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Intro(Akila)

1. ProvidesanoverviewofthemainfacetsofstudythatBlackwellsoughttocover,
introducingthesociopoliticalenvironmentwhichgavebirthtotheChicanaidentityand
subsequentpoliticalmovement.
a. IdentifiesChicanafeminismandoneofitspioneers,AnnaNeitoGomezandher
organization
HijasdeCuauhtemoc
[kwautemok]

asthearchitectsoftheChicana
politicalstruggle.
b. Sheacknowledgesthatthetheoryofintersectionalityandmultiplesubjectivities
hasitsrootsinthepoliticalviewsofWOCFmovementsofthe1960sand1970s,
andthecontributionsofNietoGomezandHijasdeCuahtemoctowardsthis
development.
c. FormedinresponsetothemarginalzationofwomenduringtheChicanostudent
movementandwhosestruggleisstudiedthroughwhatBlackwellcallsretrofitted
memory
2. RetrofittedMemories:
a. Thepracticeandrestructuringofhistoricalnarrativeswhicharelargely
patriarchialandcolonialinordertocapturethepolticalcontributionsofwomenof
color.
b. Thisisaccomplishedbydrawingfromsuppressedknowledgeandstudyingthe
oftenignoredaspectsofhistoricalnarratives,retrofittingtheseintonewformsof
politicalsubjectivity
c. ChicanaPowerseekstousesthisconcepttoaskwhytheChicanafeminism
movementisnotacknowledgedwithinthescopeofthebroaderChicanopolitical
organizatonsofthistimeperiod.
d. AnnaNietoGomezandHijasdeCuahtemocwereoneofthefirstChicana
feministsmovementstoorganize,andwereinstrumentalintheformationof
Chicanafeministpoliticalrhetoricandvalues
e. TheircontributionsextendedthroughtheircontactandmobilzationofChicana
feministmovementsinLosAngeles
f. IntegraltoBlackwellshistory,isanexaminationofnotonlytheChicanafeminist
movement,centeredaroundHijasdeCuahtemocbutalsothenarrative
mechanismsofwritinghistorywhichsoughttoerasetheircontributions
i.
thesemechanismscanbetracedtothosewhowritethelastingnarratives
ii.
Blackwellseekstorevealthatthewritingofhistoryisnotanobjective
exercise,andisinterlinkedwiththeprevailingpoliticalideologiesofthe
timethroughthestudyofHdC
3. Prelude:
a.

Chapter1(Akila)
HistoricalWritingandRighting
BlackwellsgoalistocontrastthetypicalwrittenhistoryoftheChicanomovementand
womensmovementswiththeoralhistoriesofthemembersofHijasdeCuahtemoc
[kwauatemok]

Traditionalhistoriographicmethodsneglectthecontributionsofwomenofcolorfeminism
andBlackwellpointsoutthefallaciesintegraltotheseviewpointsbydetailingthe
emergenceofHijasdeCuatemoc

Chapter2(Joaquin)

Chapter2evaluatesthestrugglesofchicanawomenenteringthecollegesystem.Italso
explainstheinjusticesimposedonprecollegegenerationchicanasandtheirfamilies.
(HistoricalRootsofChicanaInsurgency)
1. Duringeraofgreatdepression,over500,000peopleofMexicandescentweredeported
orrepatriated.
2. TokeepupwithlabordemandsofWW2ironically220,000bracerostokeepagricultural
andwartimeeconomyflourishing.
3. PostwarerabroughtintheG.IBillforreturningChicanoveteransandtheirfamilies.
4. Chicanawomeninthispostwarerawerestillnotencouragedtoattendcollege.
5. ThingsliketheHigherEducationActandfinancialaidallowedforthepeoplesoflower
incomefamiliestoachieveahighereducation.
(DeconstructingtheIdealChicana:

Chapter3(David)
ThischapterexploresthewaythatChicanaactivistsshiftedhowtheywereportrayedonthe
terrainofhistoryThegenderedstrugglesovertheiconographyofnationalismhave
significancewhenweseevisualtropesnotjustasrepresentationsofwhatalreadyexistedin
Chicanoculturebutratheraspoliticalandculturalpracticesthatplayedaconstitutiveroleinthe
domainofculture.Finally,ImapthevisualstrugglearoundiconssuchastheSoldadera
(femalerevolutionarysoldier)toillustratetheculturalworkthatthesereclaimedhistorical
narrativesandimagesperformedincreatingnewspaces.
1. HowChicanaactivistsshiftedhowtheywereportrayedinhistory
2. Genderedstrugglesaspoliticalandculturalpracticesinthedomainofculture
3. VisualstrugglearoundSoldadera
OnNationalism
...nationalismisoftenashorthandwayofsayingsexist,whichspeakstothewaysinwhich
nationalismwasusedtolegitimatemaledominanceinculturalandpoliticalterms.
Chicanoculturalnationalismwasforgedthroughtherecuperationorrediscoveryofahistorical
legacysuppressedbycolonization.
...thenitisvitalforustoalsounderstandthatidentitiesarenotfixedinthepastandmerely
recoveredthroughhistoricalmemory.
Asenseofbelonging,place,andtimeisinscribedin
ElPlan
.

Masculinity,Nationhood,andNarrativesofResistance,orcanMachismobe
Revolutionary?
Outlawmasculinitiessuchasthepintoorcholoservedasrevolutionaryprototypes.
...Oncetheseconstructionsofmasculinityhadbeenestablishedasinheritedtradition,they
enabledthetransformationofahistoricallyspecificconfigurationofrace,class,andgenderinto
aseeminglytimelessidealthroughaninterlockingdefinitionofmanhood,peoplehood,
selfdetermination,andthereclamationofworkingclassideals.
Thistraditionofmasculinitycounteredthewayracismdeniedmenofcolortherighttobemen
underpatriarchalnormsassertingmachismothenbecameapathwaytoresistthegendered
implicationsofwhitesupremacy.
TheChicanorevoltisamanifestationofMexicanAmericansexertingtheirmanhoodand
womanhoodagainsttheAnglosociety.Macho,inotherwords,cannolongerrelatemerelyto
manhoodbutmustrelatetonationhoodaswell.
They[women]wereseensimultaneouslyasthebearersoftradition,culture,andfamilywhich
becamepoliticizedidealsinnationalistthinkingandtheunspokensubjectsofadiscourseof
politicalrights.
...truerevolutionincludedmenandwomenandallmembersofthecommunity.
RetrofittedMemory:ShiftingtheGenderedProjectofCulturalNationalism
Retrofittedmemoryisapracticewherebysocialactorsreadtheinterstices,gaps,andsilences
ofexistinghistoricalnarrativesinordertoretrofit,rework,andrefashionoldernarrativesto
createnewhistoricalopenings,politicalpossibilities,andgenealogiesofresistance.
Byusingthisfeminisminnationalism,orthirdspacefeminismstrategy,theHijasde
CuauhtemocforgedaspacefordialogueonwomensissueswithintheCHicanomovementby
changingthegenderedpoliticalmodesofmovementorganizingandresignifyingthenarratives
ofnationalism.
TheDaughtersofRevolution:OnDecolonizingMemoryandForgingFeministLegacy
SenoraFloresdeAndrade
sharedhermeagerwealthwiththoselessfortunate.