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Immunology

Primary function of the immune system is to defend against and eliminate foreign
material, and to minimize any damage that may be caused as a result
Within a given antigen, e.g. a protein, there will be antigenetic determinants or
epitopes, which actually represent the antigen recognition sites for our adaptive
immune system
2 types of antibodies
1. Polyclonal number of diff epitomes on the surface of antigen
2. Monoclonal single epitome or determinant on the surface of antigen
Both recognize a single antigen
Hepatitis infection produce antibodies only specific to hepatitis, differ in
recognition of antigen(means how they attach to
2 forms of response
1. Innate immune response v- nonspecific response of body, displays no time
lag in responsiveness, not intrinsically affected by prior contact w/ infectious
agent
2. Adaptive immune response - highly specific, displays a time lag in response,
affords the generation

Adaptive includes the lymphocytes

Humoral immunity effector cells are B-lymphocytes


Cell-mediated immunity effector cells are T-lymphocytes
Antigen Presenting Cells macrophage
CELLS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
Mononuclear phagocytic cells monocytes to macrophages
Granulocyte cell neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil
Innate _ involves a range of non-specific mechanisms
- Skin, fluids(sweat)
- Flow of fluid secretions from tear ducts , the urogenital tract and
the skin (sweat)

Innate defense once epidermal or mucosal barriers have been compromised

Mononuclear phagocytic cells monocytes and macrophages


= lysozyme
= cytokines
Granulocyte cell populations - neutrophil, basophils, eosinophils
= WBC
=neutrophil most abundant, most important
=eosinophil specialized role in the extracellular killing
Phagocytosis
Alternative pathway

COMPLEMENT PATHWAYS
1. Classic pathway antibody initiated pathway
- Initiation: binding of C1 complex to Abs bound
- Components: c1 to c9
- Stages: recognition; amplification; MAC
2. Alternate pathway
- Initiation non-ab-initiated pathways
- Dont need an antibody
- Components factor B and factor D; C3,C5-C9
Serome proteins its functions
C5 converase pag may nagcombine na c3 and c3b
HUMORAL ADAPTIVE IMMUNE SYSTEM

B lymphocyte
-protein excellent
- polysaccharide must be linked to a protein or lipid
- lipid or polysaccharide
- nucleic acid
Basic structure of antibody molecule
Clonal section and expansion
Humoral immune effector functions
Antibodies a.c.a immunoglobulins
-Present in plasma and body fluids
FIVE CLASSES differ in MW and sedimentation coefficients
1. IgM pentamer; J-chain(disulfide bond)
- First antibody produced during infection
2. IgG major Ig in the serum
3. IGA dimer; can join up to 2 IgA antibody
4. IgE can mediate hypersensitivity (allergic)
5. IgD extremely susceptible

Antibodies all have a common, basic polypeptide structure

4 polypeptide chains linked together by covalent and non-covalent


bonds
Monomer
Dimer
Pentamer

Antibody molecule Y shaped


-

Domain
Basic unit
Chains (linked by disulfide bonds)
= heavy
= light
Variable (V) region
Constant (C) region

IgG- has 4 subclasses(G1, G2, G3, G4 only differ in number of disulfide bonds)
-

Fab region mobile and can swing freely around the hinge region

ANTIBODY SYNTHESIS

Clonal selection activation and proliferation


Primary antibody phase
Four phases:
1. Lag no ab detectable
2. Log inc in ab titer
3. Plateau ab titer stabilizes
4. Decline ab is catabolized

Clonal selection start with b-lymphoc0079te


Memory cells recall of the infection
CELL- MEDIATED ADAPTIVE IMMUNE SYSTEM

T-lymphocytes subsets
CD4+ subset (helper-inducer T cell)
CD8+ subset (suppressor-cytotoxic T cell)
1. Helper T lymphocytes
2. Cytotoxic lymphocytes

Macrophage

Bacterial antigen

TRANSPLANTATION REJECTION
- Transplantation is the process of transferring cells, tissues or organs
t3ermed a graft from one location to another
- An autologous graft is a transplant between two sites within the same
individual, e.g. skin graft from thigh to hand
- An allogeneic graft is a transplant between two genetically diff individual but
of the same species
- Xenogenic graft is a transplant across diff species, e.g. pig to human