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Virtual Nature Systems: Creation and Applications

Valeriy KLENOV Private

Abstract. Virtual Nature Systems (VNS) are acting computer doubles for their initial Actual Nature System. Each VNS skills for evaluation dynamics of Actual Nature Systems (ANS). River basins. River basins are objects for elaboration of corresponding VNS. Virtual Nature Systems belong to the Open Non-Equilibrium Nature Systems (ONES). Each VNS is set inside a multi-layer Matrix of square cells. Many separate layers of the VNS include spatially distributed digital variables and parameters (elevation, soil, water, snow, and others). External Climatic, tectonic, and human influences are drivers of Virtual Systems dynamics. Complex of various virtual Systems is the Virtual Digital Earth. The first step is the Automatic Nature Systems analysis (ANSA), which is evaluation water/mass/energy exchange between all cells of the Matrix of square cells. The ANSA results in current state of the Earth System. It uses Genetic Coding, which contains full current state of a system (river basins for various scales and nearby coastal zones and other types of systems). The VNS is efficient tool for numerous tasks for evaluation dynamics of the ANS. The GC determines order for estimation for next time system state under external factors. Below is discussed creation and application for many Virtual Nature Systems on Land and Coastal Zone. Coupling of VNS for river Basins, Coastal Zones is the necessary component for building the complex Virtual Earth, including their processes. Index Terms—Virtual Nature System, Moving Digital Earth, Automatic Systems Analysis, Automatic Computer Mapping, Floods, Debris-flows, Validation

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Introduction
The Virtual Nature System (VNS) repeats spatial-temporal dynamics of Actual Nature Systems. All Nature Systems belong to the Open Non-Equilibrium Nature Systems (ONES), which emerge and live under continual influence of external exogenous and endogenous factors. Properties of the multi-dimension ONES are oscillations, thresholds, disasters, self-organization, system’s memory, and others. The VNS is enlivening computer double for the Actual Nature Systems (ANS). Objects of the VNS are as follows: River Basins for any size and structure, Coastal Zones for nearby seas, Glaciers, Deserts, Oceans, and others. Similarity of the VNS to ANS is in the processes (water/sediment flows, soil erosion, abrasion, and others), by the governing of exterior (Meteorological) and Interior (Tectonics) drivers (influences, pressure, impacts). The similarity VNS and ANS is that all processes in the VNS are acting by actual 2D spatial-temporal factors (precipitation, temperature, tectonics, and others). The VNS and ANS has own advantages and disadvantages. The ANS contain more factors, then VNS. The VNS is always restricted by factors and cannot be completely adequate ANS. Advantage of the VNS is property to follow up for evaluation any compound of external drivers (exogenous and endogenous). The scenarios have property to evaluate dynamics of the VNS under any external influences (including human activity). For the efficiency of scenarios, the VNS must be acceptable double of the ANS. It is distinguished by teaching and training. Below are discussed results for the VNS elaboration, validation, and experiences of VNS running for a variety of nature objects and processes in the Changing Earth. The ANS and the VNS belong to the Open Non-Equilibrium Systems (ONES) [9]. Below will be discussed following applications of the VNS: dynamics of river basins in scales from local to sub-continental, spreading of Oil through river basin and through Coastal zone, processes in Gulfs (beach and bottom abrasion, sedimentation, and spreading of bottom pollution, et al.), research of response on engineering, et al).

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Digital System Analysis

Methods for the VNS elaboration include algorithms for water/mass/energy exchange inside the selected area and organization for the VNS structure y the automatics Digital System’s Analysis (DSA) [5]. The purpose of the VNS is automatic evaluation of water, mass, and energy exchanges between all elements of the 2D system. The basic element is a cell of the ‘mother’ Genetic Matrix. The DSA operates with a multi-layer Matrix of variables and parameters [3, 4, 5, 6]. Order of estimation for interactions between the Matrix cells depends on governing processes in the ANS. River basin looks like a ‘tree’ of water streams. Therefore, the order for estimation should use order of water flows through a river net. The order is recognized and written in the Genetic Code (GC) of a linear structure (multilayer string) The GC

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contains all information for an order for evaluation of flows between all cells from upstream to mouth, and contains all information for content each multi-dimension cell. The multi-layer string uses procedure for scanning - tracing by use main layer – Elevation grid. Self-building of the GC is the automatic Digital System’s Analysis. The following are evaluation for next step Genetic Matrix, and multilayer mapping of an area. In the Coastal Zone, governing drivers are pressure of wind-wave power and direction. The algorithm uses the oblique scanning of the Matrix, across wind direction [3, 4]. This algorithm was used for the VNS - Coastal Zone. The VNS evaluates abrasion/sedimentation processes and transport of bottom pollutions along bottom and coastline. Instead of the Genetic String, the Genetic Matrix keeps all information on a system’s current state. Instead of the Genetic Code was worked out method for Genetic Matrixes (GM), which directly scans a grid. Complete direct and oblique scanning is method for the Digital System Analysis (DSA). Repeating of the DSA, with regular input for the new 2D data turns the DSA into the Virtual Nature System (VNS). The GS and GM methods provide repeated estimation for water/sediment/energy exchange and flows in most widespread nature systems. They also offer estimation of systems ‘mutations’. Changes of systems structure are basic for the next step. They describe evolution. Incessant external influences results in origin inside the VNS and ANS for a variety of oscillations and thresholds. The complex systems include River Basins and Coastal Zone. Automatic selection for them provides interaction for the systems. Peculiar VNS (spreading for oil spills above a and land) uses both methods. Automatic selection provides use for single or both algorithms. For example, the ‘complete’ VNS evaluates spreading of oil over land and water, and simultaneously evaluates water/sediments flows. Complex VNS can operate in various media. The VNS offers estimation for pollution spreading and flows through any area. In this task, governing processes are ‘loaders’ for any pollution spreading. Contamination transfer corresponds with estimation for their dangerous, and assessment for impacts on biota, fishing, and population. Other VNS (groundwater, glaciers, and others) are foreseen and included in the VNS. The VNS ‘Desert’ requires for evaluation for wind driven particles and wind erosion. The problem for the grid based VNS is evaluation processes in various scales, from local to sub continental. The problem is to enlarge area and to keep acceptable spatial resolution, and to provide high speedy regular evaluation of large areas. These are problems to save New Orleans, Amsterdam, and other cities in mouth (delta) of large rivers and other cities near large rivers from disastrous floods, failure of dams. This hard task requires quick estimation for large areas inside a single ‘mother’ Matrix. Including for a single basin into Matrix is obligatory for accurate estimation of processes from upstream to mouth. The task to increase an area, to keep high spatial resolution, to keep high velocity for estimation of a large matrix is controversial. The acceptable (optimal) resolution is size of a cell not more then 10m, for ‘feeling’ geomorphologic elements of relief. For computing of a large area with acceptable minor step, the necessity is in powerful

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computers. The mapping of a large area should be done for selected fragment of yet computed area in view to offer computer mapping. If to remember about computer mapping, then the DSA and VNS offer for simultaneous computer mapping for selected layers. The VNS becomes the Moving Digital Earth (MDE) technology. The MDE skill is evaluation disastrous processes in any part of an area even before their direct initiation and observing. This invaluable property appears due common delay of the ANS response on external influences. Because velocity for estimation for next system’s state exceed contemporary slow earth processes, then the MDE always outstrips evaluation and mapping of impending disasters [5,6,7]. High resolution and high frequency of computer mapping is necessary to supply real-time computer monitoring of an area by use remote sensing data. The ‘remote’ monitoring for any area, direct reforming of observed data to mapping of processes does not require for use of the data storage by the GIS, because of the VNS offers functions of GIS. The regular (each time step) or/and on demand mapping for assigned/changed layer includes fast reforming of grid to contours (with assigned steps). Corresponding graphs provide analysis of trends and oscillations. Current grids of changing levels repair for each step, what decrease necessity for data storage.

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Virtual Nature Systems:Validation

The strong VNS validation requires for independently observed data for actual area to compare with computed data. For example, validation of water discharge and floods requires observed records, provided by land gauges. These data exist only for two case studies: basin for Moscow River upstream, and mountainous basin in Caucasus, near Elbrus Mount. In the first case compared are computed (by measured data on precipitation and air temperature), and observed record of water discharge on Moscow River (one gauge).

Figure 1. The VNS validation for the Moscow River by statistic R2 criteria (up) and by flood peak value missing (down).

The VNS reforms observed (with a daily step) external meteorology data to 2D water discharge. Comparison by statistic criteria (Figure 1) by a single gauge post shows satisfactory results for discharge and floods estimation.

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In the Caucasian basin, several debris flows for about 20 years, coincided by dates with independently observed events (Figure 2). This experience is a foundation for consistency for two VNS (plain and mountainous basins). The outlet is that for more events for validation are required. In other VNS (small basins and large Rhine basin), accurate validation was impossible due deficiency or no accessibility of data on high-resolution elevation, meteorology, and hydrology. The data fill up a Matrix of square cells. Size of a cell determines feeling of details. All numerical values (elevation, pollution, and all others) present a whole cell. Satisfactory validation of Virtual System exceeds properties of the Actual System in direct observing for system’s Geodynamics as by actual data, so by generation for a variety of scenarios (for Engineering, for Land use, Soil Erosion, Disasters, and many others). For the two validated basins were computed many scenarios for flood mitigation by dam building, including dam overfilling and following destroy. The validation for the VNS is primary task.

Figure 2. Successful validation for debris-flows was estimated by the VNS. The 1965-1966 years were used for the VNS calibration, and 1967-1983- for validation.

For the purpose for efficient imply the Moving Digital Earth technology (in real time input of data), the VNS must be installed multiply for systems of various scale and complexity. Firstly, the MDE is necessary to calibrate in several local and regional scale basins, by former hydrology-meteorology records and sources of remote sensing 2D data. Usual lack of the required data may be temporary avoided by use single gauges for reforming of the data over grids with a high resolution, as it was done on below discussed samples with satisfactory results. The teaching is optimization of parameters so to avoid false alarms and missing of actual events [5]. Without MDE verification, it distribution may be dangerous for people. Major conditions for the MDE efficiency are its providing by regular 2D data, continual correction for distributed parameters. In the ONES peculiarity is that VNS continually self-educated and becomes an information system for itself. It is due property of the VNS to remember all own Past, including the history of external influences. Regret, that to ‘to read’ the history is extremely hard [9] due the non-completeness of existing VNS (current and principal) and due weakness of computers for this task.

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The VNS includes high-resolution information about reasons exterior (precipitation, air temperature, and others) and interior Geodynamics (spatial deforming in a core and in upper mantle, etc.). The MDE becomes continually working Time Machine for evaluation the nearest Past and the nearest Future, and their ‘view’ by high-resolution computer mapping (automatic). Evaluation for the further Future depends on external influences for the interval of prediction, which may be, or may not be.

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Virtual Nature Systems: Applications

During the long time were worked out and experienced many Virtual Nature Systems (VNS) for initial Actual Nature Systems (ANS). The VNS family evaluates processes in various environments (land, groundwater, coastal zone, sea, glaciers, deserts, and others). Usually the goal is a River Basin, but then VNS included any compound of river basins and a Coastal Zone for nearby sea/reservoir. Compound VNS evaluates interactions VNS between nature systems with other processes (for example, between land and sea). Experience on the elaboration of VNS for concrete area uses Geography, Geology, and Geomorphology experience. The researcher extracts major processes to be included in the VNS, and takes in mind non-restricted quantity of insufficient factors. The main effect was in that river basin’ delay on external powers exists both by in the VNS and ANS (Figures 3-4). In spite that 2D spatial-temporal meteorology records are in deficiency, results for evaluation of hazards by single gauges are more then satisfactory. In the most deficiency are 2D data on earth surface both plicative and disjunctive deforming (current and recorded). This is the major blank of data for any ANS and for VNS. It is a one of major components of the environment. Simple scenarios for use artificial data on current tectonics resulted in high sensitivity of this factor to erosion/ sedimentation processes in river basins. The requirement for fast evaluation for the next time step is to supply more time before input of next step data. The scenarios included local and common impacts of storms, of earthquakes, and on simultaneous earthquakes and storms (Figure 4). The basin’s response was from several hours to several days (for a large river). Delay of the on impacts varies from a week (the Rhine basin) to 1-30 minutes (for debris flows in a local scale basin). The method is applying for presentation of processes and current ANS states by continual/regular automatic mapping of an area. Any area is shown in contours with a high spatial resolution. This mapping in contours is provided by fast raster-vector reforming for convenience of analysis. Changes for maps corresponds changes in actual system and describes dynamics of a system. The VNS provides changing of counters, and even offer appearance, changing, and defeat of spatial objects. Contours of Snow area intercept contours of elevation (et. al.) and demonstrate compound response of the Nature Systems on external pressure and impacts. It is filling up of reservoirs with mapping

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water depth in contours, and for other processes (Evaporation, Rainfalls, Infiltration, Withdrawing, et. al.). 1. Multi-Purpose VNS RIDEC for large River Basin, Delta, and Coastal Zone).

Figure 3 - 4. Simultaneous evaluation and separate mapping of the Rhine Basin (layers for erosion/sedimentation and river nets (including water depth and velocity): P – observed Precipitation, T – observed Air temperature, P – Precipitation (over a land)/ Wind Power& Direction (over the Sea (right), D – estimated water depth/thickness

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2. The VNS for outstripping monitoring of hazardous processes in mountains.

Figure 5. Delay for debris flow on external impact. On the left – marked track for debris flow for current time step: Grid resolution 100 m...

Figure 6. Activation for water and debris flows by complex impact of simultaneous earthquake and storm (with 10 m resolution)

The multi-layer Matrix of variables and parameters make possible for following not only spatial, but of single objects (in special layers), what was implied for transport nets, building, and others, in separate layers. The VNS applies regular computer mapping of an area and remember tracks of debris flows. It is direct additive mapping of danger. In time, the mapping of treats becomes more representatives (Klenov (7, 10)). Colored or grey tracks indicate their

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power in gradation of streams’ velocity. This is direct assessment of danger for people, building, and infrastructure. 3. The VNS for engineering of building area in small basins.

Figure 7 - 10. Scenarios for Soil proof during building and soil erosion downstream (up); response of groundwater processes (down) on reservoir building and water withdrawing.

For the VNS-Rhine Basin were evaluated scenarios for dragging, for independent and separate sea level raising and flooding in a basin, land use scenarios, and even small tectonic deformations of the large basin. External exogenous (storms) and endogenous (earthquakes) are both provoke hazardous flow by several mechanisms (increasing of flows, lowering or destroy for soil/rock resistance. Insurance for hazardous flows changes during a time by, in dependence regime, power, and trends of external impacts.

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4. The VNS – ‘Terrain-Oil’ for urgent response on Oil pipelines’ disasters)

Figures 11- 12. The VNS ’Terrrain-Oil’ is application for Oil disasters engineering (up) .The Urgent Dam on left branch of Oil flow is resourceful; carrier on left branch is overfilled by oil (10m resolution).

The next (education) case study was evaluation for several overlapping processes in an area (Figures 11-12): water flows, oil flows with water streams, oil flows over land in oil pipeline accident, erosion, water infiltration to aquifer, and others. Moreover, were calculated scenarios for responses (soils losses, dam building, and carrier excavation) after accident was happened. The complex of necessary data must be set up in the VNS [4, 5, 6]. In most cases, data on groundwater surface are in deficiency. Groundwater basin does not coincide with a surface basin. One case study is a small basin with projected building area, which has some 2D data on aquifer and water table. This area (Figures 7-8) was projected for building (on watershed). It requires making optimal engineering for minimize erosion on slopes, what were proposed to customers, among other conclusions. In the actual Project were computed several scenarios for the VNS response on proposed human influence: a) maintain initial state of soils, b) soil protection in

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building area. The first scenario is ‘to do nothing’ with soils. Second scenario (protection of soil in building area) resulted in hazardous erosion downstream. The third Scenario (active destroy of soils) results in local strong erosion/sedimentation in a building area, but in lowering of erosion downstream. Building for reservoirs on slopes may cause landslide because of upraise of groundwater.

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Virtual Nature System estimates pollution spreading in Coastal Zone.

Figures 13-14.The VNS – ‘Coastal Zone’ is for evaluation for Coastal Zone morphodynamics (up) by influence of winds and currents (up), and for spreading (simultaneously) of wastes (down) by pressure of .winds and currents.

Environmental processes include sediments, pollutions, snow, water, and others, under their external drivers (precipitation, temperature, wind, and others. These are conditions for most environmental processes. The non-equilibrium system automatically changes velocities of processes over an area. The age of sediments is also mixed. Delay of nature systems response on external influence varies in time and space, and corresponds with distance to vulnerable site(s).

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The response is that external influences offer complex structure of environmental flows. The VNS – ‘Coastal Zone’ were worked for (figures 13 - 14), and the VNS – ‘Complex System’ joins River Basin with Coastal Zone (figures 3, 15). Scenarios for bottom/coastal dynamics processes in coastal zone are foundation for assessment of shore abrasion for it mitigation, for research conditions of fishing and submarine agriculture in Japan Sea, and North Sea for safety of harbors, etc. Separate project was executed for the purpose to assess beach losses by storms and for increasing safety of beaches against abrasion and safety of harbors against sedimentation by various methods engineering methods on concrete areas (dams, channels, and so on).

Figure 15. Processes on the Land and Sea, Beach and Shore abrasion, and sedimentation in the Estuary by simultaneous influence of precipitation (on land), and of winds (in sea), where abr –abrasion, tr – sea level trend.

Environmental processes are drivers of ecological disasters. Water is a main loader for solid and liquid pollutions. For the purpose of their evaluation in VNS were added layers of solid and liquid pollutions, and parameters for their moving. A variety of VNS versions evaluates spreading for oil and other pollutants along rivers, through its body and surface, and both through land, surface water, and groundwater. The VNS evaluates toxic concentration and their hazard for people, biota, and other, evaluates their resistance and other properties. Pollution of air is not discussed, but VNS evaluates impact of them on land and sea.

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Conclusions

Objects of the explore are Natural Systems (basins, sea, rivers, et. al.) and their common and disastrous processes (water flows, floods, debris flows, and lot of others). Nature systems change under external drivers and by own drivers (energy of water flows). Their non-linear geodynamics are described by the GeoInformatics of nature systems and processes (in 3D coordinates and in time, and for selected layers). Tools for GI are Virtual Nature Systems (VNS), and the technology of the Moving (Changing) Digital Earth (MDE). They spread, evolve, and change their forms, boundaries, topology, and others. Natural systems are background for human’s life and activity (building, bridges, roads, and so on) properties. These systems and objects usually do not change independently, but even by humans’ influences, and VNS - MDE evaluate and mapping the Geodynamics of actual systems. Virtual Systems are in principle non-comprehensive; because of they never take into account all factors of Actual Systems’ Geodynamics. The exactness on of the VNS is proved by satisfactory validation even by use only one-two records of data over an area. It provides satisfactory level for at last one-step estimation the future by the VNS-MDE. The duration for the “view of the Future by enliven mapping” depends on external future influences on the ANS inside a time of prediction. Strong Past influences makes available to evaluate the Future of an Actual system for a more time steps (floods in large rivers). However, during the destination time from upstream to vulnerable cities downstream is under influence of a weather which enables to enlarge floods in delta due strong rains. Otherwise, droughts for this time (weeks) and high air temperature in basins of tributaries results in strong evaporation and decreasing of floods. This effect was received by scenarios, and it explains indeterminism and non-predictability of the future for a long time ahead. Scenarios of smooth tectonic deforming of a basin lead to essential change for pattern of erosion/sedimentation. It is because large rivers are strongly sensitive even to small deforming of riverbed incline. Complexity for spatial-temporal pattern of external influences make a task for evaluation of river basin non-reliable for calculation, However, it is not a problem for the VNS to calculate processes on contemporary small time ahead with satisfactory exactness. The property of the VNS and the ANS is automatic evaluation and regulation of flow velocity from zero (in reservoirs) to disastrous (in debris flows). The advantage of the VNS over the Actual Systems is in their ability to estimate future processes with acceptable exactness. It is vital for recognition for non-expected surprises in engineering, land-use, human impacts, and many others activities. It makes possible even automatic decisions and response by the MDE. Belonging of Natural Systems and their computer virtual doubles to the Open Non-Equilibrium systems provide properties of their memory. The ONES remembers all own Past, and all history of external influences. However, this memory is hidden from a view and is used by the Systems for own behavior. One way to extract this memory seems in systematic

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moving ahead to the Past, and turn back in the Future for regular compare for estimated and actual Past [9]. Evaluation the Future requires validation by records, and systematic compare of evaluated and actual Future (by wait a little) and by continual improving of the VNS-MDE technology. This is extreme task, especially in the large Matrix. Due the ONES properties, to view the Future is non-symmetry to view the Past. For the first aim is necessary knowledge of older reasons (knowledge for spatialtemporal processes mechanics for storms and earthquakes). The Information Loss Law [9] explains mechanics for destroy protocols of the Past (sediments of any kind) by own dynamics of Nature Systems. Otherwise, the necessary information (records) is distributed (dissipated) through complete multi-dimension Nature system. GeoInformatics of Nature Systems’ GeoDynamics has primary condition for safety Past, and task for restoration the Past by ‘step-by-step moving back’ along the phase trajectory [8]. The opposite task for evaluation the Future needs observing ‘in earliest Time’ drivers (deforming of the Mantle surface and of Earth Crust, moving of tectonic blocks, et al.) for evaluation of future earthquakes, atmospheric processes for more time, and for following estimation of response of the Earth surface. Knowledge for generation, moving and mapping of cyclones should offer mapping of meteorological factors. Both tasks now seem as fantastic, but it may enlarge time delay between pressure and response, and increasing time to view the Future. Properties of water-sediment-energy exchange and flows are generation of oscillations, thresholds, self-organization for spatial-temporal structures (river net, river basins, and others), due belonging to the ONES [9, 12]. The MDE continually evaluate impending environmental processes in the Actual Systems. The VNS demonstrates possessions for evaluation the nearest future of an area (inside duration of records). Therefore, the VNS seems be useful in small basins, which are less sensitive to local influences. The VNS is necessary for multiple scenarios of management of nature systems by controversial conditions.

Figure 16. Continual acting of the non-linear Information Loss to the Past, and under indeterminism of the Future external influences.

The strongly expected property to ‘view’ computer map in the Future appears with non-predicable future external impacts. It is because future events with a small

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destination time deform the view ahead. However, even continual view ‘Tomorrow’ due response on external power is useful for population safety by outstripping response on impending threats. (their place, time, and power) Property of Open Non-Equilibrium Systems’ to delay own response on outer influences offers that at last the nearest Future is ‘written’ in the Past (in sediments and in multi-dimension phase trajectory). The Past may is possible to extract from a nature system by corresponding Virtual Nature System. It is answer of the VNS-MDE on three main questions of ‘tomorrow’ disaster: this Time, Place, and Power. In all above cases (projects) were used likeness theVNS. Peculiarity of properties to evaluate gradually Past and Future of the ONES, is due acting of processes on a surface of corresponding layers in the VNS (Figure 14). Only a short time between the Past and the Future does not essentially distort natural records. Fortunately, it provides continual and satisfactory evaluation, with corresponding automatic mapping for impending Future of the area. The whole Earth System and it acting Double Digital Earth is joining of various types of separate systems on Land and Sea/Ocean. It requires creation for Virtual systems for governing processes in various media: Land, Atmosphere, Sea, Ocean, and others by specialists on Geology, Hydrology, Geomorphology, Geotectonic, and other sciences. Local Virtual Systems cover continents, and a global belt of the Coastal Zone. The creation of Virtual Digital Earth needs regular observation of processes over the World, data transfer to powerful computers, and running the Moving Digital Earth, with corresponding visualization by regular mapping. Regular mapping for complex processes needs global remote and earth observation, what is enormous task too. Automatic recognition of threats makes available automatic response of impending disasters. Property for estimation the far Future stays in strong dependence on research of external/internal processes. Virtual Nature System is portrait computer complex, which is acting double of the initial Nature System. Dynamics and evolution of both Systems are directed by continual spatial-temporal influence of external exogenous and endogenous influences (factors) and of own properties of Nature System (actual and virtual). Dynamics of Virtual systems is driver by influence of tectonic deforms of the Earth and for complex of exogenous processes (water, sediments, and energy flows and exchange over an area. This area is covered by river basins with large variety of scales, and plane structure of river nets inside. During the time river basins become a pattern, covering continents. Other nature systems (glaciers, deserts, lakes, and other) has own complex of natural (environmental processes), separate or overlapping. Processes in coastal zones are driven by wing wave energy, sediment flows, by earthquakes and tectonic distorts of the bottom. Processes in open seas/oceans are driven by sun radiation, winds, and currents in a complex water body. Oceans and seas do not discussed here. Nature systems and their interaction are strongly variable and are problems for research. However, on the erosion/sedimentation processes by influence of external factors form structure of river basins. River basins are basic units for Earth. These multi-scale units reflect influences and interacton for exogenous and endogenous

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factors (object of the Geomorphology). They organized by pattern of meteorology and geophysics structures. The methods for research of Earth Systems’ units –river basins direct use for the Matrix (with acceptable resolution), direct Raster method for numerical analysis. Raster method offers regular calculation. Fast reforming of raster grid to vector (with fixed step) is effective for visualization of processes. High resolution of grid provides high resolution of processes, but requires adequate system of global observation. It makes a problem for building and execution of virtual acting globe. Virtual Nature Systems (VNS) repeat spatial-temporal dynamics of Actual Nature Systems, by use actual data. Possessions of the VNS are widely then of the ANS, because they build own dynamics by use the same or other external data. This is convenient advantage of the VNS, which provides skills for engineering the Nature. It is dangerous skill, because of unknown properties of the ANS result in that other ways (phase trajectory) of evolution will never coincide with actual one. This threat must be minimized by continual examination and comparison of actual and virtual evolution. It is reality for virtual systems application.

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