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National Strategic Plan for ICTs in Basic Education Initiative Theme: Using ICTs to Improve the Quality of Learning

by Patricia B. Arinto, University of the Philippines – Open University 20 April 2005

FOCUS AREAS 1.0 ICT-related learning standards in Philippine basic education 2.0 ICT-curriculum integration models for the Philippines 3.0 Assessment models for ICT-supported learning in the Philippines For each of these, we must set targets, identify the requirements for meeting these targets, and identify strategies for meeting the requirements and achieving the targets 1.0 ICT-RELATED LEARNING STANDARDS FOR PHILIPPINE BASIC EDUCATION 1.1 Framework • The use of ICTs can make learning more effective by increasing learner motivation, improving the mastery of basic concepts, fostering higher order cognitive skills, developing communication skills, promoting collaboration among learners, and developing learning to learn skills. • A requisite for using ICTs to improve learning outcomes is developing ICT competencies, which include knowledge, skills, and values and attitudes for appropriate and effective use of ICTs. • ICT competencies must be consistent with the general objectives of elementary and secondary education (see Annex A). These competencies must complement and/or be integrated with the learning standards for each learning area and year level; they should help students meet the learning standards in the learning areas. 1.2 Existing ICT-Related Learning Standards in Schools 1.2.1 In the Philippines

The Standards for Quality Elementary Education (SQEE) identifies five standards for the elementary learner. Standard 1: The learner is highly literate and adept in using technology available in the community. His/Her technology skills are comparable with [those of] the children of his/her own age in other countries. Performance indicators for Standard 1: • Shows mastery of knowledge and demonstrates improvement in skills, values and attitudes for his/her grade level as stated in the national curriculum. • Communicates effectively in oral and written forms in one or two languages. • Exhibits ability to intelligently process, evaluate and utilize information obtained from multimedia: press, movies, television, radio, videos, internet, and others. • Demonstrates basic computer literacy skills and observes ethical practices in the use of word processor, presentation software, electronic mail, internet, video camera, cell phone, fax machines, overhead projectors, automated teller machines, and others. • Upgrades his/her knowledge and skills continuously in the use of modern and/or appropriate technology. Standard 3: The learner is functionally literate and equipped with lifelong learning skills. He/She is self-directed, highly motivated, and an effective problem solver.


Performance indicator #8 for Standard 3: • Uses varied data-gathering and processing techniques. The SQEE identifies six curriculum standards. Standard 6: The curriculum provides for effective participation in a technology-oriented society. Performance indicators for Standard 6: • The curriculum specifies and describes the competencies needed in computer education and other technologies. • The curriculum encourages access to various sources of information through technology available in the community, e.g., cellular phones, electronic mail, video, video camera, automated teller machines, print and projectables, and others. • The curriculum promotes ethical and moral use of various information through technology. At the High School level, Computer Education is included under the unit on Entrepreneurship (the last unit) of the Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) curriculum. (see Annex B for specific learning competencies). The emphasis is on computer applications for further skills enhancement: word processing, spreadsheet, database, presentation using Powerpoint, and using the Internet. Special science high schools and some private schools teach more complex operations, such as programming and website development. 1.2.2 In other countries Country Common Features Distinctive Features United At key stage 1, there are no statutory • The development of Kingdom requirements to teach the use of ICT in the ICT competencies programmes of study for the non-core begins in the foundation subjects. Teachers should use primary/elementary their judgement to decide where it is grades. appropriate to teach the use of ICT across • Emphasis on the these subjects at key stage 1. At other key learning process; ICT stages, there are statutory requirements to competencies as a use ICT in all subjects, except physical support to achieve the education. developmental United States Standards cut across the grade levels while objectives and performance indicators are specified for attainment targets in grade level clusters; the specific standard that the subject areas informs a performance indicator is specified. • Not only operational Belgium All basic ICT-competencies are acquired at skills but also social the end of primary education. and ethical competencies N.B. See Annex C for copies of the national ICT standards of the countries mentioned above. 1.3 Proposed ICT-Related Standards for Filipino Learners and the Philippine Basic Education Curriculum Possible guidelines for the formulation of ICT-related learning standards: • The standards must be integrated with all subject areas: “ICT skills across the curriculum.” As a first step, ICT skills required for each unit (?) in each subject area can be identified. • The standards must be articulated in terms of key stages (categories of grade and year levels). • The standards must include the full range of ICTs, not just computers.


2.0 ICT-CURRICULUM INTEGRATION MODELS FOR THE PHILIPPINES 2.1 Framework • There must be a paradigm shift from teaching about technology to teaching and learning with technology. ICTs should therefore be integrated in all subject areas—as a springboard, in the development of the lesson, for application and enrichment, in assessment of learning. • Different technologies can be used in different ways to enhance learning—that is, for presentation, demonstration, drill and practice, interactive activities, collaborative activities. It is important to consider which technologies are better used for which educational purposes. (see Annex D) • A good mix of the three types of instructional application of ICTs is best. The three approaches are: o ICT-assisted instruction (drill and practice, tutorials, simulations, graphical representations of math equations, and the like); o resource-based learning (which involves the achievement of both subject and information literacy objectives through exposure to and practice with diverse resources, making students active learners); and o ICT-supported collaborative learning (in which learners communicate and work with their peers both inside the classroom and across classrooms and schools in projects designed to solve real-world problems through the application of subjectspecific knowledge and skills) 2.2 Some ICT-curriculum integration models in the Philippines at present Name of Model or Project ABS-CBN Foundation Subject Area and Year Level Elementary Science, Mathematics, English, Values Education, Philippine History, Art, critical thinking High School Philippine Literature, Philippine Arts & Culture Elementary Science, English, Math, Intermediate Algebra, Math, Science High School English, Math (3rd to 4th yr) Kasaysayan, World History, General Features TV shows for elementary and high school students Available on ABS-CBN Support includes teachers’ guides and a teacher training unit Technology Requirements For viewing of shows in class, 1 television set Instructional Approach ICT-assisted instruction (if TV show is used for direct instruction) Resource-based learning (if TV show is used as one several learning resources)

Knowledge Channel

Curriculum-based programs for students and instructional shows for adults. Available through cable or wireless technology. Support includes reference materials, regular monitoring, evaluation mechanisms and training workshop-seminars for

For viewing of shows in class, 1 television set with cable connection (CATV)

ICT-assisted instruction (if TV show is used for direct instruction) Resource-based learning (if TV show is used as one several learning resources)


e-Curricula for Philippine High Schools Project by FIT-ED

Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Integrated Science High School Science, Math, Araling Panlipunan

public school administrators and teachers.

Interactive multimedia courseware (CD-ROMs) for each of the three subject areas in each year level Intended for multiple use: for direct whole-class instruction, for student selfstudy/tutorial/enrichment, as a teacher’s resource

At least one Pentium PC with a CD-ROM drive For whole-class instruction, computer and LCD projector and screen or TV monitor or a computer lab with 10 PCs with LAN

ICT-assisted instruction (includes drill and practice exercises and simulations)

The Electronic Storybook
Educational Software Modules for Grade School Araling Panlipunan and Filipino (ESMGS AP/Fil) Project (Ateneo de Manila University)

Communication Arts (Reading) – elementary Elementary Araling Panlipunan and Filipino

An interactive, multimedia e-book to facilitate reading comprehension 32 curriculum-based, interactive, multimedia modules for middle school: 16 for Araling Panlipunan and 16 for Filipino

ICT-assisted instruction ICT-assisted instruction

Genyo (BatoBalani Foundation) Learning Centered Learning Environment (La Salle Greenhills Grade School Department)

High School Science, Math, English High School all subjects (?)

Interactive multimedia courseware (CD-ROMs) for each subject area Teachers design a 1- or 2week LCLE module in which students work on task sheets and use various resources: audiovisual and computerbased resources, collaboration with classmates, consultation with the teacher, and hands-on activities Students explore resources to gain basic information about a topic. Coaching, to develop mastery of the target concept or skill, is done through teacher’s modeling, guided practice and independent work. Students evaluate their outputs with the help of a rubric or checklist and write brief reflection notes.

ICT-assisted instruction A computer lab for online activities; the classroom for offline activities (but each classroom has a PC that is connected to the Internet) Resource-based learning; ICTsupported collaborative learning


Intel Teach to the Future

High School Science and Math

10 adaptable hands-on modules emphasizing the inquiry approach, projectbased learning, and authentic assessment Technology is used for productivity, research, communication, and publishing Involves the design and implementation of a technology-enhanced unit portfolio (includes a unit plan, teacher presentations and handouts, multimedia work by students) Online Treasure Hunt - an inquiry-based activity that aims to develop knowledge of a given topic by having students answer a set of questions using teacherselected Web resources WebQuest – develops higher order thinking skills by having learners work in groups on a task revolving around an open-ended question that calls for the application and elaboration of lessons learned and information collected from various learning resources, including the Web; students’ final output is a knowledge product (e.g., term paper, multimedia presentation or website), which is evaluated using a rubric or scoring guide Students collaborate with students from other schools in the implementation of a curriculum-based project using email, chat tools and message boards Aims to develop higher order thinking skills; emphasizes collaborative learning and authentic assessment

Resource-based learning; ICTsupported collaborative learning

Coke EdVenture Technology and Curriculum Integration Phase 2: WebQuests and Online Treasure Hunts (FIT-ED)

High School Science, Math, Makabayan, English, Filipino

A computer lab with 10 computers and connection to the Internet

Resource-based learning; ICTsupported collaborative learning

Coke EdVenture Technology and Curriculum Integration Phase 3: Telecollaboration (FIT-ED)/World Links Philippines

High School Science, Math, Makabayan, English, Filipino

A computer lab with at least 5 computers and connection to the Internet

Resource-based learning; ICTsupported collaborative learning


2.3 Proposed Targets with Respect to ICT-Curriculum Integration Models for Philippine Schools Development of ICT-enhanced learning resources for all learning areas in all grade/year levels • Establishment/Expansion of a (virtual) library of ICT-enhanced learning materials • Compilation of best practices in ICT-supported learning • Integration of ICT into special programs and projects (e.g., Every Child a Reader Program) • Incentives (for learners, teachers, and schools) for the implementation of ICT-supported learning --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Annex A. Objectives of Philippine Basic Education
General Objectives Elementary Education Article III, Sec. 21 of the Education Act of 1982 states the objectives of elementary education thus: 1. Provide the knowledge and develop the skills, attitudes, and values essential to personal development and necessary for living in and contributing to a developing and changing social milieu; 2. Provide learning experiences which increase the child’s awareness of and responsiveness to the changes in and just demands of society; and to prepare him for constructive and effective involvement; 3. Promote and intensify the child’s knowledge of identification with, and love for the nation and the people to which he belongs; and 4. Promote work experiences which develop the child’s orientation to the world of work and creativity and prepare himself to engage in honest and gainful work. Secondary Education Batas Pambansa 232, otherwise known as the Education Act of 1982, sets the following objectives of Secondary Education: 1. Continue general education started in the elementary 2. Prepare the students for college 3. Prepare the students for the world of work

Curriculum Objectives


inculcat ion of spiritual and civic values and the development of a good Filipino based on an abiding faith in God and genuine love of country; 2. training of the young citizen in his rights, duties and responsibilities in a democratic society for active participation, in a progressive and productive home and community life; 3. develop ment of basic understanding about Philippine culture, the desirable tradition and virtues of our people as essential requisites in attaining national consciousness and solidarity; 4. teachin

1. Develop skills in higher intellectual operations, critical and creative thinking, and more complex comprehension and expression activities in varied life situations; 2. Broaden scientific and technological knowledge and skills as means for optimizing one’s potentials for selfdevelopment and for promoting the welfare of others; 3. Develop an enlightened commitment to the national ideals by discerning, preserving, and developing desirable traditions and values of the Filipino heritage; 4. Acquire productive and entrepreneurial skills, a work ethic, and occupational knowledge essential both for making an intelligent choice as


g of basic health knowledge and the formation of desirable health habits and practices; 5. develop ment of functional literacy; in Pilipino and in English as basic tools for further learning; and 6. acquisit ion of fundamental knowledge, attitudes, habits and skills in science, civics, culture, history, geography, mathematics, arts, and home economics and livelihood education and their intelligent application in appropriate life situations.

regards one’s career and for specialized training in one’s occupation; 5. Obtain knowledge, form desirable attitudes, and imbibe moral and spiritual values for understanding the nature and purpose of the human person and thus of one’s self, one’s own people, and other peoples, cultures and races both in our country and in the community of nations; 6. Heighten one’s abilities in and appreciation for the arts and sports.

Annex B. Learning Competencies for Computer Education (under the unit on Entrepreneurship of the Technology and Livelihood Education curriculum) First Year: 1. Naipamamalas ang batayang kaalaman sa pagmamakinilya 1.1 Natutukoy ang iba’t ibang uri at gamit ng bawat bahagi ng makinilya 1.2 Natutukoy ang batayang kaalaman sa paggamit ng makinilya 1.3 Natatakay ang kahalagahan ng bilis at kawastuhan sa pagma-makinilya 1.4 Nasusunod ang tamang pamantayan sa pagmamakinilya 1.5 Naiisa-isa ang mga puntos na dapat tandaan sa araw-araw na pangangalaga ng makinilya 1.6 Naipakikita ang tamang pag-upo at tamang posisyon ng mga kamay sa pagmamakinilya 2. Naipamamalas ang kaalaman sa kompyuter 2.1 Naipaliliwanag ang kahalagahan ng edukasyong pangkompyuter 2.2 Nailalahad ang kasaysayan ng kompyuter 2.3 Naiisa-isa ang iba’t ibang uri ng kompyuter 2.4 Naipaliliwanag ang iba’t ibang katangian ng kompyuter 2.5 Natatalakay ang mga kakayahan ng kompyuter 2.6 Naibibigay ang pagkakaiba ng hardware sa software 2.7 Natutukoy ang mga bahagi ng micro-computer 2.8 Natatalakay ang sistemang pangkompyuter Second Year: 1. Naipakikita ang kakayahan sa pagsisimula sa pagmamakinilya at pagkokompyuter 1.1 Nakikilala ang mga teklado (keys) ng makinilya 1.2 Nailalagay ang mga daliri sa tamang tekladong pang-alfabeto 1.3 Nakapagsasanay nang ganap sa pamamagitan ng dril na homekeys at reaches 1.4 Napaghahambing ang mga teklado ng makinilya sa keyboard ng kompyuter 1.5 Naipalililiwanag ang mga gamit ng function keys 2. Naipakikita ang kahalagahan sa pagpapaandar ng kompyuters 2.1 Naibibigay ang kabutihan at di-kabutihan ng kompyuter 2.2 Natatalakay ang iba’t ibang uri ng disk 2.3 Nakikilala ang mga bahagi ng disk 2.4 Natatalakay ang wastong paggamit ng data diskette 2.5 Naipaliliwanag ang mga hakbang pangkaligtasan na napapaloob sa operasyon ng mikro-kompyuter 2.6 Naipakikita ang wastong booting ng mikro kompyuter



Annex D. Uses of ICTs Table D-1. Uses of Technologies in Education (Haddad and Draxler, 2002) Use Technology Presentation Text Audio Video Computers Internet Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Demonstration Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes (networked) Yes Yes Drill and Practice Yes Yes (Language Lab) Interactive Activities Yes (hyperlinks) Collaborative Activities

Figure D-1. Education Uses of ICTs (Adapted by Tinio from Haddad and Draxler, 2002)

Drill and Practice

Presentation of information

Technical interaction

Multimedia Authoring

Research Demonstration of a concept, phenomenon, or theory Communication


Social interaction