TAKS REVIEW

World History Pre-AP
Basis of economy Shipbuilders, self-sufficient small farms, lumber Contributions

DUEZ

Early American History-1607-1750-TAKS Objective 1 Region Colonies Original Reasons Founded New England Massachusetts, Religious New Hampshire, freedom-Pilgrims Rhode Island, and Puritans Connecticut wanting religious freedom from Church of England

Religious freedom-Roger Williams later founded Rhode Island desiring separation of church and state Town Meetings where all male citizens met to decide local issues Mayflower Compact- Pilgrims agreed to form a representative government and obey the laws made by that government Diversity in people who settled led to more religious toleration First legislative assembly-House of Burgesses in Virginia

Middle

Southern

New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, And Delaware Virginia (oldest1607), Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia

Economic opportunities Economic opportunities

Large farms due to rich soil, and trade due to location Plantation farming, growing rice, tobacco and later cotton; use of slave labor

Key Dates in American History1776-Signing of the Declaration of Independence 1787-Passage of the Northwest Ordinance that established a policy that was used to admit new states as equal to the original 13 (only piece of legislation passed by the first government under the Articles of Confederation) 1787-Constitutional Convention meets to draft the Constitution that is still used in the United States today. It is the oldest written constitution in the world. 1861-Beginning of the Civil War between the North and the South over multiple differences (one was slavery). Abraham Lincoln’s election caused seven Southern states to secede (withdraw) from the United States. Fighting began shortly after. 1865-The South (Confederacy) surrendered to the North (Union) at Appomattox ending the Civil War. President Lincoln was assassinated and the radical Reconstruction of the U.S. began.

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TAKS REVIEW

World History Pre-AP

DUEZ

Democratic Heritage of United States from the World-TAKS Objective 4 Event Date Significance Greek City States-Athens Approximately 500 B.C. First known democracy where all male citizens met to decide on matters of government-direct democracy Roman Republic 509 B.C.-27 B.C. Republican form of democracy-where the citizens of Rome elected officials to run the government for them Magna Carta in England 1215 English King John agreed to follow the laws of the land, follow due process before imprisoning a free man or seizing his property, and agreed to seek the approval of nobles before taxing-King was not above the law Establishment of Parliament in 1295 House of Lords (hereditary) and Commons England (elected representatives) formed to give advice and approval to the king, especially over matters of taxation English Revolution 1640-1660 and 1688 Two revolutions (Puritan and Glorious) where Parliament rebelled against kings of England over violations of principles of the Magna Carta and king who did not respond to the wishes of his people; resulted in a limited monarchy ruled by law in England instead of an absolute monarchy English king could not hold a person in jail without telling him of the charges List of basic rights of Englishmen: no standing army; no taxes without the permission of Parliament; basic freedoms and liberties for citizens such as freedom of speech and right to trial by jury Justified the English revolution when he asserted that the people had the right to rebel against the government if they did not guarantee their “inalienable rights” of life, liberty, and property; major influence on Thomas Jefferson in the writing of the Declaration of Independence

Writ of Habeas Corpus English Bill of Rights

1679 1689

Writings of John Locke

1690

The American Revolution-1775-1783-TAKS Objective 1 Events Date French and Indian War 1754-1763

British Taxation Policy Colonial Resistance

1760’s 1760-1770’s

Intolerable Acts

1774

Significance England and France fight over colonial possessions in the New World. England wins and gains Canada, but also incurs a large debt from fighting the war A series of taxes on the colonies designed to help pay for the war and defense of the colonies Colonists protest and refuse to pay taxes because they had no say in their passage-“No taxation without representation.” Radical groups such as Sons of Liberty form and destroy tea in the Boston Tea Party British attempt to punish Boston for tea party; colonies meet at Continental Congress to decide what to do; colonial militias form

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TAKS REVIEW
“Shot Heard Round the World” 1775

World History Pre-AP

DUEZ

Common Sense published Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson Battle of Yorktown

1776 July 4, 1776 1781

Battle at Lexington and later at Concord between the British and the colonial minutemen-beginning of the American Revolution; George Washington led the American forces against the British throughout the war. Thomas Paine wrote arguing it made sense for the colonies to be independent of England Continental Congress agreed to separate from England; based on the ideas of John Locke Aided by the French, George Washington defeated the British and in the Treaty of Paris, signed two years later, England agreed to recognize the independence of the United States.

Principles of the Declaration of Independence-TAKS Objective 4  People are born with inalienable rights that cannot be taken away from them unless convicted of a crime by due process  The government is to protect these unalienable rights-Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness  If the government failed to protect these rights, they have broken the “social contract” and the people had the right to change the government, even by force if necessary Quotes by the author, Thomas Jefferson with regards to unalienable rights: 1. “Noting is unchangeable but the inherent and unalienable rights of man.” 2. “It is to secure our rights that we resort to government at all.” 3. “Man is a rational animal, endowed by nature with rights.” Many of the ideas of the Declaration of Independence reflect the thinking of the English philosopher, John Locke as well as other Age of Reason thinkers (Hobbes -social contract, Rousseau-will of the majority) Major Grievances of the Declaration of Independence, 1776 /Corrections in U.S. Constitution and Bill of RightsTAKS Obj 4 Grievance Correction-Constitution or Bill of Rights King imposed taxes without consent of colonists All taxes must be approved by Congress; Congress is made up of House of Representatives and Senators who are elected by citizens King made the military superior to the civil The commander-in-chief of the military is a civilian-the President government King kept a standing army among the colonists Congress is the only one that can raise and support the army; they fund the army King housed troops in the homes of colonists 3rd Amendment of the Bill of Rights-no quartering of soldiers without consent of citizens King refused petition of citizens 1st Amendment-citizens have the right to petition government King controlled the judges Federal judges are appointed for a life term; approved by the Senate King denied colonists a trial by jury 6th Amendment guaranteed trial by jury-7th Amendment guarantees a jury in civil cases Articles of Confederation-1783-1787 First Plan of Government-TAKS Objective 1 Accomplishments Northwest Ordinance-plan to admit new states into the Union Weaknesses  No power to tax or borrow  No power to control trade (each state had its own money)  No central court system  No national army (each state had its own militia)

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TAKS REVIEW

World History Pre-AP

DUEZ

The Constitution-TAKS Objective 4 Written in 1787 at the Convention in Philadelphia  George Washington served as President of the Convention and also the first President elected after the Constitution was ratified. Supporters of the Constitution (Hamilton, Jay, and Madison) were called Federalists. Their arguments for ratification included: 1. The Articles of Confederation was too weak to preserve independence 2. A strong national government was necessary to preserve independence 3. The Constitution conformed to the true principles of a republican government (Representatives elected by the people) 4. A bill of rights was not needed because the peoples’ rights were protected in the Constitutionexample-the government could not suspend a writ of habeas corpus (except in times of martial law (emergency) 5. A national government must have the power to tax 6. A strong national government was needed to carry on foreign affairs and protect the country Those believing the Constitution created too powerful a central government and did not protect the rights of the people were called Anti-Federalists (Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee of Virginia). Their argument against ratification included: 1. Ratification of the Constitution endangered the rights of the states. 2. Slavery would be a divisive issue and might lead to a war. 3. A consolidated government would result in tyranny. 4. A national government would have unrestricted power over trade and commerce that could hurt some states. 5. The federal government would be too large to protect liberty and preserve property. 6. Federal (national) authority would undermine state authority. Constitution was adopted in 1789-Oldest written constitution in the world today Principles of the Constitution Definition Example Republicanism Officials elected by the people to govern President (national) Governor (state) the nation Congressman and Senator Popular sovereignty People have the supreme power and those People can vote officials out of office if that govern get their power from the people they don’t approve of their policies and/or actions Federalism Power is shared between the national National government handles defense; (federal) and state governments State government handles educationBoth have the power to tax their citizens Limited government Federal government and state governments Powers that government have are can’t do what they want-they have to specifically listed in the Constitutionfollow the Constitution Example: neither the state or the federal government can tax an export Separation of Powers Legislative (Congress)-makes the laws Pres-Commander-in-chief Executive (President)-carries them out Congress-levies taxes Judicial (Courts)-interprets the laws Supreme Court-rules laws unconstitutional Checks and Balances A system where each of the three branches President can veto a law passed by has checks on the power of the other two to Congress; Congress can override the prevent abuse of power veto; the Court can rule a law unconstitutional

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TAKS REVIEW

World History Pre-AP

DUEZ

Bill of Rights- 1791 A list of the rights of the people the government was to protect and guarantee-TAKS Obj. 4 Amendment Provision Example/Significance First Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, Called the Liberty Amendment and religion-Freedom of Expression Second Right to bear arms Reason for debate over gun control Third No quartering of soldiers in citizens’ homes British had done this before the Revolution Fourth No unreasonable searches and seizures Keeps the government from searching without a warrant or in special situations where safety is an issue Fifth Due process Certain legal procedures must be carried out before a person can be tried and punished-example-can’t be forced to testify against self. Sixth Guarantees a fair and impartial trial in criminal Keeps trial public to protect the person; requires a cases jury of citizens to decide unless waived by the defendant Seventh Jury trial in civil cases Jury decides a law suit Eighth No cruel and unusual punishment or Punishment is to fit the crime unreasonable bail for those found guilty of a crime Ninth Rights not specified are kept by the people Privacy is one of these rights Tenth Reserved powers to the states Powers not given to the federal government are guaranteed to the states-states rights

Issues Surrounding Freedom of Expression (First Amendment): Free Speech and Free Press Speech-Opinions on issues that might be unpopular with the majority must be protected. However, this right can be restricted during times of war. Speech can also be curtailed when urging resistance to authority or advocating the overthrow of the government. Inaccurate speech that damages a person’s reputation (libel) is illegal. Press-Free press is basic and necessary for a free society. It allows a variety of opinions to be written as well as viewed on television. This is the principle way we get information about government activities. Unlike other countries, where the government can censor or control the press, the U.S. can only censor in cases of national security. Untrue stories that damage a person’s reputation cannot be legally published. The Challenges of the New Nation Under the Constitution-1791-1877 (Underlying Causes of the Civil War)TAKS Objective 1 Nullification CrisisSouthern states led by South Carolinian Senator John C. Calhoun who decided they could 1832 nullify or ignore a law passed by the federal government if it hurt their interests-STATES RIGHTS superior to national rights. At first it was over tariff (taxes over imports from other countries). Later it was used to rebel against attempts to prevent the spread of slavery Sectionalism Regional differences between different areas of the country  North-manufacturing, shipping, fishing, small farms  South-plantation farming with slave labor  West-agriculture and shipping-bread basket of the country Slavery With invention of the cotton gin, slavery grew as did the debate over its morality. Abolitionism grew especially in the North. Western Expansion As more territory was added to the country, the struggle by the North to prevent the extent of slavery collided with the Southern desire to spread slavery; Compromises such as the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850 had to be made to keep a balance between free and slave states.

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TAKS REVIEW

World History Pre-AP

DUEZ

STATES RIGHTS V. NATIONALISTS’ POSITION STATES RIGHTS The Constitution was an agreement of the states and the national government was to be their agent The 10th Amendment gave states all the powers not specifically given to the national government The states created the Constitution and gave the national government limited power The state governments were closer to the people and less likely to threaten individual rights

NATIONALISTS The national government was never to be an agent of the states The “necessary and proper” clause (elastic clause) in Article 1 gave the national government the right to use any reasonable means to carry out its powers People, not the states, created the Constitution The Constitution and the Bill of Rights guaranteed individual rights

Civil War-1861-1865 Fought between the North and South over the difference mentioned above. Began when Abraham Lincoln was elected president and seven Southern states withdrew from the union. After fighting began, four more states joined the Confederacy.-TAKS Objective 1 Advantages of the North Population, industry, resources, transportation, navy Advantages of the South Military Leadership-Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, etc.; experienced military Emancipation Issued by Lincoln after the bloodiest single day battle of the Civil War at Antietam-freed Proclamation-1863 the slaves to keep France and Britain from helping the South Gettysburg, July, 1863 Bloodiest three days of the war; South’s attempt to invade the North Surrender at Appomattox General Lee surrendered to General Grant; North Victorious Reconstruction Period after the Civil War-rebuild the nation. Many people didn’t like Lincoln’s plan to treat the South leniently. When he was assassinated a harsh plan followed. Other significant Amendments to the Constitution as a result of the Civil War: Amendment Definition Significance 13th Abolished slavery Freed the slaves after the South lost the Civil War th 14 Citizenship amendment/Equal Protection Guaranteed citizenship to citizensAmendment particularly the slaves who were just freedguaranteed them due process 15th Right to vote Guaranteed the right to vote to all ex-slaves Influence of Geography on Historical Events-TAKS Objective 2 Geographic Factors that Influence History Factor Definition Location Position on the earth’s surface

Example(s) in history  Suez Canal (between Africa and Middle East)-important because it connects Atlantic, to Mediterranean, to Red Sea, to Indian Ocean, etc. Panama Canal (between North and South America) important because it connects Atlantic to the Pacific-speeds transportation

Physical Features-Place Distinct features that impact life 1. Topography or terrain of the land 2. Bodies of water (seas, rivers, etc.)

1. Topography-mountains vs. desert living 2. Access to bodies of water-Greek city state of Athens became a trading power because of Aegean Sea; Italian city states in Renaissance wealthy because of trade in the Mediterranean

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TAKS REVIEW

World History Pre-AP

DUEZ

Physical Features-Place 3. Climate-location, altitude, and (continued) proximity to water 4. Vegetation  forest  savanna (grassland with trees)  grassland (no trees)  deserts 5. Available natural resources Region An area with common characteristics  Physical  Cultural Human-Environmental Interaction Movement How humans interact with their geographic features Position of objects on earth’s surface

3. Climate-further north of equator, the colder and longer the winter; the closer to the equator, the warmer the climate, unless at a high altitude 4. Vegetation-Middle section of the United States, grassy plains-grows much of the wheat of the world-“Breadbasket” 5. Resources-can impact economy if valuable, i.e. oil in the Middle East, gold in California 1. Physical-Sahara Desert-similar topography, climate, and vegetation 2. Cultural-Middle East or Latin Americathese share similar language and religion Culture is often determined by what they have done to adapt to the geography; examplebuilding materials for home based on availability of wood, clay for bricks, etc.  Migration-movement of plants, animals, and people from one place to another. Example when the Europeans came to the New World after Columbus  Spatial diffusion-spread of ideas, beliefs. Example-spread of Greek culture by Alexander the Great or the spread of Christianity through the Roman Empire by Peter and Paul

Examples in World History of Impact of Geographic Features on History:  Ancient River Valley Civilizations all settled around a river began Agricultural Revolution (grow own food instead of being nomadic)-and Neolithic Revolution (new tools) Egypt-Nile Tigris/Euphrates-Mesopotamia Yangtze- China Indus-India  Mongol Empire- -Nomads from the grasslands of Central Asia who conquered the largest land empire because of skill on horseback and fierce fighting skills  Industrial Revolution-1700’s led by England who had access to the ocean because of being an island and having natural resources necessary for manufacturing Examples of migration and spatial diffusion impacted by historical events-determined by Push factors-push people out of their old location Pull factors-attractions that lure people to a location Example Push Pull Pilgrims/Puritans 1620Religious persecution by the King of New World offered a place they could 40’s England worship as they pleased Jews in Russia 1880’s Jews were persecuted because of an Many Jews came to the United States because (pograms) attempt by the Russian government of the promise of freedom of religion to spread Russian culture and the guaranteed in the First Amendment Orthodox faith Cubans flee Castro and People who spoke out against Castro Many moved to Florida because of the the Communist take over were imprisoned-no tolerance political and economic freedoms provided in in 1959 the United States Fall of the Roman Huns and other Germanic tribes Empire-476 AD poured into the Roman Empire, attacking and destroying Latin American workers No economic opportunities Strength of the American economy and higher

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TAKS REVIEW
migration Irish Potato Famine1840’s Slave Trade-1500-1800’s

World History Pre-AP
wages with laws protecting workers Disease destroyed the potatoes in the ground-starvation due to lack of food

DUEZ

Conquering of the Aztec, Mayan, and Incan Civilzations-1500’s

Promise of wealth and opportunity in United States Economic gain available in the New World if a labor force could be provided. Forced migration of Africans needed by large plantation owners because the Indians had not proved viable as a labor force Lure of gold and riches of these civilizations by the Spanish

Other Examples of diffusion:  Bubonic Plague-“Black Death”-1300’s -disease carried by fleas on rats spread from Asia to Europe killing 1/3 of the European population  Disease in New World: Smallpox, typhus, measles-diseases brought by Europeans to New World that killed off a large number of Native Americans because of their lack of immunity  Advancements of the Chinese and Indian civilizations discovered after Marco Polo’s voyage and Crusades-led to Age of Exploration and trying to find quicker ways to get the products of the East  Columbian Exchange-introduction of products from New World to the Europe and Europe to the New World that changed the culture of both-examples: tobacco from New, horses from Old Examples of Empires with Distinct Cultural Patterns:  Roman Empire-27 B.C. to 476 A.D.-Empire stretching around the Mediterranean, connected by road system all leading to Rome  Han Empire in China-206 B.C.-220 A.D.-Empire connected for trade purposed by the Silk Road  Aztec, Mayan, and Incan-1500-In New World Economic Systems and Economic Development-TAKS Objective 3 There are three basic economic questions every country must answer:  What should be produced?  How it is produced?  Who should get it? Types of Economic Systems: Type Definition Traditional Basic questions are answered by tradition and custom -people followed the same occupations as their ancestors did, making things the same way Doesn’t encourage economic growth and personal freedom The government decides the answer to all three questions, deciding who worked, what was produced, and who gets it Doesn’t provide for personal freedom Example Feudal times-Nobles in Europe inherited the higher social position and economic privileges from their ancestors. The feudal manor was self-sufficient, needing no trade Mercantilism during and after the Age of Exploration-European countries attempted to acquire a maximum amount of gold and silver, export more than they import (favorable balance of trade), acquire colonies for markets and raw materials. The mother country controlled the manufacturing. Soviet Union under communism-

Command

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TAKS REVIEW

World History Pre-AP

DUEZ
1917 to 1980’s when the system failed because workers had little incentive to work United States (capitalism):  Allows private property  Encourages profit  Encourages competition  Supply (how much of a good is available) and Demand (how much consumers are willing to buy at a given price)

Free Enterprise

Individual members of society enjoy the freedom to answer all three questions and make their own economic decisions.

Other Key Economic Terms:  Subsistence agriculture-Growing food for their immediate families to eat  Cottage/Domestic Industries-Goods made by hand in homes or small workshops  G.D.P.-Gross Domestic product-Total value of all the goods and services produced by a nation for the year  Literacy Rate-Percentage of people that can read and write  Global interdependence-nations that are dependant on others for essential goods and services (Example: Oil)  Developed nations- Examples: U.S., England, and France 1. Higher standards of living 2. Developed economies with advanced technology 3. Low birth rate 4. Low mortality rate 5. Longer life expectancy 6. High GDP 7. High literacy rate  Developing nations- Examples: Zaire, Bangladesh, and Yemen 1. Countries with lower standards of living 2. Less advanced technology 3. High birth rate 4. High mortality rate 5. Shorter average life expectancy 6. Lower GDP 7. Low literacy rate Major Political Changes  American Revolution-1775-1781 Use of ideas of government being a social contract and the government gets it consent to govern from the people. People have the right to change the government if they want.

 

French Revolution-1789-1799 challenged the idea of hereditary rule of an absolute monarch and social equality. Ideas swept Europe. Russian Revolution-1917 Attempt to rid Russia of an absolute monarch called the tsar. Resulted in a second revolution when the new theory of communism was attempted.

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TAKS REVIEW

World History Pre-AP

DUEZ

Cultural Change and Technological Innovations-TAKS Objective 2 and 3 Major Turning Points in Date Explanation Technology Neolithic Revolution 8000 B.C. Agricultural Revolution begun in Egypt and Mesopotamia; man settled down and began to grow food instead of being nomadic Ancient Civilizations 4000 B.C. River Valleys in China, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and India developed a system of writing, technological inventions such as the sail and wheel, advanced cities Scientific Revolution 1500-1600 Traditional thinking challenged and replaced by controlled experiments to attempt to explain nature; Scientific Method; telescope and microscope invented Industrial Revolution 1750-1800’s Begun by Great Britain allowing for mass production of goods built in factories; machines replaced production of goods by hand; began advancements in communication and transportation Advent of Modern World 20th century Modern weapons for land, sea, and air; space travel; nuclear energy and weapons th Information Revolution Late 20 Advent of the computer and the Internet changing the way people work century around the world Skills Tested on TAKS-Objective 5 Types of data used in TAKS questions: 1. Bar graphs 2. Line graphs 3. Pie charts 4. Tables 5. Timelines 6. Graphic organizers 7. Maps 8. Historical documents 9. Political cartoons 10. Photographs and illustrations The types of data that can be used with the following skills: 1. Sequencing events-what is the order of events Examples: A timeline will be given with one event missing and one will have to provide that event. A series of events will be given and students will identify the correct order. 2. Comparison and contrast-what are the similarities and differences Example: Two pieces of data will be given and one will have to point out the similarities and differences 3. Categorizing-what are the common characteristics between different pieces of information Example: Two pieces of data will be given and the question will ask for the common characteristics between them. 4. Determining cause and effect-relationship between what happened and why it happened Example: Either the cause or effect will be given and one will have to provide the other 5. Drawing conclusions-use facts presented in the question and prior knowledge Example-One will have to draw a conclusion from the information in the question or the data given as well as applying personal knowledge 6. Summarize-identify the main points of the passage Example-One will identify the main points from the data given 7. Generalizations-a general statement about the facts given Example-One will have to pick the correct generalization to fit the facts seen in the data

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TAKS REVIEW

World History Pre-AP

DUEZ

8. Inferences-detecting bias, recognizing points of view, predicting, making applications, inferring relationships. Example: One will have to identify the point of view expressed in an editorial cartoon

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