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A cellular automaton is a collection of cells locally interacting with each other.

Each cell is always in one state from a finite state set.

The cells change their state synchronously in discrete time steps according to a local rule.

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cellular automata

The rule gives the new state of each cell as a function of the old states of some finitely many nearby cells, its neighborhoods.

There are different types of neighborhoods; the most common are the von Neumann and the Moore neighborhood.

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Von Neumann neighborhood

Von Neumann neighborhood

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Moore neighborhood

Moore neighborhood

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The Game of life

**The game of Life
**

Set of rules: • Any live cell with fewer than two live neighbours dies, as if caused by underpopulation. • Any live cell with more than three live neighbours dies, as if by overcrowding. • Any live cell with two or three live neighbours lives on to the next generation. • Any dead cell with exactly three live neighbours becomes a live cell.

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Chemistry of coal

**The chemical structure of coal is a complex set of chemical groups (bituminous coal).
**

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the coal computing grid

The structure of chemical groups is conceived as a hexagonal grid G. Let’s call the grid G the coal computing grid.

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The Game of Life on G

G is the support where the Game of Life will run. The Game of Life on the coal computing grid will use the following neighborhood

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The Game of Life on G

The Rules

There are six '1st tier neighbors'( ), and six '2nd tier neighbors'( ). As in Game of Life, whether a cell is born, dies, or survives to the next generation is determined by how many of these 12 neighboring spaces contain live cells. Each generation the number of live neighbors of each space are added up.

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The Game of Life on G

2nd tier neighbors are only weighted as 0.3 in this sum whereas 1st tier neighbors are weighted as 1.0 if they are alive. A cell is born into an empty space if this sum falls within the range of 2.3 2.9. Otherwise the space remains empty. A living cell survives to the next generation if this sum falls within the range of 2.0 - 3.3. Otherwise it dies (becomes an empty space).

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Conclusion

Conclusions

Cellular Automata Artificial Life (ALife) Possible links between a philosophical analysis of the Game of Life on G and ALife

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Reference

Reference:

Duane G. Levine, Richard H. Schlosberg, and Bernard G. Silbernagel “Understanding the chemistry and physics of coal structure” Vol. 79, pp 3365-3370, May 1982 Review, Proc.Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. Adami, C. Artificial Life. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998. Buchi, J. R. and Siefkes, D. (Eds.). Finite Automata, Their Algebras and Grammars: Towards a Theory of Formal Expressions. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989. Burks, A. W. (Ed.). Essays on Cellular Automata. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1970. Cavagnetto S, Some application of propositional logic to cellular automata, Mathematical Logic Quarterly, Volume 55/6, pp. 605 - 616, 2009. Cipra, B. “Cellular Automata Offer New Outlook on Life, the Universe, and Everything.” In What’s Happening in the Mathematical Sciences, 1995-1996, Vol. 3. Providence, RI: Amer. Math. Soc., pp. 70-81, 1996. Dewdney, A. K. The Armchair Universe: An Exploration of Computer Worlds. New York: W. H. Freeman, 1988. Gacs, P. “Reliable Cellular Automata with Self-Organization.” J. Stat. Phys. 103, 45-267, 2001. Gardner, M. “The Game of Life, Parts I-III.” Chs. 20-22 in Wheels, Life, and other Mathematical Amusements. New York: W. H. Freeman, 1983. Goles, E. and Martínez, S. (Eds.). Cellular Automata and Complex Systems. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Kluwer, 1999. Gutowitz, H. (Ed.). Cellular Automata: Theory and Experiment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991. Hopcroft, J. E. and Ullman, J. D. Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1979. Hopcroft J. E. “An Algorithm for Minimizing the States in a Finite Automaton.” In The Theory of Machines and Computations (Ed. Z. Kohavi.) New York: Academic Press, pp. 189-196, 1971. Levy, S. Artificial Life: A Report from the Frontier Where Computers Meet Biology. New York: Vintage, 1993.

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Reference

Reference:

Martin, O.; Odlyzko, A.; and Wolfram, S. “Algebraic Aspects of Cellular Automata.” Communications in Mathematical Physics 93, 219-258, 1984. McIntosh, H. V. “Cellular Automata Miscellanea.” http://delta.cs.cinvestav.mx/~mcintosh/. Preston, K. Jr. and Duff, M. J. B. Modern Cellular Automata: Theory and Applications. New York: Plenum, 1985. Sigmund, K. Games of Life: Explorations in Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. New York: Penguin, 1995. Sloane, N. J. A. Sequence A006977/M2497 in “The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences.” Sloane, N. J. A. and Plouffe, S. Figure M2497 in The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. San Diego: Academic Press, 1995. Toffoli, T. and Margolus, N. Cellular Automata Machines: A New Environment for Modeling. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987. Weisstein, E. W. “Books about Cellular Automata.” http://www.ericweisstein.com/encyclopedias/books/CellularAutomata.html. Wolfram, S. “Statistical Mechanics of Cellular Automata.” Rev. Mod. Phys. 55, 601-644, 1983. Wolfram, S. “Twenty Problems in the Theory of Cellular Automata.” Physica Scripta T9, 170-183, 1985. Wolfram, S. (Ed.). Theory and Application of Cellular Automata. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1986. Wolfram, S. Cellular Automata and Complexity: Collected Papers. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1994. Wolfram, S. A New Kind of Science. Champaign, IL: Wolfram Media, 2002. Wuensche, A. and Lesser, M. The Global Dynamics of Cellular Automata: An Atlas of Basin of Attraction Fields of One-Dimensional Cellular Automata. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1992.

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