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New Media: A Learning Tool New media is known by a number of names.

Some of the most common are digital media, multimedia, digital art, integrated media, interactive media, transmedia, and art and technology. Regardless of its name, its experts generally consist of animators, multimedia producers, graphic designers, programmers, sound producers, video producers, and storyboarders. (Huang 2009). In the earlier days of computing, processor speeds, bandwidth issues, and computer availability kept new media from being an effective learning tool due to extremely high costs.. Advances in technology such as lowcost broadband networks and video compression tools have since made the deployment of new media to large groups much more feasible. What makes the media “new” is its delivery system. Where as traditional media might sit on a bookshelf in article form, new media is often delivered electronically (Hains, Belland, Conceicao-Runlee, Santos, & Rothenberg, 2000). Video training is important not only as a tool for instruction, but also as a tool for observation. Pea, Lindgren, and Rosen (2008) point out that, “Video has been dramatically under-utilized as a 'cognitive technology' that permits one or more persons to develop their reasoning and understanding of human interactions captured in video recordings and other timebased media or artifacts involved in cultural practices” (p. 356). This is especially important in the field of medicine, because patient care is often learned through the observed behavior of others. Clinicians, however, are not always available to observe behavior due to erratic and rigorous schedules. Streaming media provides the ability to narrow the scheduling gap and is now more commonly recognized due to websites like YouTube and Ustream, as well as from content delivered by various news organizations. While it has become common place in a number of households, it can also be very useful under the umbrella of instructional technology. The Association for Educational Communications and Technology (ACET) defines instructional technology as, “The theory and practice of design, utilization, management and evaluation process and resources for learning” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 1). Streaming media is often associated with asynchronous learning, which is characterized by tools that do not require all participants to be present at the same time. It is predominantly a one way communication tool that is effective when participants in a learning environment are located in different geographical areas (Sharma 2006). As new technology becomes more prevalent in education, new arguments about methodology can often follow suit. Edgar Huang (2005) refers to this as “Teaching Button-Pushing versus Teaching Thinking.” Some educators feel that taking too much time to teach software takes time away from teaching valuable ideas, concepts, and critical thinking. The point that is often missed is that the teaching and learning of software can add to the understanding of concepts, rather than take away from it. Huang further argues that “The antithesis between thinking skills and button-pushing – technological skills, does not necessarily constitute a clear-cut dichotomy because, for instance, the knowledge gained from software learning could help a student evaluate, choose, and deploy software tools for a specific project context” (Huang, 2005, p. 236)

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The adoption of technology and the learning and teaching of software requires administrators and educators in any industry to devote time to software instruction. Research has shown that the scales are not yet even in this regard. When asked to list the qualities that a new media graduate should demonstrate to their employers, new media faculty members in various universities across the country offered the following answers (Huang 2008): Thinking Skills - 46% A Balance Between Technological Skills and Thinking Skills - 32% A Sheer Grasp of Technological Skills As Adequate for Employment - 17.4% Don't Know – 3.9% This evidence suggests that even in the field in which new media is taught, more weight is placed on thinking skills than the technological skills needed to create the media itself. This poses a problem in the field of health care, as educators focus solely on information that pertains to patient care without taking into consideration the new technology methods of disseminating the information to employees. The Need for New Media: Development in Healthcare “When an Organization takes on a task, the difficulty of coordinating everyone needs to be reined in somehow, and the larger the group, the more urgent the need” (Shirky, 2008, p. 43).As a member of a health care organization that currently employs over 22,000 employees in multiple states, the timely distribution of information and training material is critical. Corporate communication has been changed drastically by unprecedented changes in technology. Communication and learning has become “less static and more dynamic” (Argenti, 2006, p. 358) Distance learning is often the most effective means of transmission. Distance education can be improved upon through the use of rich-media that can be updated and replaced in response to learners' questions and insights (Vasu & Ozturk 2008). Rich media can also be more interactive and appealing to learners. When learners are made to be active participants, a well-designed distance education experience will allow them to be more engaged in the content (Clark 2002). According to Wilkerson and Irby, “Increasing demands are being placed upon medical school faculty members to be creative and effective teachers, successful investigators, and productive clinicians. These pressures derive from curriculum reform, from competition in the health care marketplace, and from increasing competition for scarcer resources to support research. Such changes require faculty members to acquire new knowledge, skills, and abilities – especially in the instructional arena.” (Wilkerson and Kirby, 1998, p. 387) However, marketplace competition is not the only pressuring factor for the adoption of learning technologies in health care. Online video instruction and technology can also improve patient safety. Video allows for the observation of equipment set up in order to establish best practices. Furthermore, videoconferencing allows for a surgeon to call a colleague about a difficult case without the need for he/she to be physically in the operating room (Xiao , Schimpf, Mackenzie, Merrell, Entin, Voigt, & Jarrell, 2007). In my organization, we are attempting to use streaming media to train employees as well as disseminate information regarding our “Mission, Vision, and Values.” This includes the teaching of standardized best practices between our hospitals and private practices. Two

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projects at the University of Maryland showed that short video clips can overcome the barriers of best practices (Mackenzie et al, 2002). The downside, as Xiao et al (2007) go on to explain, is that despite the technology and integration capability, full-event capture is not yet a standard component of the operating room. Another major factor to consider when deploying online media in health care is HIPAA. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 has established national standards for the transfer of electronic health data for what is considered protected health information, or PHI (HIPAA, 1996) According to Argenti (2005), the advent of social networking, blogs, email, and other sites have given all employees the ability to be communication managers. This has the potential to pose a problem for organizations concerned with PHI because it increases the chances of patient names or other health information becoming public. One of the ways to protect information internally is through the use of an intranet. An intranet is a private internet that provides confidentiality as it can only be accessed by authorized users (Zarotsky & Jaresko, 2000). Streaming media transmitted by way of an intranet can insure the safe transmission of patient information while still providing the aforementioned benefits of video training. Adapting to Change: Technology and Adult Learning Learning theorist Seymour Papert states that, “The major obstacle in the way of teachers becoming learners is inhibition about learning” (Papert, 1992, p. 72). I believe this to be especially true in corporate education. Learners are generally comprised of department leaders who vary in age and experience. The older and more experienced learners tend to shy away from the use of new technology for fear of appearing inferior in the presence of subordinates. The corporate hierarchy can hinder the progress of technology integration. Anita Rosen (2009) states that management and employees often, “deny that they need to modify how they do business and adopt a new or emerging trend in technology,” (p. 29) and as Nicholas Negroponte points out, adult learners often forget that they once turned to children to program their VCRs or set their digital clocks. (Papert, 1996) These inhibitions are not uncommon when encountering a new experience. John Dewey theorized that the quality of an experience has two aspects. The first aspect is whether or not the experience was agreeable or disagreeable, and the second involves the influence of that experience on later experiences (Dewey, 1938). If we believe that to be true, it is quite possible that the same adult learners who had trouble programming their VCR are the ones being apprehensive about technological advances in the workplace. How can we fix this? Utilizing the drive of corporate educators and taking into consideration a simple definition of constructivism as “learning by making,” we can engage educators through creative ways of content creation and interactivity (Papert, 1991). Joyce and Showers (1995) point out that, “The closer the innovation is to the interactive process that helps the learner manage learning better, the greater the effects will be.” If Dewey (1938) is correct in his theory that all genuine education comes from experience, it is important for adult educators to see how technology relates to them in their work environments, both past and present. If one is to promote not only literacy, but fluency in technology, educators must create a context that will help adult learners realize and appreciate the value of technology in their workplace education. For example, research has shown that a class on “Using the Web,” which included a large sample group

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of educators, produced little results in terms of adopting technology in the classroom (Shelly 2000). The broad scope of such learning provides little direction in terms of action. The needs and goals of each individual learner should be discussed, in order to integrate a more focused technology plan. As Shelley later explains, “The 'independent' aspect would not necessarily connote 'teaching yourself,' rather, independent training would indicate personalized endeavors in a climate of support” (Shelley, 2000, p. 67) Conclusion New media technology is helping to improve upon and shape the world around us. Furthermore, advances in technology and new delivery capabilities have drastically changed corporate education, training, and communication. With these new found capabilities comes a need to train fluent users in order to create content and facilitate learning in new environments. The need for streaming media technology and training in health care has been established, and it is now time to switch the focus to the education and training of users for those technologies. The learning theories of Papert and Dewey have taught us that corporate educators can bring about new uses and applications of technology based on the learners' past experiences in critical thinking. It is important to blend the experience of educators with the technical skills required to operate new media hardware and software. By making better use of technology, these experienced educators can help advance the field of corporate education, as well as find new and exciting uses for existing media technology. This literature review is written in conjunction with my action research project, which focuses on the use of streaming media instruction in health care organizations. As a technology educator in health care, I often find that department leaders show apprehension when confronted by new media tools, and are hesitant to incorporate them into their instruction. What I wish to establish in this review of literature is a clear definition of new media as it pertains to instructional design and corporate communication. By doing so, it will allow me to further investigate the growing need for instructional technology in health care, and explore methods of teaching technology to adult learners who may be ambivalent or uncertain about its use.

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