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8th Grade CRT Study Guide Prefixes and Suffixes Prefix anticomcondisinterintrnonprosupertransSuffix -en -ess -ish -ism -ize -let

-ness -ous -ship -tude Meaning against together together apart from, away between into, inward not forward over, more across, beyond Examples antibody, antidote, antacid common, complete, compare, company, combine, community connect, continue, converse, consider, convince, conjunction, contact disappear, discuss, distract, distort, dispute, dismiss, disprove international, interfere, intervene, interrupt, interject introduce, introvert, introduction nonstop, nonprofit, none, nonsense, nonfat, nonexistent product, protect, progress, produce, provide, pronounce, program supervisor, superior, supernatural, supreme transport, transmit, transfusion, transoceanic Examples wooden, frighten, frozen, happen, lighten actress, princess, goddess, lioness, governess finish, foolish, Irish, clownish, selfish, smallish, greenish alcoholism, heroism, Communism, capitalism organize, recognize, harmonize booklet, omelet, piglet, coverlet greatness, kindness, carelessness, softness, darkness various, dangerous, glorious friendship, relationship, companionship multitude, gratitude, solitude

Meaning make of, make female origin, nature, resemble system, manner, condition make realize, little quality of, state of full of, having skill, state, quality state of

Literary Devices Simile: A comparison between two things using the words “like” or “as.” (Love is like a journey) Metaphor: A comparison in which one thing becomes the other. (Love is a journey) Symbolism: An object is used to represent something beyond itself. (American flag symbolizes freedom) Theme: The lesson that the author wants you to learn from the story. Foreshadowing: Giving hints about what’s going to happen in the story. Flashback: Explaining events that happened previously in a story. Setting: The place, time, and customs in a story. Connotation: The implied meaning of a word. Free verse: A form of poetry in which there is no rhythm or rhyme pattern. Rhythm: The beat of a poem. Conventions Punctuation ALWAYS goes inside the quotation marks! (“I told him yesterday,” Billy said.) Remember that verb tense (past, present, future) has to remain the same throughout the work. Pronouns have to agree with their antecedents in both number and gender. Pronouns with “one” at the end are SINGULAR: anyone, everyone, no one Pronouns with “body” at the end are SINGULAR: everybody, nobody, anybody Capitalization: Only capitalize titles of specific courses (I took History 202.)

Who vs. whom: Who is used as a subject, whom is used as an object Kelly is the girl WHO won the race. (Who is the subject of won) Is Bobby the boy WHOM you met? (Whom is the object of met) Confused Words Capital/capitol Farther/further Choose/chose Week/weak Emigrate/immigrate Passed/past Informational Text Look at external text features (graphs, charts, sidebars, bolded words, etc.) to determine what is important. Fact vs. opinion: A fact can be proven to be true; an opinion cannot. Primary source: A work written at the time the event was happening by an authority or someone had first-hand knowledge. Secondary source: A work written after the event happened. Make sure that you get your information from reliable sources. Who wrote the information? What was the author’s intention? Who is sponsoring (or publishing) the information? Reference books: These books give information. There are several different types listed below. Atlas: Book of maps Dictionary: Gives definitions, parts of speech, and pronunciations of words. Encyclopedia: Includes short articles that give information on certain subjects. Thesaurus: Lists synonyms and antonyms for words. Reading/Writing Strategies Connections: text-to-text, text-to-self, text-to-world Sequencing: Put events in the order they happened. Determine what information is most important. Thesis statement: Expresses the author’s opinion about a subject. Topic sentences: Express what each paragraph is going to be about. General Tips Get plenty of rest! Eat breakfast. Your brain works better when it’s well-fed! Don’t stress over a question. If you don’t know the answer, skip it and come back. The test isn’t timed, so you have as much time as you need. Don’t rush! Read the questions very carefully! Remember, they will try to trick you! Do your best! Loose/lose Knew/new Their/they’re/there Quiet/quite/quit Cell/sale/sell