.holmberg@boliden.com
Location:

Skelleftehamn

45

38. Leaching of gas cleaning dusts


Background
Process gases contain dust that is precipitated in gas cleaning equipment. The precipitates contains both valuable
metals and impurities.
At present, there are two methods of processing the precipitates. Precipitates with a low level of impurities are
recycled to the smelting process. Precipitates with high levels of impurities are treated as hazardous waste.
Idea
Through use of various leaching processes, it could be possible to separate impurities from the valuable metals in the
precipitates. The valuable metals could be recycled to the process while the impurities are treated as hazardous waste.
Goals:

Reduced amount of hazardous waste.

Better yields (metal).

Objective

Literature studies

Leaching trials, where possible leaching processes for the various types of precipitates are investigated.

Report writing

Description
The majority of the work will be performed at the Rnnskr plant in Skelleftehamn.
Contact person
Kristoffer Renstrm, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 37 22
E-mail: kristoffer.renstrom@boliden.com
Marie Holmberg, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 38 84
E-mail: marie.holmberg@boliden.com
Location:

Skelleftehamn

46

39. Evaluation and implementation of


copper converting model
Background
At the Rnnskr plant in Skelleftehamn, about 200,000 tonnes of copper are produced from ore concentrate and
recycled material each year. One of the main steps of the copper production process is called converting. Copper
converting means that iron and sulphur are oxidised with oxygen-enriched air that is blown into a smelt. As assigned
by Boliden, Lule University of Technology has developed a software tool that lets the user perform thermodynamic
modelling of the converter process. This model is intended for use in testing different process scenarios theoretically
so that the actual process can be optimised as regards impurity distribution, efficiency, etc.
Idea
The strengths and weaknesses of the model could be identified by following up a number of process cycles in full
scale and then running a number of simulations in the software. It should be possible to find positive quality factors
that can be tested in full scale.
Objective
Upon completion of the work, a report is expected to contain an evaluation of the models potential for usage
in Rnnskrs development work, as well as comparisons between the models results and in situ results and
recommendations for how the model can best be utilised.
The extreme cases or optimisation attempts that are tested in the model shall also be reported with
recommendations of continued simulation or full-scale testing.
Description
The project is expected to consist of the following components:

Literature study of copper converting and the behaviour of impurities during the process

Simulations in the modelling software

Follow-up of the full-scale process and any full-scale testing

Report writing

The majority of the work will be performed at the Rnnskr plant in Skelleftehamn.
Suitable education programmes include chemistry, metallurgy, physics and materials engineering.
Contact person

Jonas Bckstrm, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 33 12
E-mail: jonas.backstrom@boliden.com
Marie Holmberg, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 38 84
E-mail: marie.holmberg@boliden.com
Location:

Skelleftehamn

47

40. GRAVIMETRIC SEPARATION OF SMELTED


SLAG, MATTE AND SPEISS AS A FUNCTION
OF THE SLAGS PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL
PROPERTIES
Background
At the zinc fuming plant, the fayalite slag is processed in batches under greatly reducing conditions to separate the
zinc and other volatile metals from the slag. Extraction is carried out for both financial and environmental reasons.
The volatile metals are vaporised and reoxidised in the flow of process gas. The product follows with the gas that is
transported, is separated in electrostatic precipitators and then undergoes further processing at a later stage. The slag
is tapped to an electric furnace for gravimetric separation of slag, matte formed during the process, and speiss. The
percentage of copper remaining in the slag after copper extraction is primarily distributed to the matte and speiss.
The solubility of copper in the slag in question is relatively low and the copper losses that despite this occur via the
slag are primarily due to incomplete separation of the phases.
Idea
Effective separation of the molten phases can only occur if the physical properties of the slag are favourable. There
are a number of theoretical models for calculating factors such as the physical properties of slags. These require data
such as chemical composition, temperature, and oxygen partial pressure in the process gas.
The aim of the masters degree project is to evaluate a number of selected models for predicting physical properties
and examine whether the calculated parameters have any influence on the effectiveness of the separation. Access to
databases with necessary process data will be provided by Boliden, Rnnskr.
Objective
The objective of the project is to evaluate whether existing calculation models can be used to investigate whether the
phase separation is affected by:
Chemical composition

Temperature

RedOx ratio

Description
The majority of the work will be performed at the Rnnskr plant in Skelleftehamn
Contact person
Anders hrvall, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 34 21
E-mail: anders.ohrvall@boliden.com
Marie Holmberg, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 38 84
E-mail: marie.holmberg@boliden.com
Location:

Skelleftehamn

48

41. INCREASED PRACTICAL AND


THEORETICAL UNDERSTANDING OF
ANTIMONY DISTRIBUTION DURING
CONVERTING
Background
During converting, antimony is removed from the matte phase to the slag and gas phase. Compared to our
competitors, very little antimony goes to the gas phase during the conversion. We require a basic theoretic followup of factors that affect the antimony desorption as well as a practical follow-up. Practical follow-up is done by
sampling of exiting converter gas cleaning dust to see how different factors (oxide slag quantity, lead content in
white metal, etc.) affect antimony distribution.
Idea
To use theoretical studies to see what parameters affect antimony volatilisation most and perform sampling
campaigns to see what happens in practice.
Parameters that could affect antimony distribution:
Antimony level in ingoing white metal

Quantity of oxide slag

Composition of oxide slag

Temperature

Batch size

Blast

Blow time

Objective
To increase knowledge and understanding of how antimony is distributed in the converter in order to optimise the
flow of antimony through the smelter.
Limitations
This project only covers the antimony distribution of the converter. The project could be expanded somewhat to
include elements similar to antimony, such as arsenic and bismuth.
Description
The majority of the work will be performed at the Rnnskr plant in Skelleftehamn.
Contact person
Dennis Furberg, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 37 52
E-mail: dennis.furberg@boliden.com
Marie Holmberg, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 38 84
E-mail: marie.holmberg@boliden.com

49

42. WASTE WATER PURIFICATION


REGARDING NICKEL AND ANTIMONY
Background
The Rnnskr plant has an efficient waste water treatment plant for impure water. Zinc, arsenic, copper, cadmium,
lead, mercury, etc. are precipitated as sulphides. The sulphide sludge that forms is then recycled to the copper
smelter. After sulphide precipitation the water undergoes lime precipitation at pH 11, where fluorine and remaining
impurities precipitate.
Both nickel and antimony are incompletely precipitated during sulphide precipitation. During lime precipitation,
nickel precipitation is sufficient, but not antimony precipitation.
A big disadvantage with the current lime precipitation is that a large amount of sludge is formed. An alternative lime
precipitation method to a lower pH produces less sludge, but does not reduce nickel and antimony sufficiently.
Idea
The aim of the masters degree project is to suggest waste water treatment methods regarding nickel and antimony
based on literature studies. Suitable methods for waste in the Rnnskr water treatment plant are then tested in
laboratory scale.
Objective
The objective is to suggest one or more waste water treatment methods for nickel and antimony that can be
performed in the Rnnskr water treatment plant and achieve the following:

<0.01 mg/l Ni

<0.1 mg/l Sb

Description
The masters degree project can be performed primarily at the Rnnskr plant in Skelleftehamn.
Contact person
Peter Olsson, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 32 86
E-mail: peter.olsson@boliden.com
Marie Holmberg, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 38 84,
E-mail: marie.holmberg@boliden.com
Location:

Skelleftehamn

50

43. OPTIMISATION OF STEP 1 IN


DECOPPERIZATION PLANT
Background
The electrolyte in the tank house is purified in several steps first with a copper crystallizer to remove copper
sulphate and then with electrowinning in two steps.
In step 1, most of the remaining, the copper is removed and in step 2 remaining impurities (except nickel) are
removed.
Idea
Adding inhibitors (sodium chloride, salt and bone glue) makes it possible to obtain a harder and more compact
copper cathode in step 1.
Objective
To obtain a higher current exchange in decopperzation plant step 1 through better and more compact cathode with
fewer short circuits.
Description
The majority of the work will be performed at the Rnnskr plant in Skelleftehamn.
Contact person
 Marie Holmberg, Tel. 84 (0)910-77 38 46

E-mail: marie.holmberg@boliden.com
Location:

Skelleftehamn

51

44. ASSAYING OF INCOMING MATERIAL AT


SAMPLING PLANT
Background
We are expanding our electronic waste recycling and need to investigate the possibility of analysing the incoming
material for impurities as early as in the sampling plant.
Idea
Analysis instruments are available on the market. Are there any we can use?
Objective
To be able to sort incoming material by content
Description
The majority of the work will be performed at the Rnnskr plant in Skelleftehamn.
Contact person
Magdalena Mattsson, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 33 42
E-mail: magdalena.mattsson@boliden.com
Marie Holmberg, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 38 84,
E-mail: marie.holmberg@boliden.com
Location:

Skelleftehamn

52

45. PRODUCTION OF ANTIMONY FROM


INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS
Background
Many of our intermediate products contain antimony. These are recirculated to the process. Is it possible to leach
out the antimony and create a saleable product?
Idea
Investigate the possibility of producing a saleable antimony product through literature surveys, lab tests, etc.
Objective
Investigate the possibilities of extracting antimony as a product
Description
The majority of the work will be performed at the Rnnskr plant in Skelleftehamn.
Contact person
Marie Holmberg, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 38 84
E-mail: marie.holmberg@boliden.com
Location:

Skelleftehamn

53

46. EXAMINE THE EXISTANCE OF RARE


ELEMENTS IN INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS
AT RNNSKR
Background
There is a large number of elements in the raw material mix for Rnnskr processes.
Idea
Investigate whether it is possible to extract rare elements through literature survey, analysis of our intermediate
products and lab scale experiments.
Objective
Map out the existence of rare elements and the possibility to extract these.
Description
The majority of the work will be performed at the Rnnskr plant in Skelleftehamn.
Contact person
Marie Holmberg, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 38 84
E-mail: marie.holmberg@boliden.com
Location:

Skelleftehamn

54

47. INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACT OF pH


ON ARSENIC PRECIPITATION AT RNNSKR
WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT
Background
Rnnskr has a central treatment plant that cleans process water, rain water, and rinse water from the Rnnskr
industrial area. The water entering the plant contains large amounts of metals that must be removed before the
water is released to the sea. In brief, the treatment plant consists of 2 different sulphide precipitation steps with
subsequent lime and iron precipitation. Arsenic is precipitated in step 1. The pH of incoming water is normally
between 1 and 2, but pH can vary. At present, pH is not adjusted before step 1. pH is instead adjusted after step 1.
Idea
Experience has shown that arsenic is precipitated acidic. Precipitation is therefore performed before pH adjustment.
But, how much is arsenic precipitation affected by pH changes to the incoming water? Would arsenic separation
results be improved by adjusting the incoming pH values?
Objective

Literature survey of sulphide precipitation of arsenic in acidic pH ranges

Lab scale testing to investigate whether incoming pH values affect arsenic precipitation and, if so, find an
optimal start pH value.

If an optimal start pH is found, investigate and, if relevant, test the possibility of performing this in full scale.

Optimise sulphide additions for stage 1

Description
The majority of the work will be performed at the Rnnskr plant in Skelleftehamn.
Contact person
Kristoffer Renstrm, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 37 22
E-mail: kristoffer.renstrom@boliden.com
Marie Holmberg, Tel. +46 (0)910-77 38 84
E-mail: marie.holmberg@boliden.com
Location:

Skelleftehamn

55

Examples of previous masters degree


projects

Evaluation of sludge content meter for regulating chemical dosing at sanitary treatment plant plus investigation
regarding new metal precipitation

Optimising zinc precipitation at Rnnskr water treatment plant

Mapping out of pump system in Kristineberg mine

Key indicators for energy efficiency

MPC Regulation of mill circuit

Optimal fragmentation

Early strength in shotcrete

Remote muck loading, production monitoring

Design of planning tools and control rules for rock transport in Kristineberg

Reduced nitrate discharge from explosives underground

Is synthetic fibre in shotcrete suitable in our mines?

Design of major blasts (slot design)

MIFO investigation

Mapping of biodiversity

Procurement master data 2.0

Procurement-driven cost measurements

Magnetite formation in fayalite slag and its effect on the zinc fuming process

Mechanisms for understanding and controlling sludge fermentation

Improved sorting and more rational handling of waste at the Rnnskr plants

56

57