You are on page 1of 7

READTHEORY.

ORG
Name
Date

Marsh
"Marsh" is another term for a wetland, a habitat comprised
mostly of water and tall grasses. A marsh is created after
water has covered the ground for a long period of time with
no opportunity to drain. These waterlogged pastures
support a wide variety of plant and animal life.
The moist, rich soil in marshes offers an ideal environment
for plant growth. Unlike swamps, marshes do not have
trees. Instead, an array of tall grasses and underwater plant
life thrives in these conditions. The tiny duckweed is a small
underwater plant that is very common in marshes. Often
times these green, clover-like plants will grow underwater
and then form a blanket on the surface of the marsh. This
can be an ideal hiding place for marsh animals. Cattails are
another common marsh plant. These tall grasses have a narrow stem with a tip that looks like a hot
dog.
In addition to plants, the marsh is home to many animals. Small, water dependent animals such as
tadpoles, catfish, shrimp, crawfish, and newts live in the waters of the marsh. Other larger animals
such as beavers, raccoons, deer, and even bears make their homes in the moist areas that surround
the marsh. For the smaller animals, the thick plant life and constant insect supply provide good
shelter and a bountiful food source. Larger animals also benefit from the food supply and shelter
provided by the marsh.
Marshes support many different species of both plants and animals, and they play an important role
in the ecosystem.

1) In the first sentence of the passage, we learn that a marsh is, "a habitat comprised mostly of
water and tall grasses." Using this information, we can understand that a peanut butter and jelly
sandwich is likewise comprised of
A. a grilled cheese, an Italian, and a turkey club
B. breakfast, lunch, and dinner
C. a knife, plate, and napkin
D. peanut butter, bread, and jelly

2) According to the passage, a marsh is created


A. when plants grow over the surface of the water making an ideal home for small animals
B. when a natural disaster clears all of the trees out of a swampland
C. after water has covered the ground for a long period of time with no opportunity to drain
D. after a particularly dry area receives a large amount of rain

3) Which of the following types of natural disasters is most likely to create a marsh?
A. a wildfire
B. a tornado
C. a flood
D. a hurricane

4) According to the passage, swamps differ from marshes in that they


A. have trees
B. grow duckweed
C. attract large and small animals
D. are made from saltwater

5) As used in paragraph 2, which is the best antonym for thrives?


A. multiplies
B. grows
C. prospers
D. dies

6) According to the passage, which of the following types of plant life can be found in a marsh?
I. tiny duckweed
II. cattails
III. sagebrush
A. I only
B. I and II only
C. II and III only
D. I, II, and III

7) In paragraph 3, the author writes, Other larger animals such as beavers, raccoons, deer, and
even bears make their homes in the moist areas that surround the marsh. Based on information
in the passage, we can understand that larger animals might make their homes in the area
surrounding the marsh because
A. the marsh attracts small animals that serve as food for the larger animals
B. larger animals benefit from having a water source so close to their habitat
C. humans are less likely to disturb their habitat if they live near marshes
D. the climate around marshes is more stable than in other habitats

8) Which of these habitats differs most from a marsh?


A. a rich, fertile grassland
B. a wet, lush rainforest
C. a dry, lifeless desert
D. a hot, humid swamp

9) Explain what a marsh is in your own words. What kinds of plants and animals live there?

Answers and Explanations


1) D
Core Standard: Craft and Structure
comprise (verb): to consist of; to be made up of.

In the first paragraph, the author writes, Marsh is another term for a wetland, a habitat comprised
mostly of water and tall grasses. We can use context clueshints from known words or phrases
around the unknown word or phraseto help us figure out what comprise most nearly means. If a
marsh is a habitat comprised of mostly water and tall grasses, since water and grass are aspects
of habitats, we can conclude that a marsh must be made up of mostly water and tall grasses. At the
end of the first paragraph, the author calls marshes, waterlogged pastures, which supports the idea
that tall grasses and water make up marshes. Using this information, we can tell that comprise must
mean something like to consist of, or be made up of. This lets us know that a peanut butter and jelly
sandwich is comprised of peanut butter, bread, and jelly. We know this is true, because these
ingredients make up this type of sandwich. Therefore (D) is correct.

The passage does not provide evidence to support choices (A), (B), or (C). Therefore they are
incorrect.

2) C
Core Standard: Key Ideas and Details
To answer this detail question correctly, we need to find where the author discusses how marshes
are created. A good way to do this is to scan the topic sentence of each paragraph, since this
sentence will likely tell us what information can be found in the rest of that paragraph. The topic
sentence of the first paragraph reads: "Marsh is another term for a wetland, a habitat comprised
mostly of water and tall grasses." This lets us know that the general details about marshes that we
are looking for can likely be found in the first paragraph.

In the first paragraph, the author writes, A marsh is created after water has covered the ground for a
long period of time with no opportunity to drain. This lets us know that a marsh is created after water
has covered the ground for a long period of time with no opportunity to drain. Therefore (C) is
correct.

The passage does not provide information to support choices (A), (B), or (D). Therefore they are
incorrect.

3) C
Core Standard: Integration of Knowledge
In paragraph 1, the author writes, A marsh is created after water has covered the ground for a long
period of time with no opportunity to drain. This lets us know that we need to identify which type of
natural disaster is most likely to cover the ground with water for an extended period of time. Since a
flood covers the ground with water, and often times the water does not drain quickly, we can tell that

this type of natural disaster is most likely replicate the conditions that create a marsh. This means
(C) is correct.

Using the above information, we can tell that we need to identify which type of natural disaster is
most likely to cover the ground with water for an extended period of time, since this is what creates a
marsh. A wildfire does not involve water. Often, wildfires are the result of a drought, or not enough
moisture in the ground. This lets us know that a wildfire is not a natural disaster that is most likely to
create a marsh. Therefore (A) is incorrect.

Using the above information, we can tell that we need to identify which type of natural disaster is
most likely to cover the ground with water for an extended period of time, since this is what creates a
marsh. A tornado is known for its strong, powerful winds, not for covering the ground with water. This
lets us know a tornado is not a natural disaster that is most likely to create a marsh, so (B) is
incorrect.

Using the above information, we can tell that we need to identify which type of natural disaster is
most likely to cover the ground with water for an extended period of time, since this is what creates a
marsh. A hurricane is known both for its high wind speed, and the large amount of rain it can bring.
While hurricanes can cause flooding, it is not as likely that they will flood an area as an actual flood.
This lets us know that a hurricane is not the type of natural disaster most likely to create a marsh.
Therefore (D) is incorrect.

4) A
Core Standard: Key Ideas and Details
To answer this detail question correctly, we need to find where the author discusses swamps in the
passage. A good way to do this is to scan the passage for a sentence with the word swamps, since
this sentence will likely tell us the information we are looking for. We can spot the word swamp in a
sentence in paragraph 2, which reads: "Unlike swamps, marshes do not have trees." This lets us
know that the details we are looking for can likely be found in paragraph 2.

In paragraph 2, the author writes, Unlike swamps, marshes do not have trees. This fact makes it
clear that swamps must have trees, since the fact that marshes do not have them separates the two
types of habitats. This lets us know that unlike marshes, swamps have trees, and (A) is correct.

The passage does not provide information to support choices (B), (C), or (D). Therefore they are
incorrect.

5) D
Core Standard: Craft and Structure
thrive (verb): flourish, prosper, or advance.

In the first paragraph, the author writes, Instead, an array of tall grasses and underwater plant life

thrives in these conditions. We can use context clueshints from known words or phrases around
the unknown word or phraseto help us figure out what thrive most nearly means. In the sentence
before this quotation, the author mentions that trees do not grow in marshes, a fact that makes
marshes different from swamps. If, instead, an array of tall grasses and underwater plant life thrives,
we can tell that thrive must mean something liking grow well, prosper or advance, since the word
instead lets us know that something opposite of what was previously mentioned is true. Dies is a
good antonym for these words. Therefore choice (D) is correct.

Choices (A), (B), and (C) all contain words that imply growth or advancement. Therefore they are
incorrect.

6) B
Core Standard: Key Ideas and Details
To answer this detail question correctly, we need to find where the author discusses types of plant
life found in marshes. A good way to do this is to scan the topic sentence of each paragraph, since
this sentence will likely tell us what information can be found in the rest of that paragraph. The topic
sentence of paragraph 2 starts with: The moist, rich soil in marshes offers an ideal environment for
plant growth. " This lets us know that the information that we are looking for can likely be found in
paragraph 2.

In paragraph 2, the author writes, The tiny duckweed is a small underwater plant that is very
common in marshes. Because it is very common, this lets us know that the tiny duckweed is a
type of plant life that can be found in a marsh. This supports option (I).

In paragraph 2, the author writes, Cattails are another common marsh plant. Since they are
common, we can tell that cattails are a type of plant life that can be found in a marsh. This supports
option (II).

The author never mentions sagebrush in his or her discussion of the types of plant life found in
marshes. This eliminates option (III).

Therefore (B) is correct.

7) A
Core Standard: Integration of Knowledge
In paragraph 3, the author writes, Other larger animals such as beavers, raccoons, deer, and even
bears make their homes in the moist areas that surround the marsh. By looking at context clues
from this paragraph, we can figure out why the larger animals would make their homes in the areas
surrounding a marsh. In the last sentence of paragraph 3, the author writes, Larger animals also
benefit from the food supply and shelter provided by the marsh. If the marsh provides a food
supply for the larger animals, then larger animals that surround the habitat must eat the smaller
animals that live in the marsh. This allows us to conclude that larger animals might make their
homes in the area surrounding the marsh because the marsh attracts small animals that serve as
food for the larger animals. Therefore (A) is correct.

The author does not provide any information to support choices (B), (C), or (D). Therefore they are
incorrect.

8) C
Core Standard: Integration of Knowledge
In the first paragraph, the author writes, Marsh is another term for a wetland, a habitat comprised
mostly of water and tall grasses. This lets us know that marshes are wet places. In the last
paragraph, the author writes, Marshes support many different species of both plants and animals
This lets us know that marshes host many different types of life. Using this information, we can tell
that a habitat that differs most from a marsh would be both dry and lifeless. This means that the
habitat that differs most from a marsh is a dry, lifeless desert, and (C) is correct.

Using the above information, we can tell that the habitat that differs most from a marsh would be
both dry and lifeless. A rich, fertile grassland would contain grass, like a marsh. Also, since it is
fertile, we can tell that this type of habitat would support many different types of life. This lets us
know that a rich, fertile grassland is not a habitat that differs most from a marsh. Therefore (A) is
incorrect.

Using the above information, we can tell that the habitat that differs most from a marsh would be
both dry and lifeless. A wet, lush rainforest is neither dry nor is it lifeless. This lets us know that this
type of habitat does not differ most from a marsh, and (B) is incorrect.

Using the above information, we can tell that the habitat that differs most from a marsh would be
both dry and lifeless. In paragraph 2, the author writes, Unlike swamps, marshes do not have trees.
This lets us know that a hot, humid swamp is very similar to a marsh, except for the fact that a
swamp has trees. This means that a swamp is not a habitat that differs most from a marsh, so (D) is
incorrect.