You are on page 1of 28

Basics of LED technology

www.be-light.lu
1

Content

1. LEDs as components - Principle - Photo SMD - Photo HighPower - Light distribution of a LED without leses 2. Chromaticity diagram - Principle - Black body curve - Monitor-display - Human spectral sensitivity

3. Characteristics of LED’s - LEDs in the colour space - White LED’s technique - Colour mix and luminescent substance - Selections of white LEDs

4. Colour differences
5. Brightness & lifetime - Temperature & lifetime - Light output (lm/W) of different technics

www.be-light.lu
2

LEDs as components
 By the recombination of electrons (n,-) and defect-electrons (p,+) energy is emitted in semiconductors; in LEDs in the form of visible light.

www.be-light.lu
3

Different semiconductor materials give different light

 Red, Orande, Amber:  Green:

Gallium arsenid phosphide (GaAsP) and Aluminiumindium-gallium phosphide (AlInGaP) Gallium phosphide (GaP)

 Blue:
 UV, blue and green:

Siliciumcarbide (SiC)
Indium gallium nitride (InGaN)/Gallium nitride (GaN)

 Near infraret (NIR):
 White:

Copper plumbide (CuPb)
Mostly blue LEDs with luminescent material

www.be-light.lu
4

Mounting forms of LED chips

www.be-light.lu
5

Detail of a bonding connection with a cut through a LED-Chip

www.be-light.lu
6

Thermal resistance of LEDs

www.be-light.lu
7

Cut through a PowerLED

www.be-light.lu
8

Light distribution of a LED without lens
Distribution 120° nearly „Lambertian” for
 SMD-LED’s esw

 PowerLED’s without lens

www.be-light.lu
9

LED’s with narrow light distribution

www.be-light.lu
10

CIE-colour space

 All theoretically possible colours, weighted by the human perception.  purely monochromatic colours are placed on the outer border.

www.be-light.lu
11

CIE 1931 Color Space

www.be-light.lu
12

Spectral sensitivity of the human eye

www.be-light.lu
13

Black body curve
 Colour temperature is about the temperature of a black body emitting light.

www.be-light.lu
14

Spectral distribution of an ideal black body at differ. temperatures
 An incandecent lamp (~2800K) is emitting only a small percentage of visible light

www.be-light.lu
15

Monitor-colour space (sRGB/NTSC)
Possible colours with LED’s  Add. example for colour mix with two colours

www.be-light.lu
16

Light spectrum of a fluorescent lamp
 Gaz is emitting UV-light  Inner fluorescent material

converts UV-light into visible light

www.be-light.lu
17

Additive colour mix

www.be-light.lu
18

Additive colour mix
 White light by blue LED and yellow “phosphor” by this all colour temperatures between ca. 2,800K and 10,000K can be reached.

www.be-light.lu
19

White LED function

www.be-light.lu
20

Spectrum of a white LED

www.be-light.lu
21

Selections of white LED’s
(close to black body curve)

Different LED components producers (PhilipsLumileds, Osram, Nichia, CREE, Seoul, offer different selection grids.

www.be-light.lu
22

Selections in detail

www.be-light.lu
23

Lifetime diagram (SEOUL P1)

www.be-light.lu
24

Lifetime diagram (SEOUL P1)
90

www.be-light.lu
25

Degradation of a brand LED vs. a No-name LED

no-name-LED

www.be-light.lu
26

Luminous efficiency (lm/W) for different illuminants

www.be-light.lu
27

Colour temperature at different natural situations
Light Colour-temperature

Late evening sun before dusk
Morning and evening sun

3500 K
5000 K

Late morning and afternoon sun
Sun at noon Cloudy heaven Fog Blue heaven in shade

5500 K
5500 - 5800 K 6500 - 7500 K 8000 K 9000 - 12000 K

Northern (polar) heaven

15000 - 25000 K

www.be-light.lu
28