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National Strategic Plan for ICTs in Basic Education Initiative

Theme: Using ICTs to Improve the Quality of Learning


by Patricia B. Arinto, University of the Philippines – Open University
20 April 2005

FOCUS AREAS
1.0 ICT-related learning standards in Philippine basic education
2.0 ICT-curriculum integration models for the Philippines
3.0 Assessment models for ICT-supported learning in the Philippines

For each of these, we must set targets, identify the requirements for meeting these targets, and
identify strategies for meeting the requirements and achieving the targets

1.0 ICT-RELATED LEARNING STANDARDS FOR PHILIPPINE BASIC EDUCATION

1.1 Framework
• The use of ICTs can make learning more effective by increasing learner motivation,
improving the mastery of basic concepts, fostering higher order cognitive skills,
developing communication skills, promoting collaboration among learners, and
developing learning to learn skills.
• A requisite for using ICTs to improve learning outcomes is developing ICT competencies,
which include knowledge, skills, and values and attitudes for appropriate and effective
use of ICTs.
• ICT competencies must be consistent with the general objectives of elementary and
secondary education (see Annex A). These competencies must complement and/or be
integrated with the learning standards for each learning area and year level; they should
help students meet the learning standards in the learning areas.

1.2 Existing ICT-Related Learning Standards in Schools

1.2.1 In the Philippines

The Standards for Quality Elementary Education (SQEE) identifies five standards for the
elementary learner.

Standard 1: The learner is highly literate and adept in using technology available in the
community. His/Her technology skills are comparable with [those of] the children of his/her own
age in other countries.
Performance indicators for Standard 1:
• Shows mastery of knowledge and demonstrates improvement in skills, values and attitudes
for his/her grade level as stated in the national curriculum.
• Communicates effectively in oral and written forms in one or two languages.
• Exhibits ability to intelligently process, evaluate and utilize information obtained from multi-
media: press, movies, television, radio, videos, internet, and others.
• Demonstrates basic computer literacy skills and observes ethical practices in the use of word
processor, presentation software, electronic mail, internet, video camera, cell phone, fax
machines, overhead projectors, automated teller machines, and others.
• Upgrades his/her knowledge and skills continuously in the use of modern and/or appropriate
technology.

Standard 3: The learner is functionally literate and equipped with lifelong learning skills. He/She is
self-directed, highly motivated, and an effective problem solver.

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Performance indicator #8 for Standard 3:
• Uses varied data-gathering and processing techniques.

The SQEE identifies six curriculum standards.


Standard 6: The curriculum provides for effective participation in a technology-oriented society.
Performance indicators for Standard 6:
• The curriculum specifies and describes the competencies needed in computer education and
other technologies.
• The curriculum encourages access to various sources of information through technology
available in the community, e.g., cellular phones, electronic mail, video, video camera,
automated teller machines, print and projectables, and others.
• The curriculum promotes ethical and moral use of various information through technology.

At the High School level, Computer Education is included under the unit on Entrepreneurship
(the last unit) of the Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) curriculum. (see Annex B for
specific learning competencies). The emphasis is on computer applications for further skills
enhancement: word processing, spreadsheet, database, presentation using Powerpoint, and
using the Internet. Special science high schools and some private schools teach more complex
operations, such as programming and website development.
1.2.2 In other countries
Country Common Features Distinctive Features
United • The development of At key stage 1, there are no statutory
Kingdom ICT competencies requirements to teach the use of ICT in the
begins in the programmes of study for the non-core
primary/elementary foundation subjects. Teachers should use
grades. their judgement to decide where it is
• Emphasis on the appropriate to teach the use of ICT across
learning process; ICT these subjects at key stage 1. At other key
competencies as a stages, there are statutory requirements to
support to achieve the use ICT in all subjects, except physical
developmental education.
United States objectives and Standards cut across the grade levels while
attainment targets in performance indicators are specified for
the subject areas grade level clusters; the specific standard that
• Not only operational informs a performance indicator is specified.
Belgium skills but also social All basic ICT-competencies are acquired at
and ethical the end of primary education.
competencies
N.B. See Annex C for copies of the national ICT standards of the countries mentioned above.

1.3 Proposed ICT-Related Standards for Filipino Learners and the Philippine Basic
Education Curriculum

Possible guidelines for the formulation of ICT-related learning standards:


• The standards must be integrated with all subject areas: “ICT skills across the
curriculum.” As a first step, ICT skills required for each unit (?) in each subject area can
be identified.
• The standards must be articulated in terms of key stages (categories of grade and year
levels).
• The standards must include the full range of ICTs, not just computers.

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2.0 ICT-CURRICULUM INTEGRATION MODELS FOR THE PHILIPPINES

2.1 Framework
• There must be a paradigm shift from teaching about technology to teaching and learning
with technology. ICTs should therefore be integrated in all subject areas—as a
springboard, in the development of the lesson, for application and enrichment, in
assessment of learning.
• Different technologies can be used in different ways to enhance learning—that is, for
presentation, demonstration, drill and practice, interactive activities, collaborative
activities. It is important to consider which technologies are better used for which
educational purposes. (see Annex D)
• A good mix of the three types of instructional application of ICTs is best. The three
approaches are:
o ICT-assisted instruction (drill and practice, tutorials, simulations, graphical
representations of math equations, and the like);
o resource-based learning (which involves the achievement of both subject and
information literacy objectives through exposure to and practice with diverse
resources, making students active learners); and
o ICT-supported collaborative learning (in which learners communicate and work
with their peers both inside the classroom and across classrooms and schools in
projects designed to solve real-world problems through the application of subject-
specific knowledge and skills)

2.2 Some ICT-curriculum integration models in the Philippines at present

Name of Model Subject Area General Features Technology Instructional


or Project and Year Level Requirements Approach
ABS-CBN Elementary TV shows for elementary For viewing of ICT-assisted
Foundation Science, and high school students shows in class, 1 instruction (if TV
Mathematics, television set show is used for
English, Values Available on ABS-CBN direct instruction)
Education,
Philippine Support includes teachers’ Resource-based
History, Art, guides and a teacher learning (if TV
critical thinking training unit show is used as
one several
High School learning
Philippine resources)
Literature,
Philippine Arts &
Culture
Knowledge Elementary Curriculum-based For viewing of ICT-assisted
Channel Science, English, programs for students and shows in class, 1 instruction (if TV
Math, instructional shows for television set with show is used for
adults. cable connection direct instruction)
Intermediate (CATV)
Algebra, Math, Available through cable or Resource-based
Science wireless technology. learning (if TV
show is used as
High School Support includes reference one several
English, Math (3rd materials, regular learning
to 4th yr) monitoring, evaluation resources)
Kasaysayan, mechanisms and training
World History, workshop-seminars for

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Biology, public school administrators
Chemistry, and teachers.
Physics,
Integrated
Science
e-Curricula for High School Interactive multimedia At least one ICT-assisted
Philippine High Science, Math, courseware (CD-ROMs) for Pentium PC with instruction
Schools Project Araling each of the three subject a CD-ROM drive (includes drill
by FIT-ED Panlipunan areas in each year level and practice
For whole-class exercises and
Intended for multiple use: instruction, simulations)
for direct whole-class computer and
instruction, for student self- LCD projector
study/tutorial/enrichment, and screen or TV
as a teacher’s resource monitor or a
computer lab with
10 PCs with LAN
The Electronic Communication An interactive, multimedia ICT-assisted
Storybook Arts (Reading) – e-book to facilitate reading instruction
elementary comprehension
Educational Elementary 32 curriculum-based, ICT-assisted
Software Modules Araling interactive, multimedia instruction
for Grade School Panlipunan and modules for middle school:
Araling Filipino 16 for Araling Panlipunan
Panlipunan and
Filipino (ESMGS
and 16 for Filipino
AP/Fil) Project
(Ateneo de Manila
University)
Genyo High School Interactive multimedia ICT-assisted
(BatoBalani Science, Math, courseware (CD-ROMs) for instruction
Foundation) English each subject area
Learning High School Teachers design a 1- or 2- A computer lab Resource-based
Centered all subjects (?) week LCLE module in for online learning; ICT-
Learning which students work on activities; the supported
Environment (La task sheets and use classroom for collaborative
Salle Greenhills various resources: offline activities learning
Grade School audiovisual and computer- (but each
Department) based resources, classroom has a
collaboration with PC that is
classmates, consultation connected to the
with the teacher, and Internet)
hands-on activities

Students explore resources


to gain basic information
about a topic. Coaching, to
develop mastery of the
target concept or skill, is
done through teacher’s
modeling, guided practice
and independent work.
Students evaluate their
outputs with the help of a
rubric or checklist and write
brief reflection notes.

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Intel Teach to High School 10 adaptable hands-on Resource-based
the Future Science and modules emphasizing the learning; ICT-
Math inquiry approach, project- supported
based learning, and collaborative
authentic assessment learning

Technology is used for


productivity, research,
communication, and
publishing

Involves the design and


implementation of a
technology-enhanced unit
portfolio (includes a unit
plan, teacher presentations
and handouts, multimedia
work by students)
Coke Ed- High School Online Treasure Hunt - an A computer lab Resource-based
Venture Science, Math, inquiry-based activity that with 10 learning; ICT-
Technology and Makabayan, aims to develop knowledge computers and supported
Curriculum English, Filipino of a given topic by having connection to the collaborative
Integration students answer a set of Internet learning
Phase 2: questions using teacher-
WebQuests and selected Web resources
Online Treasure
Hunts WebQuest – develops
(FIT-ED) higher order thinking skills
by having learners work in
groups on a task revolving
around an open-ended
question that calls for the
application and elaboration
of lessons learned and
information collected from
various learning resources,
including the Web;
students’ final output is a
knowledge product (e.g.,
term paper, multimedia
presentation or website),
which is evaluated using a
rubric or scoring guide
Coke Ed- High School Students collaborate with A computer lab Resource-based
Venture Science, Math, students from other schools with at least 5 learning; ICT-
Technology and Makabayan, in the implementation of a computers and supported
Curriculum English, Filipino curriculum-based project connection to the collaborative
Integration using email, chat tools and Internet learning
Phase 3: Tele- message boards
collaboration
(FIT-ED)/World Aims to develop higher
Links order thinking skills;
Philippines emphasizes collaborative
learning and authentic
assessment

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2.3 Proposed Targets with Respect to ICT-Curriculum Integration Models for Philippine
Schools

• Development of ICT-enhanced learning resources for all learning areas in all grade/year
levels
• Establishment/Expansion of a (virtual) library of ICT-enhanced learning materials
• Compilation of best practices in ICT-supported learning
• Integration of ICT into special programs and projects (e.g., Every Child a Reader
Program)
• Incentives (for learners, teachers, and schools) for the implementation of ICT-supported
learning
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Annex A. Objectives of Philippine Basic Education


Elementary Education Secondary Education
General Article III, Sec. 21 of the Education Act of Batas Pambansa 232, otherwise known as
Objectives 1982 states the objectives of elementary the Education Act of 1982, sets the following
education thus: objectives of Secondary Education:
1. Provide the knowledge and develop the 1. Continue general education started in the
skills, attitudes, and values essential to elementary
personal development and necessary for 2. Prepare the students for college
living in and contributing to a developing 3. Prepare the students for the world of
and changing social milieu;
work
2. Provide learning experiences which
increase the child’s awareness of and
responsiveness to the changes in and
just demands of society; and to prepare
him for constructive and effective
involvement;
3. Promote and intensify the child’s
knowledge of identification with, and love
for the nation and the people to which he
belongs; and
4. Promote work experiences which
develop the child’s orientation to the
world of work and creativity and prepare
himself to engage in honest and gainful
work.

Curriculum 1. Develop skills in higher intellectual


Objectives 1. inculcat operations, critical and creative thinking,
ion of spiritual and civic values and the and more complex comprehension and
development of a good Filipino based expression activities in varied life
on an abiding faith in God and genuine situations;
love of country; 2. Broaden scientific and technological
2. training knowledge and skills as means for
of the young citizen in his rights, duties optimizing one’s potentials for self-
and responsibilities in a democratic development and for promoting the
society for active participation, in a welfare of others;
progressive and productive home and 3. Develop an enlightened commitment
community life; to the national ideals by discerning,
3. develop preserving, and developing desirable
ment of basic understanding about traditions and values of the Filipino
Philippine culture, the desirable tradition heritage;
and virtues of our people as essential 4. Acquire productive and
requisites in attaining national entrepreneurial skills, a work ethic, and
consciousness and solidarity; occupational knowledge essential both
4. teachin for making an intelligent choice as

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g of basic health knowledge and the regards one’s career and for specialized
formation of desirable health habits and training in one’s occupation;
practices; 5. Obtain knowledge, form desirable
5. develop attitudes, and imbibe moral and spiritual
ment of functional literacy; in Pilipino values for understanding the nature and
and in English as basic tools for further purpose of the human person and thus of
learning; and one’s self, one’s own people, and other
6. acquisit peoples, cultures and races both in our
ion of fundamental knowledge, country and in the community of nations;
attitudes, habits and skills in science, 6. Heighten one’s abilities in and
civics, culture, history, geography, appreciation for the arts and sports.
mathematics, arts, and home
economics and livelihood education and
their intelligent application in
appropriate life situations.

Annex B. Learning Competencies for Computer Education (under the unit on


Entrepreneurship of the Technology and Livelihood Education curriculum)

First Year:
1. Naipamamalas ang batayang kaalaman sa pagmamakinilya
1.1 Natutukoy ang iba’t ibang uri at gamit ng bawat bahagi ng makinilya
1.2 Natutukoy ang batayang kaalaman sa paggamit ng makinilya
1.3 Natatakay ang kahalagahan ng bilis at kawastuhan sa pagma-makinilya
1.4 Nasusunod ang tamang pamantayan sa pagmamakinilya
1.5 Naiisa-isa ang mga puntos na dapat tandaan sa araw-araw na pangangalaga ng
makinilya
1.6 Naipakikita ang tamang pag-upo at tamang posisyon ng mga kamay sa
pagmamakinilya
2. Naipamamalas ang kaalaman sa kompyuter
2.1 Naipaliliwanag ang kahalagahan ng edukasyong pangkompyuter
2.2 Nailalahad ang kasaysayan ng kompyuter
2.3 Naiisa-isa ang iba’t ibang uri ng kompyuter
2.4 Naipaliliwanag ang iba’t ibang katangian ng kompyuter
2.5 Natatalakay ang mga kakayahan ng kompyuter
2.6 Naibibigay ang pagkakaiba ng hardware sa software
2.7 Natutukoy ang mga bahagi ng micro-computer
2.8 Natatalakay ang sistemang pangkompyuter

Second Year:
1. Naipakikita ang kakayahan sa pagsisimula sa pagmamakinilya at pagkokompyuter
1.1 Nakikilala ang mga teklado (keys) ng makinilya
1.2 Nailalagay ang mga daliri sa tamang tekladong pang-alfabeto
1.3 Nakapagsasanay nang ganap sa pamamagitan ng dril na homekeys at reaches
1.4 Napaghahambing ang mga teklado ng makinilya sa keyboard ng kompyuter
1.5 Naipalililiwanag ang mga gamit ng function keys
2. Naipakikita ang kahalagahan sa pagpapaandar ng kompyuters
2.1 Naibibigay ang kabutihan at di-kabutihan ng kompyuter
2.2 Natatalakay ang iba’t ibang uri ng disk
2.3 Nakikilala ang mga bahagi ng disk
2.4 Natatalakay ang wastong paggamit ng data diskette
2.5 Naipaliliwanag ang mga hakbang pangkaligtasan na napapaloob sa operasyon ng
mikro-kompyuter
2.6 Naipakikita ang wastong booting ng mikro kompyuter

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Annex D. Uses of ICTs

Table D-1. Uses of Technologies in Education (Haddad and Draxler, 2002)


Use
Technology
Drill and Interactive Collaborative
Presentation Demonstration
Practice Activities Activities
Yes
Text Yes Yes Yes
(hyperlinks)
Yes
Audio Yes Yes (Language
Lab)
Video Yes Yes

Computers Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


Yes
Internet Yes Yes Yes Yes
(networked)

Figure D-1. Education Uses of ICTs


(Adapted by Tinio from Haddad and Draxler, 2002) Drill and Practice

Presentation Technical Multimedia


of information interaction Authoring

Research
Demonstration
of a concept,
phenomenon,
or theory
Communication

Social Collaboration
Interaction interaction

Community